Technical Manual - ODYSSEY battery

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®

Technical Manual EIGHTH EDITION

www.odysseybattery.com

Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 - December 2014

Odyssey® Battery Technical Manual – Eighth Edition ®

Table of Contents Introduction 3 Why use ODYSSEY® batteries? 3

Preface to the Eighth Edition

Extended discharge characteristics 4

As with previous manuals, this latest edition of the ODYSSEY® Battery technical manual includes detailed performance data for the complete line of ODYSSEY® batteries. Updated test data will help ensure selection of the correct battery for every application.

Performance data tables 4

In addition, this manual includes an expanded section on charging requirements for ODYSSEY batteries. This includes detailed information about the three-step charge profile that will restore a fully discharged battery to optimum power in about 6 to 8 hours. You may notice that we’ve updated the look of ODYSSEY batteries to differentiate this premium line in the marketplace. You’ll be pleased to know that beneath the surface is the same industryleading technology, including Thin Plate Pure Lead (TPPL) construction, that has made ODYSSEY batteries the choice of knowledgeable automotive technicians and consumers nationwide.

Cycle Life and Depth of Discharge (DOD)

11

Float Life 11 ODYSSEY® battery storage and deep discharge recovery 11 (A) How do I know the state of charge (SOC) of the battery? 11 (B) How long can the battery be stored? 12 (C) Can the battery recover from abusive storage conditions? 12 (1) German DIN standard test for overdischarge recovery 12 (2) High temperature discharged storage test 12 Parasitic loads 13 Shock, impact and vibration testing 13 (A) Caterpillar™ 100-hour vibration test 13 (B) Shock and vibration test per IEC 61373, Sections 8-10 13 Charging ODYSSEY® batteries 13 (A) Selecting the right charger for your battery 14 (B) Selecting battery type on your charger 15 Rapid charging of ODYSSEY® batteries 15 Load test procedure

16

ODYSSEY® batteries in no-idle applications

16

Parallel connections

17

Ventilation

17

Concluding remarks 17 Frequently asked SLI battery questions 18

2

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Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 - December 2014

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Introduction The ODYSSEY® battery ingeniously uses Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) technology to offer, in one package, the characteristics of two separate batteries. It can deep cycle as well as deliver serious cranking power. Traditional battery designs allow them to either deep cycle or provide high amperage discharges for applications such as engine starting. The ODYSSEY battery can support applications in either category. ODYSSEY batteries are capable of providing engine cranking pulses of up to 2,250A (PC2250) for 5 seconds at 77ºF (25ºC) as well as deliver 400 charge/discharge cycles to 80% depth of discharge (DOD) when properly charged. A typical starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) battery, for example, is designed to provide short-duration, high-amperage pulses; it performs poorly when repeatedly taken down to deep depths of discharge or if they are placed on a continuous trickle charge, such as when they are used to crank a backup generator. A traditional battery resembles either a sprinter or a long distance runner; an ODYSSEY battery will do both – provide short duration high amperage pulses or low rate, long duration drains.

Why use ODYSSEY® Batteries? Guaranteed longer service life With an 8- to 12-year design life in float (emergency power) applications at 77ºF (25ºC) and a 3- to 10-year service life depending on the nature of the non-float applications, ODYSSEY batteries save you time and money because you do not have to replace them as often. Unlike other AGM VRLA batteries, the ODYSSEY battery is capable of delivering up to 400 cycles when discharged to 80% DOD and properly charged. Longer storage life Unlike conventional batteries that need a recharge every 6 to 12 weeks, a fully charged ODYSSEY battery can be stored for up to 2 years at 77ºF (25ºC) from a full state of charge. At lower temperatures, storage times will be even longer. Deep discharge recovery The ease with which an ODYSSEY battery can recover from a deep discharge is extraordinary. A later section on storage and recharge criteria discusses test data on this important topic. Superior cranking and fast charge capability The cranking power of ODYSSEY batteries is superior to that of equally sized conventional batteries, even when the temperature is as low as -40°F (-40ºC). In addition, with simple constant voltage charging there is no need to limit the inrush current, allowing the battery to be rapidly charged. Please see the section titled Rapid charging of ODYSSEY batteries for more details on this feature. Easy shipping The AGM valve-regulated design of the ODYSSEY battery eliminates the need for vent tubes; further, no battery watering is required and there is no fear of acid burns or damage to expensive chrome or paint. Because of the starved electrolyte design, the ODYSSEY battery has been proven to meet the US Department of Transportation (USDOT) criteria for a non-spillable battery. They can be shipped by highway, air or sea as specified on our MSDS sheet that can be found at www.odysseybattery.com. Tough construction The rugged construction of the ODYSSEY battery makes it suitable for use in a variety of environments ranging from marine to over-the-road trucks and powersports applications. Mounting flexibility Installing the ODYSSEY battery in any orientation other than inverted does not affect any performance attribute. There is also no fear of acid spillage. Superior vibration resistance ODYSSEY batteries have passed a variety of rigorous tests that demonstrate their ruggedness and exceptional tolerance of mechanical abuse. Please see the section titled Shock, Impact and Vibration testing for more details on these tests. Ready out of the box ODYSSEY batteries ship from the factory fully charged. If the battery’s open circuit voltage is higher than 12.65V, simply install it in your vehicle and you are ready to go; if below 12.65V boost charge the battery following the instructions in this manual or the owner’s manual. For optimum reliability, a boost charge prior to installation is recommended, regardless of the battery’s open circuit voltage (OCV).

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Extended discharge characteristics In addition to its excellent pulse discharge capabilities, the ODYSSEY® battery can deliver many deep discharge cycles, yet another area where the ODYSSEY battery outperforms a conventional SLI battery, which can deliver only a few deep discharge cycles. The following twenty graphs show detailed discharge characteristics of the entire ODYSSEY battery line. The end of discharge voltage in each case is 10.02V per battery or 1.67 volts per cell (VPC). Each graph shows both constant current (CC) and constant power (CP) discharge curves at 77ºF (25ºC). The table next to each graph shows the corresponding energy and power densities. The battery run times extend from 2 minutes to 20 hours.

PC310 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Time

Amps

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

1000

Watts or amps per 12V unit

100

10

1

0.1 0.01

0.1

1

10

Watts (W)

Amps Capacity Energy (A) (Ah) (Wh)

Energy and power densities W/liter Wh/liter W/kg Wh/kg

738 80.8 2.7 24.6 613.2 20.4 273.3 9.1 473 43.2 3.6 39.4 393.3 32.8 175.3 14.6 312 26.0 4.4 53.1 259.4 44.1 115.6 19.7 236 19.0 4.8 59.0 196.0 49.0 87.4 21.8 191 15.0 5.0 62.9 158.4 52.3 70.6 23.3 139 10.8 5.4 69.3 115.1 57.6 51.3 25.7 98 7.6 5.7 73.9 81.8 61.4 36.5 27.4 76 6.0 6.0 76.4 63.5 63.5 28.3 28.3 41 3.2 6.5 81.0 33.7 67.3 15.0 30.0 28 2.3 6.8 82.8 22.9 68.8 10.2 30.7 21 1.8 7.0 83.7 17.4 69.6 7.8 31.0 17 1.4 7.2 84.5 14.0 70.2 6.3 31.3 11 0.9 7.6 86.1 8.9 71.5 4.0 31.9 9 0.8 7.8 86.8 7.2 72.1 3.2 32.2 5 0.4 8.6 90.5 3.8 75.2 1.7 33.5

100

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

PC370 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Time

Amps

Watts or amps per 12V unit

1000

100

10

1

0 0.01

0.1

1

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

4

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10

100

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

Energy and power densities

Watts (W)

Amps Capacity (A) (Ah)

Energy (Wh)

W/litre

Wh/litre

W/kg

Wh/kg

1320 768 485 365 297 220 161 128 73 51 40 33 21 18 9

127.1 70.7 43.6 32.4 26.1 19.1 13.8 10.9 6.1 4.3 3.3 2.7 1.8 1.5 0.8

44.0 64.0 80.9 91.4 99.0 109.8 120.6 127.8 145.2 153.7 159.6 163.8 171.8 175.2 183.6

612.2 356.2 225.1 169.5 137.8 101.9 74.6 59.3 33.7 23.8 18.5 15.2 10.0 8.1 4.3

20.4 29.7 37.5 42.4 45.9 50.9 55.9 59.3 67.3 71.3 74.0 76.0 79.7 81.3 85.2

231.6 134.7 85.2 64.1 52.1 38.5 28.2 22.4 12.7 9.0 7.0 5.7 3.8 3.1 1.6

7.7 11.2 14.2 16.0 17.4 19.3 21.2 22.4 25.5 27.0 28.0 28.7 30.1 30.7 32.2

4.2 5.9 7.3 8.1 8.7 9.6 10.4 10.9 12.2 12.9 13.3 13.7 14.4 14.5 15.2

Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 - December 2014

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2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

1182 112.0 3.40 35.5 450.7 13.5 218.9 6.6 786 71.9 5.75 62.9 299.7 24.0 145.6 11.6 517 46.3 7.90 87.9 197.2 33.5 98.8 16.3 391 34.5 8.60 97.7 148.9 37.2 72.3 18.1 316 27.7 9.10 104.4 120.6 39.8 58.6 19.3 230 20.0 10.0 115.2 87.9 43.9 42.7 21.3 165 14.2 10.7 123.8 62.9 47.2 30.6 22.9 129 11.0 11.0 129.0 49.2 49.2 23.9 23.9 70 5.9 11.8 140.4 26.8 53.5 13.0 26.0 49 4.1 12.3 145.4 18.5 55.5 9.0 26.9 37 3.1 12.4 149.3 14.2 56.9 6.9 27.6 31 2.5 12.5 152.4 11.6 58.1 5.6 28.2 19 1.7 13.6 159.4 7.6 60.8 3.7 29.5 16 1.3 13.0 163.2 6.2 62.2 3.0 30.2 9 0.74 14.8 178.8 3.4 68.2 1.7 33.1

Time

Watts (W)

Amps Capacity Energy (A) (Ah) (Wh)

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

1361 648 415 313 254 187 136 107 60 42 32 26 17 14 7

128.1 64.4 39.6 29.2 23.5 16.9 12.2 9.6 5.3 3.7 2.9 2.3 1.5 1.2 0.7

Energy and power densities W/liter Wh/liter W/kg Wh/kg

4.3 45.3 680.8 22.7 238.7 8.0 5.4 54.0 324.2 27.0 113.7 9.5 6.7 70.6 207.8 35.3 72.8 12.4 7.3 78.2 156.4 39.1 54.8 13.7 7.8 83.8 127.0 41.9 44.5 14.7 8.5 93.3 93.4 46.7 32.7 16.4 9.2 101.7 67.9 50.9 23.8 17.8 9.6 107.4 53.7 53.7 18.8 18.8 10.6 120.0 30.0 60.0 10.5 21.1 11.1 126.0 21.0 63.1 7.4 22.1 11.6 129.6 16.2 64.9 5.7 22.7 11.5 132.0 13.2 66.1 4.6 23.2 12.0 134.4 8.4 67.3 3.0 23.6 12.0 138.0 6.9 69.1 2.4 24.2 14.0 144.0 3.6 72.1 1.3 25.3

PC535 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Amps

10000

Watts or amps per 12V unit

Watts (W)

1000

100

10

1

0.1 0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

PC545 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Amps

10000

1000

Watts or amps per 12V unit

Amps Capacity Energy (A) (Ah) (Wh)

Energy and power densities W/liter Wh/liter W/kg Wh/kg

Time

100

10

1

0.1

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

Watts (W)

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

1582 154.7 5.2 52.7 536.1 17.9 255.1 8.5 986 91.6 7.6 82.2 334.4 27.9 159.1 13.3 635 57.1 9.5 105.9 215.4 35.9 102.5 17.1 478 42.3 10.6 119.4 161.9 40.5 77.0 19.3 385 33.8 11.3 128.4 130.6 43.5 62.1 20.7 281 24.4 12.2 140.7 95.4 47.7 45.4 22.7 202 17.4 13.1 151.7 68.5 51.4 32.6 24.5 159 13.6 13.6 159.0 53.9 53.9 25.7 25.7 87 7.3 14.6 174.0 29.5 59.0 14.0 28.1 61 5.1 15.3 181.8 20.5 61.6 9.8 29.3 47 3.9 15.6 187.2 15.9 63.5 7.6 30.2 38 3.2 16.0 192.0 13.0 65.1 6.2 31.0 25 2.1 16.8 201.6 8.5 68.3 4.1 32.5 20 1.7 17.0 204.0 6.9 69.2 3.3 32.9 11 0.9 18.0 216.0 3.7 73.2 1.7 34.8

PC625 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Amps

10000

1000

Watts or amps per 12V unit

Amps Capacity Energy (A) (Ah) (Wh)

Energy and power densities W/liter Wh/liter W/kg Wh/kg

Time

100

10

1

0.1

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

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PC680 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Amps

10000

Watts or amps per 12V unit

1000

100

10

1

0.1

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Amps Capacity Energy (A) (Ah) (Wh)

Energy and power densities W/liter Wh/liter W/kg Wh/kg

Time

Watts (W)

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

1486 143.0 4.8 49.5 601.4 20.0 212.3 7.1 792 78.8 6.6 66.0 320.5 26.7 113.1 9.4 512 49.3 8.4 87.1 207.3 35.3 73.2 12.4 389 36.7 9.2 97.4 157.6 39.4 55.6 13.9 318 29.6 9.8 104.9 128.7 42.5 45.4 15.0 236 21.6 10.8 118.2 95.7 47.8 33.8 16.9 173 15.6 11.7 130.1 70.2 52.6 24.8 18.6 138 12.3 12.3 138.0 55.8 55.8 19.7 19.7 79 6.9 13.8 157.2 31.8 63.6 11.2 22.5 56 4.8 14.4 166.5 22.5 67.4 7.9 23.8 43 3.7 14.8 172.8 17.5 69.9 6.2 24.7 35 3.0 15.0 177.0 14.3 71.6 5.1 25.3 23 2.0 16.0 187.2 9.5 75.8 3.3 26.7 19 1.6 16.0 192.0 7.8 77.7 2.7 27.4 10 0.8 16.0 204.0 4.1 82.6 1.5 29.1

Time

Watts (W)

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

2381 224.8 7.5 79.3 615.8 20.5 201.8 6.7 1446 142.8 11.9 120.5 374.0 31.2 122.5 10.2 954 90.6 15.4 162.2 246.8 42.0 80.9 13.7 726 67.4 16.9 181.5 187.8 46.9 61.5 15.4 592 54.2 17.9 195.2 153.0 50.5 50.1 16.5 436 39.2 19.6 217.8 112.7 56.3 36.9 18.5 316 28.1 21.1 236.7 81.6 61.2 26.8 20.1 250 21.9 21.9 249.6 64.6 64.6 21.2 21.2 138 11.9 23.8 276.0 35.7 71.4 11.7 23.4 96 8.3 24.9 288.0 24.8 74.5 8.1 24.4 74 6.4 25.6 297.6 19.2 77.0 6.3 25.2 61 5.2 26.0 303.0 15.7 78.4 5.1 25.7 40 3.4 27.2 316.8 10.2 81.9 3.4 26.9 32 2.8 27.5 324.0 8.4 83.8 2.8 27.5 17 1.5 30.0 348.0 4.5 90.0 1.5 29.5

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

PC925 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Amps

Watts or amps per 12V unit

10000

1000

100

10

1 0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Amps Capacity Energy (A) (Ah) (Wh)

Energy and power densities W/liter Wh/liter W/kg Wh/kg

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

PC950 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Time

Amps

Watts or amps per 12V unit

10000

1000

100

10

1 0.01

0.1

1

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

6

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10

100

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

Energy and power densities

Watts (W)

Amps (A)

Capacity (Ah)

Energy (Wh)

W/litre

Wh/litre

W/kg

Wh/kg

2794 1745 1126 848 686 502 362 284 157 110 85 70 46 37 20

268.3 161.3 101.4 75.3 60.3 43.6 31.1 24.3 13.2 9.2 7.1 5.8 3.8 3.2 1.7

8.9 13.4 16.9 18.8 20.1 21.8 23.3 24.3 26.4 27.6 28.4 29.0 30.4 32.0 34.0

93.1 145.4 187.7 212.0 228.6 250.8 271.4 284.4 313.2 329.4 338.4 348.0 364.8 372.0 408.0

755.0 471.6 304.4 229.1 185.4 135.6 97.8 76.9 42.3 29.7 22.9 18.8 12.3 10.1 5.5

25.2 39.3 50.7 57.3 61.8 67.8 73.3 76.9 84.6 89.0 91.5 94.1 98.6 100.5 110.3

310.4 193.9 125.1 94.2 76.2 55.7 40.2 31.6 17.4 12.2 9.4 7.7 5.1 4.1 2.3

10.3 16.2 20.9 23.6 25.4 27.9 30.2 31.6 34.8 36.6 37.6 38.7 40.5 41.3 45.3

Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 - December 2014

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2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

Energy and power densities

Watts (W)

Amps (A)

Capacity (Ah)

Energy (Wh)

W/litre

Wh/litre

W/kg

Wh/kg

3307 2333 1575 1200 974 713 513 403 221 154 120 99 66 55 32

326.8 219.5 143.2 107.2 86.1 62.0 44.0 34.3 18.5 12.9 10.0 8.2 5.5 4.6 2.7

10.9 18.3 23.9 26.8 28.7 31.0 33.0 34.3 37.0 38.7 40.0 41.0 44.0 46.0 54.0

110.2 194.4 262.5 300.0 324.8 356.7 384.8 402.6 441.6 462.6 480.0 495.0 528.0 552.0 648.0

668.1 471.3 318.2 242.4 196.8 144.1 103.6 81.3 44.6 31.2 24.2 20.0 13.3 11.2 6.5

22.3 39.3 53.0 60.6 65.6 72.1 77.7 81.3 89.2 93.5 97.0 100.0 106.7 111.5 130.9

264.6 186.6 126.0 96.0 78.0 57.1 41.0 32.2 17.7 12.3 9.6 7.9 5.3 4.4 2.6

8.8 15.6 21.0 24.0 26.0 28.5 30.8 32.2 35.3 37.0 38.4 39.6 42.2 44.2 51.8

PC1100 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Amps

1000

Watts or amps per 12V unit

Time

100

10

1

0.1 0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

Watts (W)

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

3580 337.9 11.3 119.2 613.0 20.4 205.8 6.9 1992 199.1 16.6 165.9 341.1 28.4 114.5 9.5 1338 127.9 21.7 227.5 229.1 38.9 76.9 13.1 1026 96.0 24.0 256.5 175.7 43.9 59.0 14.7 840 77.5 25.6 277.2 143.8 47.5 48.3 15.9 624 56.6 28.3 312.0 106.8 53.4 35.9 17.9 458 40.8 30.6 343.4 78.4 58.8 26.3 19.7 364 32.1 32.1 363.6 62.3 62.3 20.9 20.9 203 17.7 35.4 406.8 34.8 69.7 11.7 23.4 143 12.3 36.9 428.4 24.5 73.4 8.2 24.6 110 9.5 38.0 441.6 18.9 75.6 6.3 25.4 91 7.7 38.5 453.0 15.5 77.6 5.2 26.0 59 5.0 40.0 475.2 10.2 81.4 3.4 27.3 48 4.1 41.0 480.0 8.2 82.2 2.8 27.6 25 2.2 44.0 504.0 4.3 86.3 1.5 29.0

PC1200 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Amps

10000

Watts or amps per 12V unit

Amps Capacity Energy (A) (Ah) (Wh)

Energy and power densities W/liter Wh/liter W/kg Wh/kg

Time

1000

100

10

1 0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

Energy and power densities

Watts (W)

Amps (A)

Capacity (Ah)

Energy (Wh)

W/litre Wh/litre

W/kg

Wh/kg

3982 2846 1993 1561 1294 976 722 577 326 230 179 146 96 78 42

384.3 264.8 180.8 139.7 114.8 85.5 62.6 49.7 27.7 19.4 15.0 12.3 8.0 6.5 3.5

12.8 22.1 30.1 34.9 38.3 42.8 46.9 49.7 55.4 58.3 60.1 61.5 64.2 65.5 69.9

132.7 237.2 332.1 390.3 431.4 487.9 541.2 576.6 652.1 689.8 714.0 731.6 766.2 782.0 832.1

396.6 283.5 198.5 155.5 128.9 97.2 71.9 57.4 32.5 22.9 17.8 14.6 9.5 7.8 4.1

192.4 137.5 96.3 75.4 62.5 47.1 34.9 27.9 15.8 11.1 8.6 7.1 4.6 3.8 2.0

6.4 11.5 16.0 18.9 20.8 23.6 26.1 27.9 31.5 33.3 34.5 35.3 37.0 37.8 40.2

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13.2 23.6 33.1 38.9 43.0 48.6 53.9 57.4 64.9 68.7 71.1 72.9 76.3 77.9 82.9

PC1220 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Amps

10000

Watts or amps per 12V unit

Time

1000

100

10

1

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

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75-PC1230 & 75/86-PC1230 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Time

Amps

Watts or amps per 12V unit

10000

1000

100

10

1

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Watts (W)

Amps (A)

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

4562 2936 1919 1451 1176 862 622 490 270 189 146 120 79 65 36

432.9 266.5 169.6 126.6 101.8 73.8 52.8 41.4 22.6 15.8 12.2 10.0 6.6 5.4 3.0

Time

Watts (W)

Amps (A)

5477 3758 2602 2037 1692 1282 955 768 441 314 245 201 133 108 57

527.2 349.4 235.8 182.0 149.8 112.1 82.5 65.8 37.3 26.4 20.5 16.8 11.1 9.0 4.8

Capacity Energy (Ah) (Wh)

14.3 22.1 28.3 31.7 33.9 36.9 39.6 41.4 45.3 47.4 48.8 50.0 52.7 54.1 59.4

Energy and power densities W/litre

Wh/litre

W/kg

Wh/kg

531.5 342.1 223.6 169.1 137.0 100.4 72.5 57.1 31.5 22.0 17.1 14.0 9.2 7.6 4.2

17.5 28.4 37.3 42.3 45.6 50.2 54.3 57.1 62.9 66.1 68.2 70.0 73.8 75.7 83.1

221.4 142.5 93.2 70.4 57.1 41.8 30.2 23.8 13.1 9.2 7.1 5.8 3.8 3.2 1.7

7.3 11.8 15.6 17.6 19.0 20.9 22.6 23.8 26.2 27.5 28.4 29.2 30.7 31.6 34.6

150.5 243.7 320.5 362.8 391.6 430.8 466.4 489.8 540.2 567.1 585.7 600.6 633.2 650.1 713.5

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

PC1350 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Amps

Watts or amps per 12V unit

10000

1000

100

10

1

0.01

0.10

1

10

100

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

25-PC1400 & 35-PC1400 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Time

Amps

Watts or amps per 12V unit

10000

1000

100

10

1 0.01

0.1

1

10

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

100

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

Energy and power densities

Capacity Energy (Ah) (Wh)

17.6 29.1 39.3 45.5 49.9 56.0 61.9 65.8 74.5 79.1 82.0 84.2 88.5 90.5 96.5

Watts (W)

Amps (A)

5308 3440 2261 1716 1393 1023 739 583 321 224 173 141 92 75 40

499.5 315.8 203.0 151.9 122.2 88.6 63.3 49.4 26.8 18.6 14.3 11.7 7.6 6.2 3.4

182.6 313.2 433.6 509.3 564.0 641.0 716.2 767.6 881.7 940.8 979.2 1006.9 1059.8 1082.7 1146.8

W/litre

Wh/litre

W/kg

Wh/kg

438.2 300.7 208.1 163.0 135.4 102.6 76.4 61.4 35.3 25.1 19.6 16.1 10.6 8.7 4.6

14.6 25.1 34.7 40.7 45.1 51.3 57.3 61.4 70.5 75.3 78.3 80.5 84.8 86.6 91.7

199.9 137.2 94.9 74.3 61.7 46.8 34.9 28.0 16.1 11.4 8.9 7.3 4.8 4.0 2.1

6.7 11.4 15.8 18.6 20.6 23.4 26.1 28.0 32.2 34.3 35.7 36.7 38.7 39.5 41.9

Capacity Energy (Ah) (Wh)

16.5 26.2 33.9 38.0 40.7 44.3 47.4 49.4 53.6 55.7 57.2 58.4 61.0 62.5 67.9

175.2 285.5 377.7 428.9 463.9 511.5 554.5 582.5 641.2 671.0 690.5 705.4 736.6 751.9 805.5

Energy and power densities W/litre

Wh/litre

W/kg

Wh/kg

576.1 373.3 245.4 186.2 151.2 111.0 80.2 63.2 34.8 24.3 18.7 15.3 10.0 8.2 4.4

19.0 31.0 41.0 46.5 50.3 55.5 60.2 63.2 69.6 72.8 74.9 76.5 79.9 81.6 87.4

233.8 151.5 99.6 75.6 61.4 45.1 32.6 25.7 14.1 9.9 7.6 6.2 4.1 3.3 1.8

7.7 12.6 16.6 18.9 20.4 22.5 24.4 25.7 28.2 29.6 30.4 31.1 32.4 33.1 35.5

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

8

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Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 - December 2014

®

Watts (W)

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

5228 494.8 16.3 172.5 538.1 17.8 209.9 6.9 3337 304.4 25.3 277.0 343.5 28.5 134.0 11.1 2175 193.6 32.3 363.3 223.9 37.4 87.4 14.6 1644 144.5 36.1 411.0 169.2 42.3 66.0 16.5 1332 116.1 38.7 443.7 137.2 45.7 53.5 17.8 977 84.2 42.1 488.4 100.5 50.3 39.2 19.6 706 60.3 45.2 529.3 72.6 54.5 28.3 21.3 556 47.3 47.3 556.2 57.3 57.3 22.3 22.3 307 25.9 51.7 615.0 31.7 63.3 12.3 24.7 215 18.1 54.2 646.5 22.2 66.5 8.7 26.0 167 14.0 56.0 668.4 17.2 68.8 6.7 26.8 137 11.5 57.4 685.4 14.1 70.6 5.5 27.5 90 7.6 60.6 723.1 9.3 74.4 3.6 29.0 74 6.2 62.3 742.5 7.6 76.4 3.0 29.8 41 3.3 65.0 814.0 4.2 83.8 1.6 32.7

34-PC1500, 34R-PC1500, 34M-PC1500, 34/78-PC1500 & 78-PC1500 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Amps

10000

Watts or amps per 12V unit

Amps Capacity Energy (A) (Ah) (Wh)

Energy and power densities W/liter Wh/liter W/kg Wh/kg

Time

1000

100

10

1 0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

5942 569.8 19.0 197.9 607.0 20.2 215.3 7.2 3636 337.6 28.1 279.9 343.3 28.6 121.7 10.1 2411 218.5 37.2 384.5 231.1 39.3 82.0 13.9 1833 163.8 41.0 433.5 177.2 44.3 62.8 15.7 1490 132.6 43.7 467.3 144.7 47.7 51.3 16.9 1091 96.0 48.0 522.0 106.7 53.3 37.8 18.9 786 68.6 51.4 567.0 77.2 57.9 27.4 20.5 615 53.6 53.6 594.6 60.8 60.8 21.5 21.5 333 28.9 57.8 648.0 33.1 66.2 11.7 23.5 229 19.9 59.6 671.4 22.9 68.6 8.1 24.3 175 15.2 61.0 684.0 17.5 69.9 6.2 24.8 142 12.4 61.8 693.0 14.2 70.8 5.0 25.1 90 8.0 63.6 705.6 9.0 72.1 3.2 25.6 73 6.5 64.5 714.0 7.3 72.9 2.6 25.9 37 3.4 67.9 732.0 3.7 74.8 1.3 26.5

Watts (W)

Amps (A)

Capacity Energy (Ah) (Wh)

2 min

5890

565.9

18.7

5 min

3770

334.2

10 min

2440

210.9

15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr

1832 1477 1076 771 605 355 252

4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

Energy and power densities W/litre

Wh/litre

W/kg

Wh/kg

194.4

567.9

18.7

224.0

7.4

27.7

312.9

363.5

30.2

143.3

11.9

35.2

407.4

235.2

39.3

92.8

15.5

157.7 127.2 93.0 67.2 53.0 29.4 20.7

39.4 42.4 46.5 50.4 53.0 58.9 62.0

458.0 491.9 537.9 578.1 604.6 709.2 756.0

176.6 142.4 103.7 74.3 58.2 34.2 24.3

44.2 47.4 51.9 55.7 58.3 68.4 72.9

69.7 56.2 40.9 29.3 23.0 13.5 9.6

17.4 18.7 20.5 22.0 23.0 27.0 28.7

196

16.0

64.1

785.0

18.9

75.7

7.5

29.8

161 105 85 46

13.1 8.6 7.1 3.8

65.7 69.1 70.6 75.7

804.6 838.5 850.3 912.6

15.5 10.1 8.2 4.4

77.6 80.9 82.0 88.0

6.1 4.0 3.2 1.7

30.6 31.9 32.3 34.7

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Watts

Amps

10000

Watts or amps per 12V unit

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

PC1700 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module

1000

100

10

1 0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

65-PC1750 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Amps

10000

Watts or amps per 12V unit

Watts (W)

Time

Amps Capacity Energy (A) (Ah) (Wh)

Energy and power densities W/liter Wh/liter W/kg Wh/kg

Time

1000

100

10

1 0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 - December 2014

9

PC1800-FT performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Time

Amps

Watts or amps per 12V unit

10000

1000

100

10

1

0.01

0.10

1

10

100

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

31-PC2150 & 31M-PC2150 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Watts or amps per 12V unit

10000

1000

100

10

1 0.01

0.1

1

10

Amps (A)

Capacity (Ah)

Energy (Wh)

W/liter

Wh/liter

W/kg

Wh/Kg

4422 4422 4422 3984 3384 2610 1968 1590 936 666 522 426 282 234 126

491.4 491.2 454.7 373.3 312.7 238.3 177.8 143.1 82.2 58.3 45.4 37.3 24.6 20.2 10.9

16.4 40.9 75.8 93.3 104.2 119.2 133.4 143.1 164.4 174.9 181.6 186.5 196.8 202.0 218.0

147.4 368.5 737.0 996.0 1128.0 1305.0 1476.0 1590.0 1872.0 1998.0 2088.0 2130.0 2256.0 2340.0 2520.0

199.6 199.6 199.6 179.8 152.7 117.8 88.8 71.8 42.2 30.1 23.6 19.2 12.7 10.6 5.7

6.7 16.6 33.3 44.9 50.9 58.9 66.6 71.8 84.5 90.2 94.2 96.1 101.8 105.6 113.7

73.7 73.7 73.7 66.4 56.4 43.5 32.8 26.5 15.6 11.1 8.7 7.1 4.7 3.9 2.1

2.5 6.1 12.3 16.6 18.8 21.8 24.6 26.5 31.2 33.3 34.8 35.5 37.6 39.0 42.0

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

Time

Amps

100

ENERGY AND POWER DENSITIES

Watts (W)

ENERGY AND POWER DENSITIES

Watts (W)

Amps (A)

Capacity (Ah)

Energy (Wh)

W/liter Wh/liter

W/kg

Wh/Kg

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

7025 4740 3176 2428 1980 1460 1059 835 461 322 249 204 134 110 60

678.5 438.5 285.9 215.5 174.1 127.0 91.2 71.5 39.0 27.1 20.9 17.1 11.2 9.2 5.0

22.4 36.4 47.7 53.9 58.0 63.5 68.4 71.5 78.0 81.4 83.8 85.6 89.7 91.9 100.3

231.8 393.4 530.4 607.0 659.2 730.0 793.9 835.2 922.2 966.8 996.8 1020.0 1070.4 1095.9 1191.9

515.3 347.7 233.0 178.1 145.2 107.1 77.6 61.3 33.8 23.6 18.3 15.0 9.8 8.0 4.4

199.0 134.3 90.0 68.8 56.1 41.4 30.0 23.7 13.1 9.1 7.1 5.8 3.8 3.1 1.7

6.6 11.1 15.0 17.2 18.7 20.7 22.5 23.7 26.1 27.4 28.2 28.9 30.3 31.0 33.8

Time

Watts (W)

2 min 5 min 10 min 15 min 20 min 30 min 45 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 8 hr 10 hr 20 hr

7090 671.6 22.4 236.1 1143.0 14.8 181.8 6.1 4820 443.8 37.0 401.5 301.2 25.1 123.6 10.3 3291 296.4 50.4 559.5 205.6 35.0 84.4 14.4 2553 227.1 56.8 638.3 159.5 39.9 65.5 16.4 2107 185.8 61.3 695.3 131.7 43.5 54.0 17.8 1583 137.9 69.0 791.5 98.9 49.5 40.6 20.3 1170 100.9 75.7 877.5 73.1 54.8 30.0 22.5 937 80.2 80.2 937.0 58.6 58.6 24.0 24.0 536 45.2 90.4 1072.0 33.5 67.0 13.7 27.5 382 32.0 96.0 1146.0 23.9 71.6 9.8 29.4 299 25.0 100.0 1196.0 18.7 74.7 7.7 30.7 247 20.6 103.0 1235.0 15.4 77.2 6.3 31.7 165 13.8 110.4 1320.0 10.3 82.5 4.2 33.9 137 11.4 114.0 1370.0 8.6 85.6 3.5 35.1 76 6.3 126.0 1520.0 4.75 95.0 2.0 39.0

17.0 28.9 38.9 44.5 48.4 53.5 58.2 61.3 67.7 70.9 73.1 74.8 78.5 80.4 87.4

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

PC2250 performance data at 77°F, per 12V module Watts

Amps

Watts or amps per 12V unit

10000

1000

100

10

1

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

Amps Capacity Energy (A) (Ah) (Wh)

Energy and power densities W/liter Wh/liter W/kg Wh/kg

Hours to 10.02V @ 77ºF (25ºC)

10

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Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 - December 2014

®

Cycle life and depth of discharge (DOD)

Float life

Applications in which the battery is frequently discharged and recharged are called cyclic. A complete cycle starts with a charged battery that is discharged and then brought back to a full charge. Battery life in these applications is stated as the number of cycles the battery will deliver before its capacity drops to 80% of its rated value. For example, suppose a battery is rated at 100 amp-hours (Ah) and has a published cycle life of 400. This means that the battery can be cycled 400 times before its delivered capacity drops to 80Ah. Proper charging and DOD are the two key factors that determine how many cycles a battery will deliver before it reaches end of life. The DOD is simply the ratio of capacity extracted from the battery to its rated capacity expressed as a percentage. If a 100Ah battery delivers 65Ah and is then recharged, it is said to have delivered a 65% DOD cycle.

Float life refers to the life expectancy of a battery that is used primarily as a source of backup or emergency power. Emergency lighting, security alarm and Uninterruptible Power Systems (UPS) are good examples of batteries in float applications. In each of these applications the battery is discharged only if the main utility power is lost; otherwise the battery remains on continuous trickle charge (also called float charge). Since ODYSSEY® batteries are dual purpose by design, they offer a long-life battery option in float applications. At room temperature (77°F or 25°C) these batteries have a design life of 10+ years in float applications; at end of life an ODYSSEY battery will still deliver 80% of its rated capacity.

Odyssey® Battery storage and deep discharge recovery

The relationship between DOD and cycle life for ODYSSEY batteries, excluding PC370, PC950 and PC1100, is shown in Figure 1. The lower the DOD the higher the number of cycles the battery will deliver before reaching end of life.

For any rechargeable battery, storage and recharge are important criteria. This section provides some guidelines that will help you get the most from your ODYSSEY battery.

Figure 1

(A) How do I know the state of charge (SOC) of the battery? Use Figure 2 to determine the SOC of the ODYSSEY battery, as long as the battery has not been charged or discharged for six or more hours. The only tool needed is a good quality digital voltmeter to measure its open circuit voltage (OCV)1. The graph shows that a healthy, fully charged ODYSSEY battery will have an OCV of 12.84V or higher at 77ºF (25ºC).

1000000 Charge profile: [email protected] VPC for 16 hours Current limit at 1C

Nunmber of cycles

100000

10000

Figure 2: Open circuit voltage and state of charge 1000 13.0 12.84V or higher indicates 100% SOC 12.8

100 30

20

50

40

70

60

80

90

100

Depth of discharge, DOD%

The true dual purpose design of ODYSSEY batteries is reflected in the cycle life results shown in the graph below. This graph is from an 80% DOD cycle test completed on two ODYSSEY 65-PC1750 battery samples. Both samples gave over 500 cycles before failing to give 80% capacity (this is classified as end of life.)

Open circuit voltage (OCV), V

10

0

12.6

12.4

12.2

12.0

11.8

11.6 10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

State of Charge (SOC), %

140

Run Time in Minutes

120 100 80 60

End of Life - Sample 1 - Cycle 581 / Sample 2 - Cycle 544 40 20 0 0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

Cycle

1The OCV of a battery is the voltage measured between its positive and negative terminals without the battery connected to an external circuit (load). It is very important to take OCV reading only when the battery has been off charge for at least 6-8 hours, preferably overnight.

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Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 - December 2014

11

(B) How long can the battery be stored?

(2) High temperature discharged storage test

ODYSSEY batteries should be fully charged prior to storage. Fully charged ODYSSEY batteries can be stored for up to 24 months at 77ºF (25ºC). Battery voltage naturally decreases with time and with increased temperature. The battery voltage should be checked periodically. If the battery voltage drops to 12.0 volts (35% state of charge) it should be recharged immediately to avoid permanent battery damage. The following can be used as a rough approximation for the potential storage times at different temperatures.

Two PC1200 samples were discharged in this test at the 1-hour rate to 9V per module, and then placed in storage at 122°F (50°C) in a discharged condition for 4 weeks.

Figure 3: Odyssey battery storage time at temperatures ®

At the end of 4 weeks, the two batteries were recharged using a constant voltage (CV) charge at 14.7V per battery. As Figure 4 below shows, both samples recovered from this extreme case of abusive storage. Figure 4: Recovery from high temperature discharged storage Constant voltage recharge at 14.7V per module

Storage Time (Months)

36

41/5

48

34

59/15

36

77/25

24

95/35

12

113/45

6

Capacity at the 1-hr rate

Storage Temperature (ºF/ºC)

32 30 Sample 1

28

Sample 2

26

Current limit for cycles 1 & 2 : 0.125C10 Current limit for cycles 3 - 16 : 1C10

24 22 20 0

2

4

6

8

(C) Can the battery recover from deep discharge conditions?

(1) German DIN standard test for overdischarge recovery In this test, a PC925 was discharged over 20 hours (0.05C10 rate)2 to 10.20V. After the discharge2 a 5Ω resistor was placed across the battery terminals and the battery kept in storage for 28 days. At the end of the storage period, the battery was charged at 13.5V for only 48 hours. A second 0.05C10 discharge yielded 97% of rated capacity, indicating that a low rate 48-hour charge after such a deep discharge was insufficient; however, the intent of the test is to determine if the battery is recoverable from extremely deep discharges using only a standby float charger. A standard automotive charger at 14.4V would have allowed the battery to recover greater than 97% of its capacity. These test results prove that ODYSSEY batteries can recover from deep discharge conditions. Reinforcing this conclusion is the next test, which is even harsher than the DIN standard test, because in this test the battery was stored in a discharged state at a temperature of 122°F (50°C).

16

18

Extreme cold temperature performance High discharge rate performance in extremely cold conditions is another area in which ODYSSEY® batteries excel. An example of this is shown in Figure 5. Even at -40°F (-40°C) the battery was able to support a 550A load for over 30 seconds before its terminal voltage dropped to 7.2V. Figure 5: CCA test @ -40°F (-40°C) on 31-PC2150 14.0 13.0 12.0 11.0 Voltage

Yes, the ODYSSEY battery can recover from extremely deep discharges as the following test results demonstrate.

14

12

10

Cycle number

10.0 Voltage profile at 550A discharge

9.0 8.0

34.1 Secs.

7.2V

7.0 30 seconds (test requirement)

6.0 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Run time in seconds

Since all ODYSSEY batteries are designed similarly, one can expect similar outstanding cold temperature performance from any of the other ODYSSEY batteries.

2The C10 rate of charge or discharge current in amperes is numerically equal to the 10 hour rated capacity of a battery in ampere-hours divided by 10. Thus, a 26Ah battery at the 10-hour rate, such as the PC925, would have a C10 rate of 2.6A.

12

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®

Parasitic loads

Table 2: Shock and vibration test results per IEC 61373

With the proliferation of more and more electronic equipment in cars, trucks, motorcycles and powersports equipment, the phenomenon of parasitic loads is becoming a serious problem.

Test

Standard

Requirement

Result

Functional random vibration Long-life random vibration

5-150Hz, 0.1grms vertical, 0.071grms longitudinal, 0.046grms transverse; 10 minutes in each axis 5-150Hz, 0.8grms vertical, 0.56grms longitudinal, 0.36grms transverse; 5 hours in each axis 30msec. pulses in each axis (3 positive, 3 negative); 3.06gpeak vertical, 5.1gpeak longitudinal, 3.06gpeak transverse

Compliant

Parasitic loads are small currents, typically of the order of a few milliamps (mA) that the battery has to deliver continuously. Retaining memories and operating security systems are common examples of parasitic drains on batteries in modern systems.

IEC 61373, Section 8, Category 1, Class B IEC 61373, Section 9, Category 1, Class B IEC 61373, Section 10, Category 1, Class B

Shock, impact and vibration testing (A) Caterpillar™ 100-hour vibration test In this test, a fully charged battery was vibrated at 34±1 Hz and 0.075" (1.9mm) total amplitude in a vertical direction, corresponding to an acceleration of 4.4g. The test was conducted for a total of 100 hours. The battery is considered to have passed the test if (a) it does not lose any electrolyte, (b) it is able to support a load test and (c) it does not leak when subjected to a pressure test. The ODYSSEY battery successfully completed this arduous test. (B) Shock and vibration test per IEC 61373, Sections 8-10 An independent test laboratory tested an ODYSSEY 31-PC2150 battery for compliance to IEC standard 61373, Category 1, Class B, and Sections 8 through 10. Section 8 calls for a functional random vibration test, Section 9 requires a long-life random vibration test and Section 10 is for a shock test. Table 2, in the next column summarizes the test results.

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Charging is a key factor in the proper use of a rechargeable battery. Inadequate or improper charging is a common cause of premature failure of rechargeable lead acid batteries. To properly charge your premium ODYSSEY® battery, EnerSys® has developed a special charge algorithm. It is designed to rapidly and safely charge these batteries. Called the IUU profile (a constant current mode followed by two stages of constant voltage charge), Figure 6 shows it in a graphical format. No manual intervention is necessary with chargers having this profile. Figure 6: Recommended three-step charge profile

Bulk charge (RED)

8-hour absorption charge (ORANGE)

Continuous float charge (GREEN)

Amps

Regardless of the application, it is important to make sure your battery does not have a parasitic load; if there is a slow drain, connect the battery to a float (trickle) charger that puts out between 13.5V and 13.8V at the battery terminals. Physically disconnecting one of the battery cables is an alternate method to eliminate the drain.

Compliant

Charging ODYSSEY® batteries

Voltage

On the surface it would seem that such small loads would not be a factor in the overall scheme of things. However, since parasitic loads can be applied on a long-term basis (weeks or months is not uncommon), the cumulative amphours (Ah) extracted from the battery can be significant. For example, a 10mA draw on a motorcycle battery will discharge it by 0.24Ah per day. If left unchecked for 30 days, that small 10mA parasitic load will discharge a 20Ah battery by 7.2Ah – a 36% depth of discharge (DOD).

Shock

Compliant

14.7V (2.45 Vpc) 13.6V (2.27 Vpc) Charge voltage

0.4C10 min

Charge current

NOTES: 1. Charger LED stays RED in bulk charge phase (DO NOT TAKE BATTERY OFF CHARGE) 2. LED changes to ORANGE in absorption charge phase (BATTERY AT 80% STATE OF CHARGE) 3. LED changes to GREEN in float charge phase (BATTERY FULLY CHARGED) 4. Charge voltage is temperature compensated at ±24mV per battery per ºC variation from 25ºC

If the charger has a timer, then it can switch from absorption mode to float mode when the current drops to 0.001C10 amps. If the current fails to drop to 0.001C10 amps, then the timer will force the transition to a float charge after no more than 8 hours. As an example, for a PC1200 battery, the threshold current should be 4mA. Another option is to let the battery stay in the absorption phase (14.7V or 2.45 VPC) for a fixed time, such as 6-8 hours, then switch to the continuous float charge.

Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 - December 2014

13

Table 3: Battery size and minimum three-step charger current Charger rating, amps

Recommended ODYSSEY® Battery Model*

6A

PC310 / PC370 / PC535 / PC545 / PC625 / PC680



10A

PC925 or smaller battery



15A

PC1200 or smaller battery



25A

PC1500 or smaller battery



25A

PC1700 or smaller battery



40A

PC2150 or smaller battery

50A

PC2250 or smaller battery



16.1 13.8 Sample 3 11.5

Small, portable automotive and powersport chargers may also be used to charge your ODYSSEY battery. These chargers are generally designed to bring a discharged battery to a state of charge (SOC) that is high enough to crank an engine. Once the engine is successfully cranked, its alternator should fully charge the battery. It is important to keep in mind the design limitations of these small chargers when using them. Another class of chargers is designed specifically to maintain a battery in a high SOC. These chargers, normally in the 3/4 amp to 11/2 amp range, are not big enough to charge a deeply discharged ODYSSEY® battery. They must only be used either to continuously compensate for parasitic losses or to maintain a trickle charge on a stored battery, as long as the correct voltages are applied. It is very important, therefore, to ensure that the ODYSSEY battery is fully charged before this type of charger is connected to it. Effect of undercharge in cycling applications Proper and adequate charging is necessary to ensure that ODYSSEY batteries deliver their full design life. Generally speaking, a full recharge requires about 5% more amphours (Ah) must be put back in than was taken out. In other words, for each amp-hour extracted from the battery, about 1.05Ah must be put back to complete the recharge. Cycling tests conducted on an ODYSSEY PC545 battery demonstrated the impact raising the charge voltage from 14.2V to 14.7V has on the cycle life of the battery. The results are shown in the graph at right.

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Sample 2

9.2 Sample 1

6.9

Sample 4

4.6 Samples 1 & 2: Given a 24hr CC charge @ 650mA prior to cycle 55, then resumed cycling Sample 3: Given a 24-hr CC charge @ 650mA at cycle 359, then resumed cycling Sample 4: Given a 24-hr CC charge @ 650mA at cycle 254, then resumed cycling

2.3 0

* for PC1800, consult EnerSys Technical Department

14

Samples 1 and 2 were charged at 14.2V while Samples 3 and 4 were charged at 14.7V. All batteries were discharged

Amp-hrs out

Table 3 shows the minimum charge currents for the full range of ODYSSEY batteries when they are used in deep cycling application. When using a charger with the IUU profile, we suggest the following ratings for your ODYSSEY battery. Note the charger current in the bulk charge mode must be 0.4C10 or more. A list of chargers approved by EnerSys for use with ODYSSEY batteries is available at www.odysseybattery.com under FAQs.

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Cycle

at 2.3A until the terminal voltage dropped to 10.02V and charged for 16 hours. In this particular test, a capacity of 11.5Ah corresponds to 100% capacity and 9.2Ah is 80% of rated capacity and the battery is considered to have reached end of life at that point. The message to be taken from this graph is clear – in deep cycling applications it is important to have the charge voltage set at 14.4 – 15.0V. A nominal setting of 14.7V is a good choice, as shown by the test results. (A) Selecting the right charger for your battery Qualifying portable automotive and powersport chargers for your ODYSSEY battery is a simple two-step process. Step 1 Charger output voltage Determining the charger output voltage is the most important step in the charger qualification process. If the voltage output from the charger is less than 14.2V or more than 15V for a 12V battery, then do not use the charger. For 24V battery systems, the charger output voltage should be between 28.4V and 30V. If the charger output voltage falls within these voltage limits when the battery approaches a fully charged state, proceed to Step 2, otherwise pick another charger. Step 2 Charger type - automatic or manual The two broad types of small, portable chargers available today are classified as either automatic or manual. Automatic chargers can be further classified as those that charge the battery up to a certain voltage and then shut off and those that charge the battery up to a certain voltage and then switch to a lower float (trickle) voltage. An example of the first type of automatic charger is one that charges a battery up to 14.7V, then immediately shuts off. An example of the second type of automatic charger would bring the battery up to 14.7V, then switches to a float (trickle) voltage of 13.6V; it will stay at that level indefinitely. The second type of automatic charger is preferred, because the first type of charger will undercharge the battery. A manual charger typically puts out either a single voltage or single current level continuously and must be switched off manually to prevent battery overcharge. Should you choose to use a manual charger with your ODYSSEY battery, do not exceed charge times suggested in Table 5 on the next page. It is extremely important to ensure the charge voltage does not exceed 15V.

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(B) Selecting battery type on your charger

Temperature compensation

Although it is not possible to cover every type of battery charger available today, this section gives the ODYSSEY battery user some general charger usage guidelines to follow, after the charger has been qualified for use with this battery.

Proper charging of all Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries requires temperature compensation of the charge voltage – the higher the ambient temperature the lower the charge voltage. This is particularly true in float applications in which the batteries can stay on trickle charge for weeks or months at a time.

Table 5: Suggested charge times (excludes cycling applications)

17.40 16.80 16.20 Charge voltage, V

In general, do not use either the gel cell or maintenance free setting, if provided on your charger. Choose the deep cycle or AGM option, should there be one on your charger. Table 5 below gives suggested charge times based on charger currents. As previously indicated, deep cycling applications require a minimum 0.4C10 current available from the charger so the values shown in Table 5 do not apply to all products in all applications. To achieve maximum life from your ODYSSEY battery after completing the charge time in Table 5, we recommend that you switch your charger to the trickle charge position and leave the battery connected to the charger for an additional 6-8 hours. The trickle charge voltage should be 13.5V to 13.8V.

15.60 15.00 14.40 13.80 13.29

ODYSSEY® Battery Model

PC310 PC370 & PC535 PC545 PC625 PC680 PC925 PC950 PC1100 PC1200 75-PC1230 & 75/86-PC1230 25-PC1400 & 35-PC1400 34-PC1500, 34R-PC1500, 34M-PC1500, 34/78-PC1500 & 78-PC1500 PC1700 PC1220 & 65-PC1750 PC1800-FT PC1350, 31-PC2150 & 31M-PC2150 PC2250

Charge time for 100% discharged battery 10-amp charger

20-amp charger

1.28 hours 2.25 hours 2 hours 3 hours 2.7 hours 4.5 hours 5.25 hours 7 hours 6.75 hours 9 hours 10.5 hours

40 minutes 1.25 hours 1 hour 1.5 hours 1.5 hours 2.25 hours 3 hours 3.75 hours 3.5 hours 4.5 hours 5.25 hours

11 hours

5.5 hours

11 hours 11 hours Not Recommended 16 hours

5.5 hours 5.5 hours 17 hours

20 hours

10 hours

8 hours

The charge times recommended in Table 5 assume that the ODYSSEY® battery is fully discharged and these charge times will only achieve about a 80% state of charge. For partially discharged batteries, the charge times should be appropriately reduced. The graph in Figure 2, showing OCV and SOC, must be used to determine the battery’s SOC. The battery should be trickle charged after high rate charging, regardless of its initial SOC.

3

Theoretical cycling (ideal) V-0.00004T3 - 0.006T + 2.5745

Theoretical float (ideal) V=0.00004T3 - 0.006T + 2.3945 and 2.20VPC minimum

12.60 Temperature, ˚C

The temperature compensation graphs for ODYSSEY batteries in float and cyclic applications are shown for ambient (battery) temperatures ranging from -40°F (-40°C) to 176°F (80°C). The compensation coefficient is approximately +/-24mV per 12V battery per °C variation from 77°F (25°C). Since the charge voltage and ambient (battery) temperature are inversely related, the voltage must be reduced as the temperature rises; conversely, the charge voltage must be increased when the temperature drops. Note, however, that the charge voltage should not be dropped below 13.2V as that will cause the battery grids to corrode faster, thereby shortening the battery life.

Rapid charging of ODYSSEY® Batteries All ODYSSEY batteries can be quickly charged. Figure 7 on the next page shows their exceptional fast charge characteristics at a constant 14.7V for three levels of inrush current. These current levels are similar to the output currents of modern automotive alternators. Table 6 and Figure 7 show the capacity returned as a function of the magnitude of the inrush3 current. Standard internal combustion engine alternators with an output voltage of 14.2V can also charge these batteries. The inrush current does not need to be limited under constant voltage charge. However, because the typical alternator voltage is only 14.2V instead of 14.7V, the charge times will be longer than those shown in Table 5.

Inrush is defined in terms of the rated capacity (C10) of the battery. A 0.8C10 inrush on a 100Ah battery is 80A.

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Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 - December 2014

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Table 6: Fast charge capability

Capacity returned

Inrush current magnitude 0.8C10 1.6C10 3.1C10

60%

44 min.

20 min.

10 min.

80%

60 min.

28 min.

14 min.

100%

90 min.

50 min.

30 min.

Table 6 shows that with a 0.8C10 inrush current, a 100% discharged battery can have 80% of its capacity returned in 57 minutes; doubling the inrush to 1.6C10 cuts the time taken to reach 80% capacity to only 28 minutes. Figure 7: Quick charging ODYSSEY® batteries

Load test procedure This procedure should help determine whether the battery returned by the customer has reached its end of life or simply needs a full recharge. Depending on the time available one may choose to perform either the longer load test (Step 4) or the shorter ½CCA load test (Step 5). The ½CCA test is quicker but less reliable than the longer test. This is also the test that is performed when a battery is taken to an auto store for testing. 1. Measure the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the battery. Proceed to Step 4 or Step 5 if the OCV is equal to or more than 12.80V; if not go to Step 2. 2. Charge the battery until the device indicates the charge is complete. 3. Unplug the charger and disconnect the battery from the charger. Let the battery rest of at least 10-12 hours and measure the OCV. If it is equal to or more than 12.80V proceed to the next step; otherwise reject the battery. 4. Long Test: Discharge the battery using a resistor or other suitable load until the voltage drops to 10.00V and record the time taken to reach this voltage. Let the battery rest for an hour and repeat Steps 1 through 4. If the time taken by the battery to drop to 10.00V is longer in the second discharge than in the first discharge, the battery may be returned to service after a full recharge; if not the battery should be rejected as having reached end of life.

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5. ½CCA Test: Battery OCV must be at least 12.60V to proceed with this test. Connect the load tester cables and the voltage leads of a separate digital voltmeter (if the tester does not have a built-in digital voltmeter) to the battery terminals. 6. Adjust the tester load current to load the battery to half its rated CCA and apply the load for 15 seconds. Table 7 shows the ½CCA values for all ODYSSEY® battery models. Use Table 8 to adjust the battery end of test voltage temperature. Table 7 ODYSSEY® ½CCA Battery Test Model Value (A)

ODYSSEY® ½CCA Battery Test Model Value (A)

ODYSSEY® ½CCA Battery Test Model Value (A)

PC310

50

PC1100

250

PC1700

405

PC370

100

PC1200

270

PC1750

475

PC535

100

PC1220

340

PC1800

650

PC545

75

PC1230

380

PC2150

575

PC625

100

PC1350

385

PC2250

613

PC680

85

PC1400

425

PC925

165

PC1500

425

PC950

200

Table 8 Temperature

End of Test Voltage

70°F

9.60V

60°F

9.50V

50°F

9.40V

40°F

9.30V

30°F

9.10V

20°F

8.90V

10°F

8.70V

0°F

8.50V

7. A  t the end of 15 seconds note the battery voltage on the voltmeter and discontinue the test. If the temperature is 70°F (21˚C) or warmer the battery voltage should be at or above 9.60V. If so the battery can be returned to service; if below 9.60V the battery should be rejected.

ODYSSEY® Batteries in no-idle applications Since these batteries are dual purpose in nature they can be used for both engine starting and deep cycling applications. This makes them particularly well suited for fleets such as police vehicles that would like to power their computers and communications equipment without having to idle their engines. Auxiliary power units (APU) on trucks provide another example of a no-idling application.

Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 - December 2014

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All of these require energy sources to power loads such as computers and refrigerators with the engines shut off to reduce their carbon footprints and lower gas consumption. As discussed in a previous section, properly charged ODYSSEY batteries are capable of delivering as many as 400 cycles to a 80% depth of discharge (DOD). A shallower discharge will yield higher cycles, as noted in the cycle life vs. DOD graph shown earlier. This is the reason why ODYSSEY batteries are becoming increasingly popular in APU and police fleet applications that require batteries to have both high cycling and excellent engine cranking capabilities in the same package.

Parallel connections It is common to have batteries connected in parallel to achieve a desired amp-hour capacity. This is done by connecting all the positives to each other and all the negatives to each other. Correct Wiring Connections

The first schematic is recommended whenever batteries are hooked up in parallel to increase battery capacity. With this wiring, all batteries are forced to share both charge and discharge currents. In contrast, a closer inspection of the second schematic shows that it is possible for only the battery whose terminals are tapped to support the load. Implementing the first schematic eliminates this possibility and is therefore a better one.

Ventilation Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries like the ODYSSEY® battery depend on the internal recombination of the gases for proper operation. This is also why these batteries do not require periodic addition of water. The high recombination efficiency of ODYSSEY batteries make them safe for installation in human environments. It is not uncommon to see these batteries in aircraft, hospital operating rooms and computer rooms. The only requirement is that these batteries must not be installed in a sealed or gastight enclosure; however, local regulations with respect to ventilation requirements must be followed.

Concluding remarks

Positive tap to load Negative tap to load

We believe that there is no other sealed-lead acid battery currently available commercially that can match the ODYSSEY battery for sheer performance and reliability. We hope that the preceding material will help the reader arrive at the same conclusion.

Improper Wiring Connections

Positive tap to load

Negative tap to load

Typically the positive and negative leads to the load are taken from the same battery; usually the leads from the first battery are used. This is not a good practice. Instead, a better technique to connect the load is to take the positive lead from one end of the pack (the first or last battery) and the negative lead from the other end of the pack. The two methods are illustrated above. Solid lines and arrows indicate positive terminals and leads; broken lines and arrows indicate negative terminals and leads. In both illustrations, the positive leads are connected to each other; similarly the negative leads are connected to each other. The only difference is that in the first illustration the positive and negative leads to the load come from the first and last batteries. In the second case, both leads to the load are tapped from the same battery.

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Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 - December 2014

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Frequently asked SLI battery questions What is the CCA rating?

Are these gel cells?

The cold cranking ampere (CCA) rating refers to the number of amperes a battery can deliver for 30 seconds at a temperature of 0°F (-18°C) before the voltage drops to 1.20 volts per cell, or 7.20 volts for a 12V battery. A 12V battery that has a rating of 550 CCA means that the battery will provide 550 amps for 30 seconds at 0°F (-18°C) before the voltage falls to 7.20V.

No, the ODYSSEY® battery is NOT a gel cell. It is an absorbed electrolyte type battery, meaning there is no free acid inside the battery; all the acid is kept absorbed in the glass mat separators. These separators serve to keep the positive and negative plates apart.

What is the MCA rating? The marine cranking ampere (MCA) rating refers to the number of amperes a battery can deliver for 30 seconds at a temperature of 32°F (0°C) until the battery voltage drops to 7.20 volts for a 12V battery. A 12V battery that has a MCA rating of 725 MCA means that the battery will give 725 amperes for 30 seconds at 32°F (0°C) before the voltage falls to 7.20V. The MCA is sometimes called the cranking amperes or CA.

What is a HCA rating? The abbreviation HCA stands for hot cranking amps. It is the same as MCA, CA or CCA, except that the temperature at which the test is conducted is 80°F (26.7°C).

What is the difference between gel cell and AGM? The key difference between the gel cell and the absorbed glass mat (AGM) is that in the AGM cell all the electrolyte is in the separator, whereas in the gel cell the acid is in the cells in a gel form. If the ODYSSEY battery were to split open, there would be no acid spillage! That is why we call the ODYSSEY battery a Drycell battery.

What is the Ah rating? The ampere-hour (Ah) rating defines the capacity of a battery. A battery rated at 100Ah at the 10-hour rate of discharge will deliver 10A for 10 hours before the terminal voltage drops to a standard value such as 10.02 volts for a 12V battery. The PC1200 battery, rated at 40Ah will deliver 4A for 10 hours.

What is reserve capacity rating? What is the PHCA rating? Unlike CCA and MCA the pulse hot cranking amp (PHCA) rating does not have an “official” definition; however, we believe that for true SLI purposes, a 30-second discharge is unrealistic. The PHCA, a short duration (about 3-5 seconds) high rate discharge, is more realistic. Because the discharge is for such a short time, it is more like a pulse.

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The reserve capacity of a battery is the number of minutes it can support a 25-ampere load at 80°F (27°C) before its voltage drops to 10.50 volts for a 12V battery. A 12V battery with a reserve capacity rating of 100 will deliver 25 amps for 100 minutes at 80°F before its voltage drops to 10.5V.

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Is the ODYSSEY® battery a dry battery? Because the ODYSSEY® battery has no free acid inside, it is exempted from the requirements of 49 CFR § 173.159 of the US Department of Transportation (USDOT). The battery also enjoys a “nonspillable” classification and falls under the International Air Transport Association (IATA) “unrestricted” air shipment category. These batteries may be shipped completely worry-free. Supporting documentation is available.

What is impedance? The impedance of a battery is a measure of how easily it can be discharged. The lower the impedance the easier it is to discharge the battery. The impedance of the ODYSSEY battery is considerably less than that of a conventional SLI battery, so its high rate discharge capability is significantly higher than that of a conventional SLI battery.

What is the short-circuit current of these batteries? As mentioned before, this battery has very low impedance, meaning that the short circuit current is very high. For a PC925 battery, the short circuit current can be as high as 2,500 amperes.

Do I ruin the battery if I accidentally drop it? Not necessarily, but it is possible to damage the internal connections sufficiently to damage the battery.

Does mishandling the battery void the warranty? Our warranty applies only to manufacturing defects and workmanship issues; the policy does not cover damages suffered due to product mishandling.

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What is so special about thin plate pure lead technology? Is it a new technology? The answer lies in the very high purity (99.99%) of our raw lead materials, making our product very special. The technology is not new; the sealed lead recombinant technology was invented and patented by us back in 1973.

Why don’t you have to winterize your batteries? What’s so special about them? In general, winterizing refers to a special maintenance procedure conducted on an automotive engine to ensure its reliability during the winter season. The procedure essentially checks the engine’s charging system; in addition, the battery is load tested according to a specific method defined by the Battery Council International (BCI). Although ODYSSEY batteries do not specifically require this test to be conducted on them, the final decision whether or not to conduct this test is left to the user’s discretion.

Are these Ni-Cd batteries? Why doesn’t somebody make these in Ni-Cd? Wouldn’t they charge faster as a Ni-Cd? No, the ODYSSEY battery is NOT a Ni-Cd battery. It is a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery. In general, Ni-Cd batteries are much more expensive to manufacture and recycle, so they are less cost effective than a lead acid product. A Ni-Cd battery would charge faster than a conventional lead acid battery; however, the ODYSSEY battery is NOT a conventional battery and its charge characteristics are somewhat similar to nickel cadmium batteries. In fact, with a powerful enough charger, it is possible to bring ODYSSEY batteries to better than 95% state of charge in less than 20 minutes! That is very comparable to the fast charge capabilities of a nickel cadmium product.

Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 - December 2014

19

About EnerSys® EnerSys® is a global leader in stored energy solutions for automotive, military, and industrial applications. With manufacturing facilities in 18 countries, sales and service locations throughout the world, and over 100 years of battery experience, EnerSys is a powerful partner for automotive service and parts providers. EnerSys 2366 Bernville Road Reading, PA 19605 Tel: +1-610-208-1991 +1-800-538-3627 EnerSys EMEA EH Europe GmbH Löwenstrasse 32 8001 Zürich, Switzerland Tel: +41 (0) 44 215 74 10 EnerSys Asia 152 Beach Road Gateway East Building #11-03 Singapore 189721 Tel: +65 6508 1780 www.odysseybattery.com

© 2014 EnerSys. All rights reserved. Trademarks and logos are the property of EnerSys and its affiliates, except Caterpillar™, which is not the property of EnerSys. Publication No: US-ODY-TM-002 – December 2014 Subject to revisions without prior notice. E.&O.E.

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Technical Manual - ODYSSEY battery

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