REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF SEA URCHIN BASED ON - CiteSeerX

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REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF SEA URCHIN BASED ON LUNAR PERIOD ON BARRANG LOMPO ISLAND By : Wilma J.C. Moka, S.Kel, Inayah Yasir, PhD and Prof. Dr. Budimawan, DEA.

ABSTRACT The research on gonad maturity of sea urchin (Tripneustes gratilla and Diadema setosum) has been done according to lunar period. The aim of this research is to know the growth rate of gonad maturity from two species of sea urchin. Samples are taken from waters around Barrang Lompo Island during the new moon, first moon, full moon, and third quarter in two moon’s cycles. The color, the weight, the length, and the texture of were analyzed for recognizing the gonad maturity level of sea urchin by morphology examination. The histology of the gonad is observed in the laboratory. Paraffin block and Haematoxylin and Eosin (HE) method is use for the histological observation. The result shows that there’s no fixed reproduction in one moon’s cycle. Key word : Diadema setosum, Tripneustes gratilla, gonad maturity, lunar period

INTRODUCTION Sea urchin (Phylum Echinodermata, Class Echinoid) is one of trade commodity that required by many countries (Sukarno, dkk, 1983; Brice, 2008). The gonad is used as raw material for food. But not only that, in Gondol, Bali, its gonad is used as a larvae food in fish culture (A. Giri, pers. comm via email, 2009). In last ten years the number of sea urchin (Tripneustes gratilla) has decreasing in Lombok Island (Azis dan Soegiharto, 1994). Is there any affect from global warming? Or sea urchin already become overexploitation? It‘s unknown yet. However, it is need a way to protect and prevent the sea urchin become extinct. As others biota, reproduction and gonad growth rate of sea urchin also affected by environmental factors. Researchs in some countries are show different results in growth rate of gonad based on lunar cycle. Research in Fiji area shows that reproductive pattern of sea urchin is follow with lunar cycle. It shows that Diadema savingnyi and Echinotrix diadema are spawn at full moon while D. setosum and E. calamaris spawn at new moon (Coppard and Campbell, 2005). But Fox (1922; 1924a, 1924b) in Randall (1964) said D. setosum in Suez area was spawn at new moon. These researchs show that in different area reproductive pattern of sea urchin could be different. There are five general sea urchin in Barrang Lompo Island; Diadema setosum, Tripneustes gratilla, Echinometra mattei, Echinotrix calamaris, Messipilia globulus. But the two most common species are Diadema setosum and Tripneustes gratilla that used as samples. MATERIAL AND METHOD Random sampling was done at seagrass bed until reef flat in ±1meter depth surround Barrang Lompo Island, Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ten individuals were taken of each species in every moon phase (the new moon, the first quarter, the full moon, and the third quarter). Sampling was done in two time of the lunar period. The gonad was taken out from its test for morphology examination. The color, the weight, the length, and the texture were recorded. A little part of gonad was cut and put in the xylen in order to make the gonad rigid and can stand until arriving at laboratory for histology preparation. Histology preparation will use Hematoxilin Eosin (HE) test. Morphology examination and histology preparation are use to know the gonad maturity level of samples. Gonado somatic index (GSI) will analyze as supporting data. GSI is used to see relation of weight gonad and weight of individual (Badawi, 1995). Wg GSI =

x 100% W

GSI Wg W

: Gonado Somatic Index : Weigth of gonad : Weigth of individual

Sampling Take the gonad

Morphology

Histology Compare Result

Figure 1. Research Methodology RESULT Gonad maturity level (GML) can be known based on comparing morphology examination and histology examination. Table 1. Gonado somatic index and and gonad maturity level of T. gratilla and D. setosum Diadema setosum

Month

Tripneustes gratilla Moon Period

Number of sample ♂ ♀

GML

GSI ♂







GML

GSI ♂



♂ Stage 2 &3



5

0

6,07

0,00

Stage 2 &3

1

4

5,20

5,55

Stage 3 &5

Stage 5

Stage 3

Stage 2 &3

2

2

6,68

5,01

Stage 3

Stage 1&2

2,95

Stage 4

Stage 4

0

5

0,00

4,48

-

5,23

2,51

Stage 4 &5

Stage 4

3

7

4,31

6,48

Stage 4 &5

6

4,29

3,56

Phase 2;4 & 5

Phase 2&4

4

6

4,68

3,42

Stage 4; 5 &1

7

3

4,53

3,83

Phase 3&5

Phase 5,1

3

5

6,78

3,40

Stage 3 &5

Stage 5,1

5

5

3,26

2,92

Phase 3;4 & 5

Phase 4&5

4

5

5,64

6,15

Stage 3; 5 &1

Stage 1; 2; 3; & 4

31

28

22

34

I

New Moon

4

1

3,12

5,42

Stage 3;4 & 5

Stage 3

I

First Quarter

1

4

1,93

1,74

Stage 3

I

Full Moon

1

4

4,11

2,19

I

Third Quarter

2

2

6,21

II

New Moon

7

3

II

First Quarter

4

II

Full Moon

II

Third Quarter TOTAL

Number of sample ♂ ♀

Stage 1 : recovery; stage 2: growing; stage 3: premature; stage 4: mature stage 5: spent

-

Stage 4;5&1 Stage 4;5&1 Stage 4;5&1

Comparison among stages of gonad maturity level are seen from its percentation. Growing stage and premature stage are combine into ‘pematangan’ stage in this percentation. The highest value of ‘pematangan’ stage is reached in first quarter and full moon of moon phase in the first period. The highest value of mature stage is reached in third quarter of moon phase in the first period. The highest value of spawning stage is reached in new moon in the second period of the moon phase.

GML Percentation

Pattern of T. gratilla GML Percentation 120

pematangan

100

matang

80 60 40 20 0 Gelap

1/2 Purnama 1/2 gelap Gelap purnama

1/2 Purnama 1/2 gelap purnama

Moon Phase

Figure 2. Pattern of T. gratilla gonad maturity level percentation Gonad somatic index (GSI) can show the pattern of reproductive cycle. GSI will be increasing along gonad maturity level, reached the highest value just before spawning and decreasing after spawning (Badawi, 1995) GSI Pattern of T. gratilla 5

Periode bulan I Periode Bulan II

Average of GSI

4 3 2 1 0 Gelap

Setengah Purnama

Purnama

Setengah Gelap

Moon Phase

Figure 3. Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) Pattern of T. gratilla Pattern of gonad maturity level of D. setosum didn’t show any pattern. Most of the stages are in the spawning stage.

Persentase TKG

Pattern of D.setosum GML Percentation 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

pematangan matang memijah

Gelap

1/2 Purnama 1/2 gelap Gelap purnama

1/2 Purnama 1/2 gelap purnama

Moon Phase

Figure 4. Pattern of .D. setosum gonad maturity level percentation

In gonado somatic index pattern it was seen that value of GSI is decreasing in the first period of moon phase. But in the second period the GSI value is increasing.

GSI Pattern of D. setosum

7

Periode bulan I Periode Bulan II

RATA-RATA IKG

6 5 4 3 Gelap

Setengah Purnama Purnama Moon Phase

Setengah Gelap

Figure 5. Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) Pattern of D. setosum Table 2. Environmental Factors on Each Moon Phase Environmental Factor

Moon Phase

Period

Value

Temperature (0C)

New Moon

I II I II I II I II I II I II I II I II

30 29 29 30 31 33 31 31

First Quarter Full Moon Third Quarter Salinity (‰)

New Moon First Quarter Full Moon Third Quarter

28 30 27 27 28 31 29 30

DISCUSSION T. gratilla During sampling, orange liquid produced from T. Gratilla aboral pore, it means the spawning sign (Radjab, 2001). In morphology examination, it found that T. gratilla gonad is more juicy and fragile than D. setosum gonad. There was no different colour among stages or between male and female. Colour of gonad should be a sign of each stage in gonad maturity level (Darsono, 1986). This result makes some assumptions. First, the same colour could be result from the environmental factors that affected the hormone. Second, the T. Gratilla is hermaphrodite. But this can’t be sure because only one part from five gonad that used in histology preparation. Result shows that gonad of T. gratilla in Barrang Lompo Island is have a trend growing and spawning continously. Although the result show that trend, however, it can’t say that the cycle follow the moon cycle since there was no one full cycle of fonad maturity level found during the research period. It needs more research with longer time. Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) measurement as a supporting data show comparison between weight of gonad and weight of individual (Badawi, 1995). Although result show that GSI is not

significantly different among stage (p≥0,005), there was still diferent in GSI value in every stages. According to Badawi (1995), weight of gonad will be heavier along growing stage until mature stage. The maximum value will be reached just before spawning stage, and will decrease along the spawning stage. Therefore, it could be concluded that reproductive cycle of T. gratilla in Barrang Lompo Island is not affected directly by moon cycle. This result confirms by Tuwo and Pelu (1997) said, that T. gratilla in Barang Lompo Island have year cycle. In a year, there are four spawning time; JulyAugust, October, December-January and February. So the cycle didn’t affected by moon cycle. But maybe there’s other factor. Temperatures range among 29-310C. This measurement is quiet high but in small range. Temperature at third quarter moon phase in the first and the second period of moon show are the same, but gonado somatic index trend show differentiation. This data show that small range of temperature does not affect to gonad maturity level. This result is agreed with Pearse (1974) in Muthiga (2007) said, that temperature didn’t have affect in T. gratilla reproduction. The assumption is temperature could give affect to reproductive cycle in temperate area. But in tropical area like Indonesia, temperature with small range didn’t give any affect to reproductive cycle. D. setosum Sampling of D. setosum was done in the same time with T. gratilla. However, D. setosum never produce orange liquid like T. gratilla did. In morphological examination it can be seen that gonad of D. setosum is quiet different from T. gratilla. Gonad of D. setosum is more rigid than gonad of T. gratilla. Gonad of D. setosum also have extension of gonad between the straight five gonad. This research shows that there is no relation between one moon cycle with the gonad maturity level of D. setosum. Histological examination shows that in two moon cycle period gonad of D. setosum generally in spawning stage. But in this two period moon cycle growing stage and mature stage still can be found. This result is in correlance with Stephenson (1934), Mortensen (1937) and Pearse (1986b, 1970) in Lawrence (2007) said, that there’s no moon periodicity in D. setosum reproduction. But this result is not same with Lawrence (2007) that said process of gonadal growing of D.setosum could finish in one to two months. Kobayashi and Nakamura (1967) in Lawrence (2007) also said that D. setosum is spawning in both full moon and new moon. CONCLUSION Gonad maturity level of Tripneustes gratilla and Diadema setosum are not occur in one lunar period (one moon cycle). But the result shows a trend there was a reproductive cycle.

REFERENCES Azis and Soegiharto. 1994. Ekologi Laut Tropis : Asosiasi dan Interaksi di Ekosistem Padang Lamun [online].http://web.ipb.ac.id/~dedi_s/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=26 [accessed 2 Desember 2008] Badawi, W. 1995. Kajian Aspek Biologi dan Parameter Populasi Bulu Babi Jenis Diadema setosum di Pulau Barrang Lompo, Kepulauan Spermonde, Sulawesi Selatan. [skripsi]. UNHAS Brice, R. 2008. Anyone for Sea Urchin? Aussie Export [online]. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/01/17/2141048.htm [accessed 5 Agustus 2008]

Coppard, S.E., and A.C. Campbell. 2005. Lunar periodicities of diadematid echinoids breeding in Fiji. Coral Reefs 24:324-332 Darsono, P. 1986. Gonad bulu babi. Oseana 11, 4 : 151-162 Lawrence, J. M. and Y. Agatsuma. 2007. Ecology of Tripneustes in John M. Lawrence. Edible Sea Urchin : Biology an Ecology. Elsevier Science. USA : 499-520 Muthiga, N.A., T.R. McClanahan. 2007. Ecology of Diadema in John M. Lawrence. Edible Sea Urchin : Biology an Ecology. Elsevier Science. USA : 205-226 Radjab, A.W. 2001. Reproduksi dan siklus bulu babi (Echinoidea). Oseana 26 : 25-36 Randall, J.G., R. G. Sohroeder and W. A. Starck. 1964. Notes on the biology of the echinoid Diadema antillarum. Carib. J. Science. 4 : Sukarno, dkk. 1983. Terumbu Karang di Indonesia Sumber Daya, Permasalahan dan Pengelolaannya. LIPI, Jakarta. 112 hal. Tuwo, A dan U. Pelu. 1997. Biologi reproduksi bulu babi Tripneustes gratilla. Seminar Kelautan LIPI-UNHAS : 1-4

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REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF SEA URCHIN BASED ON - CiteSeerX

REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF SEA URCHIN BASED ON LUNAR PERIOD ON BARRANG LOMPO ISLAND By : Wilma J.C. Moka, S.Kel, Inayah Yasir, PhD and Prof. Dr. Budimawan,...

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