NSW Clinical Guidelines - NSW Health

Loading...

NSW Clinical Guidelines For the Care of Persons with Comorbid Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders in Acute Care Settings

NSW DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH 73 Miller Street North Sydney NSW 2060 Tel. (02) 9391 9000 Fax. (02) 9391 9101 www.health.nsw.gov.au

This work is copyright. It may be reproduced in whole or part for study or training purposes subject to the inclusion of an acknowledgement of the source. It may not be reproduced for commercial usage or sale. Reproduction for purposes other than those indicated above requires written permission from the NSW Department of Health.

NSW Department of Health 2009

SHPN: (MHDAO) 090078 ISBN: 978-1-74187-422-8 For further copies of this document please contact: Better Health Centre – Publications Warehouse PO Box 672 North Ryde BC, NSW 2113 Tel. (02) 9887 5450 Fax. (02) 9887 5452 Information Production and Distribution Tel. (02) 9391 9186 Fax. (02) 9391 9580

Further copies of this document can be downloaded from the NSW website www.health.nsw.gov.au

June 2009

Contents

Acknowledgements ........................................... 4

4.3

Expectations for Mental Health Practitioners and services ..................................14

1.

About the guidelines ................................ 5

1.1

Background.........................................................5

1.2

Rationale.............................................................5

1.3

Audience ............................................................5

5.

Service delivery frameworks ................ 15

1.4

Scope..................................................................5

5.1

Level of Care Quadrants ....................................17

1.5

No wrong door ...................................................6

5.2

What is Integrated Care? ...................................18

1.6

Existing guidelines ...............................................6

5.3

Parallel and Sequential care ...............................18

1.7

Kettil Bruun Process ............................................6

5.4

Service delivery .................................................18

1.8

Levels of evidence ...............................................6

1.9

Language ............................................................6

6.

Screening ................................................ 19

1.10

Definition of comorbidity ....................................7

6.1

What is screening? ............................................19

1.11

Impact of comorbidity .........................................7

6.2

What screening tools should be used? ..............19

1.12

The similarities and differences between Drug and Alcohol, and Mental Health sectors ..................................7

6.3

Screening to detect a comorbid mental

1.13

Misconceptions about working with clients who have a comorbid mental and substance use disorder .................................8

4.4

What is a Mental Health Practitioner /Service NOT required to complete? ..................14

illness or substance use disorder ........................19 6.4

Questions to screen for a possible mental health problem ......................................19

6.5

Questions to screen for a possible SUD .....................................................20

2.

Client Engagement ................................... 9

2.1

Communication and approach ............................9

2.2

Confidentiality.....................................................9

2.3

Non-judgmental approach ..................................9

7.

Assessment ............................................ 22

2.4

Strengthening motivation ....................................9

7.1

Domains for assessment ....................................22

2.5

Stages of Treatment ............................................9

7.2

Assessment Tools for use by

3.

Principles of Practice ............................. 11

4.

Service Delineation ................................ 13

4.1

Expectations for Drug and Alcohol Practitioners and services......................13

6.6

Biochemical measures for screening purposes ......................................21

Drug and Alcohol Practitioners

4.2

What is a Drug and Alcohol Practitioner /Service NOT required to complete? ..................13

to assess mental health .....................................22 7.3

Assessment tools for Mental Health Services to assess drug and alcohol use .............23

7.4

Suicide risk ........................................................24

7.5

Key resources for the management of clients at risk of suicide .................................25

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 1

8.

Acute Crisis Management...................... 26

13.

Personality disorders ............................. 44

13.1

What is a personality disorder? ......................... 44

13.2

Key points for consideration ............................. 44

13.3

Clinical care considerations for

9.

Withdrawal .............................................. 27

9.1

What is withdrawal? .........................................27

9.2

The diagnosis of dependence ............................27

people with comorbid personality

9.3

General principles of withdrawal management for a client with a comorbid mental health and substance use disorder .........27

and substance use disorders ..............................45 13.4

Existing resources for the care of a person with a personality disorder

9.4

Recognising withdrawal ....................................28

9.5

Management of withdrawal focuses on the following ..................................28

14.

Specific Populations .............................. 47

9.6

Assistance or referral .........................................29

14.1

Young people ...................................................47

14.2

Clients living with Hepatitis C and HIV...............47

10.

Anxiety .................................................... 30

14.3

Clients living in rural and

10.1

What is an anxiety disorder?..............................30

10.2

Key Points for consideration ..............................30

10.3

Clinical care considerations for clients with comorbid anxiety and substance use disorders ..............................31

10.4

Existing resources for the care of a person with an anxiety or substance use disorder ..................................32

or substance use disorder ..................................45

remote communities ........................................ 48 14.4 14.5

Homeless clients ............................................. 48 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Clients ................................................. 48

14.6

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender clients ...........................................49

14.7

Older adult clients .............................................49

14.8

Clients with chronic pain ...................................49

14.9

Clients from Culturally and Linguistically

11.

Mood disorders ...................................... 35

11.1

What is a mood disorder?..................................35

11.2

Key Points for consideration ..............................36

11.3

Clinical care considerations for clients with comorbid mood and substance use disorders ..............................36

15.

Care Coordination .................................. 51

15.1

What is care coordination .................................51

15.2

Language in care coordination ..........................51

Existing resources for the care of a person with a mood or substance use disorder ......................................37

15.3

Transitions in care coordination .........................51

15.4

Types of transition .............................................51

15.5

Principles of care coordination ...........................52

11.4

Diverse backgrounds .........................................50

12.

Psychosis ................................................ 40

15.6

The importance of communication ....................52

12.1

What is psychosis? ........................................... 40

15.7

Transitions checklist ...........................................52

12.2

Key Points for consideration ..............................41

12.3

Clinical care considerations for clients with comorbid psychotic and substance use disorders ..............................41

16.

Specific Clinical Settings ....................... 54

16.1

Emergency Departments (ED) ........................... 54

16.2

Justice Health ................................................... 54

16.3

General Practice ................................................55

16.4

General Wards ..................................................55

12.4

PAGE 2

Existing resources for the care of a person with a psychotic or substance use disorder ......................................42

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Glossary of Terms ..................................................................................................................................56 Appendices ............................................................................................................................................58 Appendix 1 – Legislation that governs care for mental health and drug and alcohol services ...................................... 58 Appendix 2 – The Mental Health Clinical Documentation Suite (formerly MHOAT) Mental Health Assessment Pro-forma .................................................................................................. 59 Appendix 3 – PsyCheck Screener ............................................................................................................................... 67 Appendix 4 – The Mental Health Clinical Documentation Suite Substance Use Assessment Pro-forma........................ 71 Appendix 5 – The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Test (ASSIST)........................................................... 73 Appendix 6 – The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)........................................................................... 77 Appendix 7 – Drug interactions with methadone ....................................................................................................... 78 Appendix 8 – Drug interactions with buprenorphine .................................................................................................. 80 Appendix 9 – Contacts and resources ........................................................................................................................ 81

References .............................................................................................................................................84

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 3

Acknowledgements

These guidelines have been produced based on the work and contributions of a number of clinical and academic experts. The NSW Department of Health would like to acknowledge and thank the following people for their contribution to the process: Amanda Baker, Robert Batey, Jennifer Bryant, Steve Childs, Richard Clancy, Glenys Dore, Adrian Dunlop, Steve Ella, Tony Gill, Paul Haber, Matthew Hyett, Brian Kelly, Corinne Maynard, Peter McGeorge, Phillip Mitchell, Kerry O’Neill, Gordon Parker, Paul Read, Irene Rotenko, Anthony Shakeshaft, Tina Smith, Sandra Sunjic, Maree Teesson with Andrew Baillie, Heather Proudfoot, Katherine Mills, Claudia Sannibale, Elspeth Macdonald, Stefanie Leung, Kirsten Morley, Peter Tucker, Angelo Virgona, Ian Webster, Adam Winstock, Nick Zwars. We would like to thank the members of the Comorbidity Clinical Guidelines Advisory Group for their work and guidance in the development of this document. Dr John Basson, Professor Bob Batey, Ms Karen Becker, Ms Meg Bennett, Mr Steve Childs, Mr Richard Clancy, Dr Martin Cohen, Mr Brant Felker, Ms Stephanie Green, Ms Laura Hawkins, Dr Adrian Keller, Dr Karin Lines, Dr Peter McGeorge, Ms Tanya Merinda, Ms Kerry O’Neill, Ms Tricia O’Riordan, Dr Andrew Petheridge, Dr Paul Read, Mr Marc Reynolds, Dr Irene Rotenko, Mr Chris Shipway, Ms Tina Smith, Professor Ian Webster and Dr Adam Winstock. We wish to acknowledge Communio, particularly Cathie O’Neill, Laura Jakob, Kate Hunter and Jane Elkington for their assistance in developing this document.

PAGE 4

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

SECTION 1

About the guidelines

1.1

Background

National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The survey included 10,641

The high prevalence of coexisting mental health and drug and alcohol disorders is well established in both clinical practice and throughout the literature. Clients with a comorbid mental health and substance use disorder (SUD) are more likely to have highly complex and complicated illness courses, a high dependence on clinical services and poorer long-term prognoses.1

respondents between the ages of 18 and 90. Results indicated that slightly less than 1 in 5 Australian adults had an anxiety, affective disorder or substance use disorder in the past year or approximately 2.3 million Australians.45 Approximately 50% of those with a mental health disorder had more than one. There is a commitment and awareness of the need to address the challenges of comorbid mental health and

In 2007/8, the Mental Health and Drug and Alcohol Office

substance use disorders. This is evidenced by national and

(MHDAO) of the NSW Department of Health developed a

state based policy initiatives to address these complex

2

Comorbidity Framework for Action. This document

problems. Information about the latest initiatives is available

acknowledged four specific areas for action:

on State and Commonwealth websites.

1. Focus on workforce planning and development

1.3

Audience

2. Improved infrastructure and systems development 3. Improved response in priority settings for priority clients 4. Improved promotion, prevention and early intervention strategies. In order to address priority area number one, MHDAO identified

These guidelines have been written for practitioners working in the drug and alcohol and/or mental health sectors who provide care for people with comorbid mental health and substance use disorders and who work in the following environments:

the need to develop resources for practitioners. A lack of guidelines for the care and treatment of clients who presented in

n

public sector health care settings with mental health and drug

n

and alcohol comorbidity was noted, as was the need to refine

n

and revise the existing Mental Health and Substance Use

n

Disorder Service Delivery Guidelines, published in 2000.3 The

n

need for clinical guidelines has resulted in the development of

n

Acute Non acute Community settings Hospitals Government Non-government.

this resource which will be supported by an implementation plan, communication strategy and evaluation program.

It is acknowledged that these guidelines will be useful for those practitioners providing care to people with comorbid

1.2

Rationale

mental health and substance use disorders in a variety of other clinical settings including: emergency departments,

The complex presentations, illness trajectory and poor outcomes for people with comorbid mental health and substance use disorders has led to the need to identify and develop a set of guidelines to provide direction for the care and treatment of this client population. The goal of these guidelines is to improve client care and outcomes.

justice health, general wards and general practice. Information specifically relevant to each of these clinical settings has been included within the guidelines.

1.4

Scope

The guidelines aim to provide practitioners working with The extent of comorbid mental health and substance use

clients who have comorbid mental health and substance use

disorders within Australia was documented in the 1997

disorders with information to guide care.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 5

This document does not intend to replace expert clinical

the process was to develop Trigger Papers based on a review of

knowledge; rather it seeks to serve as a resource supporting

the best available evidence. Each paper was prepared by a

practitioners in providing care to their clients. Although the

subject matter expert and was completed voluntarily.

guidelines recommend a range of interventions, at no time does it endorse or suggest that a practitioner and/or a

The Trigger Papers were then provided to expert clinicians

service, practice at a level that extends beyond their skills/

who reviewed the paper and evidence, identified key

experience and available resources.

implications and information gaps from the papers and provided recommendations regarding the content to be

1.5

No wrong door

included in the guidelines. This review took place on an individual basis or through a collective review process which

This document has been drafted based upon the principle

included a facilitated meeting of clinical specialists.

that all clients should receive care that addresses the full spectrum of their illness(es), regardless of where they

The resulting materials were presented to 27 workshop

present (i.e. there is no wrong door).

delegates who participated in a facilitated discussion reviewing all available evidence. The outcomes of this meeting and the

This ‘no wrong door’ principle clarifies that the responsibility

evidence outlined in the papers were then collectively used to

of providing care that addresses the range of client needs is

prepare the NSW Health Clinical Comorbidity Guidelines.

the responsibility of the care provider/service where the client

Widespread consultation was conducted in an effort to

presents. It is acknowledged that this requires services to

develop guidelines reflecting clinical consensus.

provide care, and/or facilitate access to service delivery that

1.8

falls beyond their specific focus. It removes the onus of

Levels of evidence

negotiating different services and providers from the client and thereby aims to reduce the incidence of clients ‘falling 6

through the cracks’ of a complex service delivery system.

A review of available evidence was used to inform the development of the guidelines. Where there was an identified paucity of clinical evidence, consensus from the

1.6

Existing guidelines

experts who participated in the one-day workshop was used to inform the guideline development.

This document is based on the premise that best quality care should be provided to every client in line with existing best

The recommended NHMRC grading for assessing levels of

care principles. These guidelines seek to provide clinical

evidence was used to weigh the evidence. However, at the

guidance that is specifically relevant to people with

time this document was prepared the NHMRC grading for

comorbid mental health and substance use disorders. Where

levels of evidence was under review. For this reason, the

other credible clinical treatment guidelines exist, they are

1999 grades with some modifications were recommended.8

referenced and the reader directed accordingly.

1.9 1.7

Language

Kettil Bruun Process It is acknowledged that some language used by mental health

The Kettil Bruun process was implemented to develop the

and drug and alcohol sectors is different, as is the language

content included within these guidelines. Kettil Bruun was a

used across different clinical settings. For the purposes of these

Finnish alcohol researcher (1924–1985) who is

guidelines, the following terms have been used in order to

acknowledged as a pioneer in alcohol and social research.

develop shared meaning and understanding of the content.

He was the Director of the Social Research Institute of Alcohol Studies in Helsinki and was well regarded for his

It is understood that these terms are not the preferred

ability to collaborate with diverse groups of people in order

language of all service providers. These guidelines do not

to reach consensus on difficult subjects.7

attempt to, nor recommend, change to the language used within individual services and practice however this ‘shared

The Kettil Bruun process aims to promote social and

language’ may be useful when communicating between

epidemiological research that fosters a comparative

services and will be a valuable resource when providing care

understanding of the social aspects of alcohol use and alcohol

for a client with a comorbidity (i.e. during case conferences

problems and across different sub-populations. The first step in

and client transition(s)).

PAGE 6

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

In particular instances, there are terms which have different

1.11

Impact of comorbidity

cross-sectoral meanings. For example, the terms ‘recovery’ and ‘rehabilitation’ have significantly different meanings for

The impact of a comorbid mental health and substance use

drug and alcohol practitioners than what they do for mental

disorder for a client is significant. This client population is

health practitioners. When these terms are used in this

faced with an increased risk of illness and injury (including

document, their meaning will be defined and explained.

self harm and suicide), poorer psychiatric and physical outcomes, increased risk of side effects and less efficacious

These guidelines acknowledge that although a specific

treatment. The challenges of the problems that clients face

mental health diagnosis is not required to meet the criteria for

impede on their ability to attend appointments and adhere

a comorbid mental health and substance use disorder, the

to medication regimes, thereby increasing the likelihood of

terms used in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

relapse.12 This picture can often be further complicated with

Disorders (DSM IV TR) multi-axial classification system are

poly-substance use.

referenced throughout the document.9 This classification system provides a framework for approaching mental illness.

Family members and carer(s) may also feel the impact of

It is not necessary for a reader to be intimately familiar with

comorbidity, sometimes working with the client to help

the content of the DSM IV TR to use the guidelines.

navigate through the system. This may include trying to address the broader consequences of these problems which

CLIENT: Person receiving care/treatment for a comorbid mental health and substance use disorder MENTAL HEALTH DISORDER: The existence of a set of symptoms or behaviours which impair an individual’s cognitive, affective and/or relational abilities

can include challenges with housing, social networks, finances, employment amongst others.

1.12

PRACTITIONER: Person working in a drug and alcohol or mental health service SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER (SUD): Dependence, reliance or addiction to a substance

The similarities and differences between Drug and Alcohol, and Mental Health sectors

Drug and alcohol and mental health services employ a highly skilled and committed workforce. The workforce in both sectors provide complex and supportive care for

1.10

Definition of comorbidity

clients. The client population in both sectors are frequently stigmatised, commonly have chronic, relapsing illnesses and

In general medical language, comorbidity refers to the

experience illnesses which have a marked impact on

simultaneous presence of two or more diseases in the same

behavioural and social functioning. Therefore, both

10

person. There is significant discourse regarding the use of

workforces tend to be very effective in dealing with complex

language to accurately describe comorbid mental health and

client presentations.

substance use disorders. A definition must consider the breadth of diagnoses, the possible inability of some disorders

It is important to note that practitioners in each sector have

to meet diagnostic criteria and the fluidity of the problems

provided care for clients with comorbid mental health and

faced by an individual as they relate to the diagnosis.

substance use disorders within former and existing service delivery frameworks and are therefore aware of the

For the purposes of these guidelines, comorbidity will refer to:

challenges and unique needs of this population.

Situations where people have problems related both to their use of substances (from hazardous through to

Drug and Alcohol and Mental Health practitioners and

harmful use and/or dependence) and to their mental

services are both required to comply with many of the same

health (from problematic symptoms through to highly

legislative requirements. These include:

prevalent conditions, such as, depression and anxiety, to the low prevalence disorders such as psychosis).11

n

Mandatory reporting requirements under the Children and Young Persons Care and Protection Act. For further

Although acknowledged as a significant health problem,

information please view The NSW Interagency

nicotine dependence is not considered within the structure

Guidelines for Child Protection Interventions 2006

of this document. Further information about this subject is

available at http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/

available from the NSW Department of Health website.

pubs/2006/iag_childprotection.html

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 7

n The legal obligations outlined within the NSW Health Policy for Identifying and Responding to Domestic Violence available at http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/

1.13

Misconceptions about working with clients who have a comorbid mental and substance use disorder

policies/pd/2006/pdf/PD2006_084.pdf n

The NSW Health Code of Conduct http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2005/ PD2005_626.html

Mental health practitioners are not able to help clients with substance use problems The high prevalence of people with comorbid mental and substance use disorders within the Australian population indicates that many mental health practitioners have been

n

The local Area Health Service Code of Conduct (where applicable)

providing care and treatment to people with comorbid mental and substance use disorders within the course of their practice for many years. Although it is essential that no

n

Local service ethical codes and requirements under funding agreements for NGO’s

practitioners practice beyond their scope of practice, the suggested competencies for practitioners and services are detailed in the Service Delineation Section. Please refer to

n

NSW Health Privacy Act

this section of the guidelines for information about what you can do to help someone.

n

Mental Health Act

There are also a range of differences between and within

Drug and alcohol practitioners are not able to help clients with a mental health problem

the two sectors.

The high prevalence of people with comorbid mental health and substance use disorders within the Australian

The workforces in each sector are made up of practitioners

community indicates that many drug and alcohol workers

who have different skills, training and experience. Drug and

have been providing care and treatment to people with a

Alcohol sector practitioners may include life-experience

comorbid mental health problem within the course of their

based workers, vocationally trained workers, registered

practice. Although it is essential that no practitioners

nurses, enrolled nurses, social workers, occupational

practice beyond their scope of practice, the suggested

therapists, psychologists, medical officers and addiction

competencies for practitioners and services are detailed in

specialists. The mental health workforce is largely comprised

the Service Delineation Section. Please refer to this section

of vocationally trained workers, registered nurses, enrolled

of the guidelines for information.

nurses, social workers, occupational therapists,

The treatment philosophies between the sectors vary, as do

A Mental Status Exam (MSE) can not be conducted on a client when they are intoxicated

those within each sector. For instance the care and

A Mental Status Examination may be conducted on anyone

treatment priorities and paradigms vary between acute and

who is conscious, including those who are intoxicated.13 The

community care services.

state of intoxication is likely to influence the outcomes of exam

psychologists and psychiatrists.

and should be noted. The practitioner should remain cognisant The motivations for clients at each service may also differ. A

of the fact that the outcomes of the exam will change when it

client seeking treatment at a drug and alcohol service may

is repeated at a time when the client is not intoxicated.

be required to demonstrate a commitment to attend

a mental health problem. The mental health sector

Care and treatment for people with mental health problems can only be provided if the client is not continuing to use

approach accounts for this and has strategies to care for

For many clients the aim of drug and alcohol treatment may

clients if they are acutely unwell and are a risk to themselves

be to reduce the use of a substance rather than to

(e.g. a mental health unit on an involuntary basis).

completely cease use. If this is the case, a practitioner may

therapy, demonstrating their motivation for compliance with treatment. A lack of motivation and insight may be a part of

address the symptoms of a mental health problem. Please A description of the legislation that governs care in either

refer to the chapters addressing specific mental health

sector is available at Appendix 1.

problems for more detailed information.

PAGE 8

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

SECTION 2

Client engagement

2.1 Communication

and approach

2.3

Non-judgmental approach

Client-centered approach

Incorrect beliefs and inaccurate information can lead to

The focus of any intervention for clients with comorbid

continued stigmatisation of people with comorbid mental

mental health and substance use disorders needs to

health and substance use disorders. This ultimately results in

concentrate upon empowering the person to manage their

clients being increasingly reluctant to seek help. For

own lives to their full potential. Some people take longer

practitioners to be effective and clients to feel comfortable,

than others to trust practitioners and services. People are

both issues need to be viewed and approached as health

more likely to enter into a relationship where they are

issues rather than moral issues.17

assisted in identifying and expressing their own needs and

2.4

can set goals and objectives to achieve them.14

2.2

Confidentiality

Strengthening motivation

When a client approaches a mental health or drug and alcohol service for assistance, it is with at least some

Confidentiality is an important element in the provision of

awareness regarding the existence of either a mental health

services to all clients presenting to drug and alcohol and/or

and/or drug and alcohol problem. They may not however be

mental health services.

aware that they have a comorbid disorder. The degree to which a person may be aware of the extent of their problems, and their desire and readiness to change and/or

Key Practice Tips for Confidentiality

seek help is directly related to their recognition that a

All clients must have their confidentiality defined and explained to them. Explain to the client: n

n

instances in which legislation limits the

Practitioners working with clients who have a comorbid

confidentiality of disclosed information (for

mental health and substance use disorder have the ability to

example, mandatory reporting of child abuse, risk

positively influence a person’s understanding and readiness

of suicide or homicide.

to consider the issues and the possibility for change.

any sharing of their personal information with other clinical teams will be discussed with the client as appropriate.

n

problem exists.

A thorough assessment is a critical process of informationsharing between client and practitioner and an important step towards engaging in more in-depth care or referral if

clinical records can be subpoenaed by courts of

required.18

law.or to court by law. n

the purpose for seeking information is to assist in

2.5

Stages of Treatment

the provision of their health care and not for a

n

forensic investigation.

Osher & Kofoed, and Mueser et al describe a staged

information can only be provided to third parties

treatment model for clients with a comorbid mental health

(in most cases) on the behalf of a client if they have

and substance use disorder that matches interventions to

provided specific written permission for this to

the client’s readiness to address treatment.19,20

15,16

occur.

Be aware of potential breaches of confidentiality when posting, faxing and emailing information

The stage of treatment model includes the following stages:

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 9

Engagement A client who is engaged in treatment feels that the service provider has something positive to offer. The focus of the engagement stage is to build this therapeutic alliance.

Persuasion Once engaged, the client is more prepared to be gently challenged regarding their substance use and is open to persuasion. Psycho-educational and motivational strategies are used to persuade the client to consider active treatment options.

Active Treatment A client actively participates in treatment collaborating with clinicians in setting treatment goals. Treatment may include face-to-face sessions or pharmacotherapy.

Relapse Prevention The client has achieved the goals of treatment for a period of time and implements strategies to maintain these changes and avoid relapse.21

PAGE 10

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

SECTION 3

Principles of practice

Several principles can be used to guide the care and treatment of a client with a comorbid mental health and

4. Make a full assessment of all new clients over a number of visits (wherever possible).

substance use disorder. All practitioners working with this client group should use these principles as a guide to their service delivery.

5. Make a full list of symptoms and/or a diagnostic list. Complete this list after each visit and modify it as new information becomes available. Include mental health,

1. Recognise the frequency of people presenting with comorbid mental health and substance use disorders

psychosocial, drug and alcohol and medical/surgical diagnoses and/or symptoms.

and screen each client for each disorder.22 6. Take reasonable steps to identify and involve family 2. Recognise that the service where the client presents is the primary care coordinator, until such time as another

members and significant others (with client consent) at several points in the management process.

service agrees to accept the primary responsibility for coordinating the care for the client and this arrangement is acceptable to the client.

7. Consider the relationship between the conditions diagnosed by asking five key questions:

3. Identify and familiarise with a system for classifying

1. Where did the problem start

clients’ diagnoses, incorporating this into the assessment

(What might have been the primary problem,

process of your work team.23

the second problem, the third problem etc)? 2. What needs to be addressed now?

a) One practical classification of comorbid mental health and drug and alcohol presentations defines mental health diagnoses as: n

3. What services are currently required for optimal care? 4. What services are available?

mental health conditions as defined by

5. What does the client want?

DSM IV TR, and n

n

mental health symptomatology, not severe

Ask these questions repeatedly when a client presents to

enough to warrant a definitive diagnosis.**

you and during their care journey.

drug and alcohol dependence as defined by the DSM IV TR, and

n

8. Identify those conditions that require immediate

drug and alcohol problems not severe enough

attention and act.

to warrant a definitive diagnosis.** 9. Establish a management plan for each of the complex b) The systematic classification of both clinical problems

but defined conditions.

implies a need to plan management so that the more severe (either in acuity or immediacy) problems take priority over those identified as less severe or urgent.

a) This may include an initial intervention with subsequent actions dependent on the response to that intervention.

c) Attention to one aspect of their problem may lead to an amelioration of the other for example, stopping

b) This may also include the initiation of two or three

alcohol excess will lead to a reduction in depressive

interventions immediately because several issues

symptomatology in many clients.

require immediate attention.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 11

10. Involve other clinicians (as relevant) at an early stage of

14. Follow up clients in accordance with a synchronised

management planning.

management plan involving the key services providing care to the client (General Practitioners, Drug and

a) This may include other mental health or addiction

Alcohol and Mental Health Services and their carer(s),

medicine clinicians or specialists from other disciplines.

where appropriate).

11. Ensure that all clients have their physical health care needs

15. Provide care to address the range of client needs

assessed and addressed, preferably with involvement of a

regardless of how they access the health care system

primary care practitioner where possible.

ensuring there is ‘no wrong door’.24

12. Do not attempt to work beyond one’s level of expertise. 13. Ensure continuity of care by facilitating transitions/ collaboration/coordination between services including thorough communication with other providers and sharing of information (consistent with privacy requirements).

Key practice tips The following key practice tips will ensure that practitioners manage the comorbid client to maximise the best possible outcomes in terms of recovery and/or quality of life. n

n

n

n

Get a full history.

n

Do not hurry the assessment process. These clients have multiple reasons for being unable to give an accurate history including fear, lack of trust, confusion,

Be aware. Know your field and when there are known

intoxication, mental health diagnoses causing delirium,

comorbid conditions that commonly occur.

withdrawal symptoms.

Become accomplished in handling these comorbid

n

Seek information from other units involved in the client’s

conditions or have a mechanism established to ensure

care while complying with confidentiality and privacy

consultation can be obtained in a timely fashion.25

laws/regulations, including seeking the client’s consent.

Recognise that clients will select the service to which they present, guided by an awareness of a problem and

n

Do not rush to make a diagnosis. It is important to take the time to identify all the symptoms that are relevant.

what the services offer.26 n

Spend time with the client and relevant carers to ensure

Adapted from Batey, R. (2008). What are the Basic Principles of

all care delivery is coordinated and focused on the same

Management of People with Comorbid Conditions?

outcome.

Trigger Paper 01.

PAGE 12

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

SECTION 4

Service Delineation

A set of minimum expectations has been established for

n Supportive

therapies which address a client’s mental

practitioners and services in both drug and alcohol and

health symptoms are provided (in consultation with a

mental health sectors in order to address the needs of

mental health service where required).

clients with comorbid mental health and substance use disorders. Adherence to these expectations will result in a

n Secondary

prevention of mental illness is provided via early

shared understanding of the reasonable expectations for

intervention (where possible) and the provision of

service provision in each sector.

psycho-education regarding the symptoms of mental illness and the impact of ongoing substance use.

The guidelines do not intend to encourage or require practitioners or services to operate beyond the scope of

n Mental

health services and General Practitioners are

their programs or services. Rather, these guidelines seek to

involved where appropriate (consultation/case

clarify and improve how sectors can work together. It is

conferencing).

important to note that only qualified practitioners can make a clinical diagnosis. Other practitioners are responsible for

n The

drug and alcohol service serves as the primary care

assessing, identifying and recording signs and symptoms

coordinator for each client who has accessed the service

that a client may display without labelling the client with a

until such time as an alternative service accepts the client.

disorder. These practitioners are never expected to make

See Principles of Practice on page 15.

diagnoses – this would be unsafe and unethical.

4.2 4.1

Expectations for Drug and Alcohol Practitioners and services

What is a Drug and Alcohol Practitioner/Service NOT required to complete?

The list below outlines the expectations for service delivery

A drug and alcohol practitioner/service is not required to

from drug and alcohol practitioners when a client with a

provide a mental illness diagnosis. Only qualified

comorbid mental health and substance use disorder presents

practitioners can make a clinical diagnosis and where this is

to a service. Where any expectation is beyond the scope of a

an option, this should occur. Other drug and alcohol

practitioner, it is the responsibility of the service to seek

practitioners should focus on the assessment, identification

additional capacity to ensure the criteria listed below are met.

and documentation of any signs and symptoms that a client may display without labelling the client with a specific

n Every

client is screened for a possible mental illness (please

disorder.

refer to page 25 for further information). It is acknowledged that a drug and alcohol practitioner/ nA

thorough risk assessment is completed including

assessment of:

service is not expected to deliver specialised mental health treatment. This includes the following:

– harm to self and others n The

– acute medical illness

management/coordination of care during a

prolonged, acute psychotic episode.

– child protection – domestic violence.

n The nA

list of diagnostic symptoms and/or a rudimentary

sole management/coordination of care for a

client experiencing their first psychotic episode

diagnosis of the symptoms of mental illness that a client

(this should be managed in conjunction with a

displays is prepared.

mental health service).

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 13

The drug and alcohol service remains the primary care

mental health practitioners should focus on the assessment,

coordinator for the client until another service has agreed to

identification and recording of any signs and symptoms that

accept the client. Please see Principles of Practice on page 15.

a client may display without labelling the client with a specific disorder.

4.3

Expectations for Mental Health Practitioners and services

It is acknowledged that a mental health practitioner is not expected to deliver specialised drug and alcohol treatment.

n Every

client is screened for a possible drug and alcohol

This includes the following:

disorder (please refer to page 25 for further information). n Initiation nA

of Opiate Substitution Therapy

thorough risk assessment is completed including

assessment of:

Clients requiring initiation of this therapy should be

– harm to self and others

referred to a drug and alcohol service.

– acute medical illness – child protection

The mental health service remains the primary care

– domestic violence.

coordinator for the client until another service has agreed to accept the client. Please see Principles of Practice on

nA

list of diagnostic symptoms and/or a rudimentary

page 15

diagnosis of the symptoms of a drug and alcohol disorder that a client displays is prepared. n Supportive

therapies that address a client’s drug and

n Management

of complicated withdrawal

Mental health services have the skills to effectively

alcohol disorder are provided (in consultation with a drug

manage withdrawal in its early stages. Proper

and alcohol service where required). These may include:

management during this time can effectively reduce or

– motivational interviewing

prevent a progression to complicated withdrawal. For

– cognitive behaviour therapy

information about withdrawal management please refer

– simple withdrawal management

to page 39.

– medications for relapse prevention. Complicated withdrawal may be life threatening due to n Secondary

prevention of drug and alcohol substance use is

accidental injury, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance,

provided via early intervention (where possible) and the

seizures, delirium tremens, or the negative impact on

provision of psycho-education regarding the harms and

other concurrent disorders, including acute infection, renal

dangers of ongoing substance use.

disease or diabetes. The care and treatment of a client experiencing acute, complicated withdrawal symptoms

n Drug

and alcohol treatment services and General

Practitioners are involved where appropriate (consultation/

should be conducted in consultation with a drug and alcohol specialist service.

case conferencing). n Long n The

term Drug and Alcohol Counselling

mental health service remains as the primary care

coordinator for each client who has accessed the service

If the need of the client includes the provision of longer

until such time as an alternative service accepts the client.

term drug and alcohol specific counselling which is outside

See Principles of Practice on page 15.

the scope of the mental health service, the client should be referred to drug and alcohol services with the

4.4

What is a Mental Health Practitioner/Service NOT required to complete?

specialised skills to provide this.

A mental health practitioner/service is not required to provide a diagnosis of a substance use disorder. Only qualified practitioners can make a clinical diagnosis. Other

PAGE 14

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

SECTION 5

Service delivery frameworks

There are several possible models of service care delivery for

People severely disabled by mental health problems

people with comorbid mental illness and substance use

and disorders and adversely affected by problematic

disorders. The provision of care depends upon a number of

substance use disorders would generally be the primary

contributing factors including, client acceptance and

responsibility of mental health services with extra support

preference of care deliverer, expertise of services and

and assistance provided by drug and alcohol services as

availability of service provision.

required.

CASE STUDY – DIANE Diane is a 32 year old sole parent with two children, 8 and

multidisciplinary team meeting. The team expresses their

10. She suffers from major depression. Her first episode of

concern about Diane and the safety of the children. A plan

depression followed the birth of her oldest child. She has

is developed for the community mental health team to

had many inpatient admissions to the local mental health

follow up Diane’s case after she is discharged from the

unit, usually following a serious suicide attempt whilst

unit.

intoxicated. Diane admits to drinking 4–6 glasses of wine each day but staff suspect that she minimises her use and

Diane’s Community Mental Health Case Manager (MH

drinks more, especially when she is depressed. She has

CM) decides to seek advice from the local Drug and

always refused contact with drug and alcohol services and

Alcohol Service about how the mental health team could

denies that her drinking is a problem. Her psychiatrist

best assist Diane. Diane still refuses to have contact with

believes that she uses alcohol to self-medicate when she is

D&A services but has agreed to weekly appointments

depressed and that her alcohol use is exacerbating her

with the MH CM. They decide that the best approach is to

depressive illness.

have the MH CM focus on engagement with Diane to develop a therapeutic relationship. When this had been

During her last inpatient admission to the mental health

established, the MH CM could offer some psycho

unit, Diane required treatment for alcohol withdrawal. This

education to Diane concentrating on the harmful effects

was the first time she had had withdrawal symptoms

of alcohol, the effects of alcohol use on depression and

during an admission. Her children (who stay with their

the positive effects of ceasing use.

grandmother when Diane is in hospital) told the mental health social worker that sometimes their mother is too

The D&A service provided brochures to assist with this

drunk to cook dinner for them and they go to bed hungry.

education. They also suggested that Diane’s mother could

The social worker is obligated to make a notification to the

visit their family counsellor to learn some strategies to

Department of Community Services (DOCS) because she is

support Diane. If Diane does become contemplative about

concerned about the welfare of the children. The social

ceasing her alcohol use, the D&A service are willing to

worker discusses Diane’s alcohol use at the ward’s

offer a more structured service as required.

People severely disabled by substance use disorders and adversely affected by mental disorders are generally the responsibility of drug and alcohol services with input from specialist mental health services as required.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 15

CASE STUDY – MELISSA Melissa is a 26 year old woman with a cocaine dependence.

game’ and feels better when high, so increases her use to

She has been using regularly cannabis monthly since the

compensate for these feelings.

age of 18 and started experimenting with cocaine last year. Originally her use was primarily at parties and social

Melissa is admitted an inpatient unit where her withdrawal

gatherings however her dependence has escalated quickly

symptoms are managed. She is then referred to a drug and

and she has been using almost daily for the past 5 months.

alcohol community case manager. At their first meeting the

She has been hiding her use from her friends and family,

case manager identifies the need to focus on issues relating

however they have noticed changes in her behaviour. She is

to relapse prevention and underlying self esteem and

becoming increasingly isolated and is spending most of her

relationship issues. She is concerned however when Melissa

time with her boyfriend who is also a heavy user. Melissa is

speaks to her case manager about how she is feeling quite

currently at risk of losing her job as a personal assistant due

flat and depressed. The case manager contacts the local

to poor attendance and a decreased ability to meet her role

mental health service for advice.

expectations. The mental health caseworker discusses some strategies that Melissa attends her local General Practitioner after

the drug and alcohol case manager could implement to help

repeated requests from her parents and concerned

support Melissa and agrees that if Melissa’s feelings did not

friends. She admits that she has been feeling ‘off her

alleviate a referral to the service could be arranged.

People severely disabled by comorbid mental health and substance use disorders will require a coordinated, integrated approach by both mental health and drug and alcohol services. Joint case management or an identified service provider with responsibility as care coordinator from the service most able to meet the current needs of the client will ensure continuum of care.

CASE STUDY – ROBERT Robert is a 34 year old man with chronic schizophrenia,

to AOD services would be futile at this point because of

cannabis dependence and alcohol abuse problems, He lives

Robert’s lack of motivation and pronounced negative

with his mother in the western suburbs. Since the age of 18,

symptoms of schizophrenia – he would be very unlikely to

Robert has been admitted to a psychiatric hospital for

attend an appointment.

management of psychosis 11 times. The involvement of Robert’s mother is viewed as quite supportive although she

Robert’s case manager makes contact with a clinician from

has become verbally abusive to staff on several occasions

drug and alcohol clinical services for advice. The case manager

stating that the system has failed her son.

is informed that the approach they are taking was appropriate, and advised not to rush things at this point of the therapeutic

Robert is allocated to a new case manager with the community

relationship. A plan is developed for Robert’s case manager to

mental health team after his previous case manager left the

continue with more engagement strategies such as providing

service. He has had no contact with AOD services. The new

practical assistance, engaging Robert’s mother and offering her

case manager takes the opportunity to review Robert’s history

some motivational tips to use with Robert. After the case

and current situation. She notes that Robert drinks 5-10

manager is better engaged, it is hoped that Robert will be

standard drinks on average, three days per week and also

more accepting of a joint assessment or at least be prepared to

smokes 4-10 cones of “hydro” each day. Robert sees no

receive some more persuasion stage interventions such as

problem with this and is not interested in changing his

more focused educational and motivational interventions.

behaviour. Robert also has no insight into his illness and only takes his antipsychotic medication at his mother’s insistence.

After several months, Robert’s case manager feels that the she has engaged with Robert well enough to start motivational

Attempts to raise the issue of substance use in a non-

interventions. The case manager is aware that working with

confrontational manner and engage Robert in discussion

Robert on his substance use and mental health issues is likely to

about his feelings regarding his substance use are not

be a long term process and that good clinical supervision can

successful. Unfortunately, Robert makes no change. A referral

help maintain focus over time.

PAGE 16

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

People mildly to moderately disabled by comorbid mental health and substance use disorders may access both mental health and drug and alcohol services from time to time, but the primary care provider would in most cases be the general practitioner. At the milder end of the spectrum, this group represents the majority of people affected by dual disorders.

CASE STUDY – JULIAN Julian is a 30 year old, heavy smoker who lives with his long-time girlfriend in a house in Wollongong.

drinking and that his girlfriend has threatened to end their nine year relationship unless he cuts down. He also has reported that he has been feeling less optimistic about his

Julian presents to his General Practitioner with a severe chest

life and feeling more stressed in recent months.

infection. In completing an assessment the GP enquires about Julian’s drug and drinking history. Julian reports that

The GP conducts a brief intervention on alcohol and

he has been drinking an average of 6 drinks a day with a

discusses with Julian some strategies to help reduce his

binge on the weekend for the past few months. He

drinking. He is provided with some written information

acknowledges that this is more than ‘his usual’ amount and

about alcohol and risky levels of drinking. Julian is also

that he has begun drinking more than many of his mates.

referred to a psychologist to address his depressed mood and feelings of hopelessness. The GP asks Julian to check

Julian reveals that one of his mates had recently told him

back in to see how he is going with his drinking in the

that he thought that he was overdoing it with the

next few weeks.

Remember Principle Number One – the service where a client presents is responsible for the primary coordination of client care until such time as another service agrees to accept care.

5.1

Level of Care Quadrants

The diagram below clearly illustrates the different Level of

A comprehensive assessment is required in order to

Care Quadrants between which a client may transition. A

determine an individualised care plan approach for each

client may require more intensive intervention than others

client that considers their preferences, needs, specific

and the nature of the intervention required is determined by

diagnosis, phase of recovery/change, level or severity of

their placement within each specific quadrant.

impairment and their level of engagement.27

Category III

Category IV

Mental illness less severe Substance use disorder more severe

Mental illness more severe Substance use disorder more severe

Locus of care: Drug and alcohol services

Locus of care: Hospitals, prisons, emergency departments, assertive mental health community treatment

Category I

Category II

Mental illness less severe Substance use disorder less severe

Mental illness more severe Substance use disorder less severe

Locus of care: Primary health care settings

Locus of care: Mental health service

Mental illness Adapted from Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons With Co-Occurring Disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 42. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 05-3992. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 17

5.2

What is Integrated Care?

Parallel treatment This approach involves mental health and drug and alcohol

Integrated care is defined as the provision of mental health

workers working with the client at the same time.

and substance use treatment by one clinician or within one service where clinicians assume responsibility for

While parallel treatment offers some advantages over serial

synthesising information and ensuring that a client moves

treatment in terms of dealing with both problems, there are

toward recovery with a consistent approach and consistent

some risks and limitations. Fragmentation of treatment can

information.

occur resulting in clients receiving conflicting information from service providers. Clients often have difficulty navigating a

Integrated service provision may take many forms. One

complex system of care delivery. This may result in the client

framework is that of a designated specialist service; however

not engaging with either service. Success is dependent on

integrated care may also occur at any mental health or drug

both sectors maintaining good communication.

and alcohol facility where programs and practitioners target

Service delivery

both issues concurrently.

5.4

The Australian Commonwealth Government National

To assess your service’s ability to provide care for clients with

Comorbidity Project summarised the body of literature on

a comorbid condition, consider using the Dual Diagnosis

integrated treatment using NHMRC guidelines and

Capability in Addiction Treatment (DDCAT) Index or the

concluded that “evidence suggests that an integrated

Dual Diagnosis Capability in Mental Health Treatment

mental health and drug and alcohol treatment for people

(DDCMHT) Index tools.

with a range of dual diagnoses is beneficial across both mental health and substance use outcomes”.28

These resources are available for download from: DDCAT – http://www.vaada.org.au/resources/

Although described as the ‘preferred model’ for care

items/2008/08/226803-upload-00001.pdf

delivery, the evidence in support of its continued use is

(this version has been adapted for use in the Australian

modest and further study is required.

5.3

29

Parallel and Sequential care

context) DDCHMHT – http://www.adp.state.ca.us/cod/pdf/ ddcat_ddcmht_desription.pdf

Parallel and sequential care may be appropriate in instances

(this version has not been adapted for use in Australian

where skilled clinicians are happy to provide treatment and

context)

act as primary coordinator for care of an individual.

Sequential or serial care Serial treatment is where one disorder is treated initially before the client is “handed over” to the team responsible for treating the other disorder. There are two distinguishing features of the serial treatment model: n

the treatment of the substance use and mental health problems are managed by different clinicians at different services

n

each disorder is handled separately at a different time point.

This fragmentation of services in the past has lead to many clients being ‘lost’ to treatment due to the restrictions or criteria that a client was required to meet prior to service acceptance. This has been referred to as “ping-pong therapy”, ultimately resulting in no treatment.

PAGE 18

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

SECTION 6

Screening

Given the prevalence of clients with comorbid mental health

Sensitivity: the proportion of people who are correctly

and substance use disorders, it is important that all clients

identified as having a disorder by the screening tool

are screened for each condition. This will alert the practitioner to the potential presence of problems allowing

Specificity: the proportion of people who are correctly

for proper intervention at the earliest opportunity.

identified as not having a disorder by the screening tool

6.1

What is screening?

Availability: the availability of the tool in the public domain

Screening is a component of assessment. Screening is a brief

Ease of use: the ease with which it can be used (is it

method of determining whether a client has a specific

completed by a client or a clinician?)

problem (such as a mental health or substance use disorder). A positive screen indicates the need for a more detailed

Appropriateness: the usefulness of the tool in detecting

assessment of the condition – it does not confirm its

the disorder in the population you are working with (e.g.

presence.

30

has it been shown to be appropriate for detecting drug and alcohol disorders or mental health symptoms?)

Conversely, a negative screen does not totally rule out the possibility of a comorbid disorder. A negative screen may be

Acceptability: the acceptability of the tool to your

the result of a flaw in the tool being used or the questions

organisation, colleagues, partner agencies etc.

being asked. It is therefore important to screen every client

6.3

during different interactions. It is recommended that screening for a comorbid mental

Screening to detect a comorbid mental illness or substance use disorder

health or substance use disorder is brief. This reduces the between the practitioner and the client during the first few

Screening tools and the use of specific clinical questions

interactions. A formal tool can be used or a service can

A number of screening tools exist to detect mental health

decide to integrate a standard set of questions that are

and substance use disorders. These include formal tools that

asked of every client during their initial consultation.

are administered and rated by a clinician, those that are

risk of interfering with the relationship that is being formed

self-administered and those which are more generally

6.2

What screening tools should be used?

integrated into one’s practice. Clinical questioning is a useful screening technique that can be introduced into the first contact made with a client and into subsequent interactions.

The decision regarding what type of screening tool to use is dependent on the purpose of the screen.

31

It is non-intrusive, uses the skills of the practitioner to elicit information and has minimum interference with the

The appropriateness of a tool is selected based upon a

engagement of the client.

number of characteristics including:

6.4 Reliability: the ability of a screening test to show consistent

Questions to screen for a possible mental health problem

results between tests The following questions may assist a drug and alcohol Validity: how accurate the screening tool is at detecting

practitioner to screen clients for the possible presence of a

a disorder

mental health problem.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 19

n

Have you ever seen a doctor or psychiatrist for emotional

n

Have you ever used drugs or alcohol?

worries?

n

When did you last use drugs or alcohol?

Have you ever been given medication for emotional

n

What drug did you last use?

worries?

n

How frequently do you use?

Do you currently have a mental health worker,

n

How much drug(s) did you or do you use?

health provider?

n

Is this a normal amount for you?

Are you having any difficulties sleeping? Can you tell me

n

Have you increased or decreased your use lately?

n

Please elaborate….

problems or problems with your ‘nerves’/anxieties/

n

problems or problems with your ‘nerves’/anxieties/

n

psychiatrist, psychologist, general practitioner or other

n

about that? n

Have you experienced any changes in your appetite? Are you eating more or less than is normal for you?

Language used for different drugs If a mental health practitioner is unfamiliar with the

n

Are you experiencing any changes in your ability to

language used to describe drugs the table below may

concentrate or complete a task?

provide assistance.

6.5

Questions to screen for a possible SUD

The language used can vary significantly depending on location, age and experience of a client however familiarity with some of the terms may help to reduce unease when

The following questions may assist a mental health

conducting a screen/assessment17.

practitioner to screen clients for the possible presence of a substance use disorder.

DRUG

STREET NAMES

Alcohol

grog, piss, cans, six pack, long necks, slabs, casks

Benzodiazepines

benzos, pills, jack & jills, downers, seras, rowies

Heroin

smack, hammer, h, gear

Methadone syrup Physeptone tablet

‘done

Morphine, Oxycodone, Oxycontin

oxy

Buprenorphine

bupe

GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate)

fantasy, grievous bodily harm, liquid ecstasy, liquid e

Cannabis/marijuana Bush: medium strength Hydro: high strength

grass, pot, ganja, reefer, joint, yarndi

Amphetamine/methamphetamine powder

speed, goey, uppers, whiz, velocity

Methamphetamine base (stronger than powder)

base, paste, wax, pure, point,

Methamphetamine ice (stronger than base)

crystal, crystal meth, shabu, yaabaa, point

Cocaine

coke, c, snow, nose candy, okey-doke, crack, free base

Ecstasy/MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine)

xtc, eccy, E, pills

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

trips, acid

Magic mushrooms

golden top mushrooms, magic mushies

Ketamine

special k, k, vitamin k

PCP (phencyclidine)

angel dust, super weed, killer weed

PAGE 20

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Implements: bong, cone

6.6

Biochemical measures for screening purposes

At certain times, biochemical measures may also be considered for screening purposes, for example when a client is unable to provide information in Emergency Departments and/or inpatient settings where a client is substantially confused or presents with cognitive impairment. This information may be essential to ensure proper care is provided during medical crises. When the client is able and symptoms have resolved, the client may provide more detailed information to assist in care planning. These biochemical markers are expensive and often insensitive. Evidence suggests that the presence of routine urine screen results in inpatient records does increase the number of substance use disorder diagnoses assigned. In addition, it is thought that biochemical tests can reduce the trust between agencies and clients therefore inhibiting engagement. For these reasons, it is not recommended that biochemical measures be used as a standard screening tool to detect substance use disorders.32

Sourced from the NSW Department of Health (2008) NSW Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal Clinical Practice Guidelines. North Sydney: NSW Health.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 21

SECTION 7

Assessment

An assessment is a process rather than a discrete point in

7.1

Domains for assessment

time. It requires attention and time in order to: In addition to the assessment that would regularly be n

confirm whether the condition or disorder is present

completed by either sector, mental health services are required to complete a drug and alcohol assessment and a

n

assess the severity, impact and relevance of a condition

drug and alcohol service is required to complete a mental

(including the clients’ physical needs and conditions which

health assessment.

may require attention)

7.2 n

assess a client’s perceptions, attitudes and beliefs about the condition or disorder

n

Assessment Tools for use by Drug and Alcohol Practitioners to assess mental health

treatment planning around the disorder (in dual diagnosis,

The Mental Health Clinical Documentation Suite (formerly MHOAT)

around both disorders)

It is mandatory for all government mental health services

use this information to inform and develop integrated

within NSW to implement the Mental Health Clinical n

use information from collateral sources (family, file

Documentation Suite (previously known as MH-OAT).34

history etc).33

History of present illness

Physical state/ Medical history

Personal history

Readiness to change

Past history/ family history

Drug and alcohol history

Assessment Domains Severity of dependence

Alcohol and drug consumption

PAGE 22

Social and cultural issues

Alcohol and drug diagnosis

Mental health diagnosis

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Mental state

The assessment module within this suite of documents

Other Assessment Tools

provides a framework for documenting a mental health

Other assessment tools including components of the

assessment on first contact and/or at other times where a

PsyCheck (Appendix 3) and validated assessment tools can

comprehensive assessment is indicated.

also be used once endorsed by the service.35 These guidelines do not mandate the use of any particular tool.

The assessment tools implemented by a drug and alcohol service’s policies and procedures may have previously addressed some of the domains assessed within this framework. A copy of the assessment proforma is available

7.3

Assessment tools for Mental Health Services to assess drug and alcohol use

at Appendix 2.

The Mental Health Clinical Documentation Suite (formerly MHOAT)

Mental state examination (MSE)

The Mental Health Clinical Documentation Suite (previously Within the Mental Health Clinical Documentation Suite

known as MH-OAT) is required within NSW Health and Area

assessment from a MSE is recommended. As psychoactive

mental health services.

drugs and mental illness may affect cognition, emotions and behaviour, the conduct of a MSE helps to provide insight into

A specific substance use assessment module is available

the status of a client. A MSE involves assessing the following:

within the MH-OAT. This module, developed in consultation with the NSW Health Drugs and Alcohol Quality in

n

Appearance and behaviour (e.g. physical description, level

Treatment Advisory Group, provides a structured format for

of personal hygiene and grooming)

the documentation of drug and alcohol use. It is appropriate for use in both inpatient and community settings and should

n

Behaviour during interview (e.g. rapport, engagement,

be completed at first contact and at other times where

psychomotor activity, interactions at assessment)

further assessment is indicated. A copy of the assessment proforma is available at Appendix 4.

n

Affect (appropriate emotional responses e.g. appropriate,

The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test – ASSIST

restricted, flattened) n

Mood (reported feeling or emotion e.g. depressed, angry, Alternatively, a practitioner and/or a service may favour the

euphoric or distressed)

use of a standardised tool to assist in the screening of all Speech (e.g. quantity, rate, volume, tone, unusual

clients attending a service. In this instance, the ASSIST tool is

characteristics)

recommended.

n

Thought form (e.g. logical, tangential, blocked, concrete)

The ASSIST tool was developed by the World Health

n

Thought content (e.g. obsessions, delusions, suicidal or

health care settings including general ward settings, emergency

homicidal ideation, view of future, for children consider

departments, psychiatric settings and drug and alcohol services

play and fantasy)

amongst others. It is appropriate for administration by a mental

n

Organisation and is appropriate for use in a wide variety of

health practitioner36 and requires approximately 10 – 20 minutes. n

Perception (e.g. auditory, visual or somatic hallucinations)

n

Cognition and intellectual functioning (e.g. orientation to

1. substance use (ever and recently)

time/place/person, memory, attention/concentration,

2. problems related to substance use

planning)

3, risk of harm

ASSIST assesses the following items:

4. dependence n

Insight and judgement.

5. IV drug use.

A MSE can be performed on a client who appears

A copy of the assessment proforma is available at

intoxicated.

Appendix 5.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 23

Suicide risk

The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – AUDIT

7.4

The AUDIT tool was developed by a WHO collaborative

In addition to screening for mental illness and/or drug and

study conducted in six countries. This brief screen is used for

alcohol disorders, it is essential to screen for risk of suicide

a range of alcohol consumption problems and harms. It is

for every client. This brief screen provides an opportunity to

suitable for use in a wide variety of settings and can be

intervene early.

administered by a practitioner or completed by a client.

Screening questions for suicide risk: The AUDIT tool is located at Appendix 6.

n

Have things been so bad lately that you have thought you would rather not be here?

Taking a retrospective consumption history An important aspect of assessment is developing an

n

Have you had any thoughts of harming yourself?

n

Are you thinking of suicide?

n

Have you ever tried to harm yourself?

n

Have you made any current plans?

n

Do you have access to a firearm or access to

understanding of the frequency and patterns of use. The following steps provide guidance as to how to collect this information from a client in a systematic and useful manner. n

Always ask about each drug group (e.g. tobacco, alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines, cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy and related drugs).

n

Start with most recent use. Ask, “When did you last have

other lethal means?

anything to drink/use?” Concern about the safety of the client should result in n

Ascertain how much was consumed at that time.

immediate action.

– Inquire back through that day: “What about during the day?”

Interventions to deal with suicide risk The NSW Department of Health has issued Policy Guidelines

n

Link consumption to activities. “What were you doing

for the Management of Patients with Possible Suicidal

during the day?” Then, for example, “How much did you

Behaviour for NSW Health Staff and Staff in Private Hospital

drink/use when you went to your friends’ house?”

Facilities PD2005_121. These guidelines outline the appropriate standards for the treatment and care of clients

n

Examine consumption through each day for the past week.

with suicidal behaviour in treatment settings within NSW.

n

Ask if that was a typical week’s pattern. If not, ask specifically how it differed (i.e. how much more or less of

A key component of this circular is the Framework for

each drug than usual).

Suicide Risk Assessment and Management for NSW Health staff. This document provides detailed information on

n

Recording a complete consumption history is not always

conducting suicide risk assessments and specific information

practical because of the context of the presentation,

on the roles and responsibilities of services to guide both the

including the physical and mental state of the person.

assessment and management processes. This document is available at: http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/2005/

NOTE: A common drug combination that should be noted is

pdf/suicide_risk.pdf

alcohol and benzodiazepines. These drugs produce crosstolerance and regular use of both can make withdrawal

People displaying possible suicidal behaviours must receive a

more severe and/or protracted.

comprehensive mental health assessment including a detailed suicide risk assessment. The goal of a suicide risk

Reproduced from the NSW Department of Health Drug and

assessment is to determine the level of suicide risk at a given

Alcohol Withdrawal Clinical Practice Guidelines, 2008.

time in order to provide the appropriate clinical care and management.

PAGE 24

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

It is recognised that there are circumstances where drug and alcohol practitioners and services will be required to conduct

Key considerations for managing clients at risk for suicide

comprehensive suicide risk assessments and be responsible for the ongoing management of people at risk of suicide. The type and level of services provided will depend on the skill and competency of the health worker. Clients with a suicide risk will not all require mental health services. The Commonwealth government has supported the development of The Living Is For Everyone (LIFE) Framework. The goal of the strategy is to reduce suicide attempts, loss of life through suicide and the impact of suicidal behaviour. The website below is Australia’s national resource for the National Suicide Prevention Strategy: http://www.livingisforeveryone.com.au/LIFEFramework.html

7.5

Detection – assess all clients for potential suicide risk. Safety – use principle of safety to guide care (ensure appropriate observation and supervision). Consultation – treatment should include collaboration between the client, family, general practitioner and other care providers including senior staff members where required. Referral – where the needs of the client are beyond the scope of practice for the service, provide a coordinated referral to an appropriate service provider. Information – provide information about suicide risk to both the client and carers or significant others including appropriate printed resources (see table below).

Key resources for the management of clients at risk of suicide

Policy Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Possible Suicidal Behaviour for NSW Health Staff and Staff in Private Hospital Facilities

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/PD/2005/pdf/PD2005_121.pdf

Suicide Risk Assessment and Management Protocols for the following settings: Community Mental Health Service

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/2004/community_mental_hlt.html

Emergency Department

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/2004/emergencydept.html

General Community Health Service

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/2004/general_community.html

General Hospital Ward

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/2004/general_hosp_ward.html

Justice Health Long Bay Hospital

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/2004/justice_longbay.html

Mental Health In-Patient Unit

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/2004/inpatient_unit.html

Suicide: We can all make a difference. NSW Suicide Prevention Strategy

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/1999/pdf/suicide.pdf

Framework for Suicide Risk Assessment and Management for NSW Health Staff

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/2005/pdf/risk_assessment.pdf

The revised Living Is For Everyone (LIFE) framework

http://www.livingisforeveryone.com.au/LIFE-Framework.html

LIFE reference card

http://www.livingisforeveryone.com.au/IgnitionSuite/uploads/docs/ lifereferencecard.pdf

LIFE Fact Sheets (a series of 24 fact sheets for suicide and self harm prevention)

http://www.livingisforeveryone.com.au/LIFE-Fact-sheets.html

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 25

SECTION 8

Acute Crisis Management

Managing an acute crisis

Note: Physical threat of immediate injury to the client or others

The principles for the management of client in an acute crisis

should be treated as an emergency requiring immediate

are essentially the same regardless of whether the client

intervention.

presents with a mental health crisis or acutely intoxicated. Clients who have carried out an act of violence prior to The key actions include addressing the presenting

arrival should be considered very high risk even if they

(behavioural disturbance) symptoms by:

appear calm on initial presentation.

n

assessing the client in a safe environment

Detailed information on the strategies regarding the management of clients with a comorbid disorder who are

n

attempting to de-escalate and/or distract the client with a

experiencing an acute crisis are included with the NSW

focus on engagement

Health, Mental Health for Emergency Departments – A Reference Guide (2008).

n

considering the legal issues impacting care (seek consent if available/possible)

This resource will be accessible via the NSW Health website when complete.

n

providing medication/sedation if required

n

using physical restraints (manual and/or mechanical) if required

n

calling for security or police assistance if there is any danger to the client or others

n

considering possible serious acute medical illness.

Often a combination of these means will be necessary.37

PAGE 26

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

SECTION 9

Withdrawal

9.1 What

is withdrawal?

2. Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following: a) the characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the

Withdrawal occurs in drug-dependent people who stop or

substance

considerably reduce their drug use. When a person is

b) the same (or a closely related) substance is taken to

dependent on a drug, withdrawal of the drug carries risks of

relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms

physical harm, psychological trauma and (rarely) death. 3. The substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a It is best to assume that any person who has consumed

longer period than was intended

alcohol and other drugs excessively on a daily basis over a significant period of time (weeks) can experience some

4. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut

withdrawal symptoms on ceasing or reducing their intake. Drug withdrawal may occur in a number of different clinical

down or control substance use 5. A great deal of time is spent on activities necessary to obtain

settings. For example, in a controlled, predictable manner

the substance, use the substance, or recover from its effects

on a withdrawal unit, unexpectedly in an acute care setting following an unplanned admission or in the community.

6. Important social, occupational or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use

The severity of withdrawal symptoms can differ depending on the person, the drug(s) used, duration of use, past

7. The substance use is continued despite knowledge of

experience(s) of withdrawal, other psychological and physical

having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological

conditions (e.g. nutrition, hydration) or illness. Severity is not

problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated

clearly or directly linked to the quantity of drugs consumed.

by the substance.

The aim of withdrawal management is to minimise the risks

9.3

associated with withdrawal. 38

9.2

The diagnosis of dependence

A diagnosis of dependence is generally required to

n

understand and manage drug withdrawal.

General principles of withdrawal management for a client with a comorbid mental health and substance use disorder

The primary goal of withdrawal must be client safety, rather than long-term abstinence

According to the DSM IV TR substance dependence is

n

The objectives of withdrawal management are to:

defined as a maladaptive pattern of substance use, leading

– interrupt a pattern of heavy and dependent use,

to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested

– reduce the severity of withdrawal symptoms,

by three (or more) of the following, occurring at any time in

– avoid complications during withdrawal,

the same 12-month period:

– promote engagement in treatment.

1. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following: a) a need for markedly increased amounts of the

In order to effectively coordinate care and provide equitable and accessible care for clients with a comorbid disorder

substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect

during this time, a primary care coordinator for each client

b) markedly diminished effect with continued use of the

must be identified at all times (Please refer to Principles of

same amount of the substance.

Practice on page 15).

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 27

A client may request to continue treatment where they

9.4

Recognising withdrawal

initially presented. If this occurs then the treatment must remain within the first service as long as it is safe, with case

Active withdrawal states can produce symptoms that mimic

conferencing and consultation in order to provide the best

psychiatric disorders, including major depression, anxiety states

care possible39 ,40.

and psychosis. Substance use and withdrawal can also result in disturbances of mood and behaviour that may resemble states seen with personality disorders. See the table below.

Drug/Alcohol

Onset

Duration

Features

Alcohol

As blood alcohol falls; depends on rate of fall and hours after last drink

3-7 days (up to 14 in severe withdrawal)

Anxiety, agitation, sweating, tremor, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, anorexia, craving, insomnia, elevated blood pressure, pulse and temperature, headache, confusion, perceptual distortions, disorientation, hallucinations. Seizures may occur and be life-threatening

Benzodiazepines

1-10 days (depending on half-life of the drug)

3-6 weeks (may be longer)

Anxiety, headache, insomnia, muscle aching and twitching perceptual changes, feeling of unreality, depersonalization. Seizures may occur and be life-threatening

Opioids

6-24 hours (may be longer with long acting opioids)

Peaks 2-4 days, ceases 5-10 days (more prolonged for longer acting opioids)

Anxiety, craving, muscle tension, muscle and bone ache, muscle cramps and sustained contractions, sleep disturbance, sweating, hot and cold flushes, piloerection, yawning, lacrimation and rhinorrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, palpitations, elevated blood pressure and pulse, dilated pupils.

Cannabis

Within 24 hours

1-2 weeks

Insomnia, shakiness, irritability, restlessness, anxiety, anger, aggression

Psychostimulants

6-12 hours (cocaine); 12-24 hours (amphetamines)

Several weeks for withdrawal phase, then months for extinction

3 phases. Crash: fatigue, flat affect, increased sleep, reduced cravings. Withdrawal: fluctuating mood and energy levels, cravings, disturbed sleep, poor concentration. Extinction: persistence of withdrawal features, gradually subsiding.

Adapted from NSW Department of Health. (2006). Opioid Treatment Program: Clinical Guidelines for methadone and buprenorphine treatment. North Sydney: NSW Health.

9.5

n

Management of withdrawal focuses on the following:

assessment of withdrawal risk (past history of severe withdrawal including seizures or delirium tremens (DTs)

n

preventing progression to severe withdrawal

n

decreasing risks of any injury to self or others – eliminating risk of dehydration, electrolyte or nutritional imbalance – minimising risk of seizures

n

early recognition of withdrawal

– identifying concurrent illness that masks, mimics or complicates withdrawal

n

assessment of psychoses and/or suicidal intent

– providing supportive care – discharge planning for after-care and referral.

n

anxiety management Adapted from the NSW Department of Health. Clinical

n

documenting and reporting withdrawal symptoms

guidelines for nursing and midwifery practice in NSW: Identifying and responding to drug and alcohol issues. North

n

preventing withdrawal complications where possible

PAGE 28

Sydney: NSW Health.

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

9.6 Assistance

or referral

The Drug and Alcohol Specialist Advisory Service (DASAS) advises on the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol and other drug related problems. The telephone service is free and is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Drug and Alcohol Specialist Advisory Service (DASAS) Phone: 02 9361 8000 Free call: 1800 023 687 (outside Sydney)

The NSW Department of Health Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal Clinical Practice Guidelines provide the most up-to-date knowledge and current level of best practice for the treatment of withdrawal from alcohol and other drugs.

Further information and advice is available from: Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal Clinical Practice Guidelines http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2008/ GL2008_011.html

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 29

SECTION 10

Anxiety

10.1 What

is an anxiety disorder?

Please note the following regarding how mental health services diagnose anxiety disorders:

Anxiety is considered a disorder when a person’s symptoms of fear or worry are grossly disproportionate to reality, the

n

general medical conditions which contribute to an anxiety

symptoms restrict and hamper the person’s normal life, do

disorder, intoxication with or withdrawal from drugs or

not lessen with reassurance and may be accompanied by

alcohol precludes diagnosis

thoughts and actions that are exaggerated. n

anxiety or worry related to another disorder precludes diagnosis

There are many anxiety disorders described in the DSM-IV-TR. Common to most anxiety disorders are: n n

Panic symptoms or “attacks” such as shortness of breath,

significant distress or impairment of the person experiencing the symptoms is required for a diagnosis.

hyperventilation, heart palpitations or chest tightness, light headedness, sweating, shaking, nausea and/or

Referenced from NSW Department of Health. Mental Health

vomiting. Panic attacks, although common amongst many

Reference Resource for drug and alcohol professionals, 2007.

of the anxiety disorders, are not a specific mental illness. n

Fearfulness, distress, agitation, restlessness and/or sleep disturbance.

Key features of specific anxiety disorders Panic Disorder with or without agoraphobia Recurrent unexpected panic attacks in situations where most people would not be afraid. Client may actively avoid situations in which panic attacks are predicted to occur. Intolerance of physical symptoms of anxiety.

(for example, thoughts about contamination, doubts about actions, distressing religious, aggressive, or sexual thoughts). Compulsions; repetitive behaviours or mental acts that are performed to reduce the anxiety generated by the obsessions (for example, checking, washing, counting, or repeating).

Social Anxiety disorder (SAD) and (or) social phobia Excessive or unrealistic fear of social or performance situations. Intolerance of embarrassment or scrutiny by others.

Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Uncontrollable and excessive worry occurring more days than not, about a number of everyday, ordinary experiences or activities. Often accompanied by physical symptoms (for example, headaches or upset stomach). Intolerance of uncertainty.

Specific phobia Excessive or unreasonable fear of a circumscribed object or situation, usually associated with avoidance of the feared object (for example, an animal, blood, injections, heights, storms, driving, flying, or enclosed places). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Presence of obsessions; recurrent, unwanted, and intrusive thoughts, images, or urges that cause marked anxiety

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Occurs after a traumatic event to which client responds with intense fear, helplessness, or horror; clients relive the event in intrusive memories, avoid reminders of the event, and experience emotional numbing and symptoms of increased arousal.

Adapted from DSM-IV-TR (1) and referenced from Clinical practice guidelines for the management of anxiety. (2006). Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Vol 51(Supplement 2).

PAGE 30

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

10.2

Key points for consideration

The timeframe of abstinence provides an opportunity to observe the client’s symptoms and distinguish between

n

It can be difficult to distinguish between substance-

those caused by the substance use and those resulting from

induced anxiety and an underlying anxiety disorder

an anxiety disorder. If a client demonstrates sustained anxiety symptoms despite a 4-week period of abstinence, it is likely

n

A 4 week period of abstinence is required for a new,

they have a co-existing anxiety disorder, which requires

definitive diagnosis. Exceptions to this rule include:

treatment in its own right.43

– risk of harm to self/others, Certain ‘warning signs’ such as a family history of anxiety

– a previous history of anxiety disorder

disorders and previous symptoms may assist in the early n

You can treat symptoms of anxiety without a diagnosis

identification or suspicion that a client has a comorbid anxiety disorder.44 It is important to note that only qualified

n

Psychosocial support and therapy is recommended

n

Benzodiazepines should largely be avoided except in

documenting signs and symptoms which a client may

the context of withdrawal

display, without labelling the client with a specific disorder.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are indicated for

Exceptions to the waiting period

practitioners can make a clinical diagnosis. Other practitioners are responsible for assessing, identifying and

n

the treatment of OCD and panic disorder in line with The need for a waiting period prior to a definitive diagnosis

best practice guidelines

is not absolute. If any of the criteria listed below are met, a n

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) may be appropriate.

waiting period to definitive diagnosis is not recommended and interventions can be initiated immediately:

10.3

Clinical care considerations for clients with comorbid anxiety and substance use disorders

n

The client is a significant risk of harm to themselves or others – intervention should be immediate,

n

There is evidence from assessment that a diagnosis is

Findings from a number of multiple large-scale

present (e.g. the client is receiving active care from a mental

epidemiological surveys confirm high rates of comorbidity

health professional to address a diagnosed illness).

between anxiety disorders and substance abuse41 42.

Working with clients who are continuing to use Time lapse before definitive diagnosis

For many clients the aim of their drug and alcohol treatment

The relationship between anxiety and substance use disorders

may be to reduce the amount of a substance that is used

is complex and bi-directional. As a result, it is often difficult to

rather than to completely cease using. If this is the case then

distinguish between the two disorders. Observing the client

the practitioner can address the symptoms of the anxiety

over time, particularly during times of abstinence and/or

disorder and initiate harm reduction strategies with the

periods of stability on a maintenance medication can assist in

client in the following manner.

a definitive diagnosis. In general, a reasonable time prior to making a definitive diagnosis is approximately 4 weeks.

What is harm reduction? Harm reduction is a public health philosophy which seeks

Clients who agree to cease using may go through a withdrawal

to prevent and/or reduce the harm associated with

period. For information regarding how to manage withdrawal,

potentially risky activities, not on preventing people from

please refer to the section on withdrawal on page 27.

performing those activities. Harm reduction is a pragmatic concept that recognises the reality of drug use. The harm

This may not be appropriate for all clients, as some will elect

reduction approach acknowledges that it can be more

not to cease using. It is appropriate to treat the symptoms

effective for individuals and communities to reduce the

experienced by these clients. Please refer to the section

harms associated with drug use than to support attempts

titled ‘Working with clients who do not cease using’ for

to eliminate drug use altogether.

further information.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 31

Engagement

Benzodiazepines

Engagement refers to the client relationship with a

Benzodiazepines are effective anxiolytic medications with

counsellor and the dedication/motivation to participate in

significant risk of dependence.

treatment. It is a critical part of substance abuse treatment and an important element of the care for clients with

Caution should be taken and the use of benzodiazepine

comorbid disorders specifically, since remaining in treatment

should be avoided for treatment of clients with a comorbid

for an adequate length of time is essential to achieving

disorder due to the high risk of addiction/abuse and its

45

behavioural change.

synergistic interaction with alcohol and opioids.

Important elements of engagement include:

Evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of clients who are treated with benzodiazepines will develop some

n

universal access

n

empathic detachment

n

person-centred assessment

The exception to this rule would be in the following two

n

cultural sensitivity

circumstances:

n

trauma sensitivity.

form of dependence.

n The client is benzodiazepine dependent in this situation

Motivational Interviewing

the client would be managed in accordance with best

The goal of motivational interviewing is to explore

practice withdrawal recommendations with appropriate

ambivalence regarding ongoing substance use and encourage

gradual withdrawal and interventions to manage

patients to explore and express their reasons for change.

supportive care needs (sleep, hygiene, depression, etc.)

The five general principles for motivational interviewing n Benzodiazepines are being utilised for a client to

include:

withdraw from another substance and benzodiazepines n

express empathy,

are required in this situation benzodiazepines could be

n

develop discrepancy between current

administered in accordance with the NSW Drug and

behaviour and future goals,

Alcohol Withdrawal Clinical Practice Guidelines available

n

avoid arguments,

at: http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2008/

n

roll with resistance,

n

pdf/GL2008_011.pdf 31 46

support self-efficacy.

Psycho-Education This would include working with the client to identify:

Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are a class of anti-depressants used for the treatment of depression and anxiety.

n

the potential harms associated with ongoing

n

the possible advantages of ceasing use

There is some evidence supporting the use of SSRIs for

n

the impact of ongoing substance use on anxiety

clients with comorbid anxiety and substance use disorders.

substance use

symptoms

Treatment should be considered carefully and in accordance with existing best practice guidelines.47 48 See Existing

If no progression in condition occurs, a clinical review is

Resources on page 45.

warranted.

Psychosocial therapies There is strong evidence supporting the use of Cognitive

10.4 Existing resources for the care of a person with an anxiety or substance use disorder

Behaviour Therapy (CBT), with or without pharmaco-therapy, for treatment of a variety of anxiety disorders in the general population. This therapy should also be considered for clients with comorbid anxiety and substance use disorders.

PAGE 32

A number of clinical treatment guidelines exist to guide the management of separate anxiety and substance use disorders. Some of the key guidelines are listed below.

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Guidelines

Author

Mental Health Resources Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia

Royal Australian and NZ College of Psychiatrists

http://www.ranzcp.org/images/stories/ranzcp-attachments/Resources/Publications/ CPG/Clinician/CPG_Clinician%20Full_Panic_Disorder_Agoraphobia.pdf Australian Guidelines for the Treatment of Adults with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Australian Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Health

http://www.acpmh.unimelb.edu.au/resources/resources-guidelines.html#1 Benzodiazepines – clinical guidelines http://www.racgp.org.au/guidelines/benzodiazepines Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of anxiety disorders

Royal Australian College of General Practitioners Canadian Psychiatric Society

http://publications.cpa-apc.org/media.php?mid=440&xwm=true Mental Health Reference Resource for drug and alcohol professionals.

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/2007/pdf/mh_resource.pdf Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

American Psychiatric Association

http://www.psychiatryonline.com/pracGuide/loadGuidelinePdf.aspx?file=ASD_ PTSD_05-15-06 Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Panic Disorder

American Psychiatric Association

http://www.psychiatryonline.com/pracGuide/loadGuidelinePdf. aspx?file=Panic_05-15-06 Psychotropic Electronic Therapeutic Guidelines – CIAP

NSW Department of Health

www.ciap.health.nsw.gov.au PTSD clinical treatment algorithm

Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

http://www.racgp.org.au/guidelines/ptsd Client resources Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression – Self Help Section

St Vincent’s Hospital, The University of NSW

http://www.crufad.com/site2007/selfhelp/shindex.html Moodgym: http://moodgym.anu.edu.au/welcome

The Australian National University

Panic disorder and agoraphobia: Australian Treatment Guide for Consumers and Carers

Royal Australian and NZ College of Psychiatrists

http://www.ranzcp.org/images/stories/ranzcp-attachments/Resources/Publications/ CPG/Australian_Versions/AUS_Panic_disorder.pdf Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression

St Vincent’s Hospital, The University of NSW

http://www.crufad.com/cru_index.html

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 33

Guidelines

Author

Drug and Alcohol Resources – General Clinical guidelines for nursing and midwifery practice in NSW: Identifying and responding to drug and alcohol issues

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2007/pdf/PD2007_091.pdf Drug and Alcohol Psychosocial Interventions Professional Practice Guidelines

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2008/pdf/GL2008_009.pdf NSW Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal Clinical Practice Guidelines

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2008/pdf/GL2008_011.pdf Drug and Alcohol Resources – Alcohol Alcohol Practice guideline: For Practitioners Helping Veterans with Alcohol Problems http://www.therightmix.gov.au/pdfs/2005_Alcohol_Practice_Guidelines_Intro_ Rationale_and_Methodology.pdf Alcohol treatment guidelines for Indigenous Australians http://www.alcohol.gov.au/internet/alcohol/publishing.nsf/Content/426B5656C2395C C3CA2573360002A0EA/$File/alc-treat-guide-indig.pdf Treating Alcohol Problems: Guidelines for Alcohol and Drug Professionals

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre

http://www.alcohol.gov.au/internet/alcohol/publishing.nsf/Content/AAG13 Drug and Alcohol Resources – Other drugs Clinical guidelines and procedures for the use of methadone in the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth

http://www.health.vic.gov.au/dpu/downloads/guidelines-methadone.pdf Clinical guidelines and procedures for the use of naltrexone in the management of opioid dependence

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth

http://www.dasc.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/NDS_naltrexone_cguide.pdf Opioid Dependent Persons Admitted to Hospitals in NSW – Management http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2006/PD2006_049.html Opioid Treatment Program: Clinical Guidelines for Methadone and Buprenorphine Treatment

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2006/GL2006_019.htm Psychostimulant Users – Clinical Guidelines for Assessment and Management

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2006/pdf/GL2006_001.pdf Rapid Detoxification From Opioids – Guidelines

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/GL/2005/pdf/GL2005_027.pdf Treatment Options for Heroin and other opioid dependence http://www.nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au/internet/drugstrategy/publishing.nsf/Content /3972807722EB6F7ECA25717D000655EB/$File/opioid_workers.pdf

PAGE 34

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre

SECTION 11

Mood disorders

11.1

What is a mood disorder?

Mood disorders, sometimes called the affective disorders, are

n

Suicidal ideation or thoughts of self-harm

n

Mood disorders include the following diagnoses: Major

characterised by a disturbance in mood. The most common in

depressive disorder, Dysthymic disorder, Bipolar I Disorder,

Australia is depression and is frequently seen in clients with

Bipolar II Disorder and Cyclothymic Disorder (see table

chronic problems such as illness, pain or disability. The word

below).

‘depression’ is now used regularly by many people, often to describe sadness or feeling ‘flat’. Depression in terms of a

Please note the following regarding how mental health

disorder involves more severe symptoms:

services would diagnose these disorders:

n

Psychological symptoms such as feeling worthless,

n

hopeless, distress, lacking motivation and/or loss of interest

general medical conditions, intoxication with or withdrawal from drugs or alcohol precludes diagnosis

in what was previously interesting and being withdrawn n

n

mood changes related to another disorder precludes diagnosis

n

significant distress or impairment of the person

Physical symptoms such as fatigue, sleep disturbance, headaches, gastro-intestinal disturbances, aches and pains, loss of appetite and weight loss

experiencing the symptoms is required for a diagnosis.

Major Depressive Episode

Involves at least a two week period in which the person regularly (nearly every day) experiences some of the following: a depressed mood, loss of interest or enjoyment in activities, change in weight and appetite, sleeping problems, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt, difficulty concentrating and/or recurrent suicidal ideation, attempts or plans.

Manic Episode

Involves at least one week of abnormally or persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood where the person experiences some of the following: inflated self-esteem; decreased need for sleep; increased talkativeness, distractibility and/or agitation; racing thoughts and/or excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g. buying sprees, sexual indiscretions).

Mixed Episode

In a mixed episode criteria are met for both a manic episode and major depressive episode for at least one week.

Hypomanic Episode

A hypomanic episode is the same as a manic episode but can be noted after four days but unlike a manic episode does not require the episode to be severe enough to cause impairment in social or occupational functioning.

Depressive Disorder Symptoms Major Depressive Disorder

Is characterised by one or more major depressive episode(s)

Dysthymic Disorder

Dysthymic disorder is a milder more persistent form of depression that is diagnosed after the person has experienced symptoms for at least two years. It can not be diagnosed if any episodes have occurred

Bipolar Disorder Symptoms Bipolar I Disorder

Bipolar I disorder is characterised by one or more manic or mixed episodes. Often the individual has also had one or more major depressive episodes

Bipolar II Disorder

Bipolar II disorder is characterised by one or more major depressive episodes with at least one hypomanic episode. The presence of a manic or mixed episode precludes diagnosis of this disorder

Cyclothymic Disorder

Cyclothymic disorder is a chronic (at least two years) fluctuating mood disturbance involving numerous periods of hypomanic and depressive symptoms. The presence of symptoms that meet major depressive, manic or mixed episodes precludes diagnosis of this disorder

Referenced from NSW Department of Health. Mental Health Reference Resource for drug and alcohol professionals, 2007.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 35

11.2

Key points for consideration

Observing the client during a period of abstinence of approximately 4 weeks duration is considered appropriate

n

Depressive illness is highly prevalent in substance

prior to assessing the client against the criteria for a

using populations and it can be difficult to distinguish a

depressive illness and therefore making a definitive

temporal relationship

diagnosis. The symptoms however of depressive disorder can be treated without a definitive diagnosis.

n

A 4 week period of abstinence is recommended for a new, definitive diagnosis

It is important to note that only qualified practitioners can make a clinical diagnosis. Other practitioners are responsible

n

Exceptions to this rule include:

for assessing, identifying and documenting signs and

– risk of harm to self/others

symptoms which a client may display, without labelling the

– a previous, documented history of a mood disorder

client with a specific disorder.

– episodes of mania Clients who agree to cease using may/will go through a n

Symptoms of a mood disorder can be treated

withdrawal period. For information regarding how to

without a definitive diagnosis

manage withdrawal, please refer to the section on Withdrawal on page 36.

n

Psychosocial therapies are highly recommended

Exceptions to the waiting period n

Clients who continue to use can be treated using harm

The need for a waiting period prior to a definitive diagnosis

minimisation principles however be alert for:

of a mood disorder is not absolute. If any of the criteria

– potential interactions particularly with Opiate

listed below are met, a waiting period is not recommended:

Substitution Therapy, SSRIs and Tricyclics – increased risk of suicide

n

there is evidence from outset that a diagnosis is present (ie. pre-established diagnosis)

– the potential need to invoke an involuntary treatment order.

11.3

Clinical care considerations for clients with comorbid mood and substance use disorders

n

there is significant risk of harm to self or others

n

a client presents in a manic state.

The latter two items require an immediate clinical intervention.

Evidence demonstrates that clients with substance use disorders report increased levels of depression with high

Working with clients who are continuing to use

numbers meeting the criteria for a major depressive illness.

Some clients may identify that the aim of drug and alcohol

Depressive symptoms are often transient in clients with

treatment is to reduce the amount of a substance that is

substance use disorders. This may be related to the substance

used rather than to cease using. Others will continue to use

intoxication, withdrawal, and/or many psychosocial

and not moderate usage. If this is the case then a

stressors, which are associated with the individual’s lifestyle.

practitioner can address the symptoms of the mood disorder

Detoxification often leads to an improvement in mood, as

with the client and initiate harm reduction strategies with

does maintenance therapy for opioid dependence or it may

the client in the following manner.

49

reveal an underlying depression.

Engagement Time lapse before definitive diagnosis

Engagement refers to the client relationship with a practitioner

It can be difficult to distinguish the temporal relationship

and dedication/motivation to participating in treatment.

between the substance use and the depressive symptoms. A key question for practitioners to consider is whether the

It is a critical part of substance abuse treatment and an important

drugs are causing the depressive symptoms or rather are the

element of the care for clients with comorbid disorders

depressive symptoms causing the client to try and self-

specifically, since remaining in treatment for an adequate

medicate.

length of time is essential to achieving behavioural change.

PAGE 36

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

n universal access

Provide medical therapy and be cognisant of potential interactions

n empathic detachment

There are a number of possible interactions between

n person-centred assessment

medical therapies prescribed to treat mood disorders and

n cultural sensitivity

substance use. Particularly, special awareness is required for

Important elements of engagement include:

n trauma sensitivity.

clients who are being treated with:

Motivational interviewing

n

50

Opiate Substitution Therapy (OST)

The goal of motivational interviewing is to explore

Possible drug interactions may occur when clients are

ambivalence regarding ongoing substance use and encourage

receiving methadone or buprenorphine. The combination

patients to explore and express their reasons for change.

of methadone and other sedative drugs (opioids, alcohol, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, major tranquilisers

The five general principles for motivational

and sedating antihistamines) can be fatal52. A detailed list

interviewing include:

of drugs which interact with methadone including

n express empathy

fluvoxamine and other SSRI’s is available at Appendix 7.

n develop discrepancy between current behaviour and future goals

The combination of buprenorphine and sedative drugs,

n avoid arguments

including opioids, alcohol, benzodiazepines, tricyclic

n roll with resistance n support self efficacy

antidepressants, and major tranquilisers and sedating 51

antihistamines can be dangerous (deaths have been reported) 41. A detailed list of drugs which interact with

Psycho-education

buprenorphine is available at Appendix 8.41

This would include working with the client to identify: n the potential harms associated with

Please refer to the NSW Department of Health ‘Opioid

ongoing substance use

Treatment Program: Clinical Guidelines for methadone

n the possible advantages of ceasing use

and buprenorphine treatment’ for further information.

n the impact of ongoing substance use on depressive symptoms

n

Tricyclics There is an increased risk of overdose therefore these

Psychological therapies

drugs are not recommended as first line treatment for

Psychological therapies are considered front-line therapy for

people with comorbid disorders and should be

the treatment of a client with comorbid mood and

administered with caution.

substance use disorder. The type of a therapy may vary depending upon the needs of the client and expertise of the

n

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)

practitioner however it may include: cognitive behavioural

There is a risk of the development of a serotonin

therapies (CBT), motivational interviewing, interpersonal

syndrome with the concurrent administration or active

therapies, psychodynamic, dialectical behaviour, and

use of stimulants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI),

narrative therapy.

tryptophan, lithium or other drugs which limit the reuptake of serotonin53.

n Increased risk for suicide There is evidence for a need to monitor a client with a

SSRIs are contraindicated when a client is being treated

comorbid mood and substance use disorder for an ongoing

with Tramadol.

high risk of suicide. Regular assessments are necessary.

11.4 n There may be a need for an involuntary treatment order

Existing resources for the care of a person with a mood or substance use disorder

Where a client is at increased risk to self or others there may be a need to utilise the Mental Health Act in order

A number of clinical treatment guidelines exist to guide the

to provide involuntary treatment. Please refer to

management of separate mood and substance use

appendix 1 for further information.

disorders. Some of the key guidelines are listed below.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 37

Guidelines

Author

Mental Health Resources Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder http://www.ranzcp.org/images/stories/ranzcp-attachments/Resources/Publications/ CPG/Clinician/CPG_Clinician_Full_Bipolar.pdf

Royal Australian and NZ College of Psychiatrists

Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of depression http://www.ranzcp.org/images/stories/ranzcp-attachments/Resources/Publications/ CPG/Clinician/CPG_Clinician_Full_Depression.pdf

Royal Australian and NZ College of Psychiatrists

Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression St Vincent’s Hospital, The University of NSW http://www.crufad.com/cru_index.html Psychotropic Electronic Therapeutic Guidelines – CIAP NSW Department of Health www.ciap.health.nsw.gov.au Treating depression: the beyondblue guidelines for treating depression in primary care Beyondblue http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/176_10_200502/ell10082_fm.html Client Resources Bipolar Disorder: Australian Treatment Guide for Consumers and Carers http://www.ranzcp.org/resources/clinical-practice-guidelines.html Depression: Australian Treatment Guide for Consumers and Carers http://www.ranzcp.org/resources/clinical-practice-guidelines.html

Royal Australian and NZ College of Psychiatrists Royal Australian and NZ College of Psychiatrists

Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression – Self Help Section St Vincent’s Hospital, The University of NSW http://www.crufad.com/site2007/selfhelp/shindex.html Mood gym : http://moodgym.anu.edu.au/welcome

The Australian National University

The Black Dog Institute – Resources for the public The Black Dog Institute http://www.blackdoginstitute.org.au/ Drug and Alcohol Resources – General Clinical guidelines for nursing and midwifery practice in NSW: Identifying and responding to drug and alcohol issues

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2007/pdf/PD2007_091.pdf Drug and Alcohol Psychosocial Interventions Professional Practice Guidelines NSW Department of Health http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2008/pdf/GL2008_009.pdf NSW Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal Clinical Practice Guidelines NSW Department of Health http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2008/pdf/GL2008_011.pdf Drug and Alcohol Resources – Alcohol Alcohol Practice guideline: For Practitioners Helping Veterans with Alcohol Problems http://www.therightmix.gov.au/pdfs/2005_Alcohol_Practice_Guidelines_Intro_ Rationale_and_Methodology.pdf

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth

Alcohol treatment guidelines for Indigenous Australians http://www.alcohol.gov.au/internet/alcohol/publishing.nsf/Content/426B5656C2395C C3CA2573360002A0EA/$File/alc-treat-guide-indig.pdf

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth

Treating Alcohol Problems: Guidelines for Alcohol and Drug Professionals National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre http://www.alcohol.gov.au/internet/alcohol/publishing.nsf/Content/AAG13

PAGE 38

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Guidelines

Author

Drug and Alcohol Resources – Other drugs

Clinical guidelines and procedures for the use of methadone in the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth

http://www.health.vic.gov.au/dpu/downloads/guidelines-methadone.pdf Clinical guidelines and procedures for the use of naltrexone in the management of opioid dependence

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth

http://www.dasc.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/NDS_naltrexone_cguide.pdf Opioid Dependent Persons Admitted to Hospitals in NSW – Management NSW Department of Health http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2006/PD2006_049.html Opioid Treatment Program: Clinical Guidelines for Methadone and Buprenorphine Treatment

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2006/GL2006_019.html Psychostimulant Users – Clinical Guidelines for Assessment and Management NSW Department of Health http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2006/pdf/GL2006_001.pdf Rapid Detoxification From Opioids – Guidelines NSW Department of Health http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/GL/2005/pdf/GL2005_027.pdf Treatment Options for Heroin and other opioid dependence http://www.nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au/internet/drugstrategy/publishing.nsf/Content /3972807722EB6F7ECA25717D000655EB/$File/opioid_workers.pdf

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 39

SECTION 12

Psychosis

12.1

What is psychosis?

The term psychosis refers to the inability to distinguish

n

avolition (restricted initiation of goal-directed behaviour)

n

flat affect (restricted range and intensity of emotional

external reality from internal fantasy. The psychotic disorders

expression)

are characterised by distortions of thinking and perception, a disorganisation of thought and behaviour, cognitive

n

alogia (restricted fluency and productivity of thought and speech)

impairment, disturbances in communication and social and functional impairment. It is usual for people with these disorders to have a sense of being a unique, self-directed

n

anhedonia (loss of interest or pleasure).

individual however they also lack insight and thus may not realise that there is anything wrong with their mental state

Schizophrenia has been conceptualised as occurring in

or behaviour.

three phases:

The most common of the psychotic disorders is

1. Prodromal phase that is often described as ‘something is not

schizophrenia. The symptoms of schizophrenia are grouped

quite right’. This phase includes subtle changes characterised

within two types: positive and negative.

by general loss of interest; depressed mood; avoidance of social interactions; avoidance of work or study; anxiety,

Positive symptoms reflect an excess or distortion of normal

irritability or over sensitivity and odd beliefs and behaviours

functioning and include:

(such as superstitiousness). The prodromal phase does not occur in all people, when it does occur its length is

n

hallucinations (seeing, hearing, smelling, sensing or

extremely variable.

tasting things that others cannot) 2. Acute phase is when the person experiences positive n

delusions (false beliefs involving the misinterpretation of

symptoms along with strong feelings such as distress,

perceptions or experiences and may involve persecutory,

anxiety, depression and fear. Risk of suicide increases at

religious or grandiose themes)

this stage, especially during the early years of the disorder. Without treatment this stage may resolve spontaneously

n

disorganised speech (not staying on the topic;

or may continue indefinitely, with treatment the symptoms

tangentiality; incomprehensible or thought disturbances

are usually brought under control.

such as the person believing that thoughts are being inserted into or withdrawn from the mind or are being broadcast to others)

3. Residual phase is the period where symptoms are reduced, although they may still be experienced with less severity than in the previous stage. There is significant

n

motor manifestations such as grossly disorganised

variability in this phase between one person and the

behaviour (can include agitation, difficulty in performing

next: some will function well while others will remain

activities of daily living) or catatonia (decreased reactivity

considerably impaired.

to the environment sometimes to the extreme of complete unawareness, maintaining a rigid or

The latter two phases frequently cycle with repeated acute

inappropriate posture).

episodes of illness interspersed by periods of residual negative symptoms of varying degrees of severity. While full

Negative symptoms reflect a loss of normal functioning and

remissions from schizophrenia do occur, the majority of

include:

people have at least some residual symptoms of varying

PAGE 40

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

severity. It is important to recognise that people may be well

Interacting with someone with psychosis

functioning between episodes although they may have DO point out the consequences/effects of the person’s

some residual negative symptoms.

behaviour. Be specific. Referenced from NSW Department of Health. Mental Health Reference Resource for drug and alcohol professionals.

DO distract the person if you can – try to offer them

2007

something to look at or involve them in doing something

12.2

Key Points for consideration

DO ignore strange or embarrassing behaviour if you can, especially if it is not serious

n

Determine temporal relationship of conditions

n

Beware of an early diagnosis of drug induced psychosis

n

Use principle of safety to guide care for clients

DO NOT try to figure out what the person is talking

DO NOT laugh or let others laugh at the person

experiencing a psychotic episode n

to or about

Clients who chose to continue to use can be treated

DO NOT act horrified or panic.

using harm minimisation principles and should be

n

provided with psycho-education and motivational

Adapted from NSW Department of Health. Mental Health Reference

interviewing techniques

Resource for drug and alcohol professionals. 2007 24

Be alert for potential contraindications, medication tolerance and/or toxicity

n

Determine temporal sequence Analysis of the temporal sequence between psychotic illness

Mental health services must be involved in every

and substance use disorder begins with a thorough

diagnosis of first episode psychosis and where a client

examination of the history of both disorders in an attempt to

is experiencing a prolonged, acute psychotic episode.

identify if one disorder preceded the other.38 This information can assist in the formulation of a treatment plan.

Drug induced psychosis 12.3

Clinical care considerations for clients with comorbid psychotic and substance use disorders

Beware of an early diagnosis of drug induced psychosis as this concept should be regarded with caution. When schizophrenia and a substance use disorder co-exist, it has been found that in about half of the cases the original

Exacerbation of psychosis

diagnosis was of a drug-induced psychosis, which may have

There is clear evidence supporting the relationship between

delayed treatment for schizophrenia.38

the onset of psychotic symptoms and the use of substances, particularly cannabis. Psychotic symptoms are twice as

Duration and complexity

common (even correcting for confounding influences in young

The nature of the intervention and ability of a service to

people who use cannabis).54 Recent literature reviews

assist a client with psychosis will depend upon the skills of

indicate that cannabis does play a causal role in

the service where the client attends. If a client presents with

schizophrenia, and doubles the risk in the long term.

a complex and/or persistent psychotic episode or if a service is not equipped to provide safe and adequate care for that

Safety

client, a mental health service should be engaged for case

During an acute psychotic episode, safety is the guiding

consultation and/or referral.

principle of care. Due to high risk of suicide, clients should be assessed frequently. The safety of staff and others needs to

First onset psychosis

also be considered. Particular attention should be paid to a

Non-affective psychosis and substance abuse are both

client’s social environment, roles and responsibilities (for

disorders with onset in adolescence or early adulthood. On

instance if s/he is a carer for children, has elderly parents

this basis alone a certain degree of co-occurrence is to be

etc) and how the psychosis is affecting their safety.

expected. However the rate of substance abuse among

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 41

populations experiencing their first episode of psychosis is higher than expected.

55

Medications Choice of medication for those with psychotic illnesses should be chosen with the aim of minimising positive

As mentioned above, the symptoms of a psychosis need to

symptoms, enhancing compliance and potentiating

be addressed in the first instance using the principle of

psychosocial interventions, whilst minimising side effects

safety to guide the care of the client by the practitioner.

and the motivation for substance use. At present, atypical antipsychotics appear to be the first line among this group.37

Mental Health services should be engaged in all instances where a client is presenting with a first onset psychosis. This

Contraindications

can be determined by asking the client, their carers and

Caution is required when administering methadone to

through their client case record. The management of this

clients who are taking conventional antipsychotics, such as

episode has long-term impacts for the health of a client and

chlorpromazine and some atypical antipsychotics such as

subsequent psychotic episodes.

risperidone as they may enhance the hypotensive and sedative effects of these drugs.

Interventions which may be appropriate for treatment of clients with first onset psychosis depending upon the client’s

Tolerance and toxicity

stage of recovery include:

Cannabis has been shown to affect the metabolism of some classes of medication including antipsychotics. Cannabis

n

Motivational enhancement

users may therefore require higher doses of antipsychotics due to this effect. 56 This increased dosage may result in an

n

Psychoeducation regarding the risks of chronic psychosis

increase in risk of tardive dyskinesia, already elevated to due

with continuing drug use should be discussed with the

to use of cannabis. The selection of medication, dosing

client. A client who has experienced at least one

schedule and its preparation is therefore important.57

psychotic episode is at increased risk of having further episodes in the future.

Accurate monitoring of the impact of cannabis cessation is imperative as this may inadvertently result in toxicity.

n

Skills training and support

12.4

Psycho-education The evidence indicates that clients who experience a

Existing resources for the care of a person with a psychotic or substance use disorder

psychotic episode are at increased risk for ongoing episodes. Psycho-education that aims to increase awareness of the

A number of clinical treatment guidelines exist to guide the

increased risk of psychosis, the harms of ongoing substance

treatment and care of clients with psychotic disorders or

use and the advantages of cessation is an important

substance use disorders. Some of the key guidelines are

element of care provision.

listed in the table below:

Guidelines

Author

Mental Health Resources Clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders http://www.ranzcp.org/images/stories/ranzcp-attachments/Resources/Publications/CPG/ Clinician/CPG_Clinician_Full_Schizophrenia.pdf International Clinical Practice Guidelines for Early Psychosis http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/187/48/s120

Royal Australian and NZ College of Psychiatrists

International early psychosis association writing group

Client Guidelines Schizophrenia: Australian Treatment Guide for Consumers and Carers http://www.ranzcp.org/resources/clinical-practice-guidelines.html

PAGE 42

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Royal Australian and NZ College of Psychiatrists

Guidelines

Author

Drug and Alcohol Resources – General Clinical guidelines for nursing and midwifery practice in NSW: Identifying and responding to drug and alcohol issues

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2007/pdf/PD2007_091.pdf Drug and Alcohol Psychosocial Interventions Professional Practice Guidelines

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2008/pdf/GL2008_009.pdf NSW Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal Clinical Practice Guidelines

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2008/pdf/GL2008_011.pdf Drug and Alcohol Resources – Alcohol Alcohol Practice guideline: For Practitioners Helping Veterans with Alcohol Problems. http://www.therightmix.gov.au/pdfs/2005_Alcohol_Practice_Guidelines_Intro_Rationale_and_ Methodology.pdf Alcohol treatment guidelines for Indigenous Australians http://www.alcohol.gov.au/internet/alcohol/publishing.nsf/Content/426B5656C2395CC3CA25 73360002A0EA/$File/alc-treat-guide-indig.pdf Treating Alcohol Problems: Guidelines for Alcohol and Drug Professionals http://www.alcohol.gov.au/internet/alcohol/publishing.nsf/Content/AAG13

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre

Drug and Alcohol Resources – Other drugs Clinical guidelines and procedures for the use of methadone in the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence http://www.health.vic.gov.au/dpu/downloads/guidelines-methadone.pdf Clinical guidelines and procedures for the use of naltrexone in the management of opioid dependence http://www.dasc.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/NDS_naltrexone_cguide.pdf Opioid Dependent Persons Admitted to Hospitals in NSW – Management

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2006/PD2006_049.html Opioid Treatment Program: Clinical Guidelines for Methadone and Buprenorphine Treatment

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2006/GL2006_019.html Psychostimulant Users – Clinical Guidelines for Assessment and Management

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2006/pdf/GL2006_001.pdf Rapid Detoxification From Opioids – Guidelines

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/GL/2005/pdf/GL2005_027.pdf Treatment Options for Heroin and other opioid dependence http://www.nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au/internet/drugstrategy/publishing.nsf/Content/397280 7722EB6F7ECA25717D000655EB/$File/opioid_workers.pdf

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 43

SECTION 13

Personality disorders

the expectations of the individual’s culture. This pattern must

13.1

What is a personality disorder?

lead to distress or impairment and be stable and of long duration, with onset traced back to at least adolescence or

Generally people with personality disorders seem to be

early adulthood. Personality disorders tend to develop in

different from the “norm” in the way that they relate to others,

adolescence or early adulthood and are generally lifelong.

moderate their behaviour and emotions and the way they think about the world. The personality disorders involve deeply

It is important to note that even though many individuals

ingrained and enduring patterns of behaviour manifested as

may display the traits listed above it is only when these traits

inflexible responses to a wide range of social and personal

are inflexible, maladaptive, persistent and cause significant

situations. It is common for people with personality disorders

functional impairment or subjective distress that they constitute

to present with the following symptomatology:

a personality disorder. For a formal diagnosis to be made specific criteria must be met and an evaluation of the individual’s

n

inflexible, maladaptive responses to stressful

long-term patterns of functioning must be undertaken.

circumstances The personality disorders are grouped into three clusters. n

significant impairments in loving, working and relating

n

impulsivity in most areas of their lives

relatively infrequently seek out help.

n

difficulty in accommodating other people’s needs

People with cluster B personality disorders tend to be

n

difficulty in accepting responsibility for their own

significantly impaired. Of all the personality disorders people

behaviour

with cluster B disorders are the ones that most commonly

People with cluster A personality disorders often appear to be odd or eccentric, have significant impairment but

dramatic, emotional and erratic and are generally

present to services. People with cluster C personality n

a history of pervasive and persistent anger and resentment

disorders tend to be anxious and fearful and are generally less impaired than cluster B.

n

concrete thought processes Referenced from NSW Department of Health. Mental Health

n

a belief in personal uniqueness, deserving special

Reference Resource for drug and alcohol professionals. 2007

attention and consideration

13.2 n

tendency to misperceive feelings as facts or realities

n

a pervasive sense of boredom, nothingness or emptiness

n

lack of problem solving ability

n

hypersensitivity to perceived put downs, persistent fear

Key points for consideration

It is likely that a number of clients with undiagnosed personality disorders are being treated in health settings across NSW: n

Clients with comorbid personality and substance use disorders are likely to benefit from a structured approach with firm boundaries.

of being discovered as worthless (a nobody). To be diagnosed with a personality disorder using the

n

Personality disorders are treatable.

n

Evidence suggests that a number of psychosocial

DSM-IV-TR the client must have a pervasive and enduring

therapies includes psychodynamic, Cognitive Behaviour

pattern of inner experience and behaviour that deviates from

Therapy and Dialectical Behaviour Therapy can assist.

PAGE 44

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

13.3

Clinical care considerations for people with comorbid personality and substance use disorders

Develop a plan and structured approach for how the client is expected to behave/react n

develop a plan based upon experience with the client.

The incidence of comorbid personality disorders and

What might they find particularly distressing or difficult?

substance use disorders is high and it is likely that clients

What steps may be taken to help to minimise this

who have an undiagnosed personality disorder are being

distress?

treated in various settings across NSW. A diagnosis of a personality disorder should not be rushed, rather, careful

Develop with the client a clear plan for future crisis

consideration must be given to the impact of ongoing

management -

substance use to the ability to make a clear diagnosis. n

work with the client to identify a plan regarding how

Comorbid personality and substance use disorders place a

they may manage situations which may arise in the

client at a high risk for suicide, engaging in other high-risk

future. Consideration of advanced directives can be

behaviours and a poorer prognosis.58

given at this time.

The elements of some drug and alcohol treatment

Ensure that all practitioners interacting with the client

approaches, including engagement and rapport building,

provide a common message and approach to care and

structure and firm boundaries result in enhanced clinical

treatment with the client

outcomes for clients with personality disorders.

49

13.4 These clients will benefit from being treated like all other clients. However, it is important to continually identify the

Existing resources for the care of a person with a personality disorder or substance use disorder

need to engage other services (eg. Case conferencing) where appropriate to develop a comprehensive care and

A number of clinical treatment guidelines exist to guide the

treatment plan.

treatment and care of clients with personality disorders or substance use disorders. Some of the key guidelines are

Evidence does exist for the use of a variety of psychosocial

listed opposite:

therapies including Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy and trauma informed therapies. An increasing evidence base is available for the use of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT). DBT treatment is available in some specialist centres in NSW. Discharge/treatment termination

Clients with personality disorders may struggle with the discharge and treatment termination stage of treatment. The following key practice tips may assist in this transition: Provide clear identification of upcoming date/times for termination and/or discharge n

discuss the upcoming date/times in advance where possible

Set clear boundaries with the client n

work with the client to establish clear expectations regarding the limitations or requirement in behaviour which will guide the transition period

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 45

Guidelines

Author

Mental Health Resources Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder

American Psychiatric Association

http://www.psychiatryonline.com/pracGuide/loadGuidelinePdf. aspx?file=BPD_05-15-06 Drug and Alcohol Resources – General Clinical guidelines for nursing and midwifery practice in NSW: Identifying and responding to drug and alcohol issues

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2007/pdf/PD2007_091.pdf Drug and Alcohol Psychosocial Interventions Professional Practice Guidelines

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2008/pdf/GL2008_009.pdf NSW Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal Clinical Practice Guidelines

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2008/pdf/GL2008_011.pdf Drug and Alcohol Resources – Alcohol Alcohol Practice guideline: For Practitioners Helping Veterans with Alcohol Problems. http://www.therightmix.gov.au/pdfs/2005_Alcohol_Practice_Guidelines_Intro_ Rationale_and_Methodology.pdf Alcohol treatment guidelines for Indigenous Australians http://www.alcohol.gov.au/internet/alcohol/publishing.nsf/Content/426B5656C2395C C3CA2573360002A0EA/$File/alc-treat-guide-indig.pdf Treating Alcohol Problems: Guidelines for Alcohol and Drug Professionals

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre

http://www.alcohol.gov.au/internet/alcohol/publishing.nsf/Content/AAG13 Drug and Alcohol Resources – Other drugs Clinical guidelines and procedures for the use of methadone in the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth

http://www.health.vic.gov.au/dpu/downloads/guidelines-methadone.pdf Clinical guidelines and procedures for the use of naltrexone in the management of opioid dependence

Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing – Commonwealth

http://www.dasc.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/NDS_naltrexone_cguide.pdf Opioid Dependent Persons Admitted to Hospitals in NSW – Management

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2006/PD2006_049.html Opioid Treatment Program: Clinical Guidelines for Methadone and Buprenorphine Treatment

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2006/GL2006_019.html Psychostimulant Users – Clinical Guidelines for Assessment and Management

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2006/pdf/GL2006_001.pdf Rapid Detoxification From Opioids – Guidelines

NSW Department of Health

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/GL/2005/pdf/GL2005_027.pdf Treatment Options for Heroin and other opioid dependence http://www.nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au/internet/drugstrategy/publishing.nsf/Content/ 3972807722EB6F7ECA25717D000655EB/$File/opioid_workers.pdf

PAGE 46

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre

SECTION 14

Specific Populations

Access and equity are two key issues for all people with a

Young people are likely to come in contact with the health

comorbid mental health and substance use disorder. Some

care system at a variety of different access points that

client populations face specific challenges regarding these

include (but are not limited to) the following:

issues. This chapter discusses key considerations relevant for the care of these specific client populations.

n

General Practitioners

n

Child and Adolescent services

Although the suggested recommendations can largely be

n

Paediatricians

extrapolated for all groups, the intention is to raise awareness of

n

Private practitioners (psychologists, psychiatrists, counsellors)

particular considerations that may improve client care.

n

School counsellors and/or health nurses

n

Hospital wards and Emergency departments.

14.1

Young people These services must consider the special needs of young

Like those with adult disorders, youth comorbidity is associated

people including language, resources and available materials

with a more severe pathology, significant challenges in

in order to ensure services can adequately address the needs

terms of service delivery and poorer treatment outcomes59.

of this population. The NSW Department of Health, several non-government organisations and schools have initiated a

Australian burden of disease and injury statistics illustrate the

number of focussed early identification, treatment and social

breadth of the problem of mental and substance use disorders

programs designed to target young people with mental

for young people. Of young people aged 15–24, eight out of ten

health needs and/or substance use disorders. These

of the causes of burden for young women were related to

resources assist with detection and can link children to

mental or substance use disorders and nine out of ten for males.

specialised services and resources. A list of key contacts and

The disease burden in this group is largely the result of substance

resources is available at Appendix 9.

use disorders and/or mental health problems as illustrated in the table below (Mathers & Vos, 1999). Comorbidity of these

Young people often attend health care services at the behest

disorders is high with over 50% having comorbid disorders.60

of parents and families; not because of their own motivation. Family members play an important role in the care of a young

Males

Females

person with a comorbid mental health and substance use

road traffic accidents

depression

disorder particularly when conducting an assessment and in

alcohol dependence

bipolar affective

the planning and conduct of care and treatment.50

suicide

alcohol dependence

bipolar affective

eating disorders

heroin dependence

social phobia

education and engagement are extremely important in the

schizophrenia

heroin

treatment of young people.

depression

asthma

social phobia

road traffic accidents

borderline personality

schizophrenia

generalised anxiety disorder

generalised anxiety disorder

Practitioners have an opportunity to intervene early in a young person’s life. Secondary prevention, psycho-

14.2

Sourced from Teeson M. and Proudfoot H. 2003 “Responding to comorbid mental disorders and substance use disorders”, in Comorbid mental disorders and substance use disorders: epidemiology, prevention and treatment, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre for the National Drug Strategy, Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing, ch 1.

Clients living with Hepatitis C and HIV

People living with HIV or Hepatitis C and a comorbid mental health and SUDs have specific care considerations which may impact their overall wellness. There is often a risk of interruption to the prescribed anti-retroviral treatment when

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 47

interventions to address mental health or a substance use

requirements as early as possible and follow local protocols

disorder commence. It is essential that the practitioner caring

regarding sedation. Finally, access to lethal means needs to

for the client is alert to the importance of ongoing compliance

be determined and factored into risk and suicide

with the client’s prescribed anti-retroviral treatment.

assessments when conducted.

In addition, clients who are taking anti-retrovirals may

14.4

Homeless Clients

experience increased drug toxicity when using substances. The impact and effect of substance use therefore needs to

Providing care for a homeless person with a comorbid

be monitored carefully. A collaborative approach to care

mental health and substance use disorder presents a

which involves the client’s general practitioner, specialist

number of challenges for the practitioner and the client.

physicians and relevant drug and alcohol and mental health

These include poor access to primary health care, potential

practitioners is recommended to facilitate the delivery of

for poor medication compliance and significant challenges

comprehensive care. Collaboration may also assist

regarding follow up. Consideration of these challenges

practitioners to delineate between organic disease related

should be made during the early stages of care prior to the

illness and impairment due to mental illness and/or

development of a management plan and should include

substance use. This may be difficult to distinguish and

questions such as: Will the client be able to afford

expert input may be required.

medication? How will they seek help in the future? Do they have access to primary health care and if so, from whom?

14.3

Clients residing in rural and remote communities

Accessing the availability of outreach services and NGO programs that may be able to assist in overcoming some of

Evidence suggests that access to treatment remains a key

the barriers to treatment may facilitate care delivery for this

concern for people living in rural and remote communities.

complex client population.

In order to address this inequality, a number of online mental health and addiction resources/interventions as well as web/telephone based communication tools have been

14.5

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Clients

developed. These tools help to mitigate the negative impact of distance by making services and expertise increasingly

Evidence suggests that comorbid mental health and

accessible to clients in rural/regional NSW. A list of online,

substance use disorders is a significant problem for

web-based resources is available at Appendix 8.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) communities. The complexity of needs prevalent in some ATSI communities

When providing care for a client who lives in a rural and

present a challenge to the delivery of health services.

remote community, it is important to consider involvement of broader health and community services. These programs

It is preferable that all drug and alcohol and mental health

and professionals become essential links to assist in the

services identify and form partnerships with a local

provision of care for clients with comorbidity in these

Aboriginal health service if they do not have an Aboriginal

settings and are valuable resources for clients.

worker within their team. This helps to provide culturally appropriate care. Ideally, each client should be asked if they

Although the issue of confidentiality is of utmost

would prefer someone from within the cultural group to

importance to all clients, it is particularly important to clients

deliver their care however, if this is not possible, each client

of smaller communities where the likelihood of identifying a

should be provided with the best standard of care.

client is increased. Acknowledging that care is provided in accordance with the NSW Privacy laws and regulations and

When working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

that the practitioner respects the client’s confidential

clients, it is essential to recognise that the client may be

information may help to address this concern.

cared for in the context of a close-knit family and community. If this is the case then both the client and

The ability to transport clients in a psychotic or violent state

community are affected by and engaged in care delivery.

can be particularly problematic in the rural sector because of large distances and shortages of specialist services and

The issue of access is an essential element for consideration

personnel. Wherever possible, identify transport

and should be guided by a principle of flexibility. Aboriginal

PAGE 48

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

and Torres Strait Islander clients may access services outside

substance use or mental health problems throughout their

the access pathways for mainstream service. This may

lives, or they may develop in later life. Older adults face

include informal access pathways and environments for care,

multiple challenges including major life changes such as

assessment and presentation. When providing care for an

adapting to retirement and/or coping with the death of

Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander client, the practitioner

friends or loved ones63.

should consider the different social constructs of illness and diagnosis and attempt to adapt approaches accordingly.

The presence of a comorbid disorder in this population has serious implications and is associated with increased

Key practice tips for conducting an assessment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients

suicidality and greater service utilisation64. Older people are at particular risk for the development of

Access to services by Aboriginal people with comorbidity

anxiety and mood disorders with older adults tending to have

should be allowed in a variety of ways. Flexibility is the key.

more frequent mood episodes as they age, independent of their substance use5. Substance use in this population may be

Client assessment may be more successful in a place

pre-existing or may be newly developed (for example

where the Aboriginal person feels most comfortable and

dependence on benzodiazepines prescribed to assist the

should be considered.

client cope following the death of a partner). The presence of a disorder may in fact be missed by the people caring for

Assessments should ideally take place with an Aboriginal

them with symptoms blamed on the ‘normal ageing process’.

worker present to assist in the communication and ability to trust. HOWEVER, if a service is not available, continue

Particular attention to the physical needs of older adults

to provide care in line with the best practice principles.

should be addressed with consideration given to the possibility of other health conditions (which may be life-threatening) such as hypoglycemia, stroke or infections.

14.6

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Clients

These conditions and the risk of drug interactions and challenges regarding withdrawal need to be assessed and monitored carefully.

Evidence suggests that there are high rates of and substance use and mental health problems amongst Gay and Lesbian 61 62

people.

14.8

Clients with Chronic Pain

It is therefore assumed that the incidence of

comorbid disorders is also high however there is a lack of

The role of chronic pain in clients with a comorbid disorder

formal literature to support this.

is complex. It is estimated that 20% of the Australian population suffer persistent pain65. Evidence suggests that

In order to reduce stigma and encourage open dialogue and

the prevalence of chronic pain in people receiving

disclosure, it is recommended that practitioners enquire

methadone treatment is as high as 50%66.

about a client’s sexual orientation and gender identification as part of a comprehensive assessment. Practitioners should

Mood disorders have been linked to chronic pain with the

remain cognisant of the potential sensitivity of disclosing this

presence of depression associated with an array of poor

information. Although sexual orientation does not change

pain outcomes and worse prognosis67.

the nature, type and standard of care delivered, it provides important information to the practitioner regarding

People who have had substance abuse problems in the past

potential risk factors including a potential increased risk of

or a diagnosed psychiatric illness are ‘at risk’ for developing

suicide that needs to be monitored closely.

problems with prescription pain medication68. This history, and even active substance use, does not mean that

14.7

Older adult clients

treatment for chronic pain is contraindicated 3. It does however highlight the need for collaborative care to provide

Older adults are at considerable risk for a comorbid mental

the best care and treatment for the client.

health and substance use disorder. This client group will have an increasing prominence in care with an ageing

Where available, it is advisable that a specialist pain service

population. An older adult may have been coping with

become involved in the provision of care for these clients,

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 49

ensuring that a comprehensive approach to the multitude of

– misunderstanding of how services operate.

disorders is achieved. n

service specific barriers such as a lack of understanding regarding CALD communities and their family ethos55,56.

Guidelines regarding the management of chronic pain are currently under development by the Royal Australian College of Physicians and will be available in the future.

There are some specific tips and tools that can be used to improve communication with people from cultural groups

14.9

Clients from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

other than your own. These include: n

asking the client what language they speak other than English

NSW is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse communities in Australia. People have migrated from

n

asking the client if they would like access to a healthcare interpreter who speaks their language

approximately 140 different countries and 16 per cent of the total NSW population was born overseas in a non-English speaking country69. This diversity has a significant impact on

n

the need for and delivery of culturally appropriate care.

If yes, the following services may assist – local area NSW Health Care Interpreter Service – the Translating and Interpreting Service

Evidence suggests that the reported level of substance use

– remember to follow the guidelines regarding how to

in CALD communities is less than that in the general

use the service employed.

population70. However, the prevalence of mental health or behaviour problems in people born overseas and/or who

n

providing ongoing evaluation of assessment and care

n

being clear, concrete and specific

n

responding with respect, immediacy and timeliness

n

respecting taboos

n

being sensitive to embarrassment

n

examining your own expectations40,73.

speak a language other than English within the home are similar to those born in Australia. Despite the prevalence of these problems, figures indicate that people from CALD communities are under-represented in both mental health and substance use disorder services71. This may suggest that the under-representation identifies under-utilisation rather than a reduced need72. Culturally specific understanding of approaches to both mental health and substance use disorders may result in barriers to clients accessing care and treatment services. Although these are different for different cultures they may include: n

cultural norms which resist openly acknowledging a personal problem may cause difficulties for people reaching out for assistance

n

stigma associated with both mental health and substance use problems

n

language barriers which inhibit service access

n

lack of information available in community languages which contribute to a: – lack of awareness about the range of services and supports available – lack of knowledge regarding how to access appropriate services

PAGE 50

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

SECTION 15

Care Coordination

15.1

What is care coordination?

discussions, the primary responsibility remains with practitioners, agencies and related staff to ensure any

Care coordination seeks to address the broad range of

transition is workable and agreed to by all parties.

health and social needs of a person with a comorbid mental and substance use disorder.

The importance of this communication during the period of transition has been highlighted as a key aspect in the

The object of care coordination is to work towards

prevention of suicide related deaths. There is evidence

continuity of care, timeliness of treatment and transitions

indicating that the risk of suicide is elevated during times of

between appropriate services based on the person’s

transition74.

individual needs as well as the needs of a person’s family and carer(s), where appropriate.

15.4 Types

Care coordination acknowledges that people may require

There are a myriad of clinical and community settings and

help with problems in various aspects including

environments that a client with a comorbid mental and

accommodation, finance, employment, education and

substance use disorder may receive care and treatment.

physical health. Where a single service is unable to address

Likewise, there are a large variety of services which may be

these needs, care coordination seeks to use a collaborative

appropriate for a client to transition to and between during

approach to care.

different stages of their ‘journey’, ‘recovery’ or ‘rehabilitation’.

15.2

Language in care coordination

of transition

Examples of these include, but are not limited to the following (see diagram on next page):

The language used by mental health services and drug and alcohol services differs. This is particularly relevant when

The transition of clients to this range of services may be

discussing care coordination where some terms have

different depending upon whether the client:

significantly different meanings across sectors and services.

15.3

n

is subject to the Mental Health Act or not

n

is having a transition to teams within Area Health

Transitions in care coordination

A transition refers to the period of time following initial

Services who are subject to NSW Policy Directives and

assessment and subsequent care and treatment of a person

Area Polices and Procedures and/or

with a comorbid mental and substance use disorder. Transitions are sometimes also known as ‘continuity of care’,

n

is having a transition to NGO or private agencies whether under formal agreed procedures or not. Such

‘aftercare’ or ‘discharge planning’.

NGO’s will have specific policies and procedures, Transitions can be complicated due to the complex

philosophy and Corporate Governance.

involvement of a number of stakeholders including the client, carer(s), practitioner and community services.

It is suggested that in order to facilitate the identification and subsequent transition to appropriate services that each

Good transitions require planning, good communication and

service be aware of the range of services available within

negotiating skills in order to negotiate at the individual

their area and the requirements for referral. Contact details

agency level. While clients and their family’s and carer(s) do

for key contacts that can link you to local services are

have a responsibility to participate actively in these

available at Appendix 8.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 51

Psychiatrist

Residential therapeutic environments (DA)

Step up/ step down programs

Psychologist

Community Residential Services

General Practitioners Acute Services Emergency Departments Support Groups (DA + MH)

Resiential rehabilitation (MH)

Mental health and drug and alcohol inpatient services Community Support Services

Peer Support Programs (DA + MH)

15.5 n

Community Services

Advocacy Programs (DA + MH)

Principles of care coordination

The client remains the responsibility of the referring service until such time as a referral is accepted and a plan with supporting documentation agreed upon.

n

Respite services (MH)

15.6

Psychosocial Programs (DA + MH)

The importance of communication

The no wrong door principle is at the centre of care coordination.

n

Specialist services for older people (MH)

Opiate treatment programs

Communication is key to the decision making surrounding transitions. All parties need to have adequate information provided which address both clinical information and the likely actions that follow the referral with a suggested timeline and contact details clarified.

Care coordination may include discharge, referral and co-case management between mental health and drug

The preferred options to make referrals are as follows:

and alcohol services and within differing teams or practitioners within the respective sectors.

1. Direct verbal agreement This usually occurs when a practitioner telephones and

n

Communication is key to decision making

n

A client-centred approach is the focus

talks to another practitioner resulting in an agreed outcome for how the referral is to proceed. This is particularly relevant where: – streamlined procedures are absent/unclear – there are significant risk factors for clients or agencies – there is information that needs to be conveyed which is not easily captured in documentation

PAGE 52

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

2. Streamlined written referral underpinned by

n

Contact has been made with other service provider via

written agreement between two or more agencies

telephone and/or accepted standardised referral pathway

or services.

and the following has been communicated in a formal

This occurs where established procedures for referrals

handover:

exist between services.

– key demographic, diagnostic and treatment information

– Where these pathways exist:

– key psychosocial and historical issues of clinical relevance – identification and documentation of entry into a new

Systematic and timely monitoring needs to occur to ensure

service (if appropriate) and details of future re-entry

referrals are actioned.

pathway to the referring service including identifying the clinicians responsible for care.

There need to be clear provisions for resolving disagreements or uncertainties in a timely manner

n

Client and carer information and education has been provided prior to discharge.

usually by consultation with nominated senior clinicians or managers. n

A plan has been formulated with the client outlining how

3. Combination option 1 and 2 above: verbal referral

to cope with future crisis management. This may include

that is underpinned by written agreement and

the drafting of an Advanced Directive/Care Plan, where

associated procedures.

appropriate.

This option should be seen as the ideal type of referral particularly where significant risk factors are present or

n

The client and carer(s) have been ‘engaged’ in the transition process helping to plan and understand what

the treatment plan is complex.

the next steps in the journey.

15.7

Transitions checklist

n

A primary coordinator has been identified to complete each stage of the transition.

n

A comprehensive discharge care plan should be developed before discharge. This plan should include:

n

The needs basis of referral – why is the client being referred/what are benefits for the client/expectations of the service: – outcomes of a thorough assessment of risk of harm to self and others. – the estimated date of discharge, the client’s likely needs, and any risks at that time have been assessed and communicated early. – a plan for deterioration or crisis management. – involvement of the client, carer, external clinicians including General Practitioners and support agencies. – consideration of broader social and psychosocial needs (housing, employment, welfare benefits, disability support payments, access to education).

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 53

SECTION 16

Specific Clinical Settings

The proposed location of the insertion has been indicated

When clients with a comorbid mental health and substance

and will be formatted for the draft of the guidelines to be

use disorder present to an ED, they do so at a time of risk.

viewed by stakeholders throughout the review process.

This provides an opportunity for intervention including psycho-education and care. It is not however, a clinical

16.1

Emergency Departments (ED)

setting which is conducive to the provision of extended care for a client.

At least 10% of all ED presentations are directly related to a comorbid substance use disorder and mental health

The ‘no wrong door policy’ should be incorporated into care

disorder, with particularly high prevalence among

delivery and discharge, ensuring that appropriate care and

presentations with behavioural disturbance, self-harm and

referrals have been organised for each client. In order to

trauma. The first priority of care in EDs is the recognition,

facilitate this, all EDs should identify both mental health and

assessment and management of acute clinical crises. Once

drug and alcohol specialist services who are responsible for

these have been addressed, then routine screening for and

accepting care of clients with a comorbid disorder. This may

consideration of substance use disorders and mental illness

be in the form of formal service agree-ments or may be

is recommended, especially in the high-prevalence

expressed as defined service pathways75.

presentation groups.

16.2

Justice Health

Clients may present to the ED during a state of acute distress, requiring chemical and/or physical restraint for

Practitioners working within the Justice Setting must be

effective management. Rapid chemical sedation with

cognisant of the different requirements and needs of clients

intravenous agents (eg. Midazolam, haloperidol, droperidol)

being held in remand (unsentenced) versus sentenced

is often the management of choice, but due to the

prisoners. Appropriate referrals and consultation should take

possibility of airway and haemodynamic compromise, must

place between health and Corrective Services to ensure

only be performed in this manner by medical practitioners

optimal management of the client, bearing in mind issues of

with adequate advanced airway management skills, and in

confidentiality.

an area with appropriate equipment and support staff. Of particular concern for practitioners working in the Justice Other methods of chemical sedation (eg utilising oral and/or

Health environment is the transition period. When releasing

intramuscular medication) can be safety utilised where such

a client from custody all clients should be reviewed to

staff and facilities are not available – each ED should have

ensure that:

locally applicable policies for this situation. n

they have access to medications post release

n

they are aware of community services/care providers

n

they have been referred to a service for care and that the

Further information and advice is available from: Detailed information on the strategies regarding the management of clients with a comorbid disorder who are experiencing an acute crisis are included with the NSW Health, Mental Health for Emergency

service has accepted.

Departments – A Reference Guide (2008) (in press) This resource will be accessible via the NSW Health website

Where appropriate, a referral to the Connections program

when complete.

should also be considered for those in adult correctional centres to assist with post release care plan development and linkage with services in the community76.

PAGE 54

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

16.3

General Practice

Clients who are receiving medical care may have a number of pressing concerns and therefore consideration must be

General Practitioners play an essential role in the

given as to the issues influencing a client’s behaviour. For

identification of clients with a comorbid mental health and

instance, when assessing for symptoms of an anxiety disorder,

substance use disorder through screening and assessment. It

consider the impact of the treatment and or health problem/

has been estimated that 12% of clients attending a general

issue which may be influencing their behaviour.

practitioner have a comorbid disorder. The following are specific considerations for the care of clients who present to

In addition, it is likely that a substance using client may go

a General Practitioner for care:

through withdrawal if they do not have access to the substance which they use. If this is the case, refer to the

n

consider the possibility of a substance use disorder

Clinical guidelines for nursing and midwifery practice in

especially for clients with chronic pain and users of

NSW: Identifying and responding to drug and alcohol issues

benzodiazepines (The Royal Australian College of

for further information and resources which are available at:

General Practitioners has specific guidelines available at

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/gl/2008/pdf/

http://www.racgp.org.au/guidelines)

GL2008_001.pdf 78

n

exclude disorders of an organic nature

n

conduct a risk assessment where indicated

n

use the time to provide secondary prevention where possible77.

A number of resources have been developed to assist General Practitioners to manage clients with a comorbidity in the community. The following resources may be helpful: n

The ‘Can Do’ Initiative – The Australian General Practice Network – http://www.agpncando.com

n

The Patient Journey Kit – NSW Department of Health – http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/resources/drugs/ patientjourneykit1_pdf.asp

n

The NSW Health Services Directory – NSW Department of Health – http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/services/ index.asp

16.4

General Wards

Practitioners working in general wards are likely to care for a number of clients with comorbid conditions. Be aware of this possibility and integrate regular screening for comorbid disorders into practice. Identification can help to reduce the number of clients who ‘fall through the cracks’. If detected, consider the special needs of the client early so that consultation with specialist services can be arranged and a coordinated management plan prepared.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 55

Glossary of Terms

Abstinence: Refraining from drug use at all times.

Brief intervention: A treatment strategy in which short (between five minutes and two hours) structured therapy is

Advanced Directive/care planning: refers to the process

offered on one occasion or spread over several visits. Aimed

of preparing for scenarios and usually includes assessment

at helping a person to reduce or stop harmful drug and

of, and dialogue about, a person’s under-standing of their

alcohol use.36

medical history and condition, values, preferences, and personal and family resources. An Advance Directive is a

Cannabis: The generic name given to the psychoactive

document that describes a person’s future preferences for

substance found in the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa,

medical treatment in anticipation of a time when they are

Delta 9-tetra-hydrocannabinol (THC).

unable to express those preferences because of illness or injury. Most commonly used in situations towards the end of

Cocaine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant

life, there are some anecdotal reports of an increasing use in

derived from the cocoa plant, used nonmedically to produce

the mental health area as a means for consumers to have

euphoria or wakefulness. Sold as white, translucent,

more input into their care at times when they have acute

crystalline flakes or powder.

episodes and are considered unfit to make decisions on their Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: A time-limited, structured

own behalf.

treatment that combines behavioural and cognitive Affect: Objective assessment of a person’s emotional state.

strategies to address the client’s perception and beliefs

Described in terms of range and reactivity (from flat to

about their world.

blunted to restricted to normal to labile) and appropriateness (appropriate to inappropriate to the content of speech

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy: Refers to a therapy

or ideation) and congruence to mood. Descriptors include

drawing from Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Mindfulness

euphoric, elevated, angry, irritable and sad.36

Based Stress Reduction to provide treatment components such as group skills training, telephone counselling,

Amphetamine: The group of drugs commonly known as

behavioural and cognitive modification of problem

“speed”. Sold as white or yellow powder, they can also be

behaviours, reflection, empathy and acceptance.

sold as tablets or as a liquid in capsules. Amphetamines can DSM IV TR: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

be swallowed, inhaled (“snorted”) or injected. One form

Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision: Published by the

(ice) can be smoked. When bought illegally, they are often 79

mixed with other substances. Amphetamine is a stimulant.

American Psychiatric Association and contains a comprehensive classification system of psychiatric disorders,

Antidepressant: One of a group of psychoactive drugs

with clear diagnostic criteria.

prescribed for the treatment of depressive disorders. Also used for other conditions such as panic disorder.

Engagement: Refers to the client relationship with a counsellor and dedication/motivation to participate in treatment.

Benzodiazepine: One of the sedative-hypnotic group of drugs. Introduced as a safer alternative to barbiturates, they

Harm minimisation / harm reduction: The concept of

have a general depressant effect on the central nervous

reducing harm associated with substance use without

system that increases with the dose, from sedation to

necessarily stopping use. Harm minimisation is the key

hypnosis to stupor. Benzodiazepines have significant

philosophy for people working with alcohol and other drug

potential for dependence.79

issues in NSW. While abstinence is a part of harm minimisation, it is not the only goal.

PAGE 56

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Hazardous use: A pattern of substance use that increases

Polydrug use: Where a person uses more than one drug,

the risk of harmful consequences for the user.

often at the same time or following one another, and usually with the intention of enhancing, potentiating, or

Illicit drug: An illegal substance.

counteracting the effects of another substance.

Intoxication: The condition resulting from use of a

Psychoactive substance: A substance that, when

psychoactive substance—that produces behavioural and/or

ingested, affects mental processes, emotions and behaviour.

physical changes. Psychotropic: A term with the same meaning as Maintenance therapy: A form of treatment of substance

“psychoactive” (ie, affecting the mind or mental processes).

dependence that involves prescribing a substitute drug, e.g. methadone for the treatment of heroin dependence and

Withdrawal: A series of symptoms that occur when a

nicotine replacement therapy for the treatment of tobacco

person who has developed tolerance to a drug (after long

dependence.

and/or high dose use) stops or reduces use of the drug.

Methadone: A synthetic opioid drug used in maintenance therapy for those dependent on opioids. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction: Is a meditative practice originating in Buddhism and involves intentionally bringing one’s attention to a range of physical, emotional and cognitive experiences in the present moment. Motivational Interviewing: Based upon the stages of change model, this model suggests that people will progress through a series of five stages in deciding and acing upon a plan to change a particular behaviour. Motivational interviewing draws heavily of basic counselling skills with the goal of helping to tip the balance of benefits and losses in favour of reducing/stopping problematic drug and alcohol use. Particularly effective in increasing treatment engagements and adherence. Narcotic: A chemical agent that induces stupor, coma, or insensibility to pain. The term usually refers to opioids, which are called narcotic analgesics. In general use the term is often used incorrectly to refer generally to illicit drugs. Opioids: The generic term applied to alkaloids from the opium poppy, their synthetic analogues, and compounds synthesised within the body. Pharmacotherapy: When a suitable prescribed and supervised psychoactive medical drug is used either short term to ameliorate withdrawal (e.g. buprenorphine for opiate withdrawal), or longer-term maintenance and/or slow withdrawal (e.g. buprenorphine or methadone for opiate withdrawal) or Acamprosate of Naltrexone for the management of alcohol cravings after a withdrawal episode.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 57

Appendices Appendix 1 – Legislation that governs care for mental health and drug and alcohol services

Mental Health Act

g) upon a written request to the authorised medical officer by a primary carer, relative or friend of the person (see

The Mental Health Act establishes the legislative framework

section 26).

within which care, control and treatment can be provided for people with a mental illness in NSW.

Community Treatment Orders (CTO) may also be used. These orders are made for people living in the community

The Act acknowledges that although people with mental

and do not require inpatient admission. The maximum

illness need to have the same rights as everyone else in NSW,

duration of a CTO is 12 months.80

there are times where those rights need to be curtailed, specifically for the person’s own protection from serious

A copy of the Mental Health Act (2007) can be accessed on:

physical harm and/or for the protection of others from serious

http://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/viewtop/inforce/

physical harm. The Act sets out the circumstances in which a

act+8+2007+FIRST+0+N/

person’s rights may be curtailed and ensures that the interference to the client’s rights is kept to a minimum.

If information regarding the Mental Health (Criminal Procedures) Act is required, the Forensic Mental Health

The Act makes provisions for the care of people who: are

Service at Justice Health may be able to offer advice (Ph 02

admitted to hospital voluntarily, are admitted to or detained

9289 2977).

in hospital against their wishes, are required to receive treatment in the community and have committed an offence

The Inebriates Act

and are mentally ill (i.e. forensic clients) (Mental Health (Criminal Procedure) Act 1990).

The main purpose of the Inebriates Act is to provide for the care, control and treatment of an ‘inebriate’, that is a person

The Mental Health Act lists a number of ways in which an

who ‘habitually uses intoxicating liquor or intoxicating or

involuntary admission to hospital can be initiated. A person may

narcotic drugs to excess’.81

be detained in a mental health facility in the following situations: The Act makes provisions for the mandatory care of persons, a) a mental health certificate (Schedule 1) has been provided by a medical practitioner or accredited person (see section 18),

without their consent, in specific clinical care environments. It is infrequently used today, but remains an active piece of legislation.82

b) an ambulance has transported a person (see section 20), In order of a person to be treated under the Act, an c) a police officer has apprehended a person (see section 22),

application must be made in court. It requires a signed affidavit that the person is an inebriate which is further

d) an order for examination and an examination or

supported by a medical certificate from a medical doctor.

observation by a medical practitioner or accredited

Both the applicant and the person for whom the application

person has been completed (see section 23),

has been sought appear in open court where a magistrate decides whether the individual will be held under the Act.

e) upon the order of a Magistrate or bail officer (see section 24),

A copy of the Inebriates Act (1912) can be accessed on: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/

f) following a transfer from another health facility

ia1912113/

(see section 25),

PAGE 58

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Appendix 2 – The Mental Health Clinical Documentation Suite (formerly MHOAT) Mental Health Assessment Pro-forma

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 59

FAMILY NAME

MRN

GIVEN NAMES

MALE

D.O.B. ______ / ______ / __________

FEMALE

M.O.

ADDRESS

Site

Mental Health

ASSESSMENT

LOCATION

PAST PSYCHIATRIC/MENTAL HEALTH HISTORY

COMPLETE ALL DETAILS OR AFFIX PATIENT LABEL HERE (e.g. past episodes of current or other mental health problems, past treatments and hospitalisations, engagement with care)

past and current substance use, amounts and frequency, features of dependence and abuse, prior treatments DRUG AND ALCOHOL HISTORY (e.g. and their outcomes.) Indicate if Substance Use Assessment completed No

Yes

N/A

mental health, addiction or signi¿cant physical problems in parents or relatives; their FAMILY MEDICAL/MENTAL HEALTH HISTORY (e.g. treatments, experience of illness and care)

Staff Name:

Signature:

Designation:

Date: SMR025.010

PAGE 60

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Page 2 of 8

BINDING MARGIN - NO WRITING

LEGAL ISSUES (document current legal orders e.g. Guardianship, Protective Of¿ce; document past, current, pending court cases, conviction for violent offences)

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 61

FAMILY NAME

MRN

GIVEN NAMES

MALE

D.O.B. ______ / ______ / __________

FEMALE

M.O.

ADDRESS

Site

Mental Health LOCATION

ASSESSMENT DEVELOPMENTAL AND PERSONAL HISTORY

COMPLETE ALL DETAILS OR AFFIX PATIENT LABEL HERE (e.g. genogram; family, perinatal, childhood, and adolescent development; social, intellectual development; recreational, educational and employment history; premorbid personality; abuse and neglect)

BINDING MARGIN - NO WRITING

Male

Female

Staff Name:

Pregnancy

Marriage Relationship

Separation

Divorce

Signature:

Twins

Adoption

Signi¿cant Illness

Death

Non-marriage relationship

Designation:

Miscarriage abortion

Unknown gender

Date: SMR025.010

PAGE 62

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Focal group of individuals

Page 4 of 8

FAMILY NAME

MRN

GIVEN NAMES

MALE

D.O.B. ______ / ______ / __________

FEMALE

M.O.

ADDRESS

Site

Mental Health

ASSESSMENT CURRENT FUNCTIONING AND SUPPORTS

COMPLETE ALL DETAILS OR AFFIX PATIENT LABEL HERE

(e.g. living situation, accommodation issues; family, relationships, other supports; social, educational, vocational functioning; ability to undertake responsibilities, daily tasks; ¿nancial issues, gambling; note strengths and weaknesses, any rehabilitation needs) Yes

N/A

BINDING MARGIN - NO WRITING

Indicate if Functional Assessment (Older People) completed No

LOCATION

PARENTAL STATUS AND/OR OTHER CARER RESPONSIBILITIES (If pregnant, consider in Initial Management Plan as appropriate) Does the person have responsibility for children aged 18 years or less? Does the person have any contact with children through access visits or shared residence? Does the person have other carer responsibilities? (e.g. aged or disabled adult) DETAILS OF CHILDREN AND/OR OTHER DEPENDENTS Relationship Age/Date of birth Name (First name & surname)

Page 5 of 8

Signature:

Yes Yes Yes

Current whereabouts

Indicate if Family Focused Assessment (COPMI) completed Are there concerns about the safety of the child, young person or other dependent? If risk identi¿ed, where is the management plan documented? Staff Name:

No No No

Designation:

No No

Yes Yes

Date:

SMR025.010

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 63

FAMILY NAME

MRN

GIVEN NAMES

MALE

D.O.B. ______ / ______ / __________

FEMALE

M.O.

ADDRESS

Site

Mental Health

ASSESSMENT

LOCATION

COMPLETE ALL DETAILS OR AFFIX PATIENT LABEL HERE

MENTAL STATE EXAMINATION Appearance (e.g. physical description; level of personal hygiene and grooming)

Behaviour during interview (e.g. rapport, engagement, psychomotor activity, interactions at assessment)

Affect (observed emotional responses e.g. appropriate, restricted, Àattened)

Mood (reported feeling or emotion e.g. depressed, angry, euphoric or distressed)

Speech (e.g. quantity, rate, volume, tone, unusual characteristics) BINDING MARGIN - NO WRITING

Thought Form (e.g. logical, tangential, blocked, concrete)

Thought Content (e.g. obsessions, delusions, suicidal or homicidal ideation, view of future; for children consider play and fantasy)

Perception (e.g. auditory, visual or somatic hallucinations)

Cognition & Intellectual Functioning (e.g. orientation to time/place/person, memory, attention/concentration, planning) Indicate if Cognitive Assessment (RUDAS) or 3MS/MMS completed No

Yes

N/A

Insight and Judgement

Staff Name:

Signature:

Designation:

Date: SMR025.010

PAGE 64

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Page 6 of 8

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 65

FAMILY NAME

MRN

GIVEN NAMES

MALE

D.O.B. ______ / ______ / __________

FEMALE

M.O.

ADDRESS

Site

Mental Health

ASSESSMENT

LOCATION

COMPLETE ALL DETAILS OR AFFIX PATIENT LABEL HERE

PROVISIONAL DIAGNOSES

INITIAL MANAGEMENT PLAN Has the Plan been discussed with a Consultant Psychiatrist/Senior Clinician? No

Yes

Name:

N/A

Date:

Time:

BINDING MARGIN - NO WRITING

CONTACTS Has a primary carer been identi¿ed under the Mental Health Act 2007? No

Communication undertaken with Yes

Primary carer / family

Yes

General Practitioner

Yes

NGO / Other (specify)

Staff Name:

Name

Signature:

Yes

N/A

Contact details

Designation:

Comment

Date: SMR025.010

PAGE 66

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Page 8 of 8

Appendix 3 – PsyCheck Screener

Clients Name:

DOB:

Service:

UR:

Mental health services assessment required?

No

Suicide/self-harm risk (please circle):

High

Date:

Screen completed by:

Yes Moderate

Low

Clinician use only Complete this section when all components of the PsyCheck have been administered. Summary Section 1

Past history of mental health problems

No

Yes

Section 2

Suicide risk completed and action taken

No

Yes

Section 3

SRQ score

0

1-4

5+

Interpretation/score – Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) Score of 0* on SRQ

No symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or somatic complaints indicated at this time. Action: Re-screen using the PsyCheck Screening Tool after 4 weeks if indicated by past mental health questions or other information. Otherwise monitor as required.

Score of 1-4* on SRQ

Some symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or somatic complaints indicated at this time. Action: Give the first session of the PsyCheck Intervention and screen again in 4 weeks.

Score of 5+* on SRQ

Considerable symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or somatic complaints indicated at this time. Action: Offer sessions 1–4 of the PsyCheck Intervention.

Re-screen using the PsyCheck Screening Tool at the conclusion of four sessions. If no improvement in scores evidence after re-screening, consider referral.

*Regardless of the client’s total score on the SRQ, consider intervention or referral if in significant distress.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 67

General Screen Clinician to administer this section The following questions are about your emotional wellbeing. Your answers will help me get a clearer idea of what has been happening in your life and suggest possible ways that we might work together to relieve any distress you may be experiencing. We ask these questions of everybody, and they include questions about mental, physical and emotional health. 1. Have you ever seen a doctor or psychiatrist for emotional problems or problems with your ‘nerves’/anxieties/worries?

No

Yes

Details:

2. Have you ever been given medication for emotional problems or problems with your ‘nerves’/anxieties/ worries? No, never Yes, in the past but not currently

Medications:

Yes, currently

Medications:

Have you ever been hospitalised for emotional problems or problems with your ‘nerves’/ anxieties/worries?

No

Yes

Details:

4. Do you have a current mental health worker, psychiatrist, psychologist, general practitioner or other health provider? If ‘No’, go

to Question 5. Psychiatrist

Psychologist

Name:

Name:

Contact details:

Contact details:

Role:

Role:

Mental health worker

General Practitioner

Name:

Name:

Contact details:

Contact details:

Role:

Role:

Other – specify:

Other – specify

Name:

Name:

Contact details:

Contact details:

Role:

Role:

5. Has the thought of ending your life ever been on your mind?

No

Yes

In ‘No’, go to Section 3

Has that happened recently?

No

Yes

In ‘No’, go to Section 2

PAGE 68

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Risk Assessment Clinician to administer this section If the person says ‘Yes’ to recently thinking about ending their life (Question 5), complete the suicide/self-harm risk assessment below. Specific questions and prompts and further guidance can be found in the PsyCheck User’s Guide. Risk factor:

Low risk

Moderate risk

High risk

1. Previous attempts: Consider lethality and recency of attempts. Very recent attempt(s) with moderate lethality and previous attempts at high lethality both represent high risk. Recent and lethal attempts of family or friends represent higher risk. History of harm to self

Previous low lethality

Moderate lethality

High lethality, frequent

History of harm in family members or close friends

Previous low lethality

Moderate lethality

High lethality, frequent

2. Suicidal ideation: Consider how the suicidal ideation has been communicated; non-disclosure may not indicate low risk. Communication of plans and intentions are indicative of high risk. Consider non-direct and non-verbal expressions of suicidal ideation here such as drawing up of wills, depressive body language, ‘goodbyes’, unexpected termination of therapy and relationships etc. Also consider homicidal ideation or murder/suicide ideation. Intent

No intent

No immediate intent

Immediate intent

Plan

Vague plan

Viable plan

Detailed plan

Means

No means

Means available

Means already obtained

Lethality

Minor self-harm Planned overdose, Firearms, hanging, jumping,

Behaviours, serious cutting, intervention unlikely

Intervention likely

3. Mental health factors: Assess for history and current mental health symptoms, including depression and psychosis. History of current depression:

Lower or unchanged mood

Enduring low mood

Depression diagnosis

Mental health disorder or symptoms

Few or no symptoms or well-managed significant illness

Pronounced clinical signs

Multiple symptoms with no management

4. Protective factors: These include social support, ability or decision to use support, family involvement, stable lifestyle, adaptability and flexibility in personality style etc. Coping skills and resources

Many

Some

Few

Family/friendships/networks

Many

Some

Few

Stable lifestyle

Many

Some

Few

Ability to use supports

Many

Some

Few

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 69

Self Reporting Questionnaire Client or clinician to complete this section First: Please tick the ‘Yes’ box if you have had this symptom in the last 30 days. Second: Look back over the questions you have ticked. For every one you answered ‘Yes’, please put a tick in the circle if you had that problem at a time when you were NOT using alcohol or other drugs. 1.

Do you often have headaches?

No

Yes

2.

Is your appetite poor?

No

Yes

3.

Do you sleep badly?

No

Yes

4.

Are you easily frightened?

No

Yes

5.

Do your hands shake?

No

Yes

6.

Do you feel nervous?

No

Yes

7.

Is your digestion poor?

No

Yes

8.

Do you have trouble thinking clearly?

No

Yes

9.

Do you feel unhappy?

No

Yes

10. Do you cry more than usual?

No

Yes

11. Do you find it difficult to enjoy your daily activities?

No

Yes

12. Do you have it difficult to make decisions?

No

Yes

13. Is your daily work suffering?

No

Yes

14. Are you unable to play a useful part in life?

No

Yes

15. Have you lost interest in things?

No

Yes

16. Do you feel that you are a worthless person?

No

Yes

17. Has the thought of ending your life been on your mind?

No

Yes

18. Do you feel tired all the time?

No

Yes

19. Do you have uncomfortable feelings in the stomach?

No

Yes

20. Are you easily tired?

No

Yes

Source: Lee, N., Jenner, L., Kay-Lambkin, F., Hall, K., Dann, F., Roeg, S., Hunt, S., Dingle, G., Baker, A., Hides, L., & Ritter, A. (2007). PsyCheck: Responding to mental health issues within alcohol and drug treatment. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

PAGE 70

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Appendix 4 – The Mental Health Clinical Documentation Suite Substance Use Assessment Pro-forma

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 71

PAGE 72

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Appendix 5 – The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) INTRODUCTION (Please read to client) Thank you for agreeing to take part in this brief interview about alcohol, tobacco products and other drugs. I am going to ask you some questions about your experience of using these substances across your lifetime and in the past three months. These substances can be smoked, swallowed, snorted, inhaled, injected or taken in the form of pills (show drug card). Some of the substances listed may be prescribed by a doctor (like amphetamines, sedatives, pain medications). For this interview, we will not record medications that are used as prescribed by your doctor. However, if you have taken such medications for reasons other than prescription, or taken them more frequently or at higher doses than prescribed, please let me know. While we are also interested in knowing about your use of various illicit drugs, please be assured that information on such use will be treated as strictly confidential. NOTE: BEFORE ASKING QUESTIONS, GIVE ASSIST RESPONSE CARD TO PATIENT Q1. In your life, which of the following substances have you ever used? (NON-MEDICAL USE ONLY)

YES

NO

a. Tobacco products (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, cigars, etc.) b. Alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, spirits, etc.) c. Cannabis (marijuana, pot, grass, hash, etc.) d. Cocaine (coke, crack, etc.) e. Amphetamine type stimulants (speed, diet pills, ecstasy, etc.) f. Inhalants (nitrous, glue, petrol, paint thinner, etc.) g. Sedatives or Sleeping Pills (Valium, Serepax, Rohypnol, etc.) h. Hallucinogens (LSD, acid, mushrooms, PCP, Special K, etc.) i. Opioids (heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine, etc.) j. Other – specify:

(If completing follow-up please cross-check the patient’s answers with the answers given for Q1 at baseline. Any differences on this question should be queried). Probe if all answers are negative:

If ‘NO to all items – end assessment

‘Not even when you were in school?’

If YES to any item ask Q2 for each substance ever used

Never

Once or twice

Monthly

Weekly

Daily or almost daily

Q2. In the past three months, how often have you used the substances you mentioned (FIRST DRUG, SECOND DRUG, ETC)?

a. Tobacco products (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, cigars, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

b. Alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, spirits, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

c. Cannabis (marijuana, pot, grass, hash, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

d. Cocaine (coke, crack, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

e. Amphetamine type stimulants (speed, diet pills, ecstasy, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

f. Inhalants (nitrous, glue, petrol, paint thinner, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

g. Sedatives or Sleeping Pills (Valium, Serepax, Rohypnol, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

h. Hallucinogens (LSD, acid, mushrooms, PCP, Special K, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

i. Opioids (heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

j. Other – specify:

0

2

3

4

6

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 73

If ‘Never’ to all items in Question 2, skip to Question 6. If any substances in Question 2 were used in the previous three months, continue with Questions 3, 4 & 5 for each substance used. Never

Once or twice

Monthly

Weekly

Daily or almost daily

Q3. During the past three months, how often have you had a strong desire or urge to use (FIRST DRUG, SECOND DRUG, ETC)?

a. Tobacco products (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, cigars, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

b. Alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, spirits, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

c. Cannabis (marijuana, pot, grass, hash, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

d. Cocaine (coke, crack, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

e. Amphetamine type stimulants (speed, diet pills, ecstasy, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

f. Inhalants (nitrous, glue, petrol, paint thinner, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

g. Sedatives or Sleeping Pills (Valium, Serepax, Rohypnol, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

h. Hallucinogens (LSD, acid, mushrooms, PCP, Special K, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

i. Opioids (heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

j. Other – specify:

0

2

3

4

6

Never

Once or twice

Monthly

Weekly

Daily or almost daily

Q4. During the past three months, how often has your use of (FIRST DRUG, SECOND DRUG, ETC) led to health, social, legal or financial problems?

a. Tobacco products (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, cigars, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

b. Alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, spirits, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

c. Cannabis (marijuana, pot, grass, hash, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

d. Cocaine (coke, crack, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

e. Amphetamine type stimulants (speed, diet pills, ecstasy, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

f. Inhalants (nitrous, glue, petrol, paint thinner, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

g. Sedatives or Sleeping Pills (Valium, Serepax, Rohypnol, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

h. Hallucinogens (LSD, acid, mushrooms, PCP, Special K, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

i. Opioids (heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

j. Other – specify:

0

2

3

4

6

Never

Once or twice

Monthly

Weekly

Daily or almost daily

Q5. During the past three months, how often have you failed to do what was normally expected of you because of your use of (FIRST DRUG, SECOND DRUG, ETC)?

a. Tobacco products (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, cigars, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

b. Alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, spirits, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

c. Cannabis (marijuana, pot, grass, hash, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

d. Cocaine (coke, crack, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

e. Amphetamine type stimulants (speed, diet pills, ecstasy, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

f. Inhalants (nitrous, glue, petrol, paint thinner, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

g. Sedatives or Sleeping Pills (Valium, Serepax, Rohypnol, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

h. Hallucinogens (LSD, acid, mushrooms, PCP, Special K, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

i. Opioids (heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine, etc.)

0

2

3

4

6

j. Other – specify:

0

2

3

4

PAGE 74

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

6

Ask Questions 6 & 7 for all substances ever used (i.e. those endorsed in Question 1). Yes, but not in the last 3 months

6

3

b. Alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, spirits, etc.)

0

6

3

c. Cannabis (marijuana, pot, grass, hash, etc.)

0

6

3

d. Cocaine (coke, crack, etc.)

0

6

3

e. Amphetamine type stimulants (speed, diet pills, ecstasy, etc.)

0

6

3

f. Inhalants (nitrous, glue, petrol, paint thinner, etc.)

0

6

3

g. Sedatives or Sleeping Pills (Valium, Serepax, Rohypnol, etc.)

0

6

3

h. Hallucinogens (LSD, acid, mushrooms, PCP, Special K, etc.)

0

6

3

i. Opioids (heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine, etc.)

0

6

3

j. Other – specify:

0

6

3

Yes, but not in the last 3 months

Yes, in the last 3 months

0

Yes, in the last 3 months

a. Tobacco products (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, cigars, etc.)

No, Never

No, Never

Q6. Has a friend or relative or anyone else ever expressed concern about your use of (FIRST DRUG, SECOND DRUG, ETC.)?

Q7. Have you ever tried and failed to control, cut down or stop using (FIRST DRUG, SECOND DRUG, ETC.)?

a. Tobacco products (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, cigars, etc.)

0

6

3

b. Alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, spirits, etc.)

0

6

3

c. Cannabis (marijuana, pot, grass, hash, etc.)

0

6

3

d. Cocaine (coke, crack, etc.)

0

6

3 3

6

3

g. Sedatives or Sleeping Pills (Valium, Serepax, Rohypnol, etc.)

0

6

3

h. Hallucinogens (LSD, acid, mushrooms, PCP, Special K, etc.)

0

6

3

i. Opioids (heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine, etc.)

0

6

3

j. Other – specify:

0

6

3

Yes, but not in the last 3 months

6

0

Yes, in the last 3 months

0

f. Inhalants (nitrous, glue, petrol, paint thinner, etc.)

No, Never

e. Amphetamine type stimulants (speed, diet pills, ecstasy, etc.)

0

6

3

Q8. Have you ever used any drug by injection? (NON-MEDICAL USE ONLY)

IMPORTANT NOTE: Patients who have injected drugs in the last 3 months should be asked about their pattern of injecting during this period, to determine their risk levels and the best course of intervention. Pattern of injecting

Intervention

Once weekly or less or Fewer than 3 days in a row

Brief Intervention including “risks associated with injecting” card”

More than once per week or 3 or more days in a row

Further assessment and more intensive treatment*

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 75

HOW TO CALCULATE A SPECIFIC SUBSTANCE INVOLVEMENT SCORE For each substance (labelled a. to j.) add up the scores received for questions 2 through 7 inclusive. Do not include the results from either Q1 or Q8 in this score. For example, a score for cannabis would be calculated as: Q2c + Q3c + Q4c + Q5c + Q6c + Q7c Note that Q5 for tobacco is not coded, and is calculated as: Q2a + Q3a + Q4a + Q6a + Q7a THE TYPE OF INTERVENTION IS DETERMINED BY THE PATIENT’S SPECIFIC SUBSTANCE INVOLVEMENT SCORE Record score

No intervention

Receive brief intervention

More intensive treatment

a. tobacco b. alcohol c. cannabis d. cocaine e. amphetamine f. inhalant g. sedatives h. hallucinogens i. opioids j. other drugs

NOTE: *FURTHER ASSESSMENT AND MORE INTENSIVE TREATMENT may be provided by the health professional(s) within your primary care setting, or, by a specialist drug and alcohol treatment service when available. Retrieved from World Health Organsation (WHO) [homepage on the Internet]. Geneva: The ASSIST Questionnaire v3.0 [cited 2009 Jan 29]. Available from: http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/activities/assist/en/index.html

WHO ASSIST v3.0 – Response Card for clients Response Card (ASSIST Questions 2 – 5) Response Card – Substances

Never: not used in the last 3 months

a. Tobacco products (cigarettes, chewing tobacco, cigars, etc.) Once or twice: 1 to 2 times in the last 3 months. b. Alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, spirits, etc.) Monthly: 1 to 3 times in one month. c. Cannabis (marijuana, pot, grass, hash, etc.) Weekly: 1 to 4 times per week. d. Cocaine (coke, crack, etc.) Daily or almost daily: 5 to 7 days per week. e. Amphetamine type stimulants (speed, diet pills, ecstasy, etc.) f. Inhalants (nitrous, glue, petrol, paint thinner, etc.)

Response Card (ASSIST Questions 6 to 8) g. Sedatives or Sleeping Pills (Valium, Serepax, Rohypnol, etc. No, Never h. Hallucinogens (LSD, acid, mushrooms, PCP, Special K, etc.) Yes, but not in the past 3 months i. Opioids (heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine, etc.) Yes, in the past 3 months j. Other – specify:

PAGE 76

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Appendix 6 – The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Thank you for agreeing to take part in this survey about alcohol. Below are some questions about your experience of drinking alcohol during the past 12 months. Please be assured that the information on your drinking will be treated as strictly confidential. Please circle your answer to each question. Please see below for examples of ‘standard drinks’.

1. HOW OFTEN DO YOU HAVE A DRINKING CONTAINING ALCOHOL? Never

Monthly or less

2-4 times a month

2-3 times a week

4 or more times a week

(0)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

2. HOW MANY DRINKS CONTAINING ALCOHOL DO YOU HAVE ON A TYPICAL DAY WHEN YOU ARE DRINKING? 1 or 2

3 or 4

5 or 6

7 to 9

10 or more

(0)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

3. HOW OFTEN DO YOU HAVE SIX OR MORE DRINKS ON ONE OCCASION Never

Less than monthly

Monthly

Weekly

Daily or almost daily

(0)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

4. HOW OFTEN DURING THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU FOUND THAT YOU WERE NOT ABLE TO STOP DRINKING ONCE YOU HAD STARTED? Never

Less than monthly

Monthly

Weekly

Daily or almost daily

(0)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

5. HOW OFTEN DURING THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU FAILED TO DO WHAT WAS NORMALLY EXPECTED FROM YOU BECAUSE OF DRINKING? Never

Less than monthly

Monthly

Weekly

Daily or almost daily

(0)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

6. HOW OFTEN DURING THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU NEEDED A FIRST DRINK IN THE MORNING TO GET YOURSELF GOING AFTER A HEAVY DRINKING SESSION? Never

Less than monthly

Monthly

Weekly

Daily or almost daily

(0)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

7. HOW OFTEN DURING THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU HAD A FEELING OF GUILT OR REMORSE AFTER DRINKING? Never

Less than monthly

Monthly

Weekly

Daily or almost daily

(0)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 77

Appendix 7 – Possible drug interactions with methadone Drug

Degree of interaction

Effect

Alcohol

Increased sedation

Additive CNS depression

Barbiturates

Moderate

Reduced methadone levels, raised sedation

Raised hepatic metabolism, additive CNS depression

Benzodiazepines

Enhanced sedative effect

Additive CNS depression

Buprenorphine

Antagonist effect

Can only be used safely in low doses (20mg or less daily) methadone treatment

Reduced methadone levels

Raised hepatic metabolism, methadone may need twice daily dosing regime

Chloral hydrate

Increased sedation

Additive CNS depression

Chlormethiazole

Increased sedation

Additive CNS depression

Possible increase in methadone levels

Inhibits hepatic enzymes involved in methadone metabolism

Morphine has an increased rate of onset of action and increased sedative effect when used with these drugs.

Unknown

Injection with opiates causing hallucinations reported

Unknown

Enhanced sedative effect

Additive CNS depression

Raised desipramine levels (x2)

Unknown. Interaction not seen with other tricyclic anti-depressants

Enhanced sedative effect

Additive CNS depression

Carbamazepine

Cimetidine

Moderate

Moderate

Cisapride Domperidone Metoclopramide Cyclizine

Severe

Codeine Desipramine

Moderate

Dextropropoxyphene

Mechanism

Disulfiram

Avoid in combination with methadone formulations containing alcohol (check with manufacturers)

Very unpleasant reaction to alcohol which can be alarming

Inhibits alcohol metabolism allowing metabolites to build up

Erythromycin

In theory, should interact but combination has not been studied

Increase in methadone levels

Decreased methadone metabolism

Fluconazole

In theory, same as ketoconazole

Fluoxetine Sertraline

Clinically important but not as significant as for fluvoxamine

Raised methadone levels

Decreased methadone metabolism

Fluvoxamine

Clinically important

Raised plasma methadone levels

Decerased methadone metabolism

Grapefruit juice

In theory, should interact and there have been several anecdotal reports

Raised methadone levels

Decreased methadone metabolism

Indinavir

Clinically important

Raised methadone levels

Decreased methadone metabolism

Ketoconazole

Clinically important

Raised methadone levels

Decreased methadone metabolism

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors anti-depressants including moclobamide and selegiline

Severe with pethidine although rare with methadone. Concurrent use should be avoided

CNS excitation; delirium, hyperpyrexia, convulsions or respiratory depression

Unknown

PAGE 78

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Drug

Degree of interaction

Effect

Mechanism

Naltrexone

Severe

Reverses the effects of methadone in overdose (longacting)

Opiate antagonist works by competing for opioid receptor

Naloxone

Severe

Reverses the effects of methadone in overdose (longacting)

Opiate antagonist works by competing for opioid receptor

Nevirapine

Clinically important

Decreased methadone levels

Increased methadone metabolism

Nifedipine

Has been demonstrated in vitro only

Increased methadone levels

Methadone increases the metabolism of nifedipine

Omeprazole

To date, demonstrated in animals only

Increased methadone levels

Possibly an effect upon methadone absorption from the gut

Other SSRIs

Theoretical

Raised plasma methadone levels

Decreased methadone metabolism

Other selective serotonin in re-uptake inhibitors

Theoretical

Phenobarbitone

Moderate

Reduced methadone levels

Raised hepatic metabolism (see carbamazepine)

Phenytoin

Moderate

Reduced methadone levels, withdrawal symptoms

Raised hepatic metabolism (see carbamazepine)

Rifabutin

Occasionally clinically important

Decreased methadone levels

Increased methadone metabolism

Rifampicin

Severe

Reduced methadone levels, withdrawal symptom

Increased metabolism

Ritonavir

Clinically important

May reduce or increase plasma methadone levels

Increased or reduced methadone metabolism

Tricyclic antidepressants, eg. Amitriptyline

Moderate

Increased sedation

Unknown

Urine acidifiers, eg. Ammonium chloride

Reduced methadone levels

Raised urinary excretion

Zidovudine

Possible raised levels of zidovudine

Unknown

Zopiclone

Increased sedation

Additive CNS depression

Adapted from the NSW Department of Health. Clinical guidelines for nursing and midwifery practice in NSW: Identifying and responding to drug and alcohol issues. North Sydney: NSW Health

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 79

Appendix 8 – Possible drug interactions with buprenorphine Drug

Status of interaction

Effect

Mechanism

Alcohol

Clinically important

Increased sedation, increased respiratory depression. Combination may also have increased hepatotoxic potential

Additive central nervous system depression

Benzodiazepines

Clinically important

Enhanced sedative effect

Additive CNS depression

Methadone and other opioids

Clinically Important

Buprenorphine’s antagonist effect may precipitate withdrawal in patients taking other opioids, or enhanced sedative and respiratory depression

Buprenorphine is a partial agonist of opiate receptors.

Naltrexone and naloxone

Clinically important

Greatly reduced antagonist effect of naltrexone and naloxone

Buprenorphine has higher affinity for opioid receptors than naltrexone and naloxone

Erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics

Clinically important

Raised buprenorphine levels

Decreased buprenorphine metabolism

HIV protease inhibitors such as indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir

Clinically important

Raised buprenorphine levels Decreased buprenorphine metabolism

Ketoconazole and other azole antifungal agents

Clinically important

Raised buprenorphine levels

Decreased buprenorphine metabolism

Carbamazepine

Theoretical

Reduced buprenorphine levels

Increased buprenorphine metabolism

Barbiturates, eg phenobarbitone

Clinically important

Reduced buprenorphine levels, Increased sedation. Additive CNS depression

Increased buprenorphine metabolism

Phenytoin

Theoretical

Reduced buprenorphine levels

Increased buprenorphine metabolism

Rifampicin

Theoretical

Reduced buprenorphine levels

Increased buprenorphine metabolism

Drugs that inhibit CYP 3A4

Drugs that induce CYP 3A4

Sourced from the NSW Department of Health. Clinical guidelines for methadone and buprenorphine treatment of opioid dependence. North Sydney: NSW Health.

PAGE 80

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Appendix 9 – Contacts and resources Youth Specific Resources DrugInfo Clearinghouse

http://www.druginfo.adf.org.au/

Headroom

http://www.headroom.net.au/

Kids Helpline

http://www.kidshelp.com.au/home_KHL.aspx?s=6

National Drug Campaign – Where’s your head at?

http://www.drugs.health.gov.au/internet/drugs/publishing.nsf/Content/ youth-home

Reach Out

www.reachout.com.au

Reality Check

http://www.realitycheck.net.au/text_site/home_text.html

The Source

http://www.thesource.gov.au/find/life/drugs_and_alcohol.asp

Ybblue

www.beyondblue.org.au/ybblue

Youth specific services in NSW – The New South Wales Association for Adolescent Health Website

http://www.naah.org.au/youth.cf

Adult web resources Australian Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Research

www.acar.net.au

Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression – Self Help Section

http://www.crufad.com/site2007/selfhelp/shindex.html

Moodgym

http://www.moodgym.anu.edu.au

Mental Health First Aid

http://www.mhfa.com.au/

Mental Health Crisis Services Sydney Central

9556 9100 (24 hours)

Mental Health Access Line

Sydney Northern

1300 302 980 (24 hours)

Northern Sydney Mental Health

Sydney South Eastern

1300 300 180 (24 hours)

Mental Health Service

Sydney South Western

1300 669 663 (24 hours)

Macarthur Mental Health Service

Sydney Western

9840 3047 (24 hours)

Cumberland Hospital

9843 3237 (24 hours)

Parramatta Mental Health Team

9881 8888 (24 hours)

Blacktown Mental Health Service

Central Coast

4320 3500 (24 hours)

Central Coast Mental Health Mental Intake Service

Far West

1800 665 066 (24 hours)

Mental Health Service

Greater Murray

1800 800 944 (24 hours)

Greater Murray Access Line

Illawarra

1300 552 289 (24 hours)

Mental Health Service

The Hunter

1800 655 085 (24 hours)

The Hunter Valley Mental Health Service

Macquarie

1800 011 511 (24 hours)

Mental Health Service

Mid North Coast

1300 303 900 (24 hours)

Mental Health Service

Mid Western

1800 011 511 (24 hours)

Mental Health Service

New England

6766 3400 (24 hours)

Community Mental Health

Northern Rivers

6620 2240 (after hours)

Richmond Clinic

Southern NSW

1800 677 114 (24 hours)

Mental Health Service

Wentworth

1800 650 749 (24 hours)

Mental Health Service

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 81

Comorbidity resources Clinical Treatment Guidelines for Alcohol and Drug Clinicians. No. 14: Co-occurring acquired brain injury / cognitive impairment and alcohol and other drug use disorders.

http://www.health.vic.gov.au/drugservices/downloads/abi_ctg.pdf

SAMSHA TIP 42: Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons With Co-Occurring Disorders (USA)

http://ncadistore.samhsa.gov/catalog/productDetails. aspx?ProductID=16979

Screening for and assessment of co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders by alcohol & other drug and mental health services.

http://www.dualdiagnosis.org.au/home/index.php?option=com_ docman&task=doc_download&gid=23&Itemid=27&mode=view

The Patient Journey. KIT2: Supporting GPs to manage comorbidity in the community.

http://www.psyborg.com.au/kittest/kit2.pdf

NSW Health Care Interpreter Service Sydney South West (Western zone)

02 9828 6801

NSCC – Northern Sydney sector

02 9926 7690

Sydney South West (Eastern zone)

02 9515 9516

NSCC – Central Coast sector

02 4924 6286

SESIAHS – Northern Sector

02 9515 9516

Hunter New England

02 4924 6286

SESIAHS – Southern Sector

02 4274 4211

Sydney West

02 9840 3697

Greater Southern Area Health Service

02 4274 4211

To contact the Translating and Interpreting Service (TIS):

131 450

Area Health Service Central intake number Greater Southern Area Health Service Greater Murray

1800 800 944 / 02 9425 3923

Southern

1800 809 423

Greater Western Area Health Service Far West

1800 665 066 / 08 8080 1556

Macquarie

1800 092 881 / 02 6841 2360

Mid Western

1300 887 000

Hunter / New England Area Health Service Hunter

02 4923 2060

New England

1300 660 059

North Coast Area Health Service

1300 662 263

Mid North Coast

02 6588 2882

Northern Rivers

02 6620 7612

Northern Sydney / Central Coast Area Health Service North Sydney

1300 889 788

Central Coast

4394 4880

South Eastern Sydney / Illawarra Area Health Service South East Sydney

02 9113 4444

Illawarra

1300 652 226

Sydney South West Area Health Service South West Sydney

02 9616 8586

Central Sydney

02 9515 6311

Sydney West Area Health Service Wentworth

02 4734 1333

Western Sydney

02 9840 3355

PAGE 82

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

Non-government Mental Health and Drug and Alcohol Services

Mental Health Coordinating Council (MHCC) MHCC represents approximately 128 member organisations who provide 400 mental health programs including: n

Employment and supported education

n

Supported accommodation and residential rehabilitation

n

Peer support and consumer advocacy

n

Respite and carer support

n

Day and rehabilitation program

n

Home based outreach support

Contact details for these services is available from: www.mhcc.org.au

The Network of Alcohol and other Drug Agencies NADA represents approximately 104 member organisations who provide 168 drug and alcohol programs including: n

Non-residential rehabilitation programs

n

Residential rehabilitation

n

Family support

n

Therapeutic communities

Further information about services in your area is available from: www.nada.org.au Helplines Alcohol and Drug Information Service (ADIS)

9361 8000 or 1800 422 599

Offers a 24/7 confidential telephone information, advice and counselling service for people with problems related to drugs and alcohol.

Anxiety Disorders Support and Information Line

1300 794 992

Provides information regarding anxiety disorders and related available supports.

Mental Health Information Service

1300 794 991

Offers a service to assist people looking for information on any mental health issue and related service(s)

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 83

References (Endnotes)

1

Teeson M. and Proudfoot H. 2003, “Responding to

9

American Psychiatric Association, 2004, The diagnostic

comorbid mental disorders and substance use

and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition:

disorders”, in Comorbid mental disorders and substance

(DSM-IV-TR), Washington, American Psychiatric Press.

use disorders: epidemiology, prevention and treatment, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre for the

2

10 Siggins Miller, 2006, Management of comorbid

National Drug Strategy, Canberra: Department of

substance use and mental disorders by Mental Health

Health and Ageing, ch 1.

and Drug and Alcohol Services: a systems analysis.

NSW Department of Health, 2008, NSW Comorbidity Framework for Action. North Sydney: NSW Health.

11 Velleman, Richard and Baker, Amanda, 2008, “Moving away from medicalised and partisan terminology: a contribution to the debate”, Mental Health and

3

NSW Department of Health, 2000, Mental Health and

Substance Use: dual diagnosis, 1:1, 2–9.

Substance Use Disorder Service Delivery Guidelines. North Sydney: NSW Health.

12 Kavanagh, K. Mueser,T. and Baker, A. 2003, “Management of comorbidity”, in Comorbid mental

4

5

Andrews G, Hall W, Teesson M, Henderson S. 1999,

disorders and substance use disorders: epidemiology,

The Mental Health of Australians. Canberra, Australia,

prevention and treatment, National Drug and Alcohol

Commonwealth Department of Health and Family

Research Centre for the National Drug Strategy,

Services; Report No.: 2.

Canberra, Department of Health and Ageing, ch 5.

Teeson M. and Proudfoot H. 2003, Comorbid mental

13 Accessing Acute Adult Mental Health Services in the

disorders and substance use disorders: epidemiology,

Hunter, 2004, DVD, Hunter New England Area Health

prevention and treatment, National Drug and Alcohol

Service.

Research Centre for the National Drug Strategy, Canberra, Department of Health and Ageing.

14 de Crespigny, C., Talmet, J., Modystack, K., Cusack, L. and Watkinson, J. 2003, “Alcohol, Tobacco & Other

6

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 2005,

Drugs Guidelines for Nurses and Midwives, Clinical

“Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons With Co-

Guidelines”, Flinders University School of Nursing &

Occurring Disorders” Treatment Improvement Protocol,

Midwifery and the Drug and Alcohol Services Council,

(TIP) Series 42, DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 05-3992,

South Australia, in print, Flinders University, Bedford

Rockville, MD, Substance Abuse and Mental Health

Park, South Australia. Version 2, September.

Services Administration. 15 NSW Department of Health. “Clinical guidelines for 7

NSW Department of Health, 2007, Background papers

nursing and midwifery practice in NSW: Identifying and

for the Clinical guidelines for nursing and midwifery

responding to drug and alcohol issues”, North Sydney,

practice in NSW, Identifying and responding to drug and

NSW Health.

alcohol issues, North Sydney, NSW Health. 8

NHMRC, 1999, A guide to the development, implementation and evaluation of clinical practice guidelines, Canberra, 56.

PAGE 84

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

16 de Crespigny, C., Talmet, J., Modystack, K, Cusack, L. &

26 Primm, A.B., Gomez, M.B., Tzolova-Iontchev, I., Perry,

Watkinson, J. 2003, “Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs

W., Vu, H.T., Crum, R.M. 2000, “Mental Health versus

Guidelines for Nurses and Midwives: Clinical

substance abuse treatment programs for dually

Guidelines”, Flinders University School of Nursing &

diagnosed patients”, J Subs Abuse Treatment, 19, pp.

Midwifery and the Drug and Alcohol Services Council,

285-290.

South Australia, in print, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Version 2, September.

27 Minkoff, K., Zweben, J., Rosenthal, R. and Ries, R. 2005, Development of service intensity criteria and program

17 Clancy, R. and Terry, M. 2004. “Psychiatry and Substance Use”, DVD, North Sydney, NSW Health. 18 de Crespigny, C., Talmet, J., Modystack, K, Cusack, L. &

categories for individuals with co-occurring disorders, J Addict Dis. 22 Suppl. 1:113-29. 28 National Comorbidity Project 2003. “Current practice in

Watkinson, J. 2003, “Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs

the management of clients with comorbid mental

Guidelines for Nurses and Midwives: Clinical

health and substance use disorders in tertiary care

Guidelines”, Flinders University School of Nursing &

settings”, Commonwealth of Australia.

Midwifery and the Drug and Alcohol Services Council, South Australia, in print, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia,Version, September.

29 Clancy, R. 2008 “What are the recommended service structures and approaches to care for people with comorbid conditions?”, Trigger Paper 02.

19 Osher, F. C. and Kofoed, L. L. 1989, “Treatment of patients with psychiatric and psychoactive substance abuse disorders”, Hosp., Community Psychiatry, 40(10).

30 Croton, G. 2007. Screening for and assessment of co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders by Alcohol & Other Drug and Mental Health Services,

20 Mueser, K.T., Noordsy, D.L., Drake, R.E. and Fox, L. 2003, Integrated Treatment for Dual Disorders: A Guide

Victoria, Victorian Dual Diagnosis Initiative Advisory Group.

to Effective Practice, New York, Guilford Press. 31 Dawe, S., Loxton, N., Hides, L., Kavanagh, D.and 21 Clancy, R. 2008, “What are the recommended service

Mattick, R. P. 2002, Review of Diagnostic Screening

structures and approaches to care for people with

Instruments for Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Other

comorbid conditions?”, Trigger Paper 02.

Psychiatric Disorders, 2nd ed., Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service.

22 Clark R.E., Samnaliev M., McGovern M.P. 2007, “Treatment of Co-occurring Mental and Substance Use

32 Baker, A. 2008, “What is the recommended approach

Disorders in Five State Medicaid Programs”. Psychiatric

when a person with a comorbidity comes into first point

Services, 58, pp. 942-948.

of engagement with the health system/primary care system?”, Trigger Paper 06.

23 Dual Diagnosis Consortium, 1998 Report, Brisbane. 33 Croton, G. 2007, Screening for and assessment of 24 Batey, R. 2008, “What are the Basic Principles of

co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders

Management of People with Comorbid Conditions?”,

by Alcohol & Other Drug and Mental Health Services,

Trigger Paper 01.

Victoria, Victorian Dual Diagnosis Initiative Advisory Group.

25 Commonwealth Department of Veteran’s Affairs, 2005, “Alcohol Practice Guideline: For Practitioners Helping

34 NSW Department of Health 2008, Mental Health

Veterans with Alcohol Problems”, Canberra,

Clinical Documentation – Redesigned. North Sydney,

Department of Veteran’s Affairs.

NSW Health.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 85

35 Lee, N., Jenner L., Kay-Lambkin, F., Hall, K., Dann, F.,

44 NSW Department of Health 2008, Mental Health

Roeg, S., Hunt, S., Dingle, G., Baker, A., Hides, L. and

Reference Resource for drug and alcohol professionals,

Ritter, A. 2007, “PsyCheck: Responding to mental

North Sydney, NSW Health.

health issues within alcohol and drug treatment”, Canberra, ACT, Commonwealth of Australia.

45 Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 2005, Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons with Co-

36 Henry-Edwards, S., Humeniuk, R., Ali, R., Poznyak, V.

Occurring Disorders, Treatment Improvement Protocol

and Monteiro, M 2003, “The Alcohol, Smoking and

(TIP) Series 42, DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 05-3992,

Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST):

Rockville, MD, Substance Abuse and Mental Health

Guidelines for Use in Primary Care”, Draft Version 1.1 for

Services Administration.

Field Testing, Geneva, World Health Organisation. 46 Miller, W.R. and Rollnick, S. 1991, Motivational 37 Virgona, A. 2008, “What is the recommended acute crisis management for a person with a comorbidity?”,

interviewing: Preparing people to change addictive behaviour,. New York, Guildford.

Trigger Paper 07. 47 Mitchell, P. 2008, “What does the available evidence 38 NSW Department of Health 2007, “NSW Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal Clinical Practice Guidelines”, North

identify as effective treatment of people with a comorbidity: Anxiety and substance use”, Trigger Paper 13.

Sydney, NSW Health. 48 Dore, G. “What does the evidence identify as effective 39 NSW Department of Health 2007, “NSW Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal Clinical Practice Guidelines”, North

treatment of people with a comorbidity: Opioids and mental health issues”, in press, Trigger Paper 09.

Sydney, NSW Health 49 Dore, G. “What does the evidence identify as effective 40 de Crespigny, C., Talmet, J., Modystack, K., Cusack, L. & Watkinson, J. 2003, “Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs

treatment of people with a comorbidity: Opioids and mental health issues”, in press, Trigger Paper 09.

Guidelines for Nurses and Midwives: Clinical Guidelines”, Flinders University School of Nursing &

50 Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 2005,

Midwifery and the Drug and Alcohol Services Council,

Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons with Co-

South Australia, in print, Flinders University, Bedford

Occurring Disorders, Treatment Improvement Protocol

Park, South Australia, Version 2, September.

(TIP) Series 42. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 05-3992, Rockville, MD, Substance Abuse and Mental Health

41 Kessler, R.C., Chiu, W.T., Demler, O., Merikangas, K.R.,

Services Administration.

Walters, E.E. 2005. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the

51 Miller, W.R. and Rollnick, S. 1991, Motivational

National Comorbidity Survey Replication, Arch Gen

interviewing: Preparing people to change addictive

Psychiatry 62:617-27.

behaviour,. New York, Guildford.

42 Grant, B.F., Stinson, F.S., Dawson, D.A., Chou, S.P.,

52 NSW Department of Health, 2006, “Opioid Treatment

Dufour, M.C., Compton, W., Pickering, R.P., Kaplan, K.

Program: Clinical Guidelines for methadone and

2004, “Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use

buprenorphine treatment”, North Sydney, NSW Health.

disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on

53 Sadock, B..J., Kaplan,H..I. and Sadock,V.A. 2007, Kaplan

Alcohol and Related Conditions”, Arch Gen Psychiatry;

& Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/

61:807-16.

clinical psychiatry, 10th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

43 Mitchell, P. 2008, “What does the available evidence identify as effective treatment of people with a

54 Tucker, P. 2008, “Substance misuse and early

comorbidity: Anxiety and substance use”, Trigger

psychosis”, Australasian Psychiatry, in press, Trigger

Paper 13.

Paper 15.

PAGE 86

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

55 Tucker, P. 2008, “Substance misuse and early

66 Rosenbloom, A., Joseph, H., Fong, C., Kipnis, S.,

psychosis”, Australasian Psychiatry, in press, Trigger

Cleland, C. and Portenoy, R.K. 2003, “Prevalance and

Paper 15.

characteristics of chronic pain among chemically dependent patients in methadone maintenance and

56 D’Mello, D.A. et al. 1995 “Relationship between concurrent substance abuse in psychiatric patients and

residential treatment facilities”, Journal of the American Medical Association, vol 289 (18), pp. 2370-2378.

neuroleptic dosage” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Vol 21(2), pp. 463-465.

67 Fishbain, D.A. “Approaches to treatment decisions for psychiatric comorbidity in the management of the

57 Winstock, A. 2008, “What does the evidence identify

chronic pain patient”, Review, 93 refs, Journal Article,

as effective treatment of people with a comorbidity:

Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, Non-P.H.S, Review

Cannabis and mental health issues”, Trigger Paper 10.

Medical Clinics of North America, 83(3), pp. 737-60, vii, 1999 May.

58 NSW Department of Health, 2008, “Drug and Alcohol Psychosocial Interventions Professional Practice Guidelines”.

68 Gourlay, D.L., Heit, H.A. and Almahrezi, A. 2005, “Universal Precautions in Pain Medicine: A Rational Approach to the Treatment of Chronic Pain” American

59 McGeorge, P. “The key issues related to children and

Academy of Pain Medicine, vol 6(2), pp. 107-112.

young people with a comorbidity”, Trigger Paper 05. 69 NSW Department of Health, 2008, NSW community 60 Teeson M. and Proudfoot H. 2003 “Responding to

mental health strategy 2007–2012: From prevention

comorbid mental disorders and substance use

and early intervention to recovery, North Sydney, NSW

disorders”, in Comorbid mental disorders and substance

Health.

use disorders: epidemiology, prevention and treatment, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre for the

70 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2001.

National Drug Strategy, Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing, ch 1.

71 CoExist NSW: Diversity Health Comorbidity Service.

http://www.dhi.gov.au/co-exist/index.htm (19 61 ACON. http://www.acon.org.au/about-acon/

February 2009).

Newsroom/Articles/challenge (12 February 2009). 72 Reid, G., Crofts, N. and Beyer, L. 2001 “Drug treatment 62 ACON. http://www.acon.org.au/mental-health/

What-We-Do (12 February 2009).

services for ethnic communities in Victoria, Australia: An examination of cultural and institutional barriers’, Ethnicity and Health, 6:1, pp. 13-26.

63 CAMH Healthy Aging Project, 2006, “Responding to Older Adults with Substance Use, Mental Health and

73 NSW Health, 2007, “Clinical guidelines for nursing and

Gambling Challenges: A Guide for Workers and

midwifery practice in NSW: Identifying and responding

Volunteers”, Toronto, Centre for Addiction and Mental

to drug and alcohol issues”, North Sydney, NSW Health.

Health. 74 NSW Department of Health, 2007, “Tracking Tragedy: A 64 Bartels, S.J., Blow, F.C., Van Citters, A.D.and

systemic look at homicide by mental health patients and

Brockmann,L.M. 2006, Journal of dual diagnosis, vol.

suicide death of patients in community mental health

2(3), pp 9-30.

settings” North Sydney, NSW Health.

65 Pain Management Research Institute http://www.pmri.

75 Rotenko, I. 2008, “How is the comorbid patient best

med.usyd.edu.au/about/who_suffers.php.(19

managed in acute care – Emergency department”,

February 2009)

Trigger Paper 03.

Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness NSW HEALTH PAGE 87

76 Read, P. 2008, “How is the comorbid patient best managed in acute care – Criminal justice services”, Trigger Paper 03. 77 Zwars, N. 2008, “How is the comorbid patient best managed in acute care – General practice”, Trigger Paper 03. 78 Maynard, C. 2008, “How is the comorbid patient best managed in acute care – General wards”, Trigger Paper 03. 79 NSW Department of Health, 2007, “Clinical guidelines for nursing and midwifery practice in NSW: Identifying and responding to drug and alcohol issues”. 80 Mental Health Act, 2007. (NSW). 81 Inebriates Act, 1912. (Commonwealth) 82 Standing Committee on Social Issues, 2004, NSW Legislative Council, Report on the Inebriates Act 1912.

PAGE 88

NSW HEALTH Clinical Guidelines for the care of persons with comorbid mental illness

SHPN (MHDAO) 090078

Loading...

NSW Clinical Guidelines - NSW Health

NSW Clinical Guidelines For the Care of Persons with Comorbid Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders in Acute Care Settings NSW DEPARTMENT OF HE...

1MB Sizes 23 Downloads 30 Views

Recommend Documents

NSW Health
... Learning and development · Senior executive positions · Human resources - e-compendium · Medical career planning · W

Principal Finance Analyst in NSW - NSW Health
5 days ago - The Health Professional Councils Authority (HPCA) supports health professional councils in NSW. Together we

Mental Health Innovation Fund - NSW eTendering
Nov 16, 2015 - The Innovation Fund will provide seed funding for innovative local. initiatives that aim to improve menta

Septic Guideline - NSW Health
Greywater Tanks, CED Pretreatment Tanks, and Sewage Ejection Pump Stations). PART 4. LOCAL ..... 7.3.4 An installation b

nsw
Jul 28, 2016 - relation to the history of the North Shore railway and Artarmon railway station. The components ... two p

Fire Safety in Health Care Facilities - NSW Health - NSW Government
Apr 27, 2010 - All employees have an obligation to familiarise themselves with all fire emergency ... Amendment notes. A

04 - OpenGov NSW - NSW Government
Mary-Jane Clark,. BA MTCP. Executive Director,. Out-of-Home Care. Rhonda Stien,. BSW, MSW, MBA. Executive Director,. Str

Standard for Overpayments for NSW Health Agencies - ASMOF NSW
Jun 24, 2015 - ... purpose of the these standards is to outline how overpayments are identified, verified and managed by

Health and Community Employees Psychologists - NSW Health
IRC No. 423 of 2015 – Walton P – New Award – effective 1 July 2015. (377 IG 1448). Case No. 2016/00198868 – Murp

Health Employees' Conditions of Employment - NSW Health
Jul 1, 2017 - under this Award. 4. Roster of Hours. (i) The provisions of this clause shall not apply to persons employe