Survey of college academic stressors - Journal of Human Sciences

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Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Year: 2012

Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure

Glenn M. Calaguas*

Abstract This study aimed to develop a survey instrument on college academic stressors. A review of extant literature and a focus-group interview among 20 college students were done. Based on the review of extant literature and focus-group interview, an initial survey instrument was developed. The initial survey instrument was further reviewed by 11 college students. After the review, a trial-run of the survey instrument was conducted among 17 college students. The comments from the trial-run participants became the bases for the development of the main-try-out survey instrument. The main-try-out survey instrument was used in the final test administration with 1,210 college students as participants. Responses from the final test administration participants served as bases in determining the descriptive statistics of items, evaluation of validity, and evaluation of reliability of the survey instrument. Based on information gathered, the final survey instrument was developed and was named “Survey of College Academic Stressors.” Keywords: academic-related stressors; college students, stress

________________________ * Ph.D., RGC, Pampanga Agricultural College, Philippines; Email: [email protected]

442 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

Introduction Stress is not a new phenomenon. In fact, “stress has been around and has been noticed for ages” (Neil, 1994; p. 3). However, “there has been great debate in the worlds of medicine, psychology, and sociology about the definition of stress” (Wheeler, 2007, p. 2) and is defined by people differently. To some it may refer to an emotion that is regarded as uncomfortable while to others it has something to do while physical sensation and gives focus to how it affects one’s manner of thinking (Biegel, 2009). Similarly for Whitman (1985), it refers to “any situation that evokes negative thoughts and feelings in a person. The same situation is not evocative or stressful for all people, and all people do not experience the same negative thoughts and feelings when stressed” (para.1) while for Seaward (2008), with reference to the contemporary times, it “has many connotations and definitions based on various perspectives of human conditions. In eastern philosophies, stress is considered to be an absence of inner peace. In western culture, stress can be described as a loss of control” (p. 4). Generally, “the subject of stress is complicated and complex. It is also a misunderstood subject of considerable interest and extensive discussion in modern society” (Humphrey, Yow & Bowden, 2000, p. 1). Review of Literature Stress among Students Although, there may be different connotations about stress, one thing is for sure, stress affects every aspect of life and going to school is included that is why it is safe to presume that students are also indeed affected. In relation, Robotham (2008) found that a significant number of studies revealed that “levels of stress are on the increase amongst the higher education student population” (p. 742) and in recent years, studies have documented the adverse effect of stress on students (e.g. Agolla & Ongori, 2009; Hussain, Kumar & Husain, 2008; Masih & Gulrez, 2006; Shaikh et al., 2004; Sulaiman, Hassan, Sapian & Abdullah, 2009). To note, in the study conducted by Misra and Mckean (2002), positive association was found between anxiety and academic stress. Specifically, Ang and Huan (2006) said that “in an Asian context, academic stress arising from adolescents’ selfexpectations and expectations of others (e.g., parents and teachers) are particularly salient” (p.134). Today, college remains a bridge from childhood to adulthood (MTVU, 2006) and one experience that can be very appealing and satisfying is attending college or university (Abdullah, Elias, Mahyuddin & Uli, 2009). It is important to reiterate though that “college

443 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

students are at a critical period where they will enter adulthood. They are expected to be the elites in the society” (Cheng, n.d., p. 2) and “the current emphasis on educational excellence and multiplied parental expectations have given rise to academic stress and strains in the youth of today” (Masih & Gulrez, 2006, p. 98) and putting in the words of Masih and Gulrez (2006), “stress is a lifestyle crisis p” (p. 97). Academic Stress Broadly speaking, “a student’s life is subjected to different kinds of stressors, such as the pressure of academics with an obligation of success, uncertain future and difficulties envisaged for integration into the system” (Shaikh et al., 2004, p. 347) but exactly, what is meant by academic stress? According to MacGeorge, Samter and Gillihan (2005), it is a mental and emotional pressure, tension, or stress that occurs due to the demands of college life (as cited in DeDeyn, 2008). Similarly, Wilks (2008) believes that “academic stress is the product of a combination of academic-related demands that exceed the adaptive resources available to an individual” (p. 107). Hussain, Kumar and Husain (2008) made a conclusion that “academic stress not only impedes academic performance but also adjustment to a greater extent” (p. 72) and as early as 1985, Whitman already believed that even personal growth requires some form of stress, the ability to cope by a student can still be affected by the amount of stress especially when it is overwhelming. But as concluded by Malik and Balda (2006), it is a requirement to fight stress to survive and for Agolla and Ongori (2009), since students are regarded as future leaders, the society is being denied of future leaders when there is something that interferes with their well-being. The Need to Develop a Survey Instrument on College Academic Stressors “A students’ ability to be connected to the institutional environment and their ability to adapt to the organizational culture are related to vocational and educational stability, student satisfaction, and student success” (Demaris & Kritsonis, 2008, p. 8). That is why an indigenous survey instrument that focuses on academic stress among college students which can be used as an objective checklist in determining academic-related stressors is needed because the process of identifying sources of stress and eventually developing programs and interventions can be geared towards the total development of every student.

444 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

Conceptual Framework Several concepts have been considered as framework of this study. These included the actual experiences of 20 college students and the ideas provided by Masih and Gulrez (2006), Wilks (2008), and Ang and Huan (2006). Generally stress is “any factor, acting internally or externally, which makes adaptation to environment difficult and which induces increased effort on the part of the individual to maintain a state of equilibrium between himself and herself and the external environment” (Humphrey, Yow & Bowden, 2000, p. 2-3) and specifically, academic stress arises from the demands of college life. Masih and Gulrez (2006) cited that admission procedures, high standards of parents, curriculum being highly concept laden, inappropriate school timings, high pupil-teacher ratio, non-conducive physical environment of classrooms, the absence of healthy teacher-student interaction, irrational rules of discipline, physical punishment, excessive or unbalanced school-work, teaching methodology, indifferent attitudes of teachers, overemphasis on weaknesses rather than strengths are the causes of stress among students. On the other hand, in the literature review conducted by Wilks (2008), the following demands were cited as composition of academic stress: “time management issues; financial burdens; interactions with faculty; personal goals; social activities; adjustment to the campus environment; and lack of support networks” (p. 106) while, “in an Asian context, academic stress arising from adolescents’ self-expectations and expectations of others (e.g. parents and teachers) are particularly salient” (Ang & Huan, 2006, p. 134). Major themes were identified with reference to the actual experiences of 20 college students and the ideas provided by Masih and Gulrez (2006), Wilks (2008), and Ang and Huan (2006) and thus served as the bases for the writing of items included in the initial survey instrument. These major themes were: (a) enrolment and admission-related, (b) subjectrelated, (c) teacher-related, (d) classmate-related, (e) schedule-related, (f) classroom-related, (g) financial-related, and (h) expectation-related. Statement of the Problem This study aimed to develop a survey instrument that will identify academic stressors of college students. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. How can a survey instrument which will identify the academic stressors of college students be developed?

445 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

2. How can the survey instrument be evaluated in terms of validity and reliability?

Hypothesis The Survey of College Academic Stressors (SCAS) is a valid and reliable instrument in identifying the academic stressors of college students. Method This study followed the initial steps in test development. Search for Content Domain Review of extant literature regarding academic stress and a focus-group interview among 20 college students

(18 Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and two Hotel and Restaurant

Management) aimed to identify their academic-related stressors were done. Such undertakings provided the researcher with much-needed information in identifying major themes that served as guide in writing the items in the initial survey instrument. Item Writing and Review The review of extant literature and the focus-group interview conducted among 20 college students led to the writing of items in the initial survey instrument which were divided into eight sub-scales based on the major themes identified. These were: (a) enrolment and admission-related, (b) subject-related, (c) teacher-related, (d) classmate-related, (e) schedulerelated, (f) classroom-related, (g) financial-related, and (h) expectation-related. A total of 72 items were with written with the following breakdown: nine for enrolment and admissionrelated, 19 for subject-related, six for teacher-related, six for classmate-related, 10 for schedule-related, 10 for classroom related, three for financial-related; and 10 for expectationrelated. The items in the initial survey instrument were further reviewed by 11 college students (Development Communication) as to its contents. The researcher performed such undertaking because the researcher wanted to make sure that all items in the initial survey instrument represented the entire range of possible items the initial survey instrument was suppose to cover. Trial-Run of the Initial Survey Instrument Seventeen college students (15 Development Communication and two BS in Biology) agreed to participate in the trial-run. The trial run was done to check the suitability of language used in the items, the ease of following the directions and the average length of time needed in answering the survey instrument.

446 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

Development of the Main Try-Out Survey Instrument Minimal suggestions were recorded during the trial-run which served as bases in the development of the main try-out survey instrument used during the final test administration. Final Test Administration The final test administration was performed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the survey instrument. A total of 1, 210 college students from 14 programs participated in the final test administration. These participants were chosen via systematic random sampling. Descriptive Statistics With the responses of the participants in the final test administration as bases, the means and standard deviations of the items included in the main try-out survey instrument were computed. This was done because the means and standard deviations of items could serve as guide in deciding what items to include in the final survey instrument. Evaluation of the Survey Instrument’s Validity Factor analysis was used to evaluate the instrument’s validity. Specifically, Exploratory Factor Analysis was used with Principal Components Analysis and Varimax Rotation (with Kaiser Normalization). The cut-off was set at 0.40 correlations coefficient. Evaluation of the Survey Instrument’s Reliability The reliability of the survey instrument was evaluated using Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha formula. This method examined the internal consistency of the items in the survey instrument. Development of the Final Survey Instrument The development of the final survey instrument was based on the information gathered from the means and standard deviations of its items, validity evaluation, and reliability evaluation. Results and Discussion The study started with a review of extant literature regarding college academic stress and a focus-group interview conducted among 20 college students. This led to the writing of items in the initial survey instrument divided into eight sub-scales, namely: (a) enrolment and admission-related, (b) subject-related, (c) teacher-related, (d) classmate-related, (e) schedulerelated, (f) classroom-related, (g) financial-related, and (h) expectation-related. The items in the initial survey instrument were evaluated and reviewed by11 college students as to contents. Seventeen college students participated in the trial-run. Minimal suggestions were recorded and served as bases in the development of the main try-out survey instrument. A

447 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

total of 1,210 college students from 14 programs enrolled during the Second Semester of School Year 2010-2011 participated in the final test administration. Profile of the Final Test Administration Participants Table 1a to 1c presents the profile of the participants in the final test administration. Table 1a. Frequency distribution of final test administration participants in terms of sex Sex Frequency Percentage Male 481 39.75 Female 729 60.25 Total 1210 100 Based on Table 1a, 60.25% of the participants were females and accounted for more than half of the participants. Table 1b. Frequency distribution of final test administration participants in terms of age Age Frequency Percentage 15 1 0.1 16 146 12.1 17 312 25.8 18 294 24.3 19 195 16.1 20 156 12.9 21 48 4 22 28 2.3 23 11 0.9 24 6 0.5 25 5 0.4 27 2 0.2 28 1 0.1 31 2 0.2 38 1 0.1 40 1 0.1 45 1 0.1 Total 1210 100 Based on Table 1b, 12.1 % of the participants were aged 16, 25.8% were aged 17, 24.3% were aged 18, 16.1% were aged 19, and 12.9% were aged 20. The age range from 16 to 20 accounted for more than half of the participants.

448 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

Table 1c. Frequency distribution of final test administration participants in terms of program Program Bachelor of Arts in English Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Engineering Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Business Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Economics Bachelor of Elementary Education Bachelor of Science in Entrepreneurship Bachelor of Secondary Education Bachelor of Science in Biology Bachelor of Science in Development Communication Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Forestry Bachelor of Science in Mathematics Bachelor of Science in Agriculture Bachelor of Science in Home Economics Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management Bachelor of Science in Home Technology Bachelor of Science in Information Technology Diploma in Computer Programming Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Total

Frequency 55 49 32 6 95 12 194 37 24 4 32 164 10 159

Percentage 4.54 4.04 2.64 0.49 7.85 0.99 16.03 3.05 1.98 0.33 2.64 13.55 0.82 13.14

92 164 52 29 1210

7.60 13.55 4.29 2.39 100

Based on Table 1c, 16.03% of the participants came from Bachelor of Secondary Education, followed by 13.55% from Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, 13.14% from Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management, and 7.85% from Bachelor of Elementary Education. These four programs accounted for more than half the participants. Descriptive Statistics The responses of the participants in the final test administration served as bases in determining the means and standard deviations of the items included in the main try-out survey instrument. The means and standard deviations are presented in Table 2.

449 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

Table 2. Means and standard deviations of items in the main try-out survey instrument Item No. M SD Item No. M SD Item No. M 1 3.1597 0.93294 25 2 2.7188 0.87948 26 3 2.8211 0.89988 27 4 2.4359 0.94370 28 5 2.1514 0.93344 29 6 2.2329 0.94863 30 7 2.6705 0.99186 31 8 2.2928 1.02057 32 9 2.1913 0.98023 33 10 2.3394 0.90861 34 11 2.3860 0.89726 35 12 2.1223 0.89453 36 13 2.8270 0.92877 37 14 2.3053 0.84962 38 15 2.5549 0.86609 39 16 2.2055 0.88763 40 17 2.4551 0.91980 41 18 2.5682 0.94956 42 19 2.5250 0.92956 43 20 2.6364 0.94482 44 21 2.5416 0.92266 45 22 2.1131 0.87932 46 23 2.3461 0.91524 47 24 2.3810 0.99687 48 Legend: M= Mean, SD= Standard Deviation

2.3511 2.0474 2.2737 2.2205 2.6722 2.3677 2.6814 2.0616 2.2903 2.1215 2.1464 2.2097 2.0782 2.0699 2.0291 1.8619 2.1098 2.1664 2.2488 2.4027 2.6148 2.4626 2.2579 2.2812

0.92691 0.92711 0.92470 0.93617 0.98314 0.86252 0.95221 0.88537 1.22276 0.88010 0.95364 0.92840 0.94417 0.99295 0.88750 1.01327 0.96115 0.96255 0.94680 1.17535 1.05497 0.98567 0.95182 0.93989

49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

2.2313 2.5699 2.7795 2.7396 2.8627 2.8710 2.6057 2.8652 2.5732 2.6206 2.6364 2.6614 2.8270 2.6389 2.5915 2.6431 2.5807 2.4251 2.3062 2.6148 2.5183 2.3869 2.3319 2.3910

SD 0.94728 0.98220 0.98725 1.00021 0.96065 0.95834 0.96357 0.96748 0.94215 0.97982 0.96574 1.02800 0.99959 0.99679 0.98212 1.54906 0.95993 1.00613 0.94536 1.01145 0.95184 0.94173 0.93705 1.00962

Descriptive statistics are used to organize and describe the characteristics of a collection of data. The collection is sometimes called a data set or just a data (Salkind, 2007). Whenever a data is examined, descriptive statistics come first, and the most common of these are the mean and variance. The same is true for test items. The means and standard deviations of items can provide clues about which items will be useful and which ones will be not. If the variance of an item is low, this mean that there is little variability on the item and it may not be useful. While it is not common to examine itemlevel descriptive statistics in most research applications, in creating and validating tests it is a crucial first step. Generally, the higher the variability of the item and the more the mean of the item is at the center point of the distribution, the better the item will perform (Kline, 2005). Evaluation of Validity To evaluate the validity of the survey instrument, Principal Components Analysis with Varimax Rotation (Kaiser Normalization) was used. According to Brown (2010), “one use for PCA or EFA is to conduct item or subscale analysis with the goal of revising and

450 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

strengthening a test or questionnaire” (p. 30) and “can be used as a back-and-forth tool for eliminating items that don't work” (p. 31). The result of the Principal Components Analysis with Varimax Rotation (Kaiser Normalization) loadings of items with 0.40 correlations coefficient cut-off in the main try-out instrument is presented in Table 3. Table 3. Principal Components Analysis with Varimax Rotation (Kaiser Normalization) loadings of items in the main try-out survey instrument Item No. 1 Enrolment and Admission-related 1. Enrolling 2. Getting of classcards 3. Signing of clearances 4. Settling of unpaid accounts 5. Securing of examination permits 6. Securing of class schedules 7. Following of enrolment procedures 8. Changing/ adding of subjects 9. Validating of subjects Subject-related 10. Passing written examinations 11. Passing oral examinations 12. Participating in classroom discussions 13. Conducting researches 14. Completing seat works 15. Searching for reference materials 16. Completing assignments 17. Submitting requirements 18. Beating requirements deadlines 19. Completing requirements 20. Passing unannounced examinations 21. Dealing with unannounced graded recitations 22. Understanding classroom discussions 23. Preparing for an examination 24. Passing a removal examination 25. Passing practical examination 26. Writing of assignments 27. Conducting laboratory experiments 28. Participating in extension activities Teacher-related 29. Dealing with strict teachers 30. Coping with teachers’ teaching methodologies 31. Adjusting with teachers’ unfair treatment of students 32. Dealing with teachers 33. Adjusting with teachers’ treatment of students 34. Attending to teachers’ requests

2

3

Component 4 5

6

7

0.434 0.526 0.501 0.520 0.570 0.507 0.405 0.613 0.610

8 0.472 0.420

0.618 0.619 0.602 0.598 0.499 0.588 0.556 0.520 0.539 0.537

0.403

0.509 0.539 0.542 0.503 0.586 0.564 0.438 0.433 0.576 0.403

0.420 0.573

(table continues)

451 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

Table 3. (continued) Classmate-related 35. Arguing with classmates 36. Disliking classmates 37. Competing with classmates 38. Bullying by classmates 39. Conducting activities with classmates Schedule-related 40. Attending classes 41. Attending make-up classes 42. Making sense of too many vacant periods 43. Managing too little vacant periods 44. Moving from one classroom to the other 45. Moving from one building to the other 46. Commuting to and from the school 47. Participating in extra-curricular activities 48. Attending meetings of student organizations 49. Attending school programs Classroom-related 50. Bearing with overcrowded classrooms 51. Bearing with classrooms that have poor or no ventilation 52. Bearing with classrooms that have poor or no lighting 53. Bearing with dirty classrooms 54. Bearing with noisy classrooms 55. Looking for available classrooms 56. Bearing with fowl-smelling classrooms 57. Waiting for classrooms to be vacated 58. Bearing with classrooms with limited seats 59. Bearing with distractions in or outside the classrooms Financial-related 60. Budgeting of allowance 61. Dealing with unexpected expenses 62. Saving money for projects Expectation-related 63. Thinking about getting a job after college 64. Handling expectations of parents 65. Handling expectations of relatives 66. Handling expectations of siblings 67. Handling expectations of friends 68. Worrying about the future 69. Handling expectations of teachers 70. Handling expectations of benefactors 71. Handling expectations of people in the community 72. Handling self-expectations

0.583 0.678 0.632 0.677 0.494 0.543 0.611 0.593 0.532 0.538 0.512 0.451 0.485 0.554 0.561 0.630 0.671 0.674 0.748 0.724 0.622 0.715 0.635 0.694 0.632 0.652 0.726 0.620 0.578 0.493 0.669 0.629 0.625 0.647 0.640 0.642 0.655 0.650

As seen in Table 3, using a 0.40 correlations coefficient cut-off, 18 items loaded on component one, 10 items on component two, 10 items on component three, 10 items on

452 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

component four, eight items on component five, five items on component six, three items on component seven, and three items on component eight. Evaluation of Reliability To evaluate the reliability of the survey instrument, Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha formula was used. This method examined the internal consistency of the items in the main try-out survey instrument. The item- total statistics of the items in the main try-out instrument is presented in Table 4a while presented in Table 4b is the reliability evaluation of the whole survey instrument together with its eight sub-scales. Table 4a. Item-total statistics of the main try-out survey instrument Item No.

A

B

C

D

Item No.

A

B

C

D

1 172.1206 991.015 0.336 0.946 37 173.2022 987.309 0.395 0.946 2 172.5616 988.786 0.399 0.946 38 173.2105 988.941 0.348 0.946 3 172.4592 990.543 0.358 0.946 39 173.2512 988.978 0.392 0.946 4 172.8444 988.686 0.372 0.946 40 173.4185 983.582 0.425 0.946 5 173.1290 987.606 0.395 0.946 41 173.1705 980.438 0.503 0.945 6 173.0474 989.224 0.361 0.946 42 173.1140 984.256 0.438 0.946 7 172.6098 988.346 0.358 0.946 43 173.0316 982.812 0.471 0.946 8 172.9875 987.604 0.359 0.946 44 172.8777 983.243 0.367 0.946 9 173.0890 987.005 0.385 0.946 45 172.6656 980.744 0.451 0.946 10 172.9409 983.711 0.476 0.946 46 172.8178 982.076 0.463 0.946 11 172.8943 983.319 0.489 0.946 47 173.0225 984.112 0.446 0.946 12 173.1581 983.953 0.479 0.946 48 172.9992 984.189 0.451 0.946 13 172.4534 986.408 0.418 0.946 49 173.0491 982.909 0.469 0.946 14 172.9750 983.798 0.509 0.945 50 172.7105 979.771 0.503 0.945 15 172.7255 988.669 0.408 0.946 51 172.5008 982.895 0.449 0.946 16 173.0749 986.291 0.441 0.946 52 172.5408 981.907 0.459 0.946 17 172.8253 983.846 0.467 0.946 53 172.4176 986.973 0.394 0.946 18 172.7121 982.567 0.473 0.946 54 172.4093 989.151 0.358 0.946 19 172.7554 981.595 0.501 0.945 55 172.6747 983.445 0.451 0.946 20 172.6439 983.245 0.464 0.946 56 172.4151 986.833 0.393 0.946 21 172.7388 985.082 0.444 0.946 57 172.7072 982.635 0.476 0.946 22 173.1672 985.720 0.456 0.946 58 172.6597 981.354 0.478 0.946 23 172.9343 986.105 0.430 0.946 59 172.6439 984.236 0.437 0.946 24 172.8993 981.912 0.460 0.946 60 172.6190 980.797 0.463 0.946 25 172.9293 982.592 0.485 0.946 61 172.4534 984.408 0.418 0.946 26 173.2329 982.195 0.492 0.945 62 172.6414 981.924 0.460 0.946 27 173.0067 984.638 0.451 0.946 63 172.6889 982.141 0.464 0.946 28 173.0599 983.370 0.467 0.946 64 172.6373 982.065 0.280 0.947 29 172.6082 982.194 0.462 0.946 65 172.6997 984.492 0.436 0.946 30 172.9126 982.133 0.532 0.945 66 172.8552 983.541 0.429 0.946 31 172.5990 984.419 0.441 0.946 67 172.9742 981.815 0.489 0.945 32 173.2188 984.536 0.474 0.946 68 172.6656 984.896 0.405 0.946 33 172.9900 981.280 0.377 0.946 69 172.7621 983.654 0.454 0.946 34 173.1589 985.493 0.459 0.946 70 172.8935 983.308 0.465 0.946 35 173.1339 985.147 0.428 0.946 71 172.9484 983.453 0.465 0.946 36 173.0707 986.590 0.415 0.946 72 172.8894 984.123 0.418 0.946 A= Scale Mean if Item Deleted, B= Scale Variance if Item Deleted, C= Corrected Item-Total Correlation, D= Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

453 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

What must be given due attention in Table 4a are columns C which shows the correlation between the respective item and the total sum score (without the respective item) and D which shows the internal consistency of the scale (coefficient alpha) if the respective item will be deleted. Clearly, the reliability of the main try-out survey instrument is at 0.94 levels regardless of an item to be deleted. Table 4b. Reliability evaluation of the main try-out survey instrument and its subscales Number of Items Cronbach’s Alpha Whole Survey Instrument 72 0.948 Enrollment and Admissions-related 9 0.774 Subject-related 19 0.898 Teacher-related 6 0.748 Classmate-related 5 0.751 Schedule-related 10 0.821 Classroom-related 10 0.894 Financial-related 3 0.797 Expectation-related 10 0.878 Based on Table 4b, the Cronbach’s Alpha of the main try-out survey instrument as a whole was 0.948 which signify high internal consistency while the Cronbach’s Alpha of its subscales ranged from 0.748 to 0.898. Development of the Final Survey Instrument After analyzing the descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations of items), validity (PCA with Varimax Rotation), and reliability (Cornbach’s Alpha Formula), items to be included were finally determined. Out of the 72 items in the main try-out survey instrument, 67 were retained. Table 5 presents the reliability of the final survey instrument. Table 5. Reliability of the final survey instrument Whole Survey Instrument Enrollment and Admissions-related Subject-related Teacher-related Classmate-related Schedule-related Classroom-related Financial-related Expectation-related

Number of Items 67 8 18 3 5 10 10 3 10

Cronbach’s Alpha 0.943 0.759 0.896 0.709 0.751 0.821 0.894 0.797 0.878

454 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

As seen in Table 5, the Cronbach’s Alpha of the final survey instrument was 0.943 which signify high internal consistency while the Cronbach’s Alpha of its sub-scales ranged from 0.709 to 0.896. The final survey instrument may be used by guidance counselors, homeroom advisers, and teachers as an objective checklist in identifying academic stressors of college students. For one, the final survey instrument has been initially proven valid (as reviewed by actual college students and item loadings ranging from 0.405 to 0.748 based on the 0.40 cut-off for screening of items) and reliable (Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0.943 indicating high internal consistency). For the purposes of recognition, the survey instrument was named “Survey of College Academic Stressors (SCAS).” SCAS is presented in Appendix A. Limitations of the Study This study was only limited to one state college in Pampanga in the Philippines with 1,258 participants starting from the focus-group interview up to the final test administration. Therefore it is not guaranteed that the results of this study also hold true to college students of other colleges and universities whether in the Philippines or abroad. Conclusion The SCAS is a valid (as reviewed by actual college students and item loadings ranging from 0.405 to 0.748 based on the 0.40 cut-off for screening of items) and reliable (Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0.943 indicating high internal consistency) survey instrument in identifying the academic stressors of college students. Recommendations The SCAS has gone initial stages of testing its validity (item review and PCA with Varimax Rotation) and reliability (Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha formula) in the process of establishing its psychometric properties. However, in order to have a more detailed property of SCAS, further study is still recommended. It must be reviewed again to determine redundant items and further prove its validity and reliability. Larger sample size is also needed for norming and interpretation of test scores and in doing so, school counselors, homeroom advisers, and teachers are encouraged to administer the SCAS in their respective colleges and universities. Other researchers especially those tasked to do their theses and dissertations may also use the SCAS. The information gathered from SCAS can be useful in reviewing programs intended for college students.

455 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

References Abdullah, M. C., Elias, H., Mahyuddin, R. & Uli, J. (2009). Adjustment amongst first year students in a Malaysian university. European Journal of Social Sciences, 8 (3), 496505. Agolla, J. E. & Ongori, H. (2009). An assessment of academic stress among undergraduate students: The case of University of Botswana. Educational Research and Review, 4 (2), 63-70. Ang, R. P. & Huan, V. S. (2006). Relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation: Testing for depression as a mediator using multiple regression. Child Psychiatry AND Human Development, 37 (2), 133-143. DOI 10.1007/s10578-0060023-8 Biegel, G. M. (2009). The stress reduction workbook for teens: Mindfulness skills to help you deal with stress. Oakland, CA: Instant Help Books. A division of New Harbinger Publications, Inc. Brown, J. D. (2010). How are PCA and EFA used in language test and questionnaire development? SHIKEN: JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 14 (2), 30-35. Cheng, K. (n.d.). A study of stress sources among college students in Taiwan. Journal of Academic and Business Ethics, 1-8. DeDeyn, R. (2008). A comparison of academic stress among Australian and international students. UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research, 11, 1-4. Demaris, M. C. & Kritsonis, W. A. (2008). The classroom: Exploring its effects on student persistence and satisfaction. Focus on Colleges, Universities, and Schools, 2 (1), 1-9. Humphrey, J. H., Yow, D. A. & Bowden, W. W. (2000). Stress in college athletes: Causes, consequences, coping. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Half-Court Press. An imprint of the Haworth Press, Inc. Hussain, A., Kumar, A. & Husain A. (2008). Academic stress and adjustment among high school students. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 34, 70-73. Kline, T. J. B. (2005). Psychological testing. A practical approach to design and evaluation. : Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc. Malik, P. R. & Balda, S. (2006). High IQ adolescents under stress: Do they perform poor in academics. Anthropologist, 8 (2), 61-62. Masih, P. P. & Gulrez, N. K. (2006). Age and gender differences on stress. In Husain, A. & Khan, M. I. (eds). Recent trends in human stress management (pp.97-104). New Delhi, India: Global Mission Publishing House. Misra, R. & McKean, M. (2002). College students’ academic stress and its relation to their anxiety, time management and leisure satisfaction. American Journal of Health Studies, 16 (1), 41-51. MTVU College Mental Health Study (2006). Stress, depression, stigma and students. Executive Summary. Retrieved from http://www.halfofus.com/_media/_pr/mtvUCollegeMentalHealthStudy2006.pdf Neil, R. (1994). Stress: Taming the tyrant. Brushton, NY: TEACH Services Inc. Robotham, D. (2008). Stress among higher education students: towards a research agenda. Higher Education, 56, 735-746. DOI 10.1007/s10734-008-9137-1. Salkind, N. J. (2007). Statistics for people who think they hate statistics (The Excel Edition). : Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Seaward, B. L. (2008). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well-being (Fifth Edition). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

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Shaikh, B.T., Kahloon, A., Kazmi, M., Khalid, H., Nawaz, K., Khan, K.A. & Khan, S. (2004). Students, stress and coping Strategies: A case of Pakistani Medical School. Education for Health, 17 (3), 346-353. Sulaiman, T., Hassan, A., Sapian, V. M. & Abdullah, S. K. (2009). The level of stress among students in urban and rural secondary schools in Malaysia. European Journal of Social Sciences, 10 (2), 179-184. Wheeler, C. M. (2007).10 Simple Solutions to Stress. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. Wilks, S. E. (2008). Resilience amid academic stress: The moderating impact of social support among Social Work Students. Advances in Social Work, 9 (2), 106-125.

457 Calaguas, G. M. (2012). Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure. International Journal of Human Sciences [Online]. 9:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en

Appendix A SURVEY OF COLLEGE ACADEMIC STRESSORS Age:_________ Sex:_________

Name:____________________________________ Course and Year Level:______________________

Directions: Using your own experiences, please rate how stressful the events listed below are. When you cannot answer a statement on the basis of experience, rate it according to what you would most likely feel. On the space provided after each item, indicate your rating using the following scale: Not at all Stressful (1)

Mildly Stressful (2)

Enrolment and Admission-related 1. Getting of classcards 2. Signing of clearances 3. Settling of unpaid accounts 4. Securing of examination permits 5. Securing of class schedules 6. Following of enrolment procedures 7. Changing/ adding of subjects 8. Validating of subjects Subject-related 9. Passing written examinations 10. Passing oral examinations 11. Participating in classroom discussions 12. Completing seat works

Moderately Stressful (3)

Severely Stressful (4)

[___] [___]

Schedule-related 35. Attending classes 36. Attending make-up classes 37. Making sense of too many vacant periods 38. Managing too little vacant periods 39. Moving from one classroom to the other 40. Moving from one building to the other 41. Commuting to and from the school 42. Participating in extra-curricular activities 43. Attending meetings of student organizations 44. Attending school programs Classroom-related 45. Bearing with overcrowded classrooms 46. Bearing with classrooms that have poor or no ventilation 47. Bearing with classrooms that have poor or no lighting 48. Bearing with dirty classrooms 49. Bearing with noisy classrooms 50. Looking for available classrooms 51. Bearing with fowl-smelling classrooms 52. Waiting for classrooms to be vacated 53. Bearing with classrooms with limited seats 54. Bearing with distractions in or outside the classrooms Financial-related 55. Budgeting of allowance 56. Dealing with unexpected expenses 57. Saving money for projects Expectation-related 58. Thinking about getting a job after college 59. Handling expectations of parents 60. Handling expectations of relatives 61. Handling expectations of siblings

[___]

62. Handling expectations of friends

[___]

63. Worrying about the future 64. Handling expectations of teachers 65. Handling expectations of benefactors 66. Handling expectations of people in the community 67. Handling self-expectations ---End of SCAS---

[___] [___] [___] [___]

[___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___]

13. Searching for reference materials

[___]

14. Completing assignments 15. Submitting requirements 16. Beating requirements deadlines 17. Completing requirements 18. Passing unannounced examinations 19. Dealing with unannounced graded recitations 20. Understanding classroom discussions

[___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___]

21. Preparing for an examination 22. Passing a removal examination 23. Passing practical examination 24. Writing of assignments 25. Conducting laboratory experiments 26. Participating in extension activities Teacher-related 27. Dealing with strict teachers 28. Coping with teachers’ teaching methodologies 29. Adjusting with teachers’ unfair treatment of students Classmate-related 30. Arguing with classmates 31. Disliking classmates 32. Competing with classmates

[___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___]

33. Bullying by classmates 34. Conducting activities with classmates

[___] [___]

[___] [___] [___]

[___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___]

[___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___] [___]

[___]

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Survey of college academic stressors - Journal of Human Sciences

Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Year: 2012 Survey of college academic stressors: Development of a new measure Glenn M. Calaguas* Abstract This study aimed to de...

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