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Glossary A-Z This glossary provides the wildland fire community a single source for wildland fire and incident management terminology commonly used by the NWCG and its subgroups. Glossary entries related to technical specialist, wildland fire and ICS positions have been removed from the NWCG Glossary. Position information can be found in multiple documents such as the PMS 310-1, PMS 210 and AD pay plan. Efforts are underway to consolidate this information into one location for future reference. We have removed organizations from the glossary because we believe they are identified elsewhere.

Reference Definitions Some of the terms within this glossary will be followed by initials or will have references or comments at the end of the definition to help broaden the recognition and understanding of the term. An explanation of those references is as follows: Also called: Means there is another term that may sometimes be in use, but is not defined in this glossary. Acronym: A name made up of the initial letters of a multi-word term or official title. An acronym appears in parentheses following the term. See: Means there is another, preferred term that should be used instead. In such a case only the preferred term is defined in this glossary. See Also: Means there are one or more related terms that may also be of interest to the glossary user. The related terms are also defined in this glossary. Synonym: Means the term is synonymous with another. The terms have the same, or essentially the same, definition and the terms are interchangeable in their use. Definition Extension: An example, further explanation, or usage guidance in support of the definition.

Glossary Acronyms

6 – A – B – C – D – E – F – G – H – I – J – K – L – M – N – O – P – Q – R – S – T – U – V – W – Z Click one of the letters above to advance the page to terms beginning with that letter.

6 6 Minutes for Safety A daily safety briefing for wildland fire that focuses on high risk events found within a firefighter's scope of work that are performed on an infrequent basis. Also know as Six Minutes for Safety. Go to top

A Abort Area A designated area where unused quantities of water or fire retardant may be jettisoned, usually to permit an airtanker to land with less than a full load. Abort To jettison a load of water or retardant from an aircraft, or terminate a preplanned aircraft maneuver. Above Ground Level (AGL) Term frequently used in aviation operations, usually in connection with a stated altitude. Absolute Humidity According to the American Meteorological Society, (Also called Vapor Density.) In a system of moist air, the ratio of the mass of water vapor present to the volume occupied by the mixture; that is, the density of the water vapor component. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Absolute_humidity Absorption Act of soaking up and retaining a gas in liquid or in a solid; also retention of radiant energy. Accelerant Material (usually a flammable liquid) used to initiate or increase the spread of a fire. Acceptable Fire Risk The potential fire loss a community is willing to accept rather than provide resources to reduce such losses. Accessibility Burn The burning of understory prior to the sale of forest products to improve the efficiency of timber marking and harvesting. Action Plan Any tactical plan developed by any element of ICS in support of the incident action plan. see also: Incident Action Plan Active Crown Fire A fire in which a solid flame develops in the crowns of trees, but the surface and crown phases advance as a linked unit dependent on each other. Active Resources Resources checked in and assigned work tasks on an incident. synonym: Assigned Resources see also: Allocated Resources; Available Resources Activity Fuels Fuels resulting from, or altered by, forestry practices such as timber harvest or thinning, as opposed to naturally created fuels. see also: Logging Debris; Natural Fuels Actual Time En Route (ATE) Term used in flight planning/following to document actual time spent flying between points. Actual Time of Arrival (ATA) Term used in flight planning/following to document time of arrival at a point. Actual Time of Departure (ATD) Term used in flight planning/following to document time of departure from a point. Adapter A device for connecting hoses of the same size with non-matching hose threads, or connecting a threaded coupling to a quick-connect coupling. see also: Coupling Adiabatic Process According to the American Meteorological Society, a process in which a system does not interact with its surroundings by virtue of a temperature difference between them. In an adiabatic process any change in internal energy (for a system of fixed mass) is solely a consequence of working. For an ideal gas and for most atmospheric systems, compression results in warming, expansion results in cooling. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Adiabatic_process. Adjective Rating A public information description of the relative severity of the current fire danger situation. Administrative Payment Team (APT) A team that supports incident agencies by processing payments for resources. Resources may include emergency equipment, casuals, local vendors for supplies, etc. Administratively Determined (AD) A person hired and compensated under the Pay Plan for Emergency Workers. synonym: Casual see also: Emergency Firefighter Admission Oral or written statement tending to link its maker to involvement in a particular crime. Advanced Life Support (ALS) Advanced life support skills performed by an EMS practitioner or service, e.g. intravenous fluids and drug administration. Advancing a Line Moving a hose lay toward a specified area from the point where the hose-carrying apparatus has stopped. Advancing Fire That portion of the fire with rapid fire spread with higher intensity which is normally burning with the wind and/or up slope. Also called: forward fire, or a run. synonym: Head Fire Advancing Front Combustion Stage The period of combustion when a fire is spreading, usually accompanied by flaming combustion that releases heat to sustain the convection column. Advection According to the American Meteorological Society, the process of transport of an atmospheric property solely by the mass motion of the atmosphere; also the rate of change of the value of the advected property at a given point. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Advection. Adze Hoe A fire-trenching or digging tool having a sharp, tempered blade, which is useful for heavy grubbing, trenching, and light cutting. Aerial Detection A system for, or the act of discovering, locating, and reporting fires from aircraft. Aerial Fuels Standing and supported live and dead combustibles not in direct contact with the ground and consisting mainly of foliage, twigs, branches, stems, cones, bark, and vines. see also: Draped Fuels Aerial Ignition Device (AID) Inclusive term applied to equipment designed to ignite wildland fuels from an aircraft. see also: Delayed Aerial Ignition Devices; Helitorch; Ping-Pong Ball System; Plastic Sphere Dispenser Aerial Ignition Ignition of fuels by dropping incendiary devices or materials from aircraft. Aerial Reconnaissance Use of aircraft for detecting and observing fire behavior, values-at-risk, suppression activity, and other critical factors to facilitate command decisions on strategy and tactics needed for fire suppression. Aerial Torch An ignition device suspended under a helicopter, capable of dispensing ignited fuel to the ground for assistance in burning out or backfiring. Affidavit A statement of declaration in writing and affirmed before an official with authority to administer an oath; a statement of declaration alleging fact to support the issuance of a search or arrest warrant. After Action Review (AAR) A structured review or de-brief process of an event, focused on performance standards, that enables participants to discover for themselves what happened, why it happened, and how to sustain strengths and improve on weaknesses. After action reviews, informal or formal, follow the same general format, involve the exchange of ideas and observations, and focus on improving performance. Agency Administrator The official responsible for the management of a geographic unit or functional area. The managing officer of an agency, division thereof, or jurisdiction having statutory responsibility for incident mitigation and management. Examples: NPS Park Superintendent, BIA Agency Superintendent, USFS Forest Supervisor, BLM District Manager, FWS Refuge Manager, State Forest Officer, Tribal Chairperson, Fire Chief, Police Chief. see also: Line Officer Agency Certification The process whereby the employing agency or contractor documents that the individual is fully qualified to perform duties and responsibilities for a specified position. Agency Dispatcher A person working within an agency organization who processes resources to and from incidents. see also: Dispatcher Agency Dispatch The agency or jurisdictional facility from which resources are allocated to incidents. Agency/Area Coordination Center A facility which serves as a central point for one or more agencies to use in processing information and resource requests. It may also serve as a dispatch center for one of the agencies. Agency An administrative division of a government with a specific function, or a non-governmental organization (e.g., private contractor, business, etc.) that offers a particular kind of assistance. A federal, tribal, state or local agency that has direct fire management or land management responsibilities or that has programs and activities that support fire management activities. see also: Assisting Agency; Cooperating Agency; Supporting Agency Air Ambulance A rotary wing aircraft configured, staffed and equipped to respond, care for and transport a patient(s) and approved/licensed by a state to do so. An air ambulance is sometimes referred to as a medevac. Air Attack Base Permanent facility at which aircraft are stationed for use in air attack operations. see also: Reload Base Air Attack The deployment of fixed-wing or rotary aircraft on a wildland fire, to drop retardant or extinguishing agents, shuttle and deploy crews and supplies, or perform aerial reconnaissance of the overall fire situation. Air Cargo All items for transport and delivery by aircraft. Air Contaminant An airborne dust, fume, gas, mist, odor, smoke, vapor, soot, pollen, carbon, acid or particulate matter or any combination thereof. see also: Air Pollution Air Guard A common VHF-FM frequency used by natural resource agency aircraft for emergency radio transmissions. Also called national air safety guard frequency. Air Mass According to the American Meteorological Society, a widespread body of air that is approximately homogeneous in its horizontal extent, particularly with reference to temperature and moisture distribution; in addition, the vertical temperature and moisture variations are approximately the same over its horizontal extent. The properties of the air mass are established while that air was situated over a particular region of the earth's surface. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Air_mass. Air Pack Portable air (not oxygen) tanks with regulators which allow firefighters to breathe while in toxic smoke conditions. Usually rated for 30 minutes of service. Used primarily on fires involving structures or hazardous materials. synonym: Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus see also: Respirator Air Pollution Alert A statement issued by an Air Quality Regulatory Agency due to high measured concentrations of pollutants. The alert remains in effect until monitoring shows a decrease in pollutant levels. Should conditions worsen, air pollution warnings and emergencies may be issued. At each stage (alert, warning and emergency) additional emission restrictions are put into effect so as to not intensify the situation. Essentially, at the emergency level all industrial activities and auto usage stop. Air Pollution The general term referring to the undesirable addition of substances (gases, liquids, or solid particles) to the atmosphere that are foreign to the natural atmosphere or are present in quantities exceeding natural concentrations. see also: Air Contaminant Air Quality Model Mathematical or quantitative representation or simulation of air quality processes; e.g., emission models, receptor models, or air quality dispersion models. Air Quality "The composition of air with respect to quantities of pollution therein; used most frequently in connection with ""standards"" of maximum acceptable pollutant concentrations. Used instead of ""air pollution"" when referring to programs. " Air Stagnation Advisory (ASA) (Also called Air Quality Alerts.) A statement issued by a National Weather Service forecast office when atmospheric conditions are stable enough such that the potential exists for air pollutants to accumulate in a given area. The statement is initially issued when conditions are expected to last for at least 36 hours. Aircraft Accident An unplanned event that does substantial damage or causes serious injuries when associated with the operation of applicable aircraft. Event occurs between the time engine(s) is (are) started or rotors turning for the purpose of commencing flight, until the aircraft comes to rest with engines and propellers or rotors stopped, the brakes set or wheel chocks in place, and all persons have disembarked. Aircraft Data Card Card or documentation required to be on board the aircraft which approves use and indicates specific types of use. Aircraft Footprint That area on the surface of the earth, runway, or ramp that is covered by the tread of the aircraft tire while the aircraft is motionless. Also called wheel loading. Aircraft Ground Mishap An aircraft mishap in which there is no intent to fly. However, the power plants and/or rotors are in operation and damage is incurred requiring replacement or repair of rotors, propellers, wheels, tires, wing tips, flaps, etc., or injury is incurred requiring first-aid or medical attention. Aircraft Incident An unplanned event that results in damage which is less than serious aircraft incident criteria, or injuries not requiring medical attention. see also: Serious Aircraft Incident Aircraft Network (AirNet) Applies to radio frequencies primarily used for air operations. Airtanker Fixed-wing aircraft certified by FAA as being capable of transport and delivery of fire retardant solutions. Alidade A sighting device used by lookouts to determine the horizontal bearing and sometimes the vertical angle of a fire from a lookout. synonym: Osborne Firefinder see also: Firefinder Map All Hazard Incident An incident, natural or human-caused, that requires an organized response by a public, private, and/or governmental entity to protect life, public health and safety, values to be protected, and to minimize any disruption of governmental, social, and economic services. One or more kinds of incident (fire, flood, mass casualty, search, rescue, evacuation, etc.) may occur simultaneously as part of an all hazard incident response. see also: Incident; Values To Be Protected All Hazards Meteorological Response System (AMRS) A mobile weather data collection and forecasting system consisting of a communications module, weather observing module, and data interigation module. Used by incident meteorologists on an incident. Source: NWS policy 10402 http://www.nws.noaa.gov/directives/sym/pd01004002curr.pdf see also: Incident Meteorologist All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Any motorized vehicle designed for or capable of cross-country travel on or immediately over land, water, sand, snow, ice, marsh, swampland, or other terrain. synonym: Off-road Vehicle Alligatoring Char patterns formed on paint or burned wood remains, usually in the shape of blisters. see also: Depth of Char Indicators Allocated Resources Resources dispatched to an incident, that have not yet checked in. see also: Active Resources; Assigned Resources; Available Resources Allowable Payload The amount of weight that is available for passengers and/or cargo. On the load calculation form it is the operating weight subtracted from the selected weight. see also: Operating Weight Altimeter Setting The barometric pressure reading used to adjust a pressure altimeter for variations in existing atmospheric pressure or to the standard altimeter setting (29.92) inches. Ambient Air According to the American Meteorological Society, background, environmental, or surrounding air. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Ambient_air Ambulance A ground transport vehicle configured, equipped and staffed to respond, care for and transport a patient(s) and approved by a state to do. see also: Air Ambulance Anchor Point An advantageous location, usually a barrier to fire spread, from which to start constructing a fireline. The anchor point is used to minimize the chance of being flanked by the fire while the line is being constructed. Anemometer According to the American Meteorological Society, the general name for instruments designed to measure total wind speed. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Anemometer Angle of Char Indicators Standing fuels that are burned at an angle that indicates the direction of fire spread. Also called vertical char. Annual Certification Annual review by an employing agency of an individual's position qualifications and documentation certifying that the individual is fully qualified to perform duties and responsibilities for a specified position. Annual certification is based on established performance standards and agency specific requirements. Annual Operating Plan (for Fire Weather) (AOP) A procedural guide which describes fire meteorological services provided within the Geographic Area of responsibility, including the National Interagency Fire Center. The guide is based on the National Interagency Agreement and applicable Geographic Area Memorandum of Agreement. Annual Plant A plant that lives for one growing season, starting from a seed each year. Anticyclone According to the American Meteorological Society, an atmospheric anticyclonic circulation, a closed circulation. The wind in an anticyclone is in the clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Anticyclone see also: Surface High Apparatus A motor-driven vehicle, or group of vehicles, designed and constructed for the purpose of fighting fires. May be of different types such as engines, water tenders, ladder trucks, etc. Approved In fire service terminology, that which is inspected and listed by recognized fire-testing agencies. The term as used in National Fire Protection Association standards means approval by the authority having jurisdiction, such as the fire chief, insurance inspection department, or other agency that enforces standards or regulations. Aramid The generic name for a high-strength, flame-resistant, synthetic fabric used in the shirts and jeans of firefighters. Nomex ® , a brand name for aramid fabric, is the term commonly used by firefighters. see also: Nomex ® Area Command An organization established to: 1) oversee the management of multiple incidents that are each being handled by an incident management team (IMT) organization; or 2) to oversee the management of a very large incident that has multiple IMTs assigned to it. Area Command has the responsibility to set overall strategy and priorities, allocate critical resources based on priorities, ensure that incidents are properly managed, and that objectives are met and strategies followed. Area Ignition Ignition of several individual fires throughout an area, either simultaneously or in rapid succession, and so spaced that they add to and influence the main body of the fire to produce a hot, fast-spreading fire condition. Also called simultaneous ignition. Area of Influence Delineated area surrounding a base which can be reached first by the ground or air attack units assigned to the base. Also called zone of influence. Area Source A source category of air pollution that generally extends over a large area. Prescribed burning, field burning, home heating, and open burning are examples of area sources. Armed A term used to indicate that the airtanker dropping mechanism is set to allow a programmed release of part or all of the load of fire retardant. Arrest The taking or keeping of a person in custody by legal authority, especially in response to a criminal charge. Arson Fire A fire that is intentional and wrongfully set to burn one's own or someone else's property. Arson Task Force Group of individuals convened to analyze, investigate and solve arson problems in a particular region. Arsonist One who commits arson. Arson At common law, the malicious and willful burning of another?s dwelling, outhouse or parcel; by most modern statutes, the intentional and wrongful burning of someone else's, or one's own, property. Frequently requires proof of malicious or wrongful intent. Ash Indicators White ash deposited on the origin side of objects. Aspect Cardinal direction toward which a slope faces. see also: Exposure Aspirate (Foam) To draw in gases (or other substances); nozzle aspirating systems draw air into the nozzle to mix with the foam solution. Assessment 1. A fire weather fire danger product based on a thorough evaluation of all pertinent sources of meteorological, fire danger and resource information. 2. The evaluation and interpretation of measurements, intelligence, and other information to provide a basis for decision-making. Assigned Resources Resources checked in and assigned work tasks on an incident. synonym: Active Resources see also: Allocated Resources; Available Resources Assignments Tasks given to resources to perform within a given operational period, based upon tactical objectives in the incident action plan. Assistant Term used as a title for subordinates of the command staff positions. In some cases, assistants are also assigned to unit leader positions in the planning, logistics, and finance/administration sections. Qualifications, technical capability, and responsibility of assistants are normally less than those of the person holding the primary position. Assisting Agency An agency directly contributing tactical or service resources to another agency. see also: Agency; Agency Representative; Cooperating Agency; Supporting Agency Assumption Acceptance of information as true without proof or demonstration. Atmometer An instrument that provides an approximate measure of evapotranspiration by measuring the water loss from an artificial evaporating surface. Atmospheric Inversion According to the American Meteorological Society, a departure from the usual decrease or increase with altitude of the value of an atmospheric property; also, the layer through which this departure occurs (the "inversion layer"), or the lowest altitude at which the departure is found ("the base of the inversion"). In fire management usage, nearly always refers to an increase in temperature with increasing height. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Inversion see also: Atmospheric Stability; Inversion; Stable Layer of Air Atmospheric Pressure According to the American Meteorological Society, (also called barometric pressure), the net force per unit area exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the column of air lying directly above the point in question. Atmospheric pressure is independent of the orientation of the surface on which it acts. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Atmospheric_pressure see also: Barometric Pressure Atmospheric Stability According to the American Meteorological Society, (also called static stability), the ability of the atmosphere at rest to become turbulent or laminar due to the effects of buoyancy. Air tending to become or remain turbulent is said to be statically unstable; one tending to become or remain laminar is statically stable; and one on the borderline between the two (which might remain laminar or turbulent depending on its history) is statically neutral. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Static_stability see also: Atmospheric Inversion; Inversion; Stable Layer of Air Attack a Fire Limit the spread of fire by any appropriate means. Attack Line A line of hose, preconnected to the pump of a fire apparatus and ready for immediate use in attacking a fire. Contrasted to supply lines connecting a water supply with a pump or to feeder lines extended from a pump to various points around the perimeter of a fire. Attack Time The starting date, hour, and minute of the first suppression work on a fire. Attack Unit Response The response of one attack unit to a fire or other emergency with no regard for the number of return trips to that same fire or emergency. Attack Unit Single vehicle or aircraft and its associated personnel and material provided for the purpose of responding to and abating a fire or other emergency. Attainment Area An area considered to have air quality as good as, or better than, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) as defined in the Clean Air Act. An area may be in attainment for one or more pollutants but be in nonattainment for one or more other pollutants. Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) An aircraft radio navigational receiver operating in the low frequency bands. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) A non-GOES telemetered weather station that provides hourly observations to a local database. Automatically Regulated A proportioning method or device that readily adjusts to changes in water flow and or pressure to maintain a desired mix ratio. Autorotation A helicopter flight condition in which the lifting rotor is driven entirely by action of air when the helicopter is in motion. Auxiliary Pump A secondary pump on an engine in addition to the main pump. Usually of small capacity. Available Fuel 1. That portion of the total fuel that would actually burn under various environmental conditions. 2. Fuel available for use in a motor vehicle, aircraft, or other motorized equipment. Available Resources Resources assigned to an incident and available for assignment. see also: Active Resources; Allocated Resources; Assigned Resources Average Annual Precipitation The expected amount of annual rainfall. Average annual precipitation is an important component to determining the Keech-Bryam Drought Index (KBDI). Average Relative Humidity Part of the National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS). The mathematical average of the maximum and minimum relative humidities measured at a fire weather station from one basic observation time to the next. Average Temperature According to the American Meteorological Society, (also called the mean temperature), the average temperature of the air as indicated by a properly exposed thermometer during a given time period, usually a day, a month, or a year. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Mean_temperature Avoidance A smoke emission control strategy that considers meteorological conditions when scheduling prescribed fires in order to avoid incursions into smoke sensitive areas. Awareness The continual process of collecting, analyzing, and disseminating intelligence, information, and knowledge to allow organizations and individuals to anticipate requirements and to react effectively and safely. Azimuth Circle A circle graduated in 360 degrees in a clockwise direction from true (astronomic) north. Azimuth Horizontal angle or bearing of a point measured clockwise from true (astronomic) north. Go to top

B Back Azimuth Angle or bearing 180 degrees opposite of azimuth. Backburn Used in some localities to specify fire set to spread against the wind in prescribed burning. Backdraft Instantaneous explosion or rapid burning of superheated gases that occurs when oxygen is introduced into an oxygen-depleted confined space. It may occur because of inadequate or improper ventilation procedures. Backfire Torch A flame generating device (e.g., a fount containing diesel oil or kerosene and a wick, or a backpack pump serving a flame-jet). synonym: Burning Torch see also: Drip Torch; Flame Thrower Backfire A fire set along the inner edge of a fireline to consume the fuel in the path of a wildfire or change the direction of force of the fire's convection column. see also: Burn Out Backfiring A tactic associated with indirect attack, intentionally setting fire to fuels inside the control line to slow, knock down, or contain a rapidly spreading fire. Backfiring provides a wide defense perimeter and may be further employed to change the force of the convection column. Backfiring makes possible a strategy of locating control lines at places where the fire can be fought on the firefighter's terms. Except for rare circumstance meeting specified criteria, backfiring is executed on a command decision made through line channels of authority. Background Level In air pollution control, the concentration of air pollutants in a definite area during a fixed period of time prior to the starting up, or the stoppage, of a source of emission under control. In toxic substances monitoring, the average presence in the environment, originally referring to naturally-occurring phenomena. Backing Fire 1. Fire spreading, or ignited to spread, into (against) the wind or downslope. A fire spreading on level ground in the absence of wind is a backing fire. 2. That portion of the fire with slower rates of fire spread and lower intensity normally moving into the wind and/or down slope. Also called: heel fire. Backing Wind According to the American Meteorological Society, in the Northern Hemisphere, a wind that rotates in the counterclockwise direction with increasing height. In fire management usage, in the Northern Hemisphere, a wind that rotates in the counterclockwise direction over a given time period (normally a few hours). Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Backing_wind Backpack Pump A portable sprayer with hand-pump, fed from a liquid filled container fitted with straps, used mainly in fire and pest control. see also: Bladder Bag Baffle A partitioned wall placed in vehicular or aircraft water tanks to reduce shifting of the water load when starting, stopping or turning. Ball Valve A valve in which fluid flow is controlled by a ball with a hole drilled through it. In one position, fluid flows through the hole. When the valve is turned 90 degrees (1/4 turn) the hole is perpendicular to the flow and the ball stops the flow. Intermediate valve positions can be used to adjust the flow. Bambi Bucket A collapsible bucket slung below a helicopter. Used to dip water from a variety of sources for fire suppression. Banking Snags The act of throwing mineral soil about the base of an unlighted snag to prevent its being ignited by a surface fire. Barometer According to the American Meteorological Society, an instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Barometer Barometric Pressure Atmospheric pressure corrected for elevation. see also: Atmospheric Pressure Barrier Any obstruction to the spread of fire. Typically an area or strip devoid of combustible fuel. Base Area Part of the National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS). An area representative of the major fire problems on a protection unit. Base fuel model and slope class are chosen from the base area. Base Fuel Model Part of the National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS). A representation of the vegetative cover and fuel in a base area. Used in the calculation of fire danger rating. Base Observation Time Part of the National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS). The time established to take the fire danger observations. It should be at the time of day when the fire danger is normally the highest. The usually agreed upon time is 1:00 pm standard time. This allows time to transmit observations and prepare forecasts. Base Station A fixed central radio dispatching station controlling movements of one or more mobile units. Baseline In prescribed burning, the initial line of fire, usually set as a backing fire along a barrier or control line, which serves to contain subsequent burning operations. Base 1. The location at which primary logistics functions for an incident are coordinated and administered. There is only one base per incident. (Incident name or other designator will be added to the term "base.") The incident command post may be collocated with the base. 2. The location of initial attack forces. see also: Camp Basic Life Support (BLS) Basic life support skills performed by an EMS practitioner or service, e.g. splinting, bandaging, oxygen administration, use of the AED. Batch Mix Manually adding and mixing a concentrated chemical, such as liquid foam, or powdered or liquid retardant with water, or gelling agents with fuel, into solution in a tank or container. Bearing The horizontal direction to or from any point, usually measured clockwise from true north, or some other reference point through 360 degrees. Beaufort Wind Scale According to the American Meteorological Society, a system of estimating and reporting wind speeds using a numerical scale ranging from 0 (calm) to 12 (hurricane). Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Beaufort_wind_scale BEHAVE A system of interactive computer programs for modeling fuel and fire behavior, comprised of two systems: BURN and FUEL. Behavior An observable activity or action demonstrated by an individual in a particular context. see also: Competency Belt Weather Kit Belt-mounted case with pockets fitted for anemometer, compass, sling psychrometer, slide rule, water bottle, pencils, and book of weather report forms. Used to take weather observations to provide on-site conditions to the fire weather forecaster or fire behavior analyst. Observations include air temperature, wind speed and direction, and relative humidity. Benefits Something that represents, promotes or enhances a desired outcome, being of positive value and contributing to the attainment of organizational goals. Benefits represent one end of the spectrum of outcomes from fire, with the opposite end being harm, loss or damage. see also: Fire Benefits Berm A ridge of soil and debris along the outside edge of a fireline, resulting from line construction. see also: Throw Out Best Available Control Measures (BACM) An emission limitation action based on the maximum degree of emission reduction (considering energy, environmental, and economic impacts) achievable through application of production processes and available methods, systems, and techniques. see also: Reasonably Available Control Measures Blackline Preburning of fuels adjacent to a control line before igniting a prescribed burn. Blacklining is usually done in heavy fuels adjacent to a control line during periods of low fire danger to reduce heat on holding crews and lessen chances for spotting across control line. In fire suppression, a blackline denotes a condition where there is no unburned material between the fireline and the fire edge. Bladder Bag A collapsible backpack portable sprayer made of neoprene or high-strength nylon fabric fitted with a pump. see also: Backpack Pump Blind Area An area in which neither the ground nor its vegetation can be seen from a given observation point. Block Plan A detailed prescription for treating a specified burning block with fire. Blow Down An area of previously standing timber which has been blown over by strong winds or storms. Blowup Sudden increase in fireline intensity or rate of spread of a fire sufficient to preclude direct control or to upset existing suppression plans. Often accompanied by violent convection and may have other characteristics of a fire storm. see also: Extreme Fire Behavior; Fire Storm; Flare-up Board of Review A board or committee selected to review results of fire suppression action on a given unit or the specific action taken on a given fire. The board reviews the results in order to identify reasons for both good and poor action and to recommend or prescribe ways and means of doing an effective and efficient job. Reviews the results of a safety/accident investigation. Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) 1. The failure of a closed container as a result of overpressurization caused by an external heat source. 2. A major failure of a closed liquid container into two or more pieces when the temperature of the liquid is well above its boiling point at normal atmospheric pressure. Bole The trunk of a tree. Bone Yard 1. A mop up term. To "bone yard" a fire means to systematically work the entire area, scraping embers off remaining fuel, feeling for heat with the hands, and piling unburned materials in areas cleared to mineral soil. 2. An area cleared to mineral soil for piling unburned fuels. Booster Hose The most common type of hose attached and stored on wildland engine booster reels. The hose is made of neoprene and does not appreciably collapse when stored empty. Booster Pump An intermediary pump for supplying additional lift in pumping water uphill past the capacity of the first pump. Booster Reel A reel for the booster hose mounted on a fire engine, often supplied by the auxiliary pump. This reel usually carries a 1-inch (25 mm) or 3/4 inch (19 mm) hose and frequently contains an electric rewind mechanism. see also: Hose Reel Boundary Conditions The temperature and relative humidity of the boundary layer. Boundary Layer 1. According to the American Meteorological Society, the layer of air near a boundary that is affected by friction against that boundary surface, and possibly by transport of heat and other variables across that surface. 2. According to the American Meteorological Society, (also called the atmospheric boundary layer) the bottom layer of the troposhpere that is in contact with the surface of the earth. It is often turbulent and is capped by a statically stable layer of air or temperature inversion. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Boundary_layer Boundary Value The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) commensurate with the boundary conditions and precipitation events of the preceding 24 hours. Bowles Bag A neoprene tank designed for attachment to the landing skid frame of a helicopter. It has a capacity of 80 to 100 gallons (303 to 378 liters) of water or retardant. Box Canyon A steep-sided, dead end canyon. Branch The organizational level having functional or geographical responsibility for major parts of incident operations. The branch level is organizationally between section and division/group in the operations section, and between section and unit in the logistics section. Branches are identified by roman numerals or by functional name (e.g. service, support). Break a Line To insert a gate valve or some other device into a hose line. Break Coupling To detach two pieces of hose by backing the swivel thread off the nipple thread. Break Left or Right Means "turn" left or right. Applies to aircraft in flight, usually on the drop run, and when given as a command to the pilot, implies expectation of prompt compliance. Breakover A fire edge that crosses a control line or natural barrier intended to confine the fire. synonym: Slopover British Thermal Unit (Btu) Amount of heat required to raise 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit (from 59.50 to 60.50 F), measured at standard atmospheric pressure. Broadcast Burning Prescribed burning activity where fire is applied generally to most or all of an area within well defined boundaries for reduction of fuel hazard, as a resource management treatment, or both. Brown and Burn Application of herbicide to desiccate living vegetation prior to burning. Brownspot Control Prescribed fire to control fungal infection (brown spot disease) of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) in the "grass" (small seedling) stage. Brush Blade Blade attachment with long teeth specially suited to ripping and piling brush with minimum inclusion of soil. Also called brush rake or root rake. Brush Fire A fire burning in vegetation that is predominantly shrubs, brush, and scrub growth. Brush Hook A heavy cutting tool designed primarily to cut brush at the base of the stem. Used in much the same way as an axe and having a wide blade, generally curved to protect the blade from being dulled by rocks. Brush Management Manipulation of stands of brush by manual, mechanical, chemical, or biological means or by prescribed burning for the purpose of achieving land management objectives. Brush Patrol Unit Any light, mobile vehicular unit with limited pumping and water capacity for off-road operations. Brush A collective term that refers to stands of vegetation dominated by shrubby, woody plants, or low growing trees, usually of a type undesirable for livestock or timber management. Bubble The building block of foam; bubble characteristics of water content and durability influence foam performance. Bucket Drops The dropping of fire retardants or suppressants from specially designed buckets slung below a helicopter. Bucking Sawing through the bole of a tree after it has been felled. Build-up 1. The cumulative effects of long-term drying on current fire danger. 2. The increase in strength of a fire management organization. 3. The accelerated spreading of a fire with time. 4. Towering cumulus clouds which may lead to thunderstorms later in the day. Buildup Index (BUI) A relative measure of the cumulative effect of daily drying factors and precipitation on fuels with a ten-day timelag. Bulk Density Weight per unit volume. For fuels, this is usually expressed as pounds per cubic foot; for soils, grams per cubic centimeter. see also: Compactness Bumpup Method Progressive method of fireline construction on a wildfire without changing relative positions in the line. Work is begun with a suitable space between workers; whenever one worker overtakes another, all of those ahead move one space forward and resume work on the uncompleted part of the line. The last worker does not move ahead until work is completed in his/her space. Forward progress of the crew is coordinated by a crew boss. synonym: Move Up Method Burn Block A discrete area within a larger prescribed or fire use project. Burn Out Time The duration of flaming and smoldering combustion phases at a specified point within a burn or for the whole burn, expressed in convenient units of time. Burn Out Setting fire inside a control line to consume fuel between the edge of the fire and the control line. see also: Backfire Burn Patterns 1. The characteristic configuration of char left by a fire. In wildland fires burn patterns are influenced by topography, wind direction, length of exposure, and type of fuel. Definitions are scale-dependent: (1) They can be used to trace a fire's origin; (2) They are influenced by severity and intensity within a stand; (3) They describe the landscape mosaic. 2. Apparent and obvious design of burned material and the burning path from the area of origin. Burn Severity A qualitative assessment of the heat pulse directed toward the ground during a fire. Burn severity relates to soil heating, large fuel and duff consumption, consumption of the litter and organic layer beneath trees and isolated shrubs, and mortality of buried plant parts. Burned Area Rehabilitation The post-fire activities prescribed and implemented to rehabilitate and restore fire damaged lands. see also: Rehabilitation Burning Ban A declared ban on open air burning within a specified area, usually due to sustained high fire danger. Burning Conditions The state of the combined factors of the environment that affect fire behavior in a specified fuel type. Burning Index Meter A device used to determine the burning index for different combinations of burning index factors. Burning Index 1. An estimate of the potential difficulty of fire containment as it relates to the flame length at the head of the fire. 2. A relative number related to the contribution that fire behavior makes to the amount or effort needed to contain a fire in a specified fuel type. Doubling the burning index indicates that twice the effort will be required to contain a fire in that fuel type as was previously required, providing all other parameters are held constant. Burning Out Setting fire inside a control line to consume fuel located between the edge of the fire and the control line. Burning Period That part of each 24-hour period when fires spread most rapidly; typically from 10:00 AM to sundown. Burning Priority Rating System of rating slash to indicate the treatment objective, whether or not burning is required to meet that objective, the fuel treatment necessary to achieve successful burning, and the time of year burning should occur. Burning Rate Rate at which a propellant and other combustibles burn. Burning Rotation The planned number of years between prescribed fires on a specified area. Burning Torch A flame generating device (e.g., a fount containing diesel oil or kerosene and a wick, or a backpack pump serving a flame-jet). synonym: Backfire Torch see also: Drip Torch; Flame Thrower Burning Decomposition of material by the application of heat and oxidation. Also applied to propellants and other pyrotechnic mixtures, though the proper term there is "reacting". Also often an element of the crime of arson. Burnover An event in which a fire moves through a location or overtakes personnel or equipment where there is no opportunity to utilize escape routes and safety zones, often resulting in personal injury or equipment damage. Burn 1. An area burned over by wildland fire. 2. A reference to a working fire. 3. An injury to flesh caused by a cauterizing agent, heat from a fire, or a heated object. First Degree Burn: A burn which causes only pain, redness, and swelling. Second Degree Burn: A burn in which the skin is blistered. Third Degree Burn: A flesh burn in which charring occurs. 4. To be on fire. 5. To consume fuel during rapid combustion. 6. A fire in progress or under investigation. Buying Team A team that supports incident procurement through the local administrative staff and is authorized to procure a wide range of services, supplies, and land and equipment rentals. In addition, the Buying Team Leader has the responsibility of coordinating property accountability with the supply unit leader. Buys Ballots Law According to the American Meteorological Society, a law describing the relationship of the horizontal wind direction in the atmosphere to the pressure distribution; if one stands with the back to the wind, the pressure to the left is lower than to the right in the Northern Hemisphere. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Buys_ballot%27s_law Go to top

C Cache A pre-determined complement of tools, equipment and/or supplies stored in a designated location, available for incident use. Calculation of Probabilities Evaluation of all factors pertinent to probable future behavior of a going fire and of the potential ability of available forces to perform fire suppression operations on a specified time schedule. Calibrated Airspeed Indicated airspeed of an aircraft, corrected for position and instrument error. Equal to true airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level. Camp A geographical site(s), within the general incident area, separate from the incident base, equipped and staffed to provide sleeping, food, water, and sanitary services to incident personnel. see also: Base Candling The burning of the foliage of a single tree or a small group of trees, from the bottom up. synonym: Torching Canopy The stratum containing the crowns of the tallest vegetation present (living or dead), usually above 20 feet. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) A colorless, odorless, nonpoisonous gas, which results from fuel combustion and is normally a part of the ambient air. Carbon Monoxide (CO) A colorless, odorless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete fuel combustion. Carcinogen Any substance that can cause or contribute to the production of cancer. Cardinal Altitudes Odd or "even" thousand-foot (305 m) altitudes or flight levels. E.g., 5,000, 6,000, 7,000; FL 250, FL 260, and FL 270. Cardinal Directions North, south, east, west; used for giving directions and information from the ground or air in describing the fire (e.g., the west flank or east flank, not right flank or left flank). Cargo Chute A parachute designed and rigged for dropping equipment and supplies from an aircraft. Cargo Compartment An internal area of an aircraft specifically designed to carry baggage or cargo. Cargo Drop Dropping of equipment or supplies, with or without a parachute, from an aircraft in flight. Cargo Hook Mechanically and electrically operated hook attached to the bottom of a helicopter to which a sling load is attached. Cargo Net Net attached to the cargo hook of a helicopter, used to carry cargo. Also called cargo sling. Cargo Rack Externally mounted rack for transporting supplies or cargo aboard a helicopter. Carousel Hook A remote hook attached to the end of a longline. It has four or more individual hooks which can be independently released, allowing the pilot to fly cargo loads to different locations without landing. Carried Wet Booster hose carried full of water during mild weather to speed discharge of water on fire without filling or priming from tank. Carrier Fuels The fuels that support the flaming front of the moving fire. Casual A person hired and compensated under the Pay Plan for Emergency Workers. synonym: Administratively Determined see also: Emergency Firefighter Category Day A numerical index related to the ability of the atmosphere to disperse smoke. Different agencies use different scales [e.g., in South Carolina, the current scale is based on ventilation factor and ranges from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent)]. Catface Defect on the surface of a tree resulting from a wound where healing has not re-established the normal cross-section. Ceiling According to the American Meteorological Society, the height ascribed to the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena when it is reported as broken, overcast, or obscuration and not classified "thin" or "partial." The ceiling is termed unlimited when the foregoing conditions are not satisfied. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Ceiling Celsius According to the American Meteorological Society, same as centigrade temperature scale, by convention. Centigrade temperature scale is a temperature scale with the ice point of water at 0 degrees and the boiling point at 100 degrees. Source: http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Centigrade_temperature_scale Center Firing Method of broadcast burning in which fire is ignited in the center of the area to create a strong draft; additional fires are then ignited progressively nearer the outer control lines (sometimes in one step) as indraft increases so as to draw the flames and smoke toward the center. Centrifugal Pump Pump which expels water by centrifugal force through the ports of a circular impeller rotating at high speed. With this type of pump, the discharge line may be shut off while the pump is running without damaging the pump or hose. Certifying Official The agency official at the home unit who is responsible for authorizing and granting position certification per agency policy. The agency official is responsible for completing the agency certification block located on the inside front cover of a Position Task Book. see also: Agency Certification; Home Unit; Position Task Book Chain Lightning Lightning in a long zigzag or apparently broken line. Chain of Command A series of management positions in order of authority. Chain Unit of measure in land survey, equal to 66 feet (20 M) (80 chains equal 1 mile). Commonly used to report fire perimeters and other fireline distances, this unit is popular in fire management because of its convenience in calculating acreage (e.g., 10 square chains equal one acre). Char Height The vertical distance above ground scorched or blackened on a tree bole. Charged Line Hose filled with water under pressure and ready to use. synonym: Live Line see also: Live Reel Char 1. Carbonaceous material formed by incomplete combustion of an organic material, most commonly wood; remains of burned materials. 2. In fire simulation, a darkened area within the fire perimeter; usually indicates fire has already passed through; usually created by an opaque material blocking out a selected portion of basic scene illumination. Chase Truck Vehicle that carries crew gear, supplies, and operational equipment for initial/extended attack. Check Line A temporary fireline constructed at right angles to the control line and used to hold a backfire in check as a means of regulating the heat or intensity of the backfire. Check Valve A valve that permits flow of liquid through a hose or pipe in one direction but prevents a return flow. Uses include the prevention of backflow on uphill hose lays, loss of prime with centrifugal pumps and chemical contamination in fire chemical mixing systems. Check-in The process whereby resources first report to an incident. Check-in locations include incident command post (ICP), base or camps, staging areas, helibases, or direct to a tactical assignment. see also: Reporting Locations Chevron Burn Burning technique in which lines of fire are started simultaneously from the apex of a ridge point, and progress downhill, maintaining position along the contour; used in hilly areas to ignite ridge points or ridge ends. Chief of Party The chief of party is responsible to the sending unit dispatcher until destination is reached. Chief of party is responsible for all traveling personnel assigned on the manifest list. Chief The ICS title for individuals responsible for command of functional sections: Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance/Administration. Circumstantial Evidence Testimony or information not based on actual personal knowledge or observation, but dependent on inference of other facts or experience. For example, testimony that defendant?s cigarette lighter was found in ashes of a fire. Cirrus A form of high cloud, composed of ice crystals, which seldom obscures the sun. Class A Foam Foam intended for use on Class A or woody fuels; made from hydrocarbon-based surfactant, therefore lacking the strong filming properties of Class B foam, but possessing excellent wetting properties. Class B Foam Foam designed for use on Class B or flammable liquid fires; made from fluorocarbon-based surfactants, therefore capable of strong filming action, but incapable of efficient wetting of Class A fuels. Class I Areas (Air Quality) Geographic areas designed by the Clean Air Act subject to the most stringent restrictions on allowable increment of air quality deterioration. Class I areas include Forest Service wildernesses and nation memorial parks over 5,000 acres, National Parks exceeding 6,000 acres, international parks, as well as other designated lands. Class II Areas (Air Quality) All areas of the country not designated Class I, including everything from non-Class I areas to urban areas. A greater amount of air pollution can be added to these areas than Class I. Class of Fire As to kind of fire for purpose of using a proper extinguisher: Class A - Fires involving ordinary combustible materials (such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and many plastics) requiring the heat absorbing (cooling) effects of water, water solutions, or the coating effects of certain dry chemicals, which retard combustion. Class B - Fires involving flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, greases, and similar materials where extinguishment is most readily secured by excluding air (oxygen), inhibiting the release of combustible vapors, or interrupting the combustion chain reaction. Class C - Fires involving live electrical equipment where safety to the operator requires the use of electrically nonconductive extinguishing agents. Class D - Fires involving certain combustible metals (such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, potassium, etc.) requiring a heat absorbing extinguishing medium not reactive with burning metals. see also: Size Class of Fire Clean Air Act A federal law enacted to ensure that air quality standards are attained and maintained. Initially passed by Congress in 1963, it has been amended several times. Clear Text The use of plain English in radio communications transmissions. No Ten Codes or agency specific codes are used when using Clear Text. Climate Class In NFDRS, one of four classifications of general climate of an area. Climate The prevalent or characteristic meteorological conditions of any place or region, and their extremes. Climatological Breakpoint Points on the cumulative distribution of one fire weather/fire danger index without regard to associated fire occurrence/business. Clock Method Means of establishing a flight path to a target on a fire by referring to clock directions from the aircraft's present location, with the nose of the aircraft pointing at 12:00. Closed Area An area in which specified activities or entry are temporarily restricted to reduce risk of human-caused fires or to mitigate the risk to human health or safety by potential or on-going wildland fires. Closure An administrative action limiting or prohibiting access to a specific geographic or jurisdictional area for the purposes of reducing wildfire or the risk it poses to life, property, and/or resources. Example of use: "Pursuant to 36 C.F.R. 261.50 (a) and (b), it is hereby ordered that the prohibitions hereinafter set forth apply to the general forest area of the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests until further notice." see also: Restrictions Cloudy Adjective class representing the degree to which the sky is obscured by clouds. In weather forecast terminology, expected cloud cover of about 0.7 or more warrants use of this term. In the National Fire Danger Rating System, 0.6 or more cloud cover is termed "cloudy." Cloud A visible cluster of minute water/ice particles in the atmosphere. Co-op Fire Refers to federal, state, and local cooperative fire programs. Cold Front The leading edge of a relatively cold air mass which displaces warmer air, causing it to rise. If the lifted air contains enough moisture, cloudiness, precipitation and even thunderstorms may result. As fronts move through a region, in the Northern Hemisphere, the winds at a given location will experience a marked shift in direction. Ahead of an approaching cold front, winds will usually shift gradually from southeast to south, and on to southwest. As a cold front passes, winds shift rapidly to west, then northwest. Typical cold front windspeeds range between 15 and 30 mph but can be much higher. Cold Line Fireline that has been controlled. The fire has been mopped up for a safe distance inside the line and can be considered safe to leave unattended. Cold Trailing A method of controlling a partly dead fire edge by carefully inspecting and feeling with the hand for heat to detect any fire, digging out every live spot, and trenching any live edge. Collective Control Controls the pitch angle of the main (helicopter) rotor blades. Used as primary altitude control. Colonizer Species of vegetation that establish on a burned (or otherwise denuded) site from seed. Combination Nozzle Tip Two attached straight stream nozzle tips of different orifice size used to increase or restrict water flow. Combination Nozzle A nozzle is designed to provide either a solid stream or a fixed spray pattern suitable for applying water, wet water or foam solution. Also called: Adjustable Fog Nozzle. Combustion Efficiency The relative amount of time a fire burns in the flaming phase of combustion, as compared to smoldering combustion. A ratio of the amount of fuel that is consumed in flaming combustion compared to the amount of fuel consumed during the smoldering phase, in which more of the fuel material is emitted as smoke particles because it is not turned into carbon dioxide and water. Combustion Period Total time required for a specified fuel component to be completely consumed. Combustion Rate Rate of heat release per unit of burning area per unit of time. see also: Reaction Intensity Combustion The rapid oxidation of fuel in which heat and usually flame are produced. Combustion can be divided into four phases: preignition, flaming, smoldering, and glowing. Command Climate The working environment within the influence of a particular leader or chain of command. The command climate is based on the subordinates' understanding of how they are expected to perform, how they are treated, and how they must conform to the leader's style. Command Presence How leaders present themselves to others. The personal attributes and traits that determine whether leaders are worthy of trust and respect from their subordinates. Command Staff The command staff consists of the information officer, safety officer and liaison officer. They report directly to the incident commander and may have an assistant or assistants, as needed. Command The act of directing, and/or controlling resources by virtue of explicit legal, agency, or delegated authority. Commercial Forest Land Land that is producing, or is capable of producing, crops of industrial wood and is not withdrawn from timber use by statute or administrative regulation. Commissary Supply of items such as candy, tobacco products, toilet items, and work clothes that are made available for sale to all incident personnel. Communications Unit An organizational unit in the Logistics Section responsible for providing and maintaining communication services at an incident. May also be a facility (e.g., a trailer or mobile van) used to provide the major part of an incident communications center. Community Wildfire Protection Plan (CWPP) A plan developed in the collaborative framework established by the Wildland Fire Leadership Council and agreed to by state, tribal, and local government, local fire department, other stakeholders and federal land management agencies managing land in the vicinity of the planning area. A Community Wildfire Protection Plan (CWPP) identifies and prioritizes areas for hazardous fuel reduction treatments and recommends the types and methods of treatment on Federal and non-Federal land that will protect one or more at-risk communities and essential infrastructure and recommends measures to reduce structural ignitability throughout the at-risk community. A CWPP may address issues such as wildfire response, hazard mitigation, community preparedness, or structure protection - or all of the above. Compactness Spacing between fuel particles. see also: Bulk Density Compact A formal working agreement among agencies to obtain mutual aid. Company Any piece of (fire) equipment having a full complement of personnel. Compare and Contrast An investigative technique that involves comparing same sized indicators within a category at separate locations; looking for either differences or similarities in appearance. Compass Rose A circle, graduated in degrees, printed on some charts or marked on the ground at an airport or heliport. It is used as a reference to either true or magnetic direction. Compensation-for-Injury Manager Person responsible to the Compensation/Claims Unit Leader for administrative matters arising from serious injuries and fatalities occurring on the incident. Compensation/Claims Unit Functional unit within the Finance/Administration Section responsible for the overall management and direction of all Compensation-for-Injury and Claims Specialists assigned to the incident. Competency A broad description that groups core behaviors necessary to perform a specific function. see also: Behavior Competent Ignition Source A source of heat that is capable of kindling a wildfire. It may be in the form of a mechanical or electrical spark, glowing ember, open flame, chemical reaction or friction. Complex Incident Two or more individual incidents located in the same general area which are assigned to a single incident commander or unified command. Compressed Air Foam Systems (CAFS) A generic term used to describe foam systems consisting of an air compressor (or air source), a water pump, and foam solution. Computed Gross Weight Term used in calculating from performance charts the permissible helicopter payload at which a helicopter is capable of hovering in ground effect or hovering out of ground effect, based on pressure altitude and air temperature. Concentrate A substance that has been concentrated; specifically, a liquid that has been made denser, as by the removal of some of its water. Conceptual Model A model that is a diagram or description of a set of relationships between factors that describe how a system works, such as an ecological model. see also: Model Condensation The process by which a gas becomes a liquid. Condition Class Depiction of the degree of departure from historical fire regimes, possibly resulting in alternations of key ecosystem components. These classes categorize and describe vegetation composition and structure conditions that currently exist inside the Fire Regime Groups. Based on the coarse-scale national data, they serve as generalized wildfire rankings. The risk of loss of key ecosystem components from wildfires increases from Condition Class 1 (lowest risk) to Condition Class 3 (highest risk). synonym: Fire Regime Current Condition Class Condition of Vegetation Stage of growth or degree of flammability of vegetation that forms part of a fuel complex. Herbaceous stage is at times used when referring to herbaceous vegetation alone. In grass areas minimum qualitative distinctions for stages of annual growth are usually green, curing, and dry or cured. Conduction Heat transfer through a material from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature. Confine A wildfire response strategy of restricting a wildfire to a defined area, primarily using natural barriers that are expected to restrict the spread of the wildfire under the prevailing and forecasted weather conditions. Definition Extension: Some response action may be required to augment or connect natural barriers (e.g. line construction, burn-out, bucket drops, etc.). See Also: Contained; Monitoring; Point/Zone Protection; Suppression. Confinement The strategy employed in appropriate management responses where a fire perimeter is managed by a combination of direct and indirect actions and use of natural topographic features, fuel, and weather factors. Conflagration Threat Likelihood that a wildfire capable of causing considerable damage will occur. Conflagration A raging, destructive fire. Often used to connote such a fire with a moving front as distinguished from a fire storm. Consistency (Foam) Uniformity and size of bubbles. Constant Danger Resultant of all fire danger factors that are relatively unchanging in a specific area (e.g., resource values at risk, topography, fuel type, exposure to prevailing wind). Consumption The amount of a specified fuel type or strata that is removed through the fire process, often expressed as a percentage of the preburn weight. Contained The status of a wildfire suppression action signifying that a control line has been completed around the fire, and any associated spot fires, which can reasonably be expected to stop the fire's spread. see also: Containment Containment 1. The status of a wildfire suppression action signifying that a control line has been completed around the fire, and any associated spot fires, which can reasonably be expected to stop the fire's spread. 2. The act of controlling hazardous spilled or leaking materials. see also: Contained Continental Climate Climate that is characteristic of the interior of a land mass of continental size, marked by large annual diurnal and day-to-day ranges of temperature, low relative humidity and irregular precipitation. Contingency Actions A back-up plan of action when actions described in the primary plan are no longer appropriate. Contingency actions are required to be taken when the result exceeds its intent. Actions are taken to return the project to its intended design. Contingency Plan The portion of a prescribed fire plan, incident action plan, or implementation plan that identifies possible but unlikely events and the contingency resources needed to mitigate those events. Contingency Resources Planned and identified fire suppression personnel and equipment that mitigate possible but unlikely events that exceed or are expected to exceed holding resource capabilities. Contour Map A map having lines of equal elevation that represent the land surface (Topographic). Control Force Personnel and equipment used to control a fire. Control Line An inclusive term for all constructed or natural barriers and treated fire edges used to control a fire. Control Time The time a fire is declared controlled. Controlled Airspace Airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR and VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification. Controlled The completion of control line around a fire, any spot fires therefrom, and any interior islands to be saved; burned out any unburned area adjacent to the fire side of the control lines; and cool down all hotspots that are immediate threats to the control line, until the lines can reasonably be expected to hold under the foreseeable conditions. Controlling Nozzle Shut-off nozzle that permits the nozzle operator to open or close the nozzle or adjust the pattern of the stream. Convection Column The rising column of gases, smoke, fly ash, particulates, and other debris produced by a fire. The column has a strong vertical component indicating that buoyant forces override the ambient surface wind. see also: Smoke Plume Convection 1. The transfer of heat by the movement of a gas or liquid; convection, conduction, and radiation are the principal means of energy transfer. 2. As specialized in meteorology, atmospheric motions that are predominantly vertical in the absence of wind (which distinguishes this process from advection), resulting in vertical transport and mixing of atmospheric properties. Convective Activity General term for manifestations of convection in the atmosphere, alluding particularly to the development of convective clouds and resulting weather phenomena, such as showers, thunderstorms, squalls, hail, tornadoes, etc. Convective-lift Fire Phase The phase of a fire when most of the emissions are entrained into a definite convection column. Convergence Zone 1. The area of increased flame height and fire intensity produced when two or more fire fronts burn together. 2. In fire weather, that area where two winds come together from opposite directions and are forced upwards often creating clouds and precipitation. Convergence The term for horizontal air currents merging together or approaching a single point, such as at the center of a low pressure area producing a net inflow of air. When this occurs in the lower atmosphere, the excess air is removed by rising air currents. Expansion of the rising air above a convergence zone results in cooling, which in turn often gives condensation (clouds) and sometimes precipitation. Conversion Burning Burning an area where brush has excluded forest reproduction to prepare the area for tree planting. Cooperating Agency An agency supplying assistance including but not limited to direct tactical or support functions or resources to the incident control effort (e.g. Red Cross, law enforcement agency, telephone company, etc). see also: Agency; Agency Representative; Assisting Agency; Supporting Agency Cooperator A federal, tribal, state, or local agency that participates with another agency(s) in planning and conducting fire or emergency management projects and activities. see also: Agency; Agency Representative; Assisting Agency; Cooperating Agency; Supporting Agency Coordinated Resource Management A process that directly involves everyone concerned with resource management in a given planning area. Coordinates The intersection of lines of reference, usually expressed in degrees/minutes/seconds of latitude and longitude, used to determine or report position or location. Coordination Center Term used to describe any facility that is used for the coordination of agency or jurisdictional resources in support of one or more incidents. Coordination The process of systematically analyzing a situation, developing relevant information, and informing appropriate command authority of viable alternatives for selection of the most effective combination of available resources to meet specific objectives. The coordination process (which can be either intra- or interagency) does not involve dispatch actions. However, personnel responsible for coordination may perform command or dispatch functions within limits established by specific agency delegations, procedures, legal authority, etc. Coriolis Force An apparent force due to the rotation of the earth that causes a deflection of air to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This force maximizes at the poles and is essentially zero at the equator. Corrosion Result of chemical reaction between a metal and its environment (i.e., air, water, and impurities in same). Cost Sharing Agreements Agreements that document the financial responsibility for incident resource costs, possibly identifying requirements of other party payments. Cost Unit Functional unit within the Finance/Administration Section responsible for collecting all cost data, performing cost effectiveness analyses, and providing cost estimates and cost saving advice. Council Tool Long-handled combination rake and cutting tool, the blade of which is constructed of a single row of three or four sharpened teeth. Also called fire rake, council rake. see also: Rich Tool Counter Fire 1. Fire set between main fire and backfire to hasten spread of backfire. 2. Emergency firing to stop, delay, or split a fire front, or to steer a fire. Coupling Device that connects the ends of adjacent hoses or other components of hose. see also: Adapter Course In aviation, the intended direction of horizontal flight. Cover Type The designation of a vegetation complex described by dominant species, age, and form. Coverage Level Recommended amount of aerially applied retardant keyed to the NFDRS fuel models and/or fire behavior models. Coverage level 2 represents 2 gallons of retardant per hundred square feet. Levels range from 1 to 6 for most fuel models. A coverage level of greater than 6 is for heavy fuels. The levels can be adjusted for fire behavior. Cover The area on the ground covered by the combined aerial parts of plants expressed as a percent of the total area. Coyote Tactics A progressive line construction duty involving self-sufficient crews which build fire line until the end of the operational period, remain at or near the point while off duty, and begin building fireline the next operational period where they left off. Crazing Fine cracking of glass, usually from heat of fire. Creeping Fire Fire burning with a low flame and spreading slowly. Crew Shuttle Transportation of fireline personnel to and/or from assigned fireline locations. Crew Transport Any vehicle capable of transporting a specified number of personnel in a specified manner. Crew An organized group of firefighters under the leadership of a crew boss or other designated official. Criteria Pollutants Pollutants deemed most harmful to public health and welfare and that can be monitored effectively. They include carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen oxides (Nox), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM) of aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM10) and particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5). Critical Burnout Time Total time a fuel can burn and continue to feed energy to the base of a forward-traveling convection column. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) The process in which teams of professional and peer counselors provide emotional and psychological support to incident personnel who are or have been involved in a critical (highly stressful) incident. Cross Shot Intersecting lines of sight from two points to the same object, frequently used to determine location of a fire from lookouts. Also called cross bearing. Crown Consumption Combustion of the twigs, and needles or leaves of a tree during a fire. Crown Cover The ground area covered by the crown of a tree as delimited by the vertical projection of its outermost perimeter. Crown Fire A fire that advances from top to top of trees or shrubs more or less independent of a surface fire. Crown fires are sometimes classed as running or dependent to distinguish the degree of independence from the surface fire. Crown Out A fire that rises from ground into the tree crowns and advances from tree top to tree top. To intermittently ignite tree crowns as a surface fire advances. Crown Ratio The ratio of live crown to tree height. Crown Scorch Height The height above the surface of the ground to which a tree canopy is scorched. Crown Scorch Browning of needles or leaves in the crown of a tree or shrub caused by heating to lethal temperature during a fire. Crown scorch may not be apparent for several weeks after the fire. Crowning Potential A probability that a crown fire may start, calculated from inputs of foliage moisture content and height of the lowest part of the tree crowns above the surface. Cumulonimbus The ultimate growth of a cumulus cloud into an anvil-shaped cloud with considerable vertical development, usually with fibrous ice crystal tops, and usually accompanied by lightning, thunder, hail, and strong winds. Cumulus A principal low cloud type in the form of individual cauliflower-like cells of sharp non-fibrous outline and less vertical development than cumulonimbus. Cup Trench A fireline trench on the downhill side of fire burning on steep slopes that is supposed to be built deep enough to catch rolling firebrands that could otherwise start fire below the fireline. A high berm on the outermost downhill side of the trench helps the cup trench catch material. Also known as gutter trench. Cupping Indicators A concave or cup-shaped depression on grass stem ends, small stumps, and terminal ends of brush and tree limbs. Curb Weight Weight of a truck empty (without payload and driver) but ready to drive, including a full fuel tank, cooling system, crankcase, tools, spare wheel, and all other equipment specified as standard. Cured In the 1978 version of NFDRS, the herbaceous stage when herbaceous fuel moisture falls to 30% or less. Curing Drying and browning of herbaceous vegetation due to mortality or senescence, and also loss of live fuel moisture content of woody fuel following mechanically-caused mortality (e.g., woody debris slash.) Curling Indicators Green leaves on succulent, uncured vegetation which bends and curls inwards towards the heat source. Go to top

D Daily Activity Level Part of the National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS). In fire danger rating, a subjective estimate of the degree of activity of a potential human-caused fire source relative to that which is normally experienced. Five activity levels are defined: none, low, normal, high, and extreme. Damage Differential Indicators The amount of fire related destruction to combustible objects determined by comparing opposing sides of an object. Damage Differential The difference in change or damage that occurs to similar objects after they are exposed to fire of differing intensity and/or duration. The underlying principle behind the interpretation of burn pattern. Dead Fuels Fuels with no living tissue in which moisture content is governed almost entirely by absorption or evaporation of atmospheric moisture (relative humidity and precipitation). Debris Burning Fire 1. In fire suppression terminology, a fire spreading from any fire originally ignited to clear land or burn rubbish, garbage, crop stubble, or meadows (excluding incendiary fires). 2. In prescribed fire terminology, a fire used to dispose of scattered, piled, or windrowed dead woody fuel, generally in the absence of a merchantable overstory. Its purpose is to reduce unsightly fuel concentrations, or consume unwanted natural fuels to facilitate subsequent resource management or land use actions on the area. Deck The helibase operational area that includes the touchdown pad, safety circle, hover lanes, and external cargo transport area. Deep-Seated Fire 1. A fire burning far below the surface in duff, mulch, peat, or other combustibles as contrasted with a surface fire. 2. A fire that has gained headway and built up heat in a structure so as to require greater cooling for extinguishment. Deepening As it refers to atmospheric pressure, a decrease in the central pressure of a low. This is usually accompanied by intensification of the cyclonic circulation (counter-clockwise wind flow around the low). Deflagration 1. Chemical decomposition by burning material in which the reaction is less than sonic velocity, for example, low explosives. 2. A burning with great heat and intense light. Degradation In a discussion of fire retardant slurries, deterioration of viscosity. Delayed Aerial Ignition Devices (DAID) Polystyrene balls, 1.25 inches in diameter, containing potassium permanganate. The balls are fed into a dispenser, generally mounted in a helicopter, where they are injected with a water-glycol solution and then drop through a chute leading out of the helicopter. The chemicals react thermally and ignite in 25-30 seconds. The space between ignition points on the ground is primarily a function of helicopter speed, gear ratio of the dispenser, and the number of chutes used (up to four). see also: Aerial Ignition Device; Helitorch; Ping-Pong Ball System; Plastic Sphere Dispenser Delegation of Authority A statement provided to the incident commander by the agency executive delegating authority and assigning responsibility. The delegation of authority can include objectives, priorities, expectations, constraints and other considerations or guidelines as needed. Many agencies require written delegation of authority to be given to incident commanders prior to their assuming command on larger incidents. Demobilization Unit Functional unit within the planning section responsible for assuring orderly, safe and efficient demobilization of incident resources. Demobilization Release of resources from an incident in strict accordance with a detailed plan approved by the incident commander. Dense Layer A layer of clouds whose ratio of dense sky cover to total sky cover is more than one-half. Dense Sky Cover Sky cover that prevents detection of higher clouds or the sky above it. Density (Foam) The ratio of the original volume of the nonaerated foam solution to the resultant volume of foam. The inverse of expansion. Density Altitude Pressure altitude corrected for temperature deviations from standard atmosphere. Used as an index to aircraft performance characteristics such as take-off distance and rate of climb. Density altitude bears the same relation to pressure altitude as true altitude does to indicated altitude. Departure from Average Greenness (DA) An NDVI-derived image of vegetation greenness compared to its average greenness for the current week of the year. Depth of Burn (DOB) The reduction in forest floor thickness due to consumption by fire. Depth of Char Indicators Sometimes referred to as "alligatoring", where combustible material appears to have a fissured or scaly appearance similar to an alligator's hide. Most commonly associated with finished lumber products, such as boards and fence posts. Deputy A qualified individual who could be delegated the authority to manage a functional operation or perform a specific task. In some cases, a Deputy could act as relief for a superior. Deputies can be assigned to the incident commander, general staff, and branch directors. Desiccant Chemical that, when applied to a living plant, causes or accelerates drying of its aerial parts; used to facilitate burning of living vegetation by substantially lowering fuel moisture content within a few hours. Designated Area Those areas identified as principal population centers or other areas requiring protection under state or federal air quality laws or regulations. Designated Dispatch Point (DDP) The address where the unit must be physically located, and dispatched from, during the mandatory availability period. Detection The act or system of discovering and locating fires. synonym: Fire Detection see also: Discovery Detonation An extreme rapid decomposition of a material in which the reaction is more than a sonic velocity, for example, high explosives. Dew Point Temperature to which a specified parcel of air must cool, at constant pressure and water-vapor content, in order for saturation to occur. The dew point is always lower than the wet-bulb temperature, which is always lower than the dry-bulb temperature, except when the air is saturated and all three values are equal. Fog may form when temperature drops to equal the dew point. Diagram A scale drawing showing information about a fire scene. Die-Out Pattern Indicators Fingers or islands of less intensely burned areas or areas where the fire has self extinguished. Digital Elevation Model A set of points which defines the terrain as numbers for computer applications. This data may be used to draw contours, make ortho photos, slope maps, and drive fire models. Dilution A control strategy used in managing smoke from prescribed fires in which smoke concentration is reduced by diluting it through a greater volume of air, either by scheduling during good dispersion conditions or burning at a slower rate. see also: Dispersion Direct Attack Any treatment applied directly to burning fuel such as wetting, smothering, or chemically quenching the fire or by physically separating the burning from unburned fuel. see also: Direct Line Direct Line Any treatment applied directly to burning fuel such as wetting, smothering, or chemically quenching the fire or by physically separating the burning from unburned fuel. see also: Direct Attack Direct Protection Area That area for which a particular fire protection organization has the primary responsibility for attacking an uncontrolled fire and for directing the suppression action. Such responsibility may develop through law, contract, or personal interest of the firefighting agent (e.g., a lumber operator). Several agencies or entities may have some basic responsibilities (e.g., private owner) without being known as the fire organization having direct protection responsibility. see also: Protection Area Directional Vectors The physical characteristics of the indicators that show the direction of fire spread, i.e., advancing, backing, or lateral. Director The ICS title for an individual responsible for supervision of a branch. Discovery Time Elapsed time from start of fire (known or estimated) until the time of the first discovery that results directly in fire suppression action. Discovery Determination that a fire exists. Location and reporting of a fire is not required as is with detection. see also: Detection Discrete Frequency A separate radio frequency most commonly used in air traffic control which reduces frequency congestion by controlling the number of aircraft or other resources operating on a particular frequency. Dispatch Center A facility from which resources are assigned to an incident. Dispatch The implementation of a command decision to move a resource or resources from one place to another. Dispersion The decrease in concentration of airborne pollutants as they spread throughout an increasing volume of atmosphere. see also: Dilution Display Class Breakpoints In WIMS, the climatological breakpoints separating the highest staffing levels. Commonly these are the index values corresponding to the 90th and 97th or 80th and 95th percentiles for the staffing index. Display Class In WIMS, a one-digit number representing the number of decision points used to evaluate the magnitude of the Staffing Index. Distance Learning (DL) A concept of providing access to quality wildland fire education and training using appropriate instructional technology, delivered anywhere, anytime to prepare a fire management work force to safely achieve fire management objectives. see also: eLearning Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Aircraft navigational equipment that provides the slant range distance in miles (kilometers) from the aircraft to the VOR station to which the DME is tuned, usually at or near an airport. Distributed Incident Simulation Exercise (DISE) An on-line mission rehearsal event providing an individual or team with an experiential learning environment utilizing the National Interagency Incident Management System to "game" a computer generated incident from multiple training locations. see also: Simulation Disturbance A weather system usually associated with clouds, rain and/or wind. Diurnal Daily, especially pertaining to cyclic actions which are completed within 24 hours, and which recur every 24 hours, such as temperature, relative humidity and wind. Divergence The expansion or spreading out of a horizontal wind field. Generally associated with high pressure and light winds. Division The ICS organization level between the branch and the task force/strike team. Divisions are used to divide an incident into geographical areas of operation. Divisions are established when the number of resources exceeds the span-of-control of the operations chief. see also: Group Documentation Unit Functional unit within the planning section responsible for collecting, recording and safeguarding all documents relevant to the incident. Dormant Season Burning Prescribed burning early in the dry season before the leaves and undergrowth are completely dry or before the leaves are shed, as an insurance against more severe fire damage later on. Double Arsonist An offender who sets two fires at one site, at the same time, in a single event. Double Doughnut Two lengths of hose rolled side by side or a single length rolled into two small coils for convenient handling. see also: Doughnut Roll Double Female Coupling A hose-coupling device having two female swivel couplings to permit joining two male hose nipples of the same size and thread type when lines are laid with couplings in opposite or reverse directions. Double Jacket Hose Fire hose having two cotton or other fiber jackets outside the rubber lining or tubing. Double Male Coupling A hose-coupling device having two male thread nipples for connecting hose and for connecting two female couplings of the same diameter. Doughnut Roll A 50 or 100-foot length of hose or a 50-foot length of hose rolled up for easy handling. There are various ways of forming the doughnut. A convenient one has both couplings close together with the male thread protected by the female coupling. see also: Double Doughnut Downloading A calculated reduction in actual payload to provide a margin of safety. Dozer Company A resource that includes a dozer, its transportation unit and a standard complement of personnel for its operation. Dozer Line Fireline constructed by the front blade of a dozer. see also: Plow Line Dozer Tender Any ground vehicle with personnel capable of maintenance, minor repairs, and limited fueling of dozers. Dozer Any tracked vehicle with a front mounted blade used for exposing mineral soil. see also: Tractor Draft Drawing water from static sources such as a lake, pond, cistern, river, etc. into a pump which is above the level of the water supply. This is done by removing the air from the pump and allowing atmospheric pressure [14.7 psi (101 kPa) at sea level] to push water through a noncollapsible suction hose into the pump. Drain Time The time (minutes) it takes for foam solution to drop out from the foam mass; for a specified percent of the total solution contained in the foam to revert to liquid and drain out of the bubble structure. Draped Fuels Needles, leaves, and twigs that have fallen from above and have lodged on lower branches or brush. Draped fuels are part of aerial fuels. see also: Aerial Fuels Drift Smoke Smoke that has drifted from its point of origin and is no longer dominated by convective motion. May give false impression of a fire in the general area where the smoke has drifted. Drift Effect of wind on smoke, retardant drops, paracargo, smokejumper streamers, etc. Drip Torch Hand-held device for igniting fires by dripping flaming liquid fuel on the materials to be burned; consists of a fuel fount, burner arm, and igniter. Fuel used is generally a mixture of diesel and gasoline. see also: Backfire Torch; Burning Torch; Flame Thrower Drive Axle An axle that supports a portion of the vehicle weight and transmits a driving force to the wheels. Drive Wheels Wheels powered by all of the vehicle's drive axles. Dual tires are considered as single wheels. The number of wheels is commonly referenced by the terms "4x2", "4x4", etc. where the first figure indicates the total number of wheels on the ground and the second figure, the number of drive wheels. Drizzle Precipitation composed exclusively of water drops smaller than 0.02 inches (0.5 mm) in diameter. Drop Configuration The type of retardant drop selected to cover a ground target. Terms that can specify the type of drop configuration include Salvo Drop and Trail Drop. see also: Salvo Drop; Trail Drop Drop Pass Indicates that the airtanker has the target in sight and will make a retardant drop on this run over the target. Drop Pattern The distribution of an aerially delivered retardant drop on the target area in terms of its length, width, and momentum (velocity x mass) as it approaches the ground. The latter determines the relative coverage level of the fire retardant on fuels within the pattern. synonym: Pattern Drop Zone (DZ) Target area for airtankers, helitankers, cargo dropping. see also: Target Drought Index A number representing the net effect of evaporation, transpiration and precipitation in producing cumulative moisture depletion in deep duff or upper soil layers. see also: Keetch-Byram Drought Index Drought A period of relatively long duration with substantially below-normal precipitation, usually occurring over a large area. Drum Lifter Device used to transport a 55-gallon drum (208 L) via sling on a helicopter. Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate The rate of decrease of temperature with height of a parcel of dry air lifted adiabatically through an atmosphere in hydrostatic equilibrium. Numerically equal to 9.7670 C degrees per km or about 5.40 F degrees per thousand feet. Dry Air Mass A portion of the atmosphere that has a relatively low dew point temperature and where the formation of clouds, fog, or precipitation is unlikely. Dry Bulb Temperature The temperature of the air measured in the shade 4-8 feet above the ground. Dry Bulb A name given to an ordinary thermometer used to determine the temperature of the air (to distinguish it from the wet bulb). Dry Episode (DE) A contiguous series of days having a pre-established number of fire ignitions with a fuel dryness level that historically resulted in a significant fire event for a particular area. see also: Fuel Dryness Level; Significant Fire Event Dry Foam A low expansion foam type with stable bubble structure and slow drain time which is used primarily for resource and property protection. Dry Hydrant 1. Permanent devices with fire engine threads attached to expedite drafting operations in locations where there are water sources suitable for use in fire suppression (e.g., piers, wharves, bridges over streams, highways adjacent to ponds). 2. Permanently installed supply private fire pumps which depend upon suction sources. Also called suction pipe. Dry Lightning Storm Thunderstorm in which negligible precipitation reaches the ground. Also called dry storm. Dry Run A trial pass over the target area by a lead plane and/or an airtanker to pinpoint target areas and warn ground personnel of the impending retardant or extinguishing agent drop. Dry Storage Refers to dry chemical retardants stored at air attack bases and available for mixing with water. see also: Wet Storage Dry-bulb Temperature Temperature of the air. Dry-bulb Thermometer In a psychrometer, the thermometer not covered with muslin which is used to determine air temperature. Duff The layer of decomposing organic materials lying below the litter layer of freshly fallen twigs, needles, and leaves and immediately above the mineral soil. see also: Humus; Litter Durability (Foam) The effective life span of foam bubbles. Duty Week Regular number of hours worked per week by a full-time firefighter, excluding overtime. Go to top

E Economic Fire Protection Theory A concept postulating that the object of fire protection is to minimize total cost (i.e., sum of the costs of fire prevention, fire presuppression, fire detection, fire suppression, and net costs of fire damage/benefits). Ecosystem Sustainability The capacity to maintain ecosystem health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, for the long term, in the context of human activity and use. Ecosystem An interacting natural system including all the component organisms together with the abiotic environment and processes affecting them. Eddy A circular-like flow of a fluid (such as air or water) drawing its energy from a flow of much larger scale, and brought about by pressure irregularities as in the downwind (lee) side of a solid obstacle. For example, wind conditions may be erratic and may eddy on the downwind side of large rock outcroppings, buildings, etc. Edge Firing Method of burning in which fires are set along the edges of an area and allowed to spread inward. Edge 1. The place where plant communities meet or where successional stages or vegetative conditions within plant communities come together. 2. The boundary between two fairly distinct fuel types. Eductor A device used to introduce and mix fire chemical into a water stream. An eductor is a fitting with three ports, an inlet for water flow, an outlet for water flow, and an inlet for fire chemical concentrate. The flow of water through the eductor produces a region of lower pressure at the fire chemical inlet, drawing the chemical into the water stream. Effective Windspeed The midflame windspeed adjusted for the effect of slope on fire spread. Ejector A siphon device used to fill an engine's tank when the water source is below or beyond the engine's drafting capability. Elapsed Time The total time taken to complete any step(s) in fire suppression. NOTE: Generally divided chronologically into discovery time, report time, getaway time, travel time, attack time, control time, mop up time, and patrol time. eLearning Conceptually represents the optimum integration of modern educational methods and professional staff development training with state of the art technology. The primary goal is enhancing on-the-job performance, motivation, and learning performance. see also: Distance Learning Elevation Loss In hydraulics, the pressure loss caused by raising water through hose or pipe to a higher elevation (roughly equal to one psi for every two-foot increase in elevation above the pump) (11.3 kPa per meter). Emergency Firefighter (EFF) A person employed as an emergency worker on a forest or wildland fire which threatens damage to property under public management. Emergency firefighters are hired for the duration of the emergency only. see also: Administratively Determined; Casual Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) A radio transmitter attached to the aircraft structure which operates from its own power source on 121.5 MHz and 243 MHz. The transmitter transmits a distinctive downward swept audio tone for homing purposes and is designed to function without human action after an accident. Emergency Operations Plan The plan that each jurisdiction has and maintains for responding to appropriate hazards. Emergency Response Provider Any federal, state, or local emergency public safety, law enforcement, emergency responder, emergency medical (including hospital emergency facilities), and related personnel, agencies, and authorities. It is any organization responding to an emergency, or providing mutual aid support to such an organization, whether in the field, at the scene of an incident, or operations center. Emergency Stabilization Planned actions to stabilize and prevent unacceptable degradation to natural and cultural resource, to minimize threats to life or property resulting from the effects of a fire, or to repair/replace/construct physical improvements necessary to prevent degradation of land or resources. Emergency Any incident which requires the response of a fire protection organization's attack units and/or support units. Emission Factor (EFp) The mass of particulate matter produced per unit mass of fuel consumed (pounds per ton, grams per kilogram). Emission Rate The amount, or mass of smoke produced per unit of time. For example: Emission Rate = Available Fuel x Burning Rate x Emission Factor. Emission Reduction A strategy for controlling smoke from prescribed fires that minimizes the amount of smoke output per unit area treated. Emission Standard A general type of standard that limits the mass of a pollutant that may be emitted by a source. The most straightforward emissions standard is a simple limitation on mass of pollutant per unit time (e.g., pounds of pollutant per hour). Emission A release of combustion gases and aerosols into the atmosphere. Empty Weight Weight of an aircraft/engine including the structure, power plant, all fixed equipment, all fixed ballast, unusable fuel, undrainable oil, and total quantity of hydraulic fluid. Energy Release Component (ERC) The computed total heat release per unit area (British thermal units per square foot) within the flaming front at the head of a moving fire. Engine Company A resource that includes an engine of a specific type. The type specifies tank capacity, pump rating, hose capacity and number of personnel. Engine Any ground vehicle providing specified levels of pumping, water, and hose capacity but with less than the specified level of personnel. Entrapment Avoidance A process used to improve the safety of personnel on the fireline, which emphasizes tools and tactics available to prevent being trapped in a burnover situation. This process includes appropriate decision making through risk management, application of LCES, use of pre-established trigger points, and recognition of suitable escape routes and safety zones. Entrapment A situation where personnel are unexpectedly caught in a fire behavior-related, life-threatening position where planned escape routes or safety zones are absent, inadequate, or compromised. An entrapment may or may not include deployment of a fire shelter for its intended purpose. These situations may or may not result in injury. They include "near misses." Envelopment Direct attack with multiple anchor points, that allows for multiple points of attack. Generally used as an engine tactic in the wildland urban interface. Environmental Lapse Rate The actual rate of decrease of temperature with elevation. Environmental Specialist Person responsible to the planning section chief for collecting and analyzing environmental information about the incident area, determining environmental restrictions and requirements, and providing the information as an input to the incident action and to incident personnel as needed. Environment The complex surroundings of an item or area of interest, such as air, water, natural resources, and their physical conditions (temperature, humidity). Episode (Pollution) A condition of poor contaminant dispersion which may result in concentrations considered potentially harmful to health or welfare. Episodes may also occur during periods of fairly good dispersion if the source of air contaminants is extremely large. Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC) Moisture content that a fuel particle will attain if exposed for an infinite period in an environment of specified constant temperature and humidity. When a fuel particle reaches equilibrium moisture content, net exchange of moisture between it and its environment is zero. Equipment Use Fire Fire caused by mechanical equipment other than railroad operations. Escape Route A preplanned and understood route firefighters take to move to a safety zone or other low-risk area. When escape routes deviate from a defined physical path, they should be clearly marked (flagged). Escaped Fire Fire which has exceeded or is expected to exceed initial attack capabilities or prescription. Escaped Prescribed Fire Prescribed fire that has exceeded or is expected to exceed prescription parameters or otherwise meets the criteria for conversion to wildfire. A state in which a prescribed fire is no longer doing what was expected. see also: Escaped Fire Estimated Time En Route (ETE) Term used in resource planning/following to estimate time spent between points. Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) Term used in resource planning/following to estimate time of arrival at a point. Estimated Time of Departure (ETD) Term used in resource planning/following to estimate time of departure from a point. Evacuation An organized, phased, and supervised withdrawal, dispersal, or removal of civilians from dangerous or potentially dangerous areas, and their reception and care in safe areas. Evaluate To review and compare outcomes with management and incident objectives desired for a wildland fire. One of the six component activities in an adaptive management process that may lead to adjusting future actions. Evaluator The individual who is qualified in the position being evaluated, or supervises the position being evaluated, having responsibility for observing task(s) being performed and documenting successful performance for agency certification or re-certification. Evaluator responsibilities must remain separate from the individual assigned as Trainer/Coach. see also: Agency Certification; Re-Certification; Trainer/Coach Evaporation The transformation of a liquid to its gaseous state; heat is released by the liquid during this process. Event A planned, non-emergency activity. ICS can be used as the management system for a wide range of events, e.g., parades, concerts or sporting events. Example Exempt / Nonexempt Categories of employees as defined in the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), who are either covered or exempted from coverage under the ActPay entitlements vary depending on the employee's FLSA status. Exhaust Primer Device which uses the exhaust gas flow of an engine for priming a centrifugal pump. Expanded Dispatch An organization needed to support an incident which expands along with the Incident Command System. Expansion The ratio of the volume of the foam in its aerated state to the original volume of the non-aerated foam solution. Expert Witness Someone with sufficient skill, knowledge, or experience in a given field so as to be capable of drawing inferences or reaching conclusions or opinions that an average person would not be competent to reach. The expert's opinion testimony should aim the judge or jury in their understanding of the fact at issue. Exposure Fire Classification for a fire not originating in a building, but which ignites building(s). A fire originating in one building and spreading to another is classified under the original cause of fire. Exposure 1. Property that may be endangered by a fire burning in another structure or by a wildfire. 2. Direction in which a slope faces, usually with respect to cardinal directions. 3. The general surroundings of a site with special reference to its openness to winds. see also: Aspect Extended Attack Incident An incident that exceeds the capability of the initial attack resources and/or organization to successfully manage the incident to conclusion. see also: Extended Attack Extended Attack Actions taken on a wildfire that has exceeded the initial response. see also: Extended Attack Incident Extend To drop retardant in such a way that the load slightly overlaps and links a previous drop. "Extend your last drop." Exterior Fire Protection The protection of structures from the exterior, with no interior access or activity. External Load A load that is carried or extends outside of the aircraft fuselage. External Payload Maximum external stress load (in pounds) with full fuel and pilot in calm air at standard atmospheric temperature. Extinguishing Agent Substance used to put out a fire by cooling the burning material, blocking the supply of oxygen, or chemically inhibiting combustion. Extra Burning Period For any particular fire which is neither contained nor controlled, any 24-hour period following the termination of the first burning period. Extreme Fire Behavior Extreme implies a level of fire behavior characteristics that ordinarily precludes methods of direct control action. One or more of the following is usually involved: high rate of spread, prolific crowning and/or spotting, presence of fire whirls, strong convection column. Predictability is difficult because such fires often exercise some degree of influence on their environment and behave erratically, sometimes dangerously. see also: Blowup; Fire Storm; Flare-up Eyewitness Person who sees evidence of criminal activity, actual commission of a crime or a criminal fleeing a crime scene. Go to top

F Facilities Unit Functional unit within the logistics section that provides the layout, activation, and management of all incident facilities. These facilities may include the incident base, feeding areas, sleeping areas, sanitary facilities, etc. Fahrenheit A temperature scale on which 320 F denotes the temperature of melting ice, and 2120 F the temperature of boiling water, both under standard atmospheric pressure. Faller A person who fells trees. Also known as sawyer and cutter. False Alarm A reported smoke or fire requiring no suppression; for example, brush burning under control, mill smoke, false smoke, etc. Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Refers to the regulations governing all aviation activities of civil aircraft within the United States and its territories. Federal Fire Policy Principles and policies providing a common approach to wildland fire for federal agencies. The primary, interagency wildland fire policy document is the "Review and Update of the 1995 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy" (January 2001). Implementation of that policy is through the "Guidance for Implementation of Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy" (February 2009). Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-570, 90 Stat. 2743, 43 USC 1701). Female Coupling Coupling made to receive a male coupling of the same thread, pitch and/or diameter. Field Test A job-related test of work capacity designed for those with moderately strenuous duties. This test consists a two-mile hike with a 25-pound pack. A time of 30 minutes, the passing score for this test, approximates an aerobic fitness score of 40. see also: Work Capacity Test Fill Tank Large, portable tank from which helitankers can hoverfill. Filling An increase in the central pressure of a low. Counter-clockwise wind flow around the low usually decreases as filling occurs. Final Approach Flight path in the direction of the landing along the extended runway center line from the base leg to the runway. Final Evaluator The individual responsible for completing the position task book's verification statement once all tasks in the position task book have been completed and signed off. Only the evaluator on the final position performance assignment (the assignment in which all remaining tasks have been evaluated and signed off) will complete the verification statement recommending certification. see also: Position Performance Assignment; Position Task Book Final Run An airtanker is "on final" when it is on line with the target and intends to make the drop on that pass; also applies to cargo dropping. Finance/Administration Section The section responsible for all administrative and financial considerations on an incident. see also: Compensation/Claims Unit; Cost Unit; Procurement Unit; Time Unit Fine Fuel Moisture The probable moisture content of fast-drying fuels which have a timelag constant of 1 hour or less; such as, grass, leaves, ferns, tree moss, pine needles, and small twigs (0-1/4"). Fine Fuels Fast-drying dead or live fuels, generally characterized by a comparatively high surface area-to-volume ratio, which are less than 1/4-inch in diameter and have a timelag of one hour or less. These fuels (grass, leaves, needles, etc.) ignite readily and are consumed rapidly by fire when dry. see also: Flash Fuels Fingers of a Fire The long narrow extensions of a fire projecting from the main body. FIRDAT (Fire Data Manipulation Program) A routine of FIREFAMILY that combines historical weather records with the equations of the NFDRS to produce frequency distributions of the NFDRS indexes and components. see also: FIREFAMILY (Fire Data Program) Fire Adapted Community (FAC) A human community consisting of informed and prepared citizens collaboratively planning and taking action to safely co-exist with wildland fire. Fire Agency Official group or organization compelled and authorized under statutes or law to control fires within a designated area or upon designated lands. see also: Protecting Agency; Responsible Fire Agency Fire Analysis Review of fire management actions taken on a specific fire, group of fires, or fire season in order to identify reasons for both effective and ineffective actions, and to recommend or prescribe ways and means of doing a more efficient job. Also called hot line review. Fire Behavior Forecast Prediction of probable fire behavior, usually prepared by a fire behavior analyst, in support of fire suppression or prescribed burning operations. Fire Behavior Prediction Model A set of mathematical equations that can be used to predict certain aspects of fire behavior when provided with an assessment of fuel and environmental conditions. Fire Behavior Prediction System A system that uses a set of mathematical equations to predict certain aspects of fire behavior in wildland fuels when provided with data on fuel and environmental conditions. Fire Behavior The manner in which a fire reacts to the influences of fuel, weather, and topography. Fire Benefits Fire effects with positive monetary, social, or emotional value or that contribute, through changes in the resource base, to the attainment of organizational goals. Fire Bug Arsonist, especially a repetitive firesetter. Fire Business Thresholds Values of one or more fire weather/fire danger indexes that have been statistically related to occurrence of fires (fire business). Generally the threshold is a value, or range of values where historical fire activity has significantly increased or decreased. Fire Business The characterization of fire occurrence in an area, described in terms of total number of fires and acres per year; and number of fires by time, size, cause, fire-day, large fire-day, and multiple fire-day. Fire Cache A supply of fire tools and equipment assembled in planned quantities or standard units at a strategic point for exclusive use in fire suppression. Fire Cause Class Any class into which wildland fires are grouped according to their origin. Fire Cause Agency or circumstance which started a fire or set the stage for its occurrence; source of a fire?s ignition. For statistical purposes fires are grouped into broad cause classes. The nine general causes used in the U.S. are lightning, campfire, smoking, debris burning, incendiary, machine use (equipment), railroad, children, and miscellaneous. Fire Climate Composite pattern of weather elements over time that affect fire behavior in a given region. Fire Climax Plant community maintained by periodic fires. Fire Crew Work Formation Standard crew arrangement used for fireline construction in direct or indirect attack; consists of line locator, line cutters, rakers, torch operators, and mop up crew. Fire Crew General term for two or more firefighters organized to work as a unit. Fire Damage Appraisal Method of determining financial or other losses resulting from a fire. Fire Damage Detrimental fire effects expressed in monetary or other units, including the unfavorable effects of fire-induced changes in the resource base on the attainment of organizational goals. Fire Danger Continuum The range of possible values for a fire danger index or component, given a set of NFDRS parameters and weather input. Fire Danger Index A relative number indicating the severity of wildland fire danger as determined from burning conditions and other variable factors of fire danger. Fire Danger Rating Area A geographic area of relatively homogenous climate, fuels and topography, tens of thousands of acres in size, within which the fire danger can be assumed to be uniform. The basic on-the-ground unit for which unique fire management decisions are made based on fire danger ratings. Weather is represented by one or more NFDRS weather stations. Fire Danger Rating Operating Plan A guide to collection, communication, and application of fire danger ratings at the local level. Fire Danger Rating PocketCard for Firefighter Safety A communication aid designed to help firefighters develop an awareness of the local fire situation by providing a visual reference to fire danger rating. Fire Danger Rating System The complete program necessary to produce and apply fire danger ratings, including data collection, data processing, fire danger modeling, communications, and data storage. see also: National Fire Danger Rating System Fire Danger Rating A fire management system that integrates the effects of selected fire danger factors into one or more qualitative or numerical indices of current protection needs. Fire Danger Sum of constant danger and variable danger factors affecting the inception, spread, and resistance to control, and subsequent fire damage; often expressed as an index. Fire Day Standard 24-hour period beginning at 1000 hours, during which most wildfires undergo a predictable speeding up and slowing down of intensity, depending primarily on the influence of weather and fuel factors. Fire Death Fire casualty which is fatal or becomes fatal within one year of the fire. Fire Dependent Plants and vegetation communities which have evolved adaptations such as a reliance on fire as a disturbance agent, protection as a species against the effects of wildland fire, or even a strengthening or enhancement by it. Fire Detection Act or system of discovering and locating fires. see also: Detection Fire Discovery The act of determining that a fire exists; does not include determining its location. Fire District A rural or suburban fire organization, usually tax supported, that maintains fire companies and apparatus. It is also called a fire protection district. Fire Duty Actual physical engagement in firefighting service as distinguished from staff work at headquarters or maintenance division; work at an individual fire done by an individual firefighter or by a company. Fire Ecology The study of the effects of fire on living organisms and their environment. Fire Edge The boundary of a fire at a given moment. Fire Education Activities to change behaviors and attitudes about fire ecology, wildland fire and the role of fire in natural resource management. Defines the purposes for actions that provide information about and improve understanding of wildland fire. see also: Prevention Fire Effects The physical, biological, and ecological impacts of fire on the environment. Fire Environment The surrounding conditions, influences, and modifying forces of topography, fuel, and weather that determine fire behavior. Fire Frequency A general term referring to the recurrence of fire in a given area over time. Fire Front The part of a fire within which continuous flaming combustion is taking place. Unless otherwise specified, the fire front is assumed to be the leading edge of the fire perimeter. In ground fires, the fire front may be mainly smoldering combustion. Fire Guard A general term for a firefighter, lookout, patrol, prevention guard, or other person directly employed for prevention and/or detection and suppression of fires. Fire Hazard Index A numerical rating for specific fuel types, indicating the relative probability of fires starting and spreading, and the probable degree of resistance to control; similar to burning index, but without effects of wind speed. Fire Hazardous Areas Those wildland areas where the combination of vegetation, topography, weather, and the threat of fire to life and property create difficult and dangerous problems. Fire Hazard A fuel complex, defined by volume, type condition, arrangement, and location, that determines the degree of ease of ignition and of resistance to control. Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System (FIRES) A personal computer (PC) program that merges fire and weather/index files, and allows plotting and analysis of fire occurrence and fire danger. Fire Injury Injury suffered as the result of a fire that requires (or should require) treatment by a practitioner of medicine within one year of the fire, regardless of whether treatment was actually received. Fire Inspector Fire prevention specialist or arson investigator. Fire Interval The number of years between two successive fire events for a given area; also referred to as fire-free interval or fire-return interval. Fire Investigation The process of determining the ignition source, materials first ignited, ignition factors, and party responsible for a fire. Fire Lane Cleared path wide enough to permit single-lane vehicular access in a remote area. Fire Load Index (FLI) Numerical rating of the maximum effort required to contain all probable fires occurring within a rating area during the rating period. Fire Load The number and size of fires historically experienced on a given unit over a given period (usually one day) at a given index of fire danger. Fire Management Area One or more parcels of land having a common set of fire management objectives. Fire Management Improvements All structures built and used primarily for fire management, e.g. lookout towers, lookout cabins, telephone lines, and also firebreaks, fuel breaks, and roads to lookouts. Fire Management Objective Planned, measurable result desired from fire protection and use based on land management goals and objectives. Fire Management Plan (FMP) A plan that identifies and integrates all wildland fire management and related activities within the context of approved land/resource management plans. A fire management plan defines a program to manage wildland fires (wildfire and prescribed fire). The plan is supplemented by operational plans, including but not limited to preparedness plans, preplanned dispatch plans, prescribed fire burn plans, and prevention plans. Fire management plans assure that wildland fire management goals and components are coordinated. Fire Management Unit (FMU) A land area definable by specified management objectives, constraints, topographic features, access, values to be protected, political boundaries, fuel types, major fire regime groups, and other defined elements that set it apart from an adjacent area. The primary purpose of developing Fire Management Units in fire management planning is to assist in organizing information in complex landscapes. A fire management unit may have dominant management objectives and pre-selected strategies assigned to accomplish these objectives. Fire Management All activities for the management of wildland fires to meet land management objectives. Fire management includes the entire scope of activities from planning, prevention, fuels or vegetation modification, prescribed fire, hazard mitigation, fire response, rehabilitation, monitoring and evaluation. Fire Pack A one-person unit of fire tools, equipment, and supplies prepared in advance for carrying on the back. Fire Perimeter The entire outer edge or boundary of a fire. Fire Planning Unit (FPU) The geographic scope of the landscape defined for the fire management analysis. A Fire Planning Unit consists of one or more Fire Management Units. FPUs may relate to a single administrative unit, a sub-unit, or any combination of units or sub-units. FPUs are scalable and may be contiguous or non-contiguous. FPUs are not predefined by agency administrative unit boundaries, and may relate to one or more agencies. They may be described spatially. Fire Planning Systematic technological and administrative management process of designing organization, facilities, and procedures, including fire use, to protect wildland from fire. Fire Plotting Map A map used for determining the location of fires, commonly provided with an azimuth circle to facilitate location by cross bearings. Fire Plow A heavy duty plowshare or disc plow usually pulled by a tractor to construct a fireline. Fire Potential The likelihood of a wildland fire event measured in terms of anticipated occurrence of fire(s) and management's capability to respond. Fire potential is influenced by a sum of factors that includes fuel conditions (fuel dryness and/or other inputs), ignition triggers, significant weather triggers, and resource capability. see also: Ignition Trigger; Resource Capability; Significant Weather Trigger Fire Presuppression Activities undertaken in advance of fire occurrence to help ensure more effective fire suppression. Activities includes overall planning, recruitment and training of fire personnel, procurement and maintenance of firefighting equipment and supplies, fuel treatment and creating, maintaining, and improving a system of fuel breaks, roads, water sources, and control lines. Fire Prevention Activities such as public education, community outreach, law enforcement, engineering, and reduction of fuel hazards that are intended to reduce the incidence of unwanted human-caused wildfires and the risks they pose to life, property or resources. Fire Progress Map A map maintained on a large fire to show at given times the location of the fire, deployment of suppression forces, and progress of suppression. Fire Progression The progress of the fire outwards from the point of origin. Fire Qualifications Computerized interagency summary of fire suppression qualifications of listed personnel. Available information includes fire training record, fire experience record, and physical fitness testing score for each individual. Fire Regime Current Condition Class A qualitative measure classified into three classes describing the relative degree of departure from historical fire regimes, possibly resulting in alterations of key ecosystem components such as species composition, structural stage, stand age, canopy closure, and fuel loadings. see also: Condition Class Fire Regime Groups A classification of fire regimes into a discrete number of categories based on frequency and severity. The national, coarse-scale classification of fire regime groups commonly used includes five groups: I - frequent (0-35 years), low severity; II - frequent (0-35 years), stand replacement severity; III - 35-100+ years, mixed severity; IV - 35-100+ years, stand replacement severity; and V - 200+ years, stand replacement severity. see also: Fire Regime Fire Regime Description of the patterns of fire occurrences, frequency, size, severity, and sometimes vegetation and fire effects as well, in a given area or ecosystem. A fire regime is a generalization based on fire histories at individual sites. Fire regimes can often be described as cycles because some parts of the histories usually get repeated, and the repetitions can be counted and measured, such as fire return interval. see also: Fire Regime Groups Fire Report An official record of a fire, generally including information on cause, location, action taken, damage, costs, etc., from start of the fire until completion of suppression action. These reports vary in form and detail from agency to agency. Fire Resistant Tree A species with compact, resin-free, thick corky bark and less flammable foliage that has a relatively lower probability of being killed or scarred by a fire than a fire sensitive tree. see also: Fire Sensitive Tree Fire Resources All personnel and equipment available or potentially available for assignment to incidents. Fire Retardant Any substance except plain water that by chemical or physical action reduces flammability of fuels or slows their rate of combustion. Fire Risk 1. The chance of fire starting, as determined by the presence and activity of causative agents. 2. A causative agent. 3. A number related to the potential number of firebrands to which a given area will be exposed during the rating day (National Fire Danger Rating System). Fire Scar Analysis Analysis of one or more fire scars to determine individual tree fire frequency or mean fire intervals for specified areas. Fire Scar 1. A healing or healed injury or wound to woody vegetation, caused or accentuated by a fire. 2. The mark left on a landscape by fire. Fire Season 1. Period(s) of the year during which wildland fires are likely to occur, spread, and affect resources values sufficient to warrant organized fire management activities. 2. A legally enacted time during which burning activities are regulated by federal, state or local authority. Fire Sensitive Tree A species with thin bark or highly flammable foliage that has a relatively greater probability of being killed or scarred by a fire. see also: Fire Resistant Tree Fire Service The organized fire protection service; its members, individually and collectively; allied organizations assisting protection agencies. Fire Severity Degree to which a site has been altered or disrupted by fire; loosely, a product of fire intensity and residence time. see also: Burn Severity Fire Shelter Deployment Site Immediate area where a fire shelter has been deployed. Fire Shelter Deployment Removing a fire shelter from its case and unfolding it to use as protection against heat, smoke, and burning embers. Definition Extension: Shelter deployments can be categorized as: 1) Life Saved - Saved the life of the firefighter; 2) Injury Prevented - Prevented burns and/or smoke inhalation to the firefighter; 3) Precautionary - Deployed in a situation with perceived potential danger. The environment did not materialize into a situation where the firefighter would have been killed or injured without the use of a fire shelter; 4) Fatality - Fatality occurred in a fully or partially deployed fire shelter. Fire Shelter An aluminized cloth tent that offers protection in a fire entrapment situation by reflecting radiant heat and providing a volume of breathable air. Definition Extension: Fire shelters are not a fail-safe. Firefighters should avoid situations where a fire shelter is needed, but they are trained to deploy it if they cannot escape and feel the shelter is needed for protection from heat, smoke, and/or ember showers. Fire Shovel Type of shovel specifically designed for use in constructing a fireline; has a tapered blade with both edges sharpened for scraping, digging, grubbing, cutting, and throwing. Fire Simulator Training device that imposes simulated fire and smoke on a landscape image, for the purpose of instructing fire suppression personnel in different fire situations and fire suppression techniques. Fire Spread Model A set of physics and empirical equations that form a mathematical representation of the behavior of fire in uniform wildland fuels. Fire Storm Violent convection caused by a large continuous area of intense fire. Often characterized by destructively violent surface indrafts, near and beyond the perimeter, and sometimes by tornado-like whirls. see also: Blowup; Extreme Fire Behavior; Flare-up Fire Suppressant Any agent used to extinguish the flaming and glowing phases of combustion by direct application to the burning fuel. Fire Suppression Organization 1. The personnel and equipment collectively assigned to the suppression of a specific fire or group of fires. 2. The personnel responsible for fire suppression within a specified area. 3. The management structure, usually shown in the form of an organization chart of the persons and groups having specific responsibilities in fire suppression. Fire Suppression All work and activities connected with control and fire-extinguishing operations, beginning with discovery and continuing until the fire is completely extinguished. Fire Swatter A fire tool that consists of a thick, flat piece of rubber on a long handle used to drag over or smother out flames of grass fires. see also: Flapper Fire Tool Cache A supply of fire tools and equipment assembled in planned quantities or standard units at a strategic point for exclusive use in wildland operations. Fire Trap 1. An accumulation of highly combustible material, rendering firefighting dangerous. 2. Any situation in which it is highly dangerous to fight fire. Fire Treatment The use of fire to accomplish a specified objective. Fire Triangle Instructional aid in which the sides of a triangle are used to represent the three factors (oxygen, heat, fuel) necessary for combustion and flame production; removal of any of the three factors causes flame production to cease. Fire Type A management distinction, made to satisfy legal and budget constraints, based on whether the ignition source was planned or unplanned. Under the implementation guidance, only two types of wildland fire - wildfire and prescribed fire - are recognized. Fire Weather Forecast A weather prediction specially prepared for use in wildland fire operations and prescribed fire. Fire Weather Index (FWI) A numerical rating in the Canadian fire danger rating system, based on meteorological measurements of fire intensity in a standard fuel type. (The standard fuel type is representative of jack pine and lodgepole pine.) The FWI is comprised of three fuel moisture codes, covering classes of forest fuel of different drying rates, and two indices that represent rate of spread and the amount of available fuel. Fire Weather Station A meteorological station specially equipped to measure weather elements that have an important effect on fire behavior. Fire Weather Watch A Fire Weather Watch is issued to advise of conditions which could result in extensive wildland fire occurrence or extreme fire behavior, which are expected to develop in the next 12 to 48 hours, but not more than 72 hours. In cases of dry lightning, a Fire Weather Watch may be issued for the next 12 hours. see also: Red Flag Warning Fire Weather Weather conditions which influence fire ignition, behavior, and suppression. Fire Whirl Spinning vortex column of ascending hot air and gases rising from a fire and carrying aloft smoke, debris, and flame. Fire whirls range in size from less than one foot to over 500 feet in diameter. Large fire whirls have the intensity of a small tornado. Fire-Day In FireFamily Plus, a day with both a weather observation and at least one fire. see also: Large Fire-Day; Multiple Fire-Day Fire-flood Cycle The greatly increased rate of water run off and soil movement from steep slopes that may follow removal of the vegetative cover by burning. Fire-proofing Removal or treatment of fuels to reduce the danger of fires igniting or spreading. (E.g., fire-proofing roadsides, campsites, structural timber.) Protection is relative, not absolute. Firebase A computerized program utilized to analyze the fire workload and project the organization to adequately manage the workload for a given response area. Firebrand Any source of heat, natural or human made, capable of igniting wildland fuels. Flaming or glowing fuel particles that can be carried naturally by wind, convection currents, or by gravity into unburned fuels. Firebreak A natural or constructed barrier used to stop or check fires that may occur, or to provide a control line from which to work. FIRECAST Set of computerized FIREMODELS run during fire season at the operations coordination center on preselected locations to indicate possible fire spread from those points for that date. FireCode Unique code (alpha-numeric) assigned to wildland fires. One FireCode project number per fire is assigned for use by all five federal wildland firefighting agencies. Fire codes may be any combination of four-digit alpha-numeric characters. Each agency's finance community incorporates the FireCode project number into the accounting code. FIREFAMILY (Fire Data Program) A computer program that uses historical weather and fire data for fire planning. Its three major routines are FIRDAT, SEASON, and FIRINF. FireFamily Plus A software application that provides summaries of fire weather/danger climatology and occurrence for one or more weather stations extracted from NIFMID. Firefighter Person whose principal function is fire suppression. Firefighting Forces Qualified firefighters, together with their equipment and material, used to suppress wildland fires. Firefighting Technology Implementation Program (FIRETIP) A computer program through which the technology of FIRESCOPE is transferred to areas outside southern California, where complex, multi-agency fires and other incidents commonly occur. Firefinder Map A map, generally mounted on a wood or metal base, that is provided with an azimuth circle at the center of which is pivoted an alidade, and forms part of an Osborne Firefinder. see also: Osborne Firefinder Fireground Operational area on which firefighters combat a fire. Firelamp (Fire and Land Management Planning) Computerized multi-resource model that simulates the effects that naturally caused prescribed fires have on the future production of natural resources such as timber, forage, wildlife, recreation, and water. Fireline Explosives (FLE) Specially developed coils containing explosive powder that are detonated to create a fireline through ground fuels. Fireline Intensity 1. The product of the available heat of combustion per unit of ground and the rate of spread of the fire, interpreted as the heat released per unit of time for each unit length of fire edge. The primary unit is Btu per second per foot (Btu/sec/ft) of fire front. 2. The rate of heat release per unit time per unit length of fire front. Numerically, it is the product of the heat yield, the quantity of fuel consumed in the fire front, and the rate of spread. Fireline The part of a containment or control line that is scraped or dug to mineral soil. FIREMODEL Computer program which with specified information (fuel, weather, topography) predicts an hourly rate of spread from a point of origin. FIRESCOPE Firefighting Resources of California Organized for Potential Emergencies. A multi-agency coordination system designed to improve the capabilities of California's wildland fire protection agencies. Its purpose is to provide more efficient resources allocation and utilization, particularly in multiple or large fire situations during critical burning conditions. Firesetter Person who starts a fire, usually deliberately and maliciously. Firesetting Starting a fire, usually deliberately and maliciously. Fire Rapid oxidation, usually with the evolution of heat and light; heat fuel, oxygen and interaction of the three. Firing Out The act of setting fire to unburned fuels located between the control line and main fire in burning out operations. Firing Technique Any method or pattern of igniting a wildland area to consume the fuel in a prescribed pattern. E.g., heading or backing fire, spot fire, strip-head fire, and ring fire. see also: Ignition Pattern First Order Fire Effects (FOFE) The effects that concern the direct or immediate consequences of fire, such as biomass consumption, crown scorch, bole damage, and smoke production. First order effects form an important basis for predicting secondary effects such as tree regeneration, plant succession, and changes in site productivity, but these involve interaction with many other non-fire variables. see also: Second Order Fire Effects First-in Firefighters initially attacking a fire, usually the first to arrive at the fire scene. Fixed Tank A device mounted inside or directly underneath an aircraft which can contain water or retardant for dropping onto a fire. Fixed-point Detection Detection of fires from lookout towers or other semi-permanent locations as distinguished from roving ground patrols or aerial detection. Fix Geographical position determined by visual reference to the surface, by reference to one or more radio navigational aids, by celestial plotting, or by any other navigational device. Flame Angle Angle between the flame at the leading edge of the fire front and the ground surface, expressed in degrees. Flame Depth The depth of the fire front. Flame Height The average maximum vertical extension of flames at the leading edge of the fire front. Occasional flashes that rise above the general level of flames are not considered. This distance is less than the flame length if flames are tilted due to wind or slope. Flame Length The distance between the flame tip and the midpoint of the flame depth at the base of the flame (generally the ground surface), an indicator of fire intensity. Flame Thrower Device for throwing a stream of flaming liquid, used to facilitate rapid ignition during burn out operations on a wildfire or during a prescribed fire operation. synonym: Terra Torch® see also: Backfire Torch; Burning Torch; Drip Torch Flame 1. A mass of gas undergoing rapid combustion, generally accompanied by evolution of sensible heat and incandescence. 2. Light given off by burning gasses during the combustion process. Flaming Combustion Phase Luminous oxidation of gases evolved from the rapid decomposition of fuel. This phase follows the pre-ignition phase and precedes the smoldering combustion phase, which has a much slower combustion rate. Water vapor, soot, and tar comprise the visible smoke. Relatively efficient combustion produces minimal soot and tar, resulting in white smoke; high moisture content also produces white smoke. Flaming Front That zone of a moving fire where the combustion is primarily flaming. Behind this flaming zone combustion is primarily glowing or involves the burning out of larger fuels (greater than about 3 inches in diameter). Light fuels typically have a shallow flaming front, whereas heavy fuels have a deeper front. see also: Fire Front Flaming Phase That phase of a fire where the fuel is ignited and consumed by flaming combustion. Flammability The relative ease with which fuels ignite and burn regardless of the quantity of the fuels. Preferred to "inflammability." Flammable liquid A liquid generally with a flash point below 140F (60C) and a vapor pressure that does not exceed 40 PSI at 100F (37.8C). Flammable Easily ignitable and capable of burning and producing flames. see also: Nonflammable Flank Fire A firing technique consisting of treating an area with lines of fire set into the wind which burn outward at right angles to the wind. synonym: Lateral Fire Flanking Fire Suppression Attacking a fire by working along the flanks either simultaneously or successively from a less active or anchor point and endeavoring to connect two lines at the head. Flanks of a Fire The parts of a fire's perimeter that are roughly parallel to the main direction of spread. Flapper Fire suppression tool, sometimes improvised, used in direct attack for smothering out flames along a fire edge; may consist merely of a green pine bough or wet sacking, or be a manufactured tool such as a flap of belting fabric fastened to a long handle. see also: Fire Swatter Flare-up Any sudden acceleration in rate of spread or intensification of the fire. Unlike blowup, a flare-up is of relatively short duration and does not radically change existing control plans. see also: Blowup; Extreme Fire Behavior; Fire Storm Flash Fuels Highly combustible fine fuels such as grass, leaves, draped pine needles, fern, tree moss and some kinds of slash, which ignite readily and are consumed rapidly when dry. see also: Fine Fuels Flash Point Lowest temperature at which the vapor of a combustible liquid can be made to ignite in air. Flashover 1. Rapid combustion and/or explosion of unburned gases trapped at some distance from the main fire front. Usually occurs only in poorly ventilated topography. 2. Stage of a fire at which all surfaces and objects within a space have been heated to their ignition temperature, and flame breaks out almost at once over the surface of all objects within the space. Flight Following The method and process through which an aircraft is tracked from departure point to destination. Flight following is the knowledge of the aircraft location and condition at regular intervals with a reasonable degree of certainty such that, in the event of mishap, those on board may be rescued. Flight Path 1. Track of an aircraft over the earth's surface. 2. Specified information relating to the intended flight of an aircraft that is filed orally or in writing with an air traffic control facility. Flight Time The time from the moment the aircraft first moves under its own power for the purpose of flight until the moment it comes to rest at the next point of landing. Flight Visibility Average forward horizontal distance from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight at which prominent unlighted objects may be seen and identified by day and prominent lighted objects may be seen and identified by night. Floatable Pump Small portable pump that floats in the water source. Flow Conditioner Chemical powders that will, in very small quantities, tend to prevent other powders from caking and flocculating. Imparts free-flowing qualities to powder. Used with fire retardant chemicals. Fluid Foam A low expansion foam type with some bubble structure and moderate drain time, exhibiting properties of both wet and dry foam types, which is used for extinguishment, protection, and mopup. Fly Ash Particulate matter emitted by a fire and larger than 10 microns in diameter with a consequently short residence time in the atmosphere. Foam Blanket A layer of foam which forms an insulating and reflective barrier to heat and is used for fuel protection, suppression, and mopup. Foam Concentrate The concentrated foaming agent as received from the manufacturer which, when added to water, creates a foam solution; use only those approved for use in wildland fire situations by the authority having jurisdiction. Foam Generation The foam production process of forcing air into or entraining air in foam solution, creating a mass of bubbles. Foam Line A body of foam placed along areas to be protected from fire; also used as an anchor for indirect attack in place of hand-made fire line. Foam Solution A low expansion foam type with no expansion, therefore lacking bubble structure, which is used for mopup and flame knock down. Foam Systems The apparatus and techniques used to mix concentrate with water to make solution, pump and mix air and solution to make foam, and transport and apply foam. (Systems defined here include compressed air foam and nozzle aspirated.) Foam Type A term used to describe the consistency and viscosity of low expansion foam as the combination of drain time and expansion. Foaming Agent An additive that reduces the surface tension of water (producing wet water) causing it to spread and penetrate more effectively and which produces foam through mechanical means. Foam The aerated solution created by forcing air into, or entraining air in water containing a foam concentrate by means of suitably designed equipment or by cascading it through the air at a high velocity. Foam reduces combustion by cooling, moistening and excluding oxygen. Foehn Wind A warm, dry and strong general wind that flows down into the valleys when stable, high pressure air is forced across and then down the lee slopes of a mountain range. The descending air is warmed and dried due to adiabatic compression producing critical fire weather conditions. Locally called by various names such as Santa Ana winds, Devil winds, North winds, Mono winds, etc. Folding Tank A portable, collapsible water tank with a tubular frame. Tank capacities vary in size from 500-1500 gallons. Foliage Freeze Indicators Small branches, needles, and leaves on green vegetation that take on a windswept appearance and "freeze" in that position. Food Unit Functional unit within the Logistics Section responsible for providing meals for incident personnel. Forb A plant with an herbaceous (soft, rather than permanent woody) stem, that is not a grass or grasslike plant. Forced Landing Landing necessitated by failure of engines, systems, or components which makes continued flight impossible and which may not result in damage. Forcible Entry Entering a structure of vehicle illegally by means or physical force, often characterized by prying doors and breaking windows. Forecast Area Geographical area for which a fire weather forecast is specified. Forest Fire Variously defined for legal purposes (e.g., the State of California Public Resources Code: uncontrolled fire on lands covered wholly or in part by timber, brush, grass, grain, or other flammable vegetation). Types of fires are ground, surface, and crown. Forest Planning Language and Simulator (FORPLAN) Computer program developed to facilitate the use of simulation for integrating many different resource management activities, including fire, into the land management planning process. FORPLAN incorporates unique characteristics of previous systems, links numerous models and data bases, allows selection of variable resolution levels, and permits discrete time simulation of disturbances on plants, fuels, and animals. Forest Protection Forestry branch concerned with prevention and damage control to forests from human actions (unauthorized fire, grazing, felling, smoke), pests and pathogens, and damage from storm, frost, and other climatic agents. Forest Residue Accumulation in the forest of living or dead (mostly woody) material that is added to and rearranged by human activities such as harvest, cultural operations, and land clearing. Forestry Weather Information System (FWIS) A real time system which takes observations and forecasts supplied by NWS in coded numeric form, reformats that input by computer based algorithms, and distributes the reformatted information as numeric and worded diagnoses and forecasts for specialized users in localized areas. Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) Hand held or a rcraf moun ed dev ce des gned o de ec hea d fferen a s and d sp ay he r mages on a v deo screen FLIRs have herma reso u on s m ar o IR ne scanners bu he r spa a reso u on s subs an a y ess common y used o de ec ho spo s and f areups obscured by smoke eva ua e he effec veness of f r ng opera ons or de ec areas need ng mopup Forward Rate of Spread The speed w h wh ch a f re moves n a hor zon a d rec on across he andscape usua y expressed n cha ns per hour or fee per m nu e Frag e F re Cause Objects Ob ec s ha are eas y suscep b e o damage from head and f ame and can be eas y damaged or des royed by suppress on ac on and or dur ng he ev dence co ec on process E g c gare e ash Free Burn ng The cond on of a f re or par of a f re ha has no been s owed by na ura barr ers or by con ro measures Free Drop Cargo no a ached o a parachu e ha s dropped n en ona y from an a rcraf n f gh Free F ow (Hydrau cs) Max mum wa er f ow ra e a f re pump w

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Fr ct on Reduc ng Agent (FRA) Wa er so ub e subs ance ha reduces fr c ona drag of so u ons and dampens urbu en f ow wh e be ng pumped hrough p pe or hose Front In me eoro ogy he boundary be ween wo a r masses of d ffer ng a mospher c proper es Frost Crys a s of ce formed and depos ed ke dew bu a a empera ure be ow freez ng Frozen In he 1978 vers on of NFDRS he herbaceous s age when co d empera ures k

herbaceous p an s and force woody fue s n o dormancy

Fue Arrangement A genera erm referr ng o he spa a d s r bu on and or en a on of fue par c es or p eces Fue Bed Depth Average he gh of surface fue s con a ned n he combus on zone of a spread ng f re fron Fue Bed An array of fue s usua y cons ruc ed w h spec f c oad ng dep h and par c e s ze o mee exper men a requ remen s a so common y used o descr be he fue compos on Fue Break System A ser es of mod f ed s r ps or b ocks ed oge her o form con nuous s ra eg ca y oca ed fue breaks around and un s Fue Break A na ura or manmade change n fue charac er s cs wh ch affec s f re behav or so ha f res burn ng n o hem can be more read y con ro ed Fue Character st cs Fac ors ha make up fue s such as compac ness oad ng hor zon a con nu y ver ca arrangemen chem ca con en s ze and shape and mo s ure con en Fue C ass Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) Group of fue s possess ng common charac er s cs Dead fue s are grouped accord ng o 1- 10- 100- and 1000-hour me ag and v ng fue s are grouped as herbaceous (annua or perenn a ) or woody Fue Cond t on Re a ve f ammab

y of fue as de erm ned by fue ype and env ronmen a cond ons

Fue Cont nu ty The degree or ex en of con nuous or un n errup ed d s r bu on of fue par c es n a fue bed hus affec ng a f re s ab Fue Depth The average d s ance from he bo om of he

y o sus a n combus on and spread Th s app es o aer a fue s as we as surface fue s

er ayer o he op of he ayer of fue usua y he surface fue

see a so: Fue Bed Depth Fue Dryness Leve (DL) A quan a ve measure of fue mo s ure and recep ab

y o gn on as de erm ned by an accep ed F re Danger Ra ng Sys em ndex ha nf uences f re grow h n ens y or ac v y

Fue Group An den f ab e assoc a on of fue e emen s of d s nc ve spec es form s ze arrangemen or o her charac er s cs Genera fue groups are grass brush

mber and s ash

Fue Load ng The amoun of fue presen expressed quan a ve y n erms of we gh of fue per un area Th s may be ava ab e fue (consumab e fue ) or o a fue and s usua y dry we gh Fue Management Ac or prac ce of con ro ng f ammab

y and reduc ng res s ance o con ro of w d and fue s hrough mechan ca chem ca b o og ca or manua means or by f re n suppor of and managemen ob ec ves

Fue Mode S mu a ed fue comp ex for wh ch a fue descr p ors requ red for he so u on of a ma hema ca ra e of spread mode have been spec f ed Fue Mod f cat on Man pu a on or remova of fue s o reduce he ke hood of gn on and or o essen po en a damage and res s ance o con ro (e g

opp ng ch pp ng crush ng p ng and burn ng)

synonym: Fue Treatment Fue Mo sture Ana og Dev ce ha emu a es he mo s ure response of spec f c c asses of dead fue s cons ruc ed from organ c or norgan c ma er a s (e g ha f- nch ponderosa p ne dowe s represen ng en-hour me ag fue s) Fue Mo sture Content The quan y of mo s ure n fue expressed as a percen age of he we gh when horough y dr ed a 212 degrees F Fue Mo sture Ind cator St ck A spec a y prepared s ck or se of s cks of known dry we gh con nuous y exposed o he wea her and per od ca y we ghed o de erm ne changes n mo s ure con en as an nd ca on of mo s ure changes n w d and fue s Fue Reduct on Man pu a on nc ud ng combus on or remova of fue s o reduce he ke hood of gn on and or o essen po en a damage and res s ance o con ro Fue S ze C ass A ca egory used o descr be he d ame er of down dead woody fue s Fue s w h n he same s ze c ass are assumed o have s m ar we ng and dry ng proper es and o prehea and gn e a s m ar ra es dur ng he combus on process Fue Temperature The empera ure read ng measured from a fue s ck fu y exposed o sun gh above a represen a ve fue bed us ng one of wo me hods (w h n a 3 4- nch or across a 1 2- nch p ne dowe ) Fue Tender Any veh c e capab e of supp y ng eng ne fue o ground or a rborne equ pmen Fue Treatment Man pu a on or remova of fue s o reduce he ke hood of gn on and or o essen po en a damage and res s ance o con ro (e g

opp ng ch pp ng crush ng p ng and burn ng)

synonym: Fue Mod f cat on Fue Type An den f ab e assoc a on of fue e emen s of d s nc ve spec es form s ze arrangemen or o her charac er s cs ha w

cause a pred c ab e ra e of spread or res s ance o con ro under spec f ed wea her cond ons

Fue s Wet F ag A one-charac er code nd ca ng whe her or no f ne fue s are we or dry Fue Any combus b e ma er a espec a y pe ro eum-based produc s and w d and fue s Fug t ve Co or A co or ng agen used n f re re ardan s ha s des gned o fade rap d y fo ow ng re ardan app ca on n order o m n m ze he v sua mpac s of he re ardan Fu -th ckness Burn A burn nvo v ng a

he ayer of he sk n Musc e ayers be ow he sk n and bones may a so be damaged Areas of he sk n may be charred b ack or areas ha are dry and wh e (a so ca ed Th rd Degree Burn)

see a so: Part a -th ckness Burn Superf c a Burn Fume An a rborne rr a ng nox ous or ox c smoke vapor or any comb na on of hese produced by a vo a e subs ance or a chem ca reac on Funct on In ICS func on refers o he f ve ma or ac v es command opera ons p ann ng og s cs and f nance adm n s ra on Fusee A co ored f are des gned as a ra way warn ng dev ce w de y used o gn e backf res and o her prescr bed f res Go to top

G Ga ons per M nute (GPM) The measure of wa er f ow n f ref gh ng I s used o measure he ou pu of w d and and s ruc ura f re eng nes pumps hose s reams nozz es hydran s and wa er ma ns Gap Weak or m ssed area n a re ardan drop or n a f re ne Gate Va ve A va ve w h a ga e- ke d sk ha moves up and down a r gh ang es o he f ow when ac ua ed by a s em screw and hand whee Ga e va ves are bes for serv ce ha requ res nfrequen va ve opera on and where he d sk s kep e her fu y open or c osed Gear Pump Pos ve d sp acemen pump wh ch uses c ose y meshed gears o prope wa er when h gh pressures and ow vo umes are des red can be used safe y on y w h c ear wa er-- suspended par c es of so or rocks can qu ck y wear he gears and reduce pressure and vo ume of wa er Genera F re Weather Forecast A forecas ssued da y dur ng he regu ar f re season o resource managemen agenc es ha s n ended for p ann ng of da y f re managemen ac v es nc ud ng da y s aff ng eve s preven on programs and n a a ack on w df res A so ca ed presuppress on forecas see a so: Inc dent Weather Forecast Spot Weather Forecast Genera Or g n Area The arger area where he f re s ar ed ha s read y den f ab e based on macro sca e nd ca ors and w ness s a emen s Genera Staff The group of nc den managemen personne repor ng o he Inc den Commander They may each have a depu y as needed The Genera S aff cons s s of Opera ons Sec on Ch ef P ann ng Sec on Ch ef Log s cs Sec on Ch ef and F nance Adm n s ra on Sec on Ch ef Genera W nds Large sca e w nds caused by h gh- and ow-pressure sys ems bu genera y nf uenced and mod f ed n he ower a mosphere by erra n see a so: Loca W nds S ope W nds Geograph c Area Coord nat ng Group (GACG) An n eragency body of f re managemen represen a ves from each federa and s a e and managemen agency w h n a na ona y recogn zed reg ona area ha prov des eadersh p and suppor o fac co abora ve y a GACG s m ss on s no on y for w d and f re emergenc es bu for o her emergency nc den s as necessary

a e safe and eff c en f re managemen ac v es Work ng

Geograph c Area Coord nat on Center (GACC) The phys ca oca on of an n eragency reg ona opera on cen er for he effec ve coord na on mob za on and demob za on of emergency managemen resources A coord na on cen er serves federa s a e and oca w d and f re agenc es hrough og s ca coord na on of resources hroughou he geograph c area and w h o her geograph c areas as we L s ngs of geograph c coord na on cen ers and he r respec ve geograph c coord na ng areas can be found w h n he Na ona In eragency Mob za on Gu de see a so: Geograph c Area Geograph c Coord nat ng Area Geograph c Area A boundary des gna ed by governmen a agenc es (w d and f re pro ec on agenc es) w h n wh ch hey work oge her for he n eragency n ergovernmen a p ann ng coord na on and opera ons eadersh p for he effec ve u za on of emergency managemen resources w h n he r area There are n ne geograph c areas A s ng of he areas can be found n he Na ona In eragency Mob za on Gu de Chap er 70 a ong w h s ngs of he Geograph c Coord na ng Areas and Geograph c Area Coord na on Cen ers see a so: Geograph c Area Coord nat on Center Geograph c Coord nat ng Area Geograph c Coord nat ng Area A boundary des gna ed by governmen a agenc es (w d and f re pro ec on agenc es) ha may co nc de w h a geograph c area boundary or may be a subd v s on of a geograph c area w h n wh ch hey work oge her coord na ng for he effec ve mob za on and demob za on of emergency managemen resources w h n he r area L s ngs of geograph c coord na ng areas and geograph c coord na on cen ers can be found n he Na ona In eragency Mob za on Gu de Chap er 20 Sec on 21 1 see a so: Geograph c Area Geograph c Area Coord nat on Center Geostat onary Operat ona Env ronmenta Sate te (GOES) The sa e e used for da a re ay from NFDRS wea her s a ons o ASCADS see a so: Nat ona F re Danger Rat ng System Getaway T me E apsed me from rece p of no f ca on by he personne charged w h n a ng suppress on ac on o he depar ure of he f rs a ack un G oba Pos t on ng System (GPS) A sys em of nav ga ona sa e

es opera ed by he U S Depar men of Defense and ava ab e for c v an use The sys em can rack ob ec s anywhere n he wor d w h an accuracy of approx ma e y 40 fee

G ow ng Combust on Phase The f na phase of combus on fo ow ng f am ng and smo der ng phases see a so: G ow ng Combust on G ow ng Combust on The process of ox da on of so d fue accompan ed by ncandescence A vo a es have a ready been dr ven off oxygen reaches he combus on surfaces and here s no v s b e smoke Th s phase fo ows he smo der ng combus on phase and con nues un empera ure drops be ow he combus on hresho d va ue or un on y non-combus b e ash rema ns

he

Go ng F re Any w df re on wh ch suppress on ac on has no reached an ex ens ve mop up s age Grad ent W nd 1 W nd f ow ng para e o pressure sobars or con ours w h ow pressure on he ef of he observer n he Nor hern Hem sphere ve oc y such ha he pressure grad en Cor o s and cen r fuga force ac ng n he area are n ba ance 2 W nd crea ed by d ffer ng barome r c pressures be ween h gh- and ow-pressure sys ems Ve oc y s genera y f ve o 30 m es per hour and w nd sh f s are usua y gradua as sys ems move and sh f Grass F re Any f re n wh ch he predom nan fue s grass or grass ke Grass Stem Ind cators Rema ns of grass s ems hav ng d fferen appearances based on he d rec on of f re spread Grass Type In NFDRS he wo grass ypes (annua perenn a ) de erm ne how seasona dry ng of ve herbaceous fue s s mode ed Grav metr c Of or per a n ng o measuremen by we gh Grav ty Tank Wa er s orage ank for f re pro ec on and some mes commun y wa er serv ce ha supp es wa er by grav y pressure Green-up Green-up for he 1978 vers on of NFDRS mode s def ned as he beg nn ng of a new cyc e of p an grow h Green-up usua y occurs once a year excep n deser areas where ra ny per ods can produce a f ush of new grow h more han once a year Green-up may be s gna ed a d fferen da es for d fferen fue mode s Green-up shou d no be s ar ed when he f rs f ush of green occurs n he area Ins ead he vege a on ha w be he f re prob em (represen ed by he NFDRS fue mode assoc a ed w h he wea her s a on) when ma ures and cures shou d be den f ed Green-up shou d s ar when he ma or y of h s vege a on s ar s o grow Greenbe t Landscaped and regu ar y ma n a ned fue break usua y pu o some add ona use (e g go f course park p ayground) see a so: Fue Break Greenhouse Effect The hea ng of he ear h s surface by bo h a mospher c nfrared rad a on and ncom ng so ar rad a on Greenness Factor In he 1988 vers on of NFDRS a code sca ed from 0 o 20 represen ng he greenness of grasses and shrubs from near dead o max mum greenness see a so: Re at ve Greenness Gr d Ign t on Techn que Me hod of gn ng prescr bed f res n wh ch gn on po n s are se nd v dua y a prede erm ned spac ng w h prede erm ned m ng hroughou he area o be burned A so ca ed po n source gn on echn que Gr dd ng To search for a sma f re by sys ema ca y rave ng over an area on para e courses or gr d nes Gross Ax e We ght Rat ng (GAWR) The va ue spec f ed by he manufac urer as he max mum a owab e we gh p aced on an ax e of a veh c e when fu y equ pped nc ud ng pay oad f u ds and occupan s Gross Veh c e We ght (GVW) Ac ua veh c e we gh nc ud ng chass s body cab equ pmen wa er fue crew and a o her oad Gross Veh c e We ght Rat ng (GVWR) The va ue spec f ed by he manufac urer as he max mum a owab e we gh of a veh c e fu y equ pped nc ud ng pay oad f u ds and occupan s Gross We ght To a a owab e we gh of a oaded a rcraf for akeoff or and ng ad us ed for a

ude d fferences

Ground Effect Reac on of a ro or downdraf aga ns he ground surface form ng a "ground cush on" ha ncreases f ng capab Ground F re F re ha consumes he organ c ma er a benea h he surface

y of ha sec on of a r

er ground such as a pea f re

Ground Fog Fog wh ch ex ends ver ca y o ess han 20 fee Ground Fue A combus b e ma er a s be ow he surface

er nc ud ng duff ree or shrub roo s punky wood pea and sawdus

Ground Speed Speed w h wh ch an a rcraf raverses he ground over wh ch

ha norma y suppor a g ow ng combus on w hou f ame

f es

Ground Support Un t Func ona un w h n he Log s cs Sec on respons b e for he fue ng ma n a n ng and repa r ng of veh c es and he ranspor a on of personne and supp es Ground Truth Ver f ca on a he s e of wha has been observed and or measured from a rcraf sa e Ground V s b ty Hor zon a v s b

es o her aer a p a forms aer a pho ographs or maps

y observed a he ground

Group Groups are es ab shed o d v de he nc den n o func ona areas of opera on Groups are composed of resources assemb ed o perform a spec a func on no necessar y w h n a s ng e geograph c d v s on Groups when ac va ed are oca ed be ween branches and resources n he opera ons sec on see a so: D v s on Grow ng Season Burn ng Prescr bed burn ng or use of w d and f re dur ng he pho osyn he ca y-ac ve grow ng season where ve fue mo s ures are re a ve y h gh and he dom nan vege a on grasses forbs and herbaceous vege a on are fu y greened Guard Un t Geograph c subd v s on of a f re-pro ec ed area de m ng he n a a ack bounds of a s ng e f re guard or f re crew Gum Th ckened Su phate (GTS) A dry chem ca produc wh ch s m xed w h wa er o form a f re re ardan s urry Gust Rap d f uc ua ons n w nd speed w h a var a on of 10 kno s (11 5 mph) or more be ween peaks and u s Go to top

H Ha nes Index An a mospher c ndex used o nd ca e he po en a for w df re grow h by measur ng he s ab

y and dryness of he a r over a f re

Hand Crew A number of nd v dua s ha have been organ zed and ra ned and are superv sed pr nc pa y for opera ona ass gnmen s on an nc den Hand ne F re ne cons ruc ed w h hand oo s Hangup (Tree Fa ng) A s ua on n wh ch a ree s odged n ano her preven ng

from fa ng o he ground

Hard Suct on Hose Nonco aps b e suc on hose a ached o a pump and used o draf wa er from a source ower han he pump Cus omary hose s zes n w d and f re eng nes are 2 and 2-1 2 nches n d ame er (51 and 64 mm) Hazard Assessment Assess hazards o de erm ne r sks Assess he mpac of each hazard n erms of po en a oss cos or s ra eg c degrada on based on probab

y and sever y

see a so: Hazard Fue R sk Hazard Fue A fue comp ex def ned by k nd arrangemen vo ume cond on and oca on ha presen s a hrea of gn on and res s ance o con ro Hazard Map Map of he area of opera ons ha shows a of he known aer a hazards nc ud ng bu no

m ed o power nes m

ary ra n ng areas hang g d ng areas e c

Hazard Pay A sa ary d fferen a ha compensa es emp oyees for exposure o hazards n he course of he r du es Hazard Reduct on Any rea men of v ng and dead fue s ha reduces he po en a spread or consequences of f re Hazardous Areas Those w d and areas where he comb na on of vege a on opography wea her and he hrea of f re o fe and proper y crea e d ff cu and dangerous prob ems Hazardous Mater a s 1 Subs ances ha are den f ed c ass f ed and regu a ed n he Code of Federa Regu a ons T e 49 and Hazardous Ma er a s Regu a ons 175 2 A subs ance or ma er a wh ch has been de erm ned by he Secre ary of Transpor a on o be capab e of pos ng an unreasonab e r sk o hea h safe y and proper y when ranspor ed n commerce and wh ch has been so des gna ed Hazard Any rea or po en a cond on ha can cause n ury

ness or dea h of personne or damage o or oss of equ pmen or proper y

Haze Meter Ins rumen for measur ng he dependab e range of d s ance a wh ch a s andard smoke co umn can be de ec ed by he una ded eye under ex s ng haze cond ons Haze A suff c en concen ra on of a mospher c aeroso s o affec a v s b e a enua on of gh and measurab e reduc on n v sua range The aeroso par c e d ame er s near he wave eng h of v s b e gh op m z ng he gh sca er ng eff c ency of he par c es Head F re A f re spread ng or se o spread w h he w nd synonym: Advanc ng F re Head of a F re The mos rap d y spread ng por on of a f re s per me er usua y o he eeward or up s ope Head Pressure Pressure due o e eva on of wa er Equa s 0 433 pounds per square nch (PSI) per foo of e eva on (Approx ma e y 0 5 PSI s requ red o f wa er 1 foo n e eva on) Head ng The compass d rec on n wh ch he ong ud na ax s of he a rcraf po n s Head amp F ash gh ord nar y worn by f ref gh er on he fron of he he me Heat Content The ne amoun of hea ha wou d be g ven off f fue burns when

s abso u e y dry no ed as B u per pound of fue

Heat Low An area of ow pressure caused by n ense hea ng of he ear h s surface H gh surface empera ure causes a r o expand and r se resu ng n ow a mospher c pressure and nduces a weak nf ow of a r a he surface A r wh ch r ses n a hea ow s very dry so c ouds se dom form R s ng a r above a hea ow produces a warm upper eve h gh and resu s n a ne ou f ow of a r a of Hea ows rema n prac ca y s a onary over areas wh ch produce hem Heat of Combust on The hea energy resu ng from he comp e e combus on of a fue expressed as he quan y of hea per un we gh of fue The h gh hea of combus on s he po en a ava ab e and he ow hea of combus on s he h gh hea of combus on m nus severa osses ha occur n an open sys em (pr mar y hea of vapor za on of mo s ure n he fue ) Heat per Un t Area To a amoun of hea re eased per un area as he f am ng fron of he f re passes expressed as B u square foo a measure of he o a amoun of hea re eased n f ames Heat Probe Appara us used o de ec hea Heat Re ease Rate 1 To a amoun of hea produced per un mass of fue consumed per un me 2 Amoun of hea re eased o he a mosphere from he convec ve- f f re phase of a f re per un

me

Heat Transfer Process by wh ch hea s mpar ed from one body o ano her hrough conduc on convec on and rad a on Heat Trough A Hea Low wh ch s e onga ed n shape A so ca ed Hea Low Therma Low Therma Trough Heat Va ue The o a hea energy re eased dur ng combus on usua y pub shed as un s of hea energy produced per un mass of ovendry fue consumed Heat Y e d The hea of combus on correc ed for var ous hea osses ma n y he presence of mo s ure n he fue To a very c ose approx ma on he quan y of hea per pound of fue burned ha passes hrough a cross sec on of he convec on co umn above a f re ha s burn ng n a neu ra y s ab e a mosphere A so ca ed ow hea of combus on Heat Tempera ures h gher han ha of he norma a mosphere produced by he process of burn ng or ox da on Heavy Equ pment Transport Any ground veh c e capab e of ranspor ng a dozer rac or or o her heavy p ece of equ pmen A so ca ed owboy Heavy Fue s Fue s of arge d ame er such as snags ogs arge mbwood wh ch gn e and are consumed more s ow y han f ash fue s A so ca ed coarse fue s Heavy Ign t on Source Ob ec s ha w

end o se e or burrow under he surface of he ma er a s f rs gn ed as a resu of e her we gh or empera ure I e we d ng s ag exhaus par c es arge me a fragmen s e c

He ght The ver ca measuremen of vege a on from he op of he crown o ground eve He d L ne A con ro

ne ha s

con a ns he f re when mopup s comp e ed Exc udes os

ne na ura barr ers no backf red and unused secondary nes

He base Crew A crew of nd v dua s who may be ass gned o suppor he cop er opera ons He base The ma n oca on w h n he genera nc den area for park ng fue ng ma n enance and oad ng of he cop ers I s usua y oca ed a or near he nc den base He bucket Spec a y des gned bucke carr ed by a he cop er ke a s ng oad and used for aer a de very of wa er or f re re ardan s He copter Tender A ground serv ce veh c e capab e of supp y ng fue and suppor equ pmen o he cop ers He copter An a rcraf ha depends pr nc pa y on he f genera ed by one or more ro ors for s suppor n f gh synonym: Rotorcraft He port A permanen fac

y for he opera on of he cop ers wh ch has been bu

o FAA s andards and wh ch s marked on aeronau ca char s Na ura resource agenc es refer o agency he por s as permanen he bases

He pumper L gh we gh por ab e pump deve oped for ranspor by he cop er He spot A na ura or mproved akeoff and and ng area n ended for emporary or occas ona he cop er use He tack Crew A crew of f ref gh ers spec a y ra ned and cer f ed n he ac ca and og s ca use of he cop ers for f re suppress on He tack The u

za on of he cop ers o ranspor crews equ pmen and f re re ardan s or suppressan s o he f re ne dur ng he n a s ages of a f re The erm a so refers o he crew ha performs he cop er managemen and a ack ac v es

He tanker A he cop er equ pped w h a f xed ank A r anker Board cer f ed capab e of de ver ng a m n mum of 1 100 ga ons of wa er foam or re ardan He tank Spec a y des gned ank genera y of fabr c or me a f ed c ose y o he bo om of a he cop er and used for ranspor ng and dropp ng suppressan s or f re re ardan s He torch An aer a gn on dev ce hung from or moun ed on a he cop er o d sperse gn ed umps of ge ed gaso ne Used for backf res burnou s or prescr bed burns see a so: Aer a Ign t on Dev ce De ayed Aer a Ign t on Dev ces P ng-Pong Ba System P ast c Sphere D spenser Herbaceous Fue Mo sture In NFDRS a ca cu a ed va ue represen ng he approx ma e mo s ure con en of he ve herbaceous vege a on n he ra ng area expressed as a percen age of he oven dry we gh of he samp e see a so: Woody Fue Mo sture Herbaceous Stage The mode ed cond on of herbaceous vege a on (pre-green green-up rans on cured frozen) for he 1978 vers on of NFDRS Herb A p an ha does no deve op woody pers s en

ssue bu s re a ve y sof or succu en and sprou s from he base (perenn a s) or deve ops from seed (annua s) each year Inc udes grasses forbs and ferns

H dden F re Scar F re scar n a ree resu ng from f re n ury o he camb um w hou des ruc on of he over y ng bark and herefore no read y d scern b e H gbee Cut Remova of he f rs ( e ou s de) hread of a fema e or ma e coup ng o preven cross ng or mu a on of hreads D mp ed rocker ug on fema e coup ng nd ca es beg nn ng of H gbee Cu H gh Expans on Foam w h an expans on be ween 201 1 and 1000 1 H gh F re R sk Day A day when an gn on r gger and or s gn f can wea her r gger and an appropr a e fue dryness eve comb ne o crea e cond ons ha h s or ca y have resu ed n a s gn f can f re even for a par cu ar area see a so: Fue Dryness Leve Ign t on Tr gger S gn f cant F re Event S gn f cant Weather Tr gger H gh Pressure Fog Sma capac y spray e produced a very h gh pressures (grea er han 250 ps

he norma max mum pressure for s andard ground ankers) and d scharged hrough a sma hose w h a gun- ype nozz e

H stor ca Weather Stat on In WIMS a wea her s a on ha s no onger n serv ce for wh ch access o arch ved observa ons s s

ava ab e n NIFMID

Ho d ng Act ons A ac ons aken o s op he spread of f re Ho d ng Orb t A prede erm ned maneuver wh ch keeps an a rcraf w h n a spec f ed a rspace wh e awa ng fur her orders Ho d ng Resources Resources ass gned o do a requ red f re suppress on work fo ow ng f re ne cons ruc on bu genera y no nc ud ng ex ens ve mopup A so known as Ho d ng Forces Ho dover F re A f re ha rema ns dorman for a cons derab e me A so ca ed s eeper f re Home Assessment Eva ua on of a dwe ng and s mmed a e surround ng o de erm ne s po en a o escape damage by an approach ng w d and f re Inc udes he fue s and vege a on n he yard and ad acen o he s ruc ure roof env ronmen deck ng and s d ng ma er a s preva ng w nds opography f re h s ory e c w h he n en of m ga ng f re hazards and r sks Home Un t The des gna ed agency or en y prov d ng con rac ed resources ha emp oys he nd v dua who s ac ve y pursu ng a pos on performance ass gnmen (comp e on of a pos on ask book) see a so: Pos t on Performance Ass gnment Pos t on Task Book Hose C amp Cr mp ng dev ce for s opp ng he f ow of wa er n a hose Hose Lay Arrangemen of connec ed eng hs of f re hose and accessor es on he ground beg nn ng a he f rs pump ng un and end ng a he po n of wa er de very Hose L ne Tee A f ng ha may be ns a ed be ween eng hs of hose o prov de an ndependen y con ro ed ou e for a branch ne Hose Rack I em for s or ng dry ng f re hose Hose Ree A ro a ng drum used for w nd ng boos er hose (norma y) for s or ng and d spens ng see a so: Booster Ree Hose Thread The spec f c d mens ons of screw hread emp oyed o coup ed f re hose and equ pmen Amer can Na ona S andards (NH) have been adop ed for f re hose coup ngs hreads n 3 4 1-1 2 2-1 2 3-1 2 4 5 and 6- nch s zes Hose Washer Dev ce for c ean ng he ex er or of f re hose Hotshot Crew In ens ve y ra ned f re crew used pr mar y n hand ne cons ruc on (Type-1) Hotspott ng Check ng he spread of f re a po n s of more rap d spread or spec a hrea Is usua y he n a s ep n promp con ro w h emphas s on f rs pr or es Hotspot A par cu ar y ac ve par of a f re Hover Ce ng H ghes a

ude above sea eve a wh ch a he cop er can hover a max mum compu ed gross we gh I s genera y spec f ed whe her he quo ed hover ce ng refers o hover ng n ground effec (HIGE) or hover ng ou of ground effec (HOGE)

Hover Hook-up A ach ng of a cargo ead ne o a hover ng he cop er Hoverf The process by wh ch a he cop er f s a he bucke wh e hover ng above he wa er source Hover ng n Ground Effect (HIGE) The s ua on n wh ch a he cop er s hover ng suff c en y c ose o he ground o ach eve added f due o he effec s of "ground cush on " The HIGE ce ng for a g ven gross we gh

hus s grea er han he HOGE (Hover ng Ou of Ground Effec ) ce ng

Hover A s a onary n-f gh cond on for he cop ers when no d rec ona f gh s ach eved Human-caused F re Any f re caused d rec y or nd rec y by person(s) Human-caused R sk Sca ng Factor Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) Number re a ng human-caused f re nc dence o he gn on componen n a f re danger ra ng area I s based on hree o f ve years of f re occurrence and f re wea her da a ha ad us s he pred c on of he bas c human-caused f re occurrence mode o f oca exper ence Human-caused R sk Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) A mode for pred c ng he average number of repor ab e human caused f res from a g ven gn on componen va ue Hum d ty Genera erm referr ng o he mo s ure con en of he a mosphere see a so: Re at ve Hum d ty Humus Layer of decomposed organ c ma er on he fores f oor benea h he fermen a on ayer and d rec y above he so

I s ha par of he duff n wh ch decompos on has rendered vege a on unrecogn zab e and m x ng of so and organ c ma er s underway

see a so: Duff L tter Hydrophob c ty Res s ance o we ng exh b ed by some so s a so ca ed wa er repe ency The phenomenon may occur na ura y or may be f re- nduced I may be de erm ned by wa er drop pene ra on me equ br um qu d-con ac ang es so d-a r surface ens on nd ces or he charac er za on of dynam c we ng ang es dur ng nf ra on Hygrothermograph Record ng ns rumen comb n ng on one paper record he var a on of dry-bu b empera ure and re a ve hum d y as a func on of me Go to top

I I-Zone An area ha

n re a on o w d and urban f re has a se of cond ons ha prov des he oppor un y for f re o burn from w d and vege a on o he home s ruc ure gn on zone

Ident f cat on Run Dry run over he arge area by he eadp ane o nd ca e an a r anker s f gh pa h and arge wh e he a r anker p o s observ ng Ign ter A pyro echn c dev ce spec f ca y des gned o n a e burn ng of a fue m x ure or prope an Ign t on Component Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) A ra ng of he probab

y ha a f rebrand w

cause an ac onab e f re

Ign t on Energy Quan y of hea or e ec r ca energy ha mus be absorbed by a subs ance o gn e and burn Ign t on Factor The cond ons subsequen ac ons and sequence of even s ha br ng a compe en gn on source n o con ac w h he ma er a s f rs gn ed A so referred o as he cause of he f re Ign t on Method The means by wh ch a f re s gn ed such as hand-he d dr p orch he orch and backpack propane anks Ign t on Pattern Manner n wh ch a prescr bed f re s gn ed The d s ance be ween gn on nes or po n s and he sequence of gn ng hem s de erm ned by wea her fue Ign t on Probab ty Chance ha a f rebrand w

cause an gn on when

opography f r ng echn que and o her fac ors wh ch nf uence f re behav or and f re effec s

ands on recep ve fue s (Syn IGNITION INDEX)

Ign t on Source Any process or even capab e of caus ng a f re see a so: F re Cause Ign t on Method Ign t on T me T me be ween app ca on of an gn on source and se f-sus a ned combus on of a fue Ign t on Tr gger A causa ve agen for w d and f re For examp e human or gh n ng IMI Interact v ty Leve s S andards o wh ch IMI produc s are deve oped conform ng o n erac v y eve (s) wh ch are appropr a e for he ns ruc ona des gn s ra egy med a con en and course spec f ca ons see a so: IMI Leve 1 Interact v ty IMI Leve 2 Interact v ty IMI Leve 3 Interact v ty Interact ve Mu t med a Instruct on IMI Leve 1 Interact v ty Th s s he owes eve of courseware deve opmen I s norma y a know edge fam ar y esson prov ded n a near forma (one dea af er ano her) Use Leve 1 o n roduce an dea or concep or o fam ar ze Prov de m n ma n erac v y by us ng se ec ab e screen cons ha are nser ed n o he near or a mos near f ow of he courseware A ow he s uden e or no con ro of he sequence of ns ruc ona med a presen ed nc ud ng s mp e deve oped graph cs c p ar cus omer prov ded v deo and aud o segmen s (c ps) Make use of yp ca npu ou pu per phera s hroughou he esson see a so: Interact ve Mu t med a Instruct on IMI Leve 2 Interact v ty Th s nvo ves he reca of more nforma on han a eve 1 and a ows he s uden more con ro over he esson?s scenar o hrough screen cons and o her per phera s such as gh pens or ouch screens Typ ca y eve 2 s used for non-comp ex opera ons and ma n enance essons S mp e emu a ons or s mu a ons are presen ed o he user As an examp e he user s reques ed o ro a e sw ches urn d a s make ad us men s or den fy and rep ace a fau ed componen as par of a procedure Th s a so may nc ude s mp e o s andard deve oped graph cs and or c p ar and v deo and aud o c ps see a so: Interact ve Mu t med a Instruct on IMI Leve 3 Interact v ty Th s nvo ves he reca of more comp ex nforma on (compared o eve s 1 and 2) and a ows he user an ncreased eve of con ro over he esson scenar o hrough per phera s such as gh pen ouch screen rack ba or mouse V deo graph cs or a comb na on of bo h s presen ed s mu a ng he opera on of a sys em subsys em or equ pmen o he user The esson scenar o ra n ng ma er a yp ca y s comp ex and nvo ves more frequen use of per phera s o affec a ransfer of earn ng Opera on and ma n enance procedures are norma y prac ced w h eve 3 scenar os and s uden s may be requ red o a erna e be ween mu p e screens o keep pace w h he esson ma er a Mu p e sof ware branches ( wo o hree eve s) and rap d response are prov ded o suppor remed a on Emu a ons and s mu a ons are an n egra par of h s presen a on Th s may a so nc ude comp ex deve oped graph cs and or c p ar and v deo and aud o c ps see a so: Interact ve Mu t med a Instruct on Impe er Ro a ng par of a cen r fuga pump wh ch mpar s energy o he qu d o be moved For shear ng purposes he mpe er s on a ro a ng shaf w h n he body of qu d Imp ementat on P an The des gn and def n on of a

he ac v es resources

m a ons and con ngenc es requ red for successfu w d and f re managemen

Impu se A erm used n wea her pr mar y o descr be a weak d s urbance ha does no necessar y have an assoc a ed s orm cen er or surface ow The d s urbance usua y does no crea e severe wea her and s frequen y assoc a ed w h a mar ne a r push In-stand W nd W nd speed w h n a s and a abou eye eve Incend ary Dev ce Con r vance des gned and used o s ar a f re Incend ary F re A f re ha s de bera e y gn ed under c rcums ances n wh ch he person knows ha he f re shou d no be gn ed An ncend ary f re s no necessar y a f re ha mee s he ega def n on of an arson f re Incend ary A burn ng compound or me a used o produce n ense hea or f ame

ke a bomb

Inc dent Act on P an (IAP) Con a ns ob ec ves ref ec ng he overa nc den s ra egy and spec f c ac ca ac ons and suppor ng nforma on for he nex opera ona per od The p an may be ora or wr en When wr en he p an may have a number of a achmen s nc ud ng nc den ob ec ves organ za on ass gnmen s d v s on ass gnmen nc den rad o commun ca on p an med ca p an raff c p an safe y p an and nc den map Former y ca ed sh f p an see a so: Act on P an Inc dent Base Loca on a he nc den where he pr mary og s cs func ons are coord na ed and adm n s ered (Inc den name or o her des gna or w

be added o he erm Base ) The nc den command pos may be co oca ed w h he base There s on y one Base per nc den

Inc dent Command Post (ICP) Loca on a wh ch pr mary command func ons are execu ed The ICP may be co oca ed w h he nc den base or o her nc den fac

es

Inc dent Command System (ICS) A s andard zed on-scene emergency managemen concep spec f ca y des gned o a ow s user(s) o adop an n egra ed organ za ona s ruc ure equa o he comp ex y and demands of s ng e or mu p e nc den s w hou be ng h ndered by ur sd c ona boundar es Inc dent Commun cat ons Center The oca on of he commun ca ons un and he message cen er Inc dent Comp ex Two or more d s nc nc den s n he same genera area ha by managemen ac on are managed under a s ng e nc den commander or un f ed command n order o mprove eff c ency and s mp fy nc den managemen processes Def n on Ex ens on 1) An Inc den comp ex s no a w df re nc den and s no n erchangeab e w h a w df re record 2) An Inc den Commander or Inc den Managemen Team may manage mu p e w df res w hou crea ng an nc den comp ex Inc dent Management Team The nc den commander and appropr a e genera and command s aff personne ass gned o an nc den Inc dent Med ca Spec a st Program An nc den -based program o care for emergen and m nor med ca as we as common occupa ona hea h care prob ems of nc den personne Th s program may be dep oyed o Type I and Type II nc den s Curren y h s program s on y ava ab e n hree reg ons Nor hwes (R6) Nor hern Rock es (R1) and A aska (R10) In A aska he program s known as he F remed c Inc dent Object ves Inc den -spec f c s a emen s of d rec on necessary for he se ec on of s ra egy(s) and ac ca ac v es of resources on an nc den Def n on Ex ens on 1) Inc den ob ec ves are der ved from he managemen goa s of he Au hor y Hav ng Jur sd c on (AHJ) 2) Inc den Ob ec ves shou d be a a nab e and measurab e ye f ex b e enough o a ow for s ra eg c and ac ca a erna ves Inc dent Organ zat on Resources oge her w h a comp emen of overhead personne ca cu a ed o be suff c en o prov de f re eff c en nc den managemen Inc dent Overhead A superv sory pos ons descr bed n he Inc den Command Sys em Inc dent Qua f cat ons Card A card ssued o persons show ng he r nc den managemen and ra nee qua f ca ons o f

spec f ed f re managemen pos ons n an nc den managemen organ za on

Inc dent Support Organ zat on Inc udes any off- nc den suppor prov ded o an nc den Examp es wou d be agency d spa ch cen ers a rpor s mob za on cen ers e c Inc dent Weather Forecast A spec a wea her forecas for a spec f c nc den prepared by a me eoro og s on s e a or near he nc den area see a so: Genera F re Weather Forecast Spot Weather Forecast Inc dent w th Potent a W d and f re-re a ed m shap ha resu s n ser ous or non-ser ous n ur es nvo v ng mu p e personne near acc den (wh ch wou d have resu ed n a ser ous n ury or fa a y) or subs an a oss of proper y ( ess han $250 000) The m shap may be so comp ex and fraugh w h opera ona d screpanc es ha has he po en a o produce an acc den ser ous n ury or fa a y g ven a s m ar env ronmen or se of c rcums ances ha ex s ed a he me of he nc den see a so: Near M ss Inc dent An occurrence e her human-caused or na ura phenomenon ha requ res ac on or suppor by emergency serv ce personne o preven or m n m ze oss of fe or damage o proper y and or na ura resources Increaser Increas ng coup ng used on hose pump or nozz es o perm connec on of a arger s ze of hose Incrementa Drop A r anker drop n wh ch ank doors are opened n sequence so ha f re re ardan cascades somewha con nuous y Increment Any resource or group ng of resources on wh ch nd v dua s a us s ma n a ned Independent Act on F re suppress on ac v es by o her han regu ar f re suppress on organ za ons or a f re coopera or Independent Crown F re A f re ha advances n he ree crowns a one no requ r ng any energy from he surface f re o sus a n combus on or movemen A so ca ed runn ng crown f re Ind cated A rspeed (IAS) The speed of an a rcraf as shown on s p o s a c a rspeed nd ca or Ca bra ed o ref ec s andard a mosphere ad aba c compress b e f ow a sea eve uncorrec ed for a rspeed sys em errors Ind cator Categor es C ass f ca on of nd ca ors n o a var e y of ca egor es based on how hey are formed and he ypes of ma er a hey are found on Ind cator V sua rema ns a a f re scene revea ng he f re?s progress and ac on Ind rect Attack A me hod of suppress on n wh ch he con ro ne s oca ed some cons derab e d s ance away from he f re s ac ve edge Genera y done n he case of a fas -spread ng or h gh- n ens y f re and o u breaks n he opography The n erven ng fue s usua y backf red bu occas ona y he ma n f re s a owed o burn o he ne depend ng on cond ons Ind rect y V s b e Area Ground or he vege a on grow ng hereon ha s no d rec y v s b e o a f xed po n ookou bu

ze na ura or cons ruc ed f rebreaks or fue breaks and favorab e

es a no more han a spec f ed dep h (common y 300 fee 91 me ers) be ow he ookou s ne of s gh

Inductor A con ro mechan sm ha a ows a regu a ed quan y of foam concen ra e o be n roduced n o he ma n hose ne Industr a F re Precaut on Leve (IFPL) An app ca on of f re danger ra ng o suppor regu a on of con rac ors nvo ved n and managemen ac v es for f re preven on purposes n he Pac f c Nor hwes Industry Crew F re crew composed of m

fores ry or cons ruc on workers

Infrared (IR) A hea de ec on sys em used for f re de ec on mapp ng and ho spo den f ca on see a so: Therma Imagery Infrared Ground nk (IR) A capab y hrough he use of a spec a mob e ground s a on o rece ve a r- o-ground IR magery a an nc den Inh b t on Process of ex ngu sh ng f re by he use of an agen ha n errup s he chem ca reac ons n he combus on process Inh b tor Any agen wh ch re ards a chem ca reac on In t a Attack (IA) A prep anned response o a w df re g ven he w df re s po en a In a a ack may nc ude s ze up pa ro ng mon or ng ho d ng ac on or suppress on In t a Attack Crew Spec a y ra ned and equ pped f re crew for n a a ack on a f re In t a Attack F re (IAF) F re ha s genera y con a ned by he a ack un s f rs d spa ched w hou a s gn f can augmen a on of re nforcemen s w h n wo hours af er n a a ack and fu con ro s expec ed w h n he f rs burn ng per od In t a Attack Inc dent Commander (IAIC) The nc den commander a he me he f rs a ack forces commence suppress on work on a f re In t a Response The n a dec s ons and ac ons aken n reac on o a repor ed nc den Inmate Crew Any f re crew composed of pr son nma es or wards Ins de D ameter (ID) The n erna d ame er of a ube conduc or or coup ng as d s ngu shed from s OD (Ou s de D ame er) F re hose s zes are c ass f ed by a nom na n erna d ame er Instrument F ght Ru es Cond t ons (IFR) Wea her cond ons be ow he m n mum for f gh under V sua F gh Ru es and herefore requ r ng he observance of ns rumen s ns de he a rcraf for con ro ng f gh genera y cons dered o be ess han 1000 AGL and 3 m es d s an see a so: V sua F ght Ru es Cond t ons Instrument Land ng System (ILS) Sys em for a rp ane and ng n wh ch he p o s gu ded by rad o beams Instrument She ter Na ura y or ar f c a y ven a ed s ruc ure cons ruc ed o spec f ca ons and used o sh e d wea her measur ng ns rumen s from d rec sunsh ne and prec p a on Interact ve Mu t med a Instruct on (IMI) A group of predom nan y n erac ve e ec ron ca y de vered ra n ng IMI produc s nc ude ns ruc ona sof ware and sof ware managemen oo s used n suppor of ns ruc ona programs IMI produc s are each ng and managemen oo s and may be used n comb na on or nd v dua y Used nd v dua y no a IMI produc s can be cons dered n erac ve mu med a or ns ruc ona However IMI produc s when used n comb na on w h one ano her are n erac ve mu med a and ns ruc ona IMI echno ogy s one of he pr mary echno og es o be used n d s ance earn ng see a so: IMI Interact v ty Leve s Interagency Resources Representat ve (IARR) An nd v dua who may be ass gned o or reques ed by an nc den o serve as he send ng un s represen a ve o oversee he care and rea men of crews overhead and equ pmen ass gned o an nc den Interchangeab e Course A course deve oped by an n eragency a -hazard sub ec ma er exper group con a n ng he same earn ng ob ec ves and con en as an NWCG deve oped course In erchangeab e course do no requ re equ va ency de erm na on by a us ng agency and may have mu p e course codes and or numbers These courses w be ncorpora ed n o IQCS IQS and cred w be g ven for he NWCG course Interm ttent Smoke Smoke wh ch becomes v s b e on y a n erva s Interna Load Load carr ed ns de he fuse age s ruc ure of an a rcraf Interna Pay oad A owab e a rcraf cab n oad n pounds w h fu fue and p o n ca m a r a s andard a mosphere Inventor ed Resources Ass gned resources wh ch have checked n a he nc den Invers on A mospher c nvers on The depar ure from he usua ncrease or decrease w h a ude of he va ue of an a mospher c proper y In f re managemen usage near y a ways refers o an ncrease n empera ure w h ncreas ng he gh A so he ayer hrough wh ch h s depar ure occurs (a so ca ed nvers on ayer ) The owes a ude a wh ch he depar ure s found s ca ed he base of he nvers on see a so: Atmospher c Invers on Atmospher c Stab ty Stab e Layer of A r Iron P pe Thread (IPT) A apered hread s andard ha s used for connec ng var ous s zes of r g d p pe Th s s andard may be referred o as apered ron p pe hread (TIPT) Na ona p pe hread (NPT) ron p pe hread (IPT) or ron p pe s andard hread (IPS) W h apered hread he hreads and p pe sea an perform he sea a he connec on Th s s opposed o s ra gh hread connec ors wh ch use a gaske o form he sea Is and An unburned area w h n a f re per me er Isobar A ne connec ng po n s of equa a mospher c pressure on a wea her map Isotherma Layer Layer hrough wh ch empera ure rema ns cons an w h e eva on Isotherm A ne connec ng po n s of equa empera ure on a wea her map Go to top

J Jett son D spos ng of cargo fue wa er or re ardan overboard o gh en an a rcraf or o mprove s s ab

y

Job Hazard Ana ys s A ob hazard ana ys s den f es hazards assoc a ed w h work pro ec s and works es and den f es pro ec ve equ pmen or mod f ed work procedures needed Jo nt Informat on Center (JIC) A fac y es ab shed as he cen ra po n of con ac for news med a and n eres par es o coord na e nc den nforma on ac v es a he scene of he nc den Pub c nforma on off c a s from a par c pa ng federa s a e and oca agenc es shou d co oca e a he JIC Jo nt Informat on System (JIS) A sys em ha n egra es nc den nforma on and pub c affa rs n o a cohes ve organ za on des gned o prov de cons s en coord na ed

me y nforma on dur ng cr s s or nc den opera ons

Jump Spot Se ec ed and ng area for smoke umpers Jump Su t Approved pro ec on su worn for smoke ump ng Jur sd ct ona Agency The agency hav ng and and resource managemen respons b Jur sd ct ona Un t The governmen a en y hav ng overa

y for a spec f c geograph ca or func ona area as prov ded by federa s a e or oca aw

and and resource managemen respons b

y for a spec f c geograph ca area as prov ded by aw

Def n on Ex ens on 1) U ma e y respons b e for he f re repor o accoun for s a s ca f re occurrence 2) Respons b e for se ng f re managemen ob ec ves 3) Jur sd c on canno be re-ass gned by agreemen 4) The na ure and ex en of he nc den de erm nes ur sd c on (for examp e W df re vs A Hazard) Jur sd ct on The range or sphere of au hor y Pub c agenc es have ur sd c on a an nc den re a ed o he r ega respons b boundary nes) or func ona (e g po ce depar men hea h depar men e c )

es and au hor y for nc den m ga on Jur sd c ona au hor y a an nc den can be po

ca geograph ca (e g c y coun y s a e or federa

see a so: Mu t jur sd ct on Inc dent Go to top

K Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) An es ma e (0-800) of he amoun of prec p a on ( n 100 hs of nches) needed o br ng he op 8 nches of so back o sa ura on A va ue of 0 s comp e e sa ura on of he so he 1988 vers on of NFDRS ou pu s of KBDI are used o ad us ve and dead fue oad ngs

a va ue of 800 means 8 00 nches of prec p a on wou d be needed for sa ura on In

see a so: Drought Index K nd ng Po nt Lowes empera ure a wh ch sus a ned combus on can be n a ed for a spec f ed subs ance A so ca ed gn on empera ure Knock Down To reduce he f ame or hea on he more v gorous y burn ng par s of a f re edge Knot Nau ca m es per hour equa o 1 15 mph Go to top

L Ladder Fue s Fue s wh ch prov de ver ca con nu y be ween s ra a hereby a ow ng f re o carry from surface fue s n o he crowns of rees or shrubs w h re a ve ease They he p n a e and assure he con nua on of crown ng Land Occupancy F re F re s ar ed as a resu of and occupancy for agr cu ura purposes ndus r a es ab shmen cons ruc on ma n enance and use of r gh s-of-way and res dences excep equ pmen use and smok ng Land Use P an A se of dec s ons ha es ab sh managemen d rec on for and w h n an adm n s ra ve area an ass m a on of and-use-p an- eve dec s ons deve oped hrough he p ann ng process regard ess of he sca e a wh ch he dec s ons were deve oped Land Resource Management P an (L RMP) A documen prepared w h pub c par c pa on and approved by an agency adm n s ra or ha prov des genera gu dance and d rec on for and and resource managemen ac v es for an adm n s ra ve area The L RMP den f es he need for f re?s ro e n a par cu ar area and for a spec f c benef The ob ec ves n he L RMP prov de he bas s for he deve opmen of f re managemen ob ec ve and he f re managemen program n he des gna ed area Landowner The person or en y ha owns he and or has he au hor y o convey

e o o hers

Def n on Ex ens on See NWCG Landowner K nd and Category Data Standard Lapse Rate Change of an a mospher c var ab e ( empera ure un ess spec f ed o herw se) w h he gh Large A rcraft A rcraf n wh ch max mum cer f ed gross we gh a ake-off exceeds 12 500 pounds Large F re-Day In F reFam y P us a day w h bo h a wea her observa on and a eas one arge (as def ned by he user) f re see a so: F re-Day Mu t p e F re-Day Large F re 1 For s a s ca purposes a f re burn ng more han a spec f ed area of and e g 300 acres 2 A f re burn ng w h a s ze and n ens y such ha s behav or s de erm ned by n erac on be ween s own convec on co umn and wea her cond ons above he surface Latera F re Ra e or spread and n ens y of a f re usua y fa ng somewhere n be ween advanc ng and back ng w h spread a era o he ma n d rec on of f re rave A so ca ed f ank ng f re synonym: F ank ng F re Leach Remova of so ub e cons uen s from ashes or so by perco a on of wa er Lead L ne L ne or se of nes made of rope webb ng or cab e and used n he cop er ex erna oad opera ons usua y p aced be ween a sw ve or he cargo hook and he oad Lead P ane A rcraf w h p o used o make r a runs over he arge area o check w nd smoke cond ons opography and o ead a r ankers o arge s and superv se he r drops Leader's Intent A conc se s a emen ha ou nes wha nd v dua s mus know n order o be successfu for a g ven ass gnmen The n en commun ca es hree essen a p eces of nforma on Task - Wha s he goa or ob ec ve Purpose - Why s o be done End s a e - How shou d ook when successfu y comp e ed Leadersh p The ar of prov d ng purpose d rec on and mo va on o a group of peop e n order o accomp sh a m ss on and mprove he organ za on Leaders prov de purpose by c ear y commun ca ng he r n en and descr b ng he des red end s a e of an ass gnmen o he r fo owers Leaders prov de d rec on by ma n a n ng s andards of performance for he r fo owers Leaders prov de mo va on by se ng he examp e for he r fo owers Leader The ICS

e for an nd v dua respons b e for a ask force s r ke eam or func ona un

Leapfrog Method A sys em of organ z ng workers n f re suppress on n wh ch each crew member s ass gned a spec f c ask such as c ear ng or d gg ng f re ne on a spec f c sec on of con ro ass gnmen Learn ng Content Management System (LCMS) Any sys em ha keeps earner nforma on can aunch and commun ca e w h SCOs and can n erpre ns ruc ons ha e

ne and when ha ask s comp e ed passes o her workers n mov ng o a new

wh ch SCO comes nex

see a so: Shareab e Content Object Learn ng Object ve A descr p on of he n ended ou come of a ra n ng c ass program or evo u on The earn ng ob ec ve den f es he cond on he ask and he s andard o wh ch he s uden much ach eve see a so: Task Learn ng Objects Reusab e earn ng ob ec s represen an a erna ve approach o con en deve opmen In h s approach con en s broken down n o chunks From a pedagog ca perspec ve each chunk m gh p ay a spec f c ro e w h n an ns ruc ona des gn me hodo ogy Such chunks are ca ed earn ng ob ec s There s no s andard for he s ze (or granu ar y) of a earn ng ob ec Larger earn ng ob ec s are yp ca y harder o reuse and sma er earner ob ec s save ess work for hose who reuse hem Norma y he happy med um has been es ma ed as be ween f ve and f f een m nu es of earn ng ma er a The requ remen s for each chunk are Each chunk mus be ab e o commun ca e w h earn ng sys ems us ng a s andard zed me hod ha does no depend on he sys em Wha happens w h n a chunk s he chunk s bus ness How a earner moves be ween chunks s con ro ed by he earn ng sys em Each chunk mus have a descr p on (me ada a ag) ha enab es des gners o search for and f nd he r gh chunk for he r gh ob see a so: Shareab e Content Object Leg t mate Smoke Smoke from any au hor zed use of f re (e g

ocomo ve ndus r a opera ons perm ed debr s burn ng)

Leve of Serv ce Amoun of f re preven on and f re suppress on supp ed may be expressed severa ways (e g percen of peop e or bu d ngs pro ec ed area pro ec ed do ar va ue of proper y pro ec ed f ref gh ers per cap a wa er f ow capab

y)

L fe-Safety Refers o he o n cons dera on of bo h he fe and phys ca we -be ng of nd v dua s L ft ng Processes Any of he processes ha ead o upward ver ca mo on n he a mosphere These processes may nc ude ow eve convergence hea ng or herma convec on orograph c f ng over he moun a ns and fron a

f ng

L ght (F ne) Fue s Fas -dry ng fue s genera y w h a compara ve y h gh surface area- o-vo ume ra o wh ch are ess han 1 4- nch n d ame er and have a me ag of 1 hour or ess These fue s read y gn e and are rap d y consumed by f re when dry L ght W nd W nd speed ess han 7 mph (6 kno s) measured a 20 fee above ground A eye eve

gh w nds are ess han 3 mph (3 kno s)

L ghtn ng Act v ty Leve (LAL) Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) A number on a sca e of 1 o 6 wh ch ref ec s frequency and charac er of c oud- o-ground gh n ng (forecas ed or observed) The sca e for 1 o 5 s exponen a based on powers of 2 ( e LAL 3 nd ca es w ce he gh n ng of LAL 2) LAL 6 s a spec a ca egory for dry gh n ng and s c ose y equ va en o LAL 3 n s r ke frequency L ghtn ng F re Occurrence Index Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) Numer ca ra ng of he po en a occurrence of gh n ng-caused f res L ghtn ng F re W df re caused d rec y or nd rec y by gh n ng L ghtn ng R sk (LR) Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) A number re a ed o he expec ed number of c oud- o-ground gh n ng s rokes o wh ch a pro ec on un nc udes an ad us men for gh n ng ac v y exper enced dur ng he prev ous day o accoun for poss b e ho dover f res

s expec ed o be exposed dur ng he ra ng per od The LR va ue used n he occurrence ndex

L ghtn ng R sk Sca ng Factor Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) Fac or der ved from oca hunders orm and gh n ng-caused f re records ha ad us s pred c ons of he bas c gh n ng f re occurrence mode o oca exper ence accoun ng for fac ors no addressed d rec y by he mode (e g suscep b y of oca fue s o gn on by gh n ng fue con nu y opography reg ona charac er s cs of hunders orms) L ghtn ng Stroke Counter E ec ron c sensor used o record he number of gh n ng s rokes w h n a prede erm ned range over a spec f ed per od of me L ghtwe ght Ign t on Source Ob ec s ha end o res on he surface of he ma er a s f rs gn ed ( e ma ches c gare e bu s f a me a fragmen s e c ) L mb ng Remov ng branches from a fe ed or s and ng ree or from brush L m ted Conta nment Ha ng of f re spread a he head or ha por on of he f anks of a prescr bed f re ha s hrea en ng o exceed prescr p on cr er a and ensur ng ha h s spread ra e w

no be encoun ered aga n does no nd ca e mopup

L ne Cutter F re crew member n he progress ve me hod of ne cons ruc on who cu s and c ears away brush sma sap ngs v nes and o her obs ruc ons n he pa h of he f re ne usua y equ pped w h ax or brush hook or pu ask L ne Off cer Manag ng off cer or des gnee of he agency d v s on hereof or ur sd c on hav ng s a u ory respons b

y for nc den m ga on and managemen

see a so: Agency Adm n strator L ne Scout A f ref gh er who de erm nes he oca on of a f re ne L ned F re Hose F re hose w h a smoo h nner coa ng of rubber or p as c o reduce fr c on oss L qu d Concentrate (LC) L qu d phospha e fer

zers used as f re re ardan s usua y d u ed hree o f ve mes pr or o app ca on

L tter The op ayer of fores f oor composed of oose debr s of dead s cks branches w gs and recen y fa en eaves or need es

e a ered n s ruc ure by decompos on

see a so: Duff Humus L tt e Change Ins gn f can change n w nd speed d rec on and empera ure ( ess han 5 degrees) and re a ve hum d y ( ess han f ve percen ) respec ve y When used as a genera s a emen n a ong-range forecas a four cr er a app y L ve Fue Mo sture Content Ra o of he amoun of wa er o he amoun of dry p an ma er a n v ng p an s L ve Fue s L v ng p an s such as rees grasses and shrubs n wh ch he seasona mo s ure con en cyc e s con ro ed arge y by n erna phys o og ca mechan sms ra her han by ex erna wea her nf uences L ve Herbaceous Mo sture Content Ra o of he amoun of wa er o he amoun of dry p an ma er a n herbaceous p an s ( e grasses and forbs) L ve L ne Hose ne f ed w h wa er under pressure and ready o use synonym: Charged L ne see a so: L ve Ree L ve Ree Hose ne or ree on a f re eng ne carr ed preconnec ed o he pump ready for use w hou mak ng connec ons o pump or a ach ng nozz e L ve Run Ind ca es ha he a r anker has he arge n s gh and w

make a re ardan drop on h s run over he arge

L ve Woody Mo sture Content Ra o of he amoun of wa er o he amoun of dry p an ma er a n shrubs Load and Ho d An order g ven o he a r anker p o o p ck up ano her oad of re ardan or wa er and ho d a he re oad base The anker s s

comm ed o he f re

Load and Return Order g ven o he a r anker p o o p ck up ano her oad of f re re ardan or wa er and re urn o he f re Load Ca cu at on Form An agency form used o ca cu a e he cop er a owab e pay oad Load ng Pad Concre e pad a a re ardan base on wh ch a rcraf s and when be ng oaded Loadmaster Ind v dua respons b e o he Deck Coord na or for he man fes ng oad ng and un oad ng of personne equ pmen and cargo Loca Agency Any agency hav ng ur sd c ona respons b

y for a or par of an nc den

Loca Resource Resources w h n a d spa ch cen er s area of respons b

y

Loca Respons b ty Area Lands on wh ch ne her he s a e nor he federa governmen has any ega respons b

y for prov d ng f re pro ec on

Loca W nds W nds wh ch are genera ed over a compara ve y sma area by oca erra n and wea her They d ffer from hose wh ch wou d be appropr a e o he genera pressure pa ern see a so: Genera W nds S ope W nds Logg ng Debr s Unwan ed ree par s (crowns ogs uproo ed s umps) rema n ng af er harves see a so: Act v ty Fue s Log st cs Sect on The ICS sec on respons b e for prov d ng fac

es serv ces and supp es n suppor of an nc den

Long-Range Forecast F re wea her forecas for a per od grea er han f ve days n advance Long-Range Spott ng Large g ow ng f rebrands are carr ed h gh n o he convec on co umn and hen fa ou downw nd beyond he ma n f re s ar ng new f res Such spo ng can eas y occur 1 4 m e or more from he f rebrand s source Long-Term F re Danger The resu s of hose fac ors n f re danger affec ng ong- erm p ann ng nvo ves cons dera on of pas records and cond ons and probab e fu ure rends Long-Term F re Retardant Chem ca ha nh b s combus on pr mar y hrough chem ca reac ons be ween produc s of combus on and he app ed chem ca s even af er he wa er componen has evapora ed O her chem ca effec s a so may be ach eved such as f m-form ng and n umescence Long ne A ne or se of nes usua y n 50 ncremen s used n ex erna oad opera ons ha a ow he he cop er o p ace oads n areas n wh ch he he cop er cou d no safe y and Lookout D spatcher Person comb n ng he func ons of ookou and d spa cher Lookout F ref ghter Person comb n ng he func ons of ookou and f ref gh er Lookout Patro Person who rave s a ong r dges or o her van age po n s o d scover de ec repor and suppress f res Lookout Po nt Van age po n se ec ed for f re de ec on or observa on Lookout Tower S ruc ure ha e eva es a person above nearby obs ruc ons o s gh for f res genera y capped by some sor of house or cupo a Lookout(s) Commun cat on(s) Escape Route(s) and Safety Zone(s) (LCES) E emen s of a safe y sys em used by f re f gh ers o rou ne y assess he r curren s ua on w h respec o w d and f ref gh ng hazards Lookout 1 A person des gna ed o de ec and repor f res from a van age po n 2 A oca on from wh ch f res can be de ec ed and repor ed 3 A f re crew member ass gned o observe he f re and warn he crew when here s danger of becom ng rapped Lopp ng and Scatter ng Lopp ng ogg ng debr s and spread ng

more or ess even y over he ground

Lopp ng Af er fe ng cu ng branches ops and unwan ed bo es n o eng hs such ha resu an ogg ng debr s w

e c ose o he ground

Lost L ne Any par of a f re ne rendered use ess by a breakover of he f re Low Expans on Foam w h an expans on be ween 1 1 and 20 1 Low An area of re a ve y ow a mospher c pressure n wh ch w nds end o move n a coun erc ockw se d rec on sp ra ng n oward he ow?s cen er Go to top

M Macro Sca e Ind cators Large s ng e nd ca ors or overa pa erns of nd ca ors ha are read y v s b e from a d s ance Macroc mate Genera arge-sca e c ma e of a arge area or coun ry as d s ngu shed from sma er sca e mesoc ma e and m croc ma e Ma n R dge Prom nen r dge ne separa ng r ver or creek dra nages Usua y has numerous sma er r dges (spur) ex end ng ou ward from bo h s des Major D saster Any na ura ca as rophe or regard ess of cause any f re f ood or exp os on n any par of he Un ed S a es wh ch n he de erm na on of he Pres den causes damage of suff c en sever y and magn ude o warran ma or d sas er ass s ance Major Repa r (Av at on) A repa r (1) ha f mproper y done m gh apprec ab y affec we gh ba ance s ruc ura s reng h or o her qua

es affec ng a rwor h ness or (2) ha s no done accord ng o accep ed prac ces or canno be done by e emen ary opera ons

Ma e Coup ng An ex erna y hreaded hose n pp e wh ch f s n he hread of a fema e ( n erna y hreaded) sw ve coup ng of he same p ch and d ame er Nozz es a ach o h s ype of coup ng Management Act on Po nts Geograph c po n s on he ground or spec f c po n s n me where an esca a on or a erna ve of managemen ac ons s warran ed These po n s are def ned and he managemen ac ons o be aken are c ear y descr bed n an approved Prescr bed F re P an T me y mp emen a on of he ac ons when he f re reaches he ac on po n s genera y cr ca o successfu accomp shmen of he ob ec ves A so ca ed Tr gger Po n s Management by Object ves In ICS h s s a op-down managemen ac v y wh ch nvo ves a hree-s ep process o ach eve he nc den goa The s eps are es ab sh ng he nc den ob ec ves se ec on of appropr a e s ra egy(s) o ach eve he ob ec ves and he ac ca d rec on assoc a ed w h he se ec ed s ra egy Tac ca d rec on nc udes se ec on of ac cs se ec on of resources resource ass gnmen s and performance mon or ng Management Requ rements The echn ca and sc en f c spec f ca ons for managemen ac v es or po en a ac ons manda ed by he agency adm n s ra or and def ned n and resource managemen p ans Managemen requ remen s are der ved from and resource managemen p an and f re managemen p an s andards and gu de nes nforma on Managers Ind v dua s w h n ICS organ za ona un s ha are ass gned spec f c manager a respons b

es e g s ag ng area manager or camp manager

Manua Weather Stat on A non- e eme ered wea her s a on ha prov des one observa on every 24 hours for manua en ry n o WIMS see a so: Automat c Weather Stat on Manua y Regu ated A propor on ng me hod or dev ce ha requ res a manua ad us men o ma n a n a des red m x ra o over a chang ng range of wa er f ows and pressures Mar ne A r A r wh ch has a h gh mo s ure con en and he empera ure charac er s cs of an ocean surface due o ex ens ve exposure o ha surface An n rus on of mar ne a r w danger

modera e f re cond ons Absence of mar ne a r n coas a areas may ead o more severe f re

Mar ne C mate Reg ona c ma e under he predom nan nf uence of he sea ha s a c ma e charac er zed by mar ne a r he oppos e of a con nen a c ma e Mar t me A r A r wh ch has assumed h gh mo s ure con en and he empera ure charac er s cs of a wa er surface due o ex ens ve exposure o ha surface Mass Arson st An offender who se s hree or more f res a he same oca on dur ng a m ed per od of me Mass F re A f re resu ng from many s mu aneous gn ons ha genera es a h gh eve of energy ou pu Master F re Chrono ogy Chrono og ca s ng of he da es of f res documen ed n a des gna ed area he da es be ng correc ed by crossda ng S ze of he area mus be spec f ed A so ca ed compos e f re n erva Mater a F rst Ign ted The fue ha s f rs se on f re by he hea of gn on o be mean ngfu bo h a ype of ma er a and form of ma er a shou d be den f ed Mathemat ca Mode A mode ha s a quan a ve and ma hema ca represen a on or s mu a on wh ch a emp s o descr be he charac er s cs or re a onsh p of phys ca even s see a so: Mode Mattock Hand oo w h a narrow hoe ng surface a one end of he b ade and a p ck or cu ng b ade a he o her end used for d gg ng and grubb ng Max mum Cert f ed Gross We ght Abso u e max mum a owab e gross we gh for an a rcraf as es ab shed by he manufac urer and approved by he FAA Max mum Computed Gross We ght Compu ed gross we gh for an a rcraf ob a ned from he appropr a e performance char wh ch s he max mum gross we gh appropr a e o he app cab e c rcums ance of conf gura on and or env ronmen a cond ons Max mum Dry Bu b Temperature The h ghes va ue for dry bu b empera ure measured a he observa on s e dur ng he preced ng 24-hour per od see a so: M n mum Dry Bu b Temperature Max mum Manageab e Area (MMA) The max mum geograph c m s of spread w h n wh ch a w d and f re s a owed o spread Max mum Re at ve Hum d ty The h ghes va ue for re a ve hum d y measured a he observa on s e dur ng he preced ng 24-hour per od see a so: M n mum Re at ve Hum d ty May Day In erna ona d s ress s gna ca

When repea ed hree mes

nd ca es mm nen and grave danger and ha mmed a e ass s ance s requ red

Mc eod A comb na on hoe or cu ng oo and rake w h or w hou removab e b ades Mean F re Return Interva Ar hme c average of a f re n erva s n a g ven area over a g ven me Mean Sea Leve (MSL) Average he gh of he surface of he sea for a s ages of he de over a 19-year per od NOTE when he abbrev a on MSL s used n con unc on w h a number of fee

mp es a

ude above sea eve (e g 1000 fee MSL)

Measured Woody Fue Mo sture Mo s ure con en of he sma branch wood and fo age of ve woody p an s expressed as a percen age of he oven dry we gh of he samp e co ec ed mon h y and used o supp emen NFDRS mode ed ou pu s see a so: Woody Fue Mo sture Med ca Un t Func ona un w h n he og s cs sec on ha s respons b e for he emergency med ca and occupa ona hea h care of nc den personne Some nc den managemen eams have p aced h s un under safe y Med um Expans on Foam w h an expans on be ween 21 1 and 200 1 Med um-range Forecast A forecas for a per od ex end ng from abou wo days o f ve days or a week n advance here are no abso u e m s o he per od embraced by h s def n on Med vac Mob e med ca rea men and ranspor a on Merged W df res Two or more w df res ha burn oge her o form a s ng e burned area and wh ch by managemen ac on may be dec ared merged and managed as a s ng e nc den o mprove eff c ency and s mp fy nc den managemen processes Def n on Ex ens on 1) Managemen can dec de o dec are w df res as merged or no h s or ca da a

2) A merged w df re requ res a Merged Da e and assoc a on w h he rema n ng ac ve w df re

Message Center The message cen er s par of he nc den commun ca ons cen er and s co oca ed or p aced ad acen o

e Merged Paren

o be den f ed correc y n opera ona and

I rece ves records and rou es nforma on abou resources repor ng o he nc den resource s a us and adm n s ra ve and ac ca raff c

Methodo ogy A se of s andard zed procedures and prac ces ha have been peer-rev ewed and have rece ved genera accep ance by he profess on M cro Sca e Ind cators Sma nd v dua nd ca ors and pa erns ha are no eas y observab e w hou c ose observa on or magn f ca on M cro-Remote Env ronmenta Mon tor ng System (M cro-REMS) Mob e wea her mon or ng s a on Each un cons s s of a sh pp ng con a ner so ar pane ba ery empera ure re a ve hum d y sensor w nd mas w nd d rec on speed sensor da a ogger and rad o A M cro-REMS usua y accompan es an nc den me eoro og s and ATMU o an nc den see a so: Inc dent Meteoro og st M d-F ame W ndspeed The speed of he w nd measured a he m dpo n of he f ames cons dered o be mos represen a ve of he speed of he w nd ha s affec ng f re behav or M tary Operat ons Area (MOA) M ary Opera ons Area found on aeronau ca char s M tary T me The 24-hour c ock sys em where m dn gh s 2400 one m nu e af er m dn gh s 0001 and progresses o 2400 da y M

bar A un of pressure equa o a force of 1 000 dynes per square cen me er (A dyne s he force ha wou d g ve a free mass of one gram an acce era on of one cen me er per second per second )

M nera Ash The res due of m nera ma er ef af er comp e e combus on of wood (wood ash) or o her organ c ma er a cons s s arge y of ox des carbona es and phospha es of Ca K and Mg oge her w h o her compounds M nera So So

ayers be ow he predom nan y organ c hor zons so w h

e combus b e ma er a

M n mum Cost Suppress on A ternat ve The a erna ve ha ach eves nc den ob ec ves cons s en w h pr or y for f ref gh er and pub c safe y and s eas expens ve when cons der ng expec ed cos s for f re suppress on and emergency s ab za on and or rehab

a on

M n mum Dry Bu b Temperature The owes va ue for dry bu b empera ure measured a he observa on s e dur ng he preced ng 24-hour per od see a so: Max mum Dry Bu b Temperature M n mum Impact Suppress on Techn ques (MIST) The app ca on of s ra egy and ac cs ha effec ve y mee suppress on and resource ob ec ves w h he eas env ronmen a cu ura and soc a mpac s M n mum Re at ve Hum d ty The owes va ue for re a ve hum d y measured a he observa on s e dur ng he preced ng 24-hour per od see a so: Max mum Re at ve Hum d ty M sce aneous F re F re of known cause ha canno be proper y c ass f ed n o any of he e gh s andard causes of f res M t gat on Act ons Ac ons ha are mp emen ed o reduce or e m na e (m ga e) r sks o persons proper y or na ura resources These ac ons can nc ude mechan ca and phys ca asks spec f c f re app ca ons and m ed suppress on ac ons M ga on ac ons may nc ude f re ne cons ruc on fue rea men s and reduc ons fue breaks or barr ers around cr ca or sens ve s es or resources and crea ng "b ack nes" hrough he use of con ro ed burnou s o m f re spread and behav or M x Rat o The ra o of qu d foam concen ra e o wa er usua y expressed as a percen M x ng Chamber A ube cons ruc ed w h def ec ors or baff es ha m xes foam so u on and a r o produce ny un form bubb es n a shor d s ance (1 o 2 f ) M x ng He ght Measured from he surface upward he he gh o wh ch re a ve y v gorous m x ng occurs due o convec on A so ca ed m x ng dep h M x ng Layer Tha por on of he a mosphere from he surface up o he m x ng he gh Th s s he ayer of a r usua y be ow a s ab e ayer w h n wh ch po u an s are m xed by urbu ence and d ffus on A so ca ed m xed ayer see a so: Transport W nd Speed Vent at on Factor M x ng A random exchange of a r parce s on any sca e from he mo ecu ar o he arges eddy M xmaster The person n charge of f re re ardan m x ng opera ons w h respons b

y for quan y and qua y of he s urry and for he oad ng of a rcraf

Mob e Rad o A wo way rad o un on mob e appara us ( ns ead of base s a ons) usua y sem -permanen y a ached o he appara us Mob e Weather Un t Forecast A spec a wea her forecas for a spec f c nc den prepared by a me eoro og s on s e a or near he nc den area A spec a f re wea her forecas for a spec f c f re prepared by a me eoro og s on s e a or near he f re area Mob zat on Center An off- nc den oca on a wh ch emergency serv ce personne and equ pmen are emporar y oca ed pend ng ass gnmen re ease or reass gnmen Mob zat on Gu de A wr en descr p on of procedures used by federa s a e and oca organ za ons for ac va ng assemb ng and ranspor ng resources ha have been reques ed o respond o or suppor an nc den Mob zat on The process and procedures used by a organ za ons federa s a e and oca for ac va ng assemb ng and ranspor ng a resources ha have been reques ed o respond o or suppor an nc den Mode Arson Law Mode eg s a on recommended by he F re Marsha s Assoc a on of Nor h Amer ca and adop ed n mos s a es dea ng w h he sub ec of arson Mode F reworks Law Mode eg s a on recommended by he F re Marsha s Assoc a on of Nor h Amer ca and adop ed by many s a es regu a ng d sp ay of f reworks Mode A s mp f ed or genera zed represen a on of rea y a descr p on ana ogy p c ure or hypo hes s o he p v sua ze some h ng ha canno be d rec y observed see a so: Conceptua Mode Mathemat ca Mode Modu ar A rborne F ref ght ng System (MAFFS) A manufac ured un cons s ng of f ve n erconnec ng anks a con ro pa e and a nozz e pa e w h a capac y of 3 000 ga ons des gned o be rap d y moun ed ns de an unmod f ed C-130 (Hercu es) cargo a rcraf for use n cascad ng re ardan chem ca s on w df res Mo st Ad abat c Lapse Rate Ra e of decrease of empera ure w h ncreas ng he gh of an a r parce degrees F per 1000 fee (3 6 and 9 2 degrees C per 1000 me ers) Mo sture of Ext nct on The fue mo s ure con en we ghed over a

f ed a sa ura on v a ad aba c process hrough an a mosphere n hydros a c equ br um Ra e var es accord ng o he amoun of wa er vapor n he parce and s usua y be ween 2 0 and 5 0

he fue c asses a wh ch he f re w

no spread A so ca ed ex nc on mo s ure con en (EMC)

Mon tor ng The order y co ec on ana ys s and n erpre a on of env ronmen a da a o eva ua e managemen s progress oward mee ng ob ec ves and o den fy changes n na ura sys ems Mon or ng s a so conduc ed on w d and f res o observe f re effec s f re behav or or bo h For examp e he work done by F re Effec s Mon or (FEMO) or F e d Observer (FOBS) pos ons Mon tor A urre - ype nozz e usua y moun ed on an eng ne Monsoon C mate C ma e charac er zed by (a) a ong w n er-spr ng dry season wh ch nc udes a "co d season" fo owed by a shor "ho season" mmed a e y preced ng he ra ns (b) a summer and ear y au umn ra ny season wh ch s usua y very we (bu h gh y var ab e from year o year) and (c) a secondary max mum of empera ure mmed a e y af er he ra ny season Mop Up Crew A por on or a of a regu ar f re crew ass gned o mop up work af er he f re or a por on of he f re has been con a ned or con ro ed Mop Up T me E apsed me from con a nmen or con ro of a f re un

mopup s comp e e

Mop Up Ex ngu sh ng or remov ng burn ng ma er a near con ro

nes fe ng snags and rench ng ogs o preven ro ng af er an area has burned o make a f re safe or o reduce res dua smoke

Def n on Ex ens on 1) Mopup s one word f used as a noun ( he crew w

do mopup) 2) Mop up s wo words f used as a verb (mop up he re) or as an ad ec ve (mop up crew)

Mopup See Mop Up Mosa c The n erm ng ng of p an commun es and he r success ona s ages n such a manner as o g ve he mpress on of an n erwoven des gn Most Eff c ent Leve (MEL) The f re managemen program budge eve ha resu s n he m n mum cos p us ne va ue change Move Up Method Progress ve me hod of f re ne cons ruc on on a w df re w hou chang ng re a ve pos ons n he ne Work s begun w h a su ab e space be ween workers whenever one worker over akes ano her a of hose ahead move one space forward and resume work on he uncomp e ed par of he ne The as worker does no move ahead un work s comp e ed n h s her space Forward progress of he crew s coord na ed by a crew boss synonym: Bumpup Method Move Up Sys em of red s r bu ng rema n ng personne and equ pmen fo ow ng d spa ch of o her forces among a ne work of f re s a ons o prov de he bes poss b e response w h n he f re depar men s d rec pro ec on area n he even of add ona ca s for emergency ass s ance Mu t -Agency Coord nat ng Group (MAC Group) A na ona reg ona or oca managemen group for n eragency p ann ng coord na on and opera ons eadersh p for nc den s Prov des an essen a managemen mechan sm for s ra eg c coord na on o ensure nc den resources are eff c en y and appropr a e y managed n a cos effec ve manner Mu t -Agency Coord nat on (MAC) A genera zed erm wh ch descr bes he func ons and ac v es of represen a ves of nvo ved agenc es and or ur sd c ons who come oge her o make dec s ons regard ng he pr or z ng of nc den s and he shar ng and use of cr ca resources The MAC organ za on s no a par of he on-scene ICS and s no nvo ved n deve op ng nc den s ra egy or ac cs Mu t -Agency Coord nat on System (MACS) MACS prov des he framework o suppor coord na on for nc den pr or za on cr ca resource a oca on commun ca on sys ems n egra on and nforma on coord na on MACS componen s nc ude fac spec f c mu -agency coord na on en es personne procedures and commun ca ons

es equ pmen emergency opera ng cen ers (EOCs)

Mu t -Agency Inc dent An nc den where one or more agenc es ass s a ur sd c ona agency or agenc es May be s ng e or un f ed command see a so: Jur sd ct on Mu t com A VHF AM a rcraf rad o frequency (122 9 MHz) ass gned by he FAA for use n a r- o-a r commun ca ons Mu t jur sd ct on Inc dent An nc den requ r ng ac on from mu p e agenc es ha have a s a u ory respons b

y for nc den m ga on In ICS hese nc den s w

be managed under un f ed command

see a so: Jur sd ct on Mu t p e F re S tuat on H gh f re frequency over a shor per od of me n an adm n s ra ve un

usua y over ax ng he norma n a a ack capab

y of he un

Mu t p e F re-Day In F reFam y P us a day w h bo h a wea her observa on and a number of f res equa o or grea er han ha de erm ned by he user o be a s gn f can work oad see a so: F re-Day Large F re-Day Mu t p e Po nts of Or g n Two or more separa e po n s of f re or g ns a a f re scene s rong nd ca on of arson Mutua A d Agreement Wr en agreemen be ween agenc es and or ur sd c ons n wh ch hey agree o ass s one ano her upon reques by furn sh ng personne and equ pmen Mutua A d Ass s ance n f ref gh ng or nves ga on by f re agenc es w hou regard for ur sd c ona boundar es Mutua Threat Zone A geograph ca area be ween wo or more ur sd c ons n o wh ch hose agenc es wou d respond on n a a ack A so ca ed mu ua response zone or n a ac on zone Go to top

N Napa m An ncend ary m x ure w h a e ng agen used n f ame hrowers and bombs Nat ona Amb ent A r Qua ty Standards (NAAQS) A ega m on he eve of a mospher c con am na on The eve s es ab shed as he concen ra on m s needed o pro ec a of he pub c aga ns adverse effec s on pub c hea h and we fare w h an adequa e safe y marg n Pr mary s andards are hose re a ed o hea h effec s Secondary s andards are des gned o pro ec he pub c we fare from effec s such as v s b y reduc on so ng ma er a damage and nu sances Nat ona F re Codes (NFC) The co ec ed echn ca f re pro ec on s andards prepared by var ous comm ees of he Na ona F re Pro ec on Assoc a on and pub shed annua y n 15 vo umes Nat ona F re Danger Rat ng System (NFDRS) A un form f re danger ra ng sys em ha focuses on he env ronmen a fac ors ha con ro he mo s ure con en of fue s see a so: F re Danger Rat ng System Nat ona F re Protect on Assoc at on Standards (NFPA) S andards of he Na ona F re Pro ec on Assoc a on are frequen y adop ed by nsurance agenc es such as he Na ona Board of F re Underwr ers as a bas s for he r regu a ons and used as a gu de for mun c pa s a e or prov nc a aws ord nances and regu a ons Nat ona Forest System Cons s s of a na ona fores ands he na ona grass ands and and u

za on pro ec s adm n s ered under

e III of he Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenan Ac and o her n eres s as def ned n Sec on 9 of he Na ona Fores Managemen Ac of 1976

Nat ona Interagency F re Center (NIFC) A fac y oca ed n Bo se Idaho o n y opera ed by severa federa agenc es ded ca ed o coord na on og s ca suppor and mproved wea her serv ces n suppor of f re managemen opera ons hroughou he Un ed S a es Nat ona Interagency F re Management Integrated Database (NIFMID) The arch ve of da y wea her observa ons from WIMS Nat ona Interagency Inc dent Management System (NIIMS) An NWCG deve oped program cons s ng of f ve subsys ems wh ch co ec ve y prov de a o a sys ems approach o a -r sk nc den managemen The subsys ems are The Inc den Command Sys em Tra n ng Qua f ca ons and Cer f ca on Suppor ng Techno og es and Pub ca ons Managemen Nat ona P pe Stra ght Hose Thread (NPSH) Th s s a s ra gh (non apered) hread s andard w h he same hreads per nch as he appropr a e s ze ron p pe hread I requ res a gaske o sea and s he hread s andard used by mos U S ndus ry A so known as Na ona P pe S ra gh Mechan ca (NPSM) hread Nat ona Resource Lands (NRL) Pub c ands adm n s ered by he Bureau of Land Managemen U S Depar men of he In er or Nat ona Response P an A p an ha n egra es federa governmen domes c preven on preparedness response and recovery p ans n o one a -d sc p ne a -hazard p an Nat ona Standard Thread (NH) Abbrev a ed (NH) for na ona hose Spec f ca y def ned screw hread used on f re hose coup ngs Nat ve Spec es A spec es wh ch s a par of he or g na fauna or f ora of he area n ques on Natura Barr er Any area where ack of f ammab e ma er a obs ruc s he spread of w df res Natura Fue s Fue s resu ng from na ura processes and no d rec y genera ed or a ered by and managemen prac ces see a so: Act v ty Fue s Near M ss Any po en a acc den wh ch hrough preven on educa on hazard reduc on or uck d d no occur NESDIS ID An 8-charac er den f er ass gned by NESDIS ha becomes he RAWS den f ca on number for use w h he GOES sa e

e

Net Va ue Change (NVC) The sum of he changes n he va ue of na ura resources affec ed by a f re The bas s for compu ng NVC s each resource s f re- nduced va ue change (p uses and m nuses) as compu ed and expressed on a per un bas s Neutra Atmosphere Cond on n wh ch empera ure decrease w h ncreas ng a N ght (Av at on) The me be ween he end of even ng c v

ude s equa o he dry ad aba c apse ra e ( e

w gh and he beg nn ng of morn ng c v

he a mosphere ne her a ds nor h nders arge-sca e ver ca mo on)

w gh as pub shed n he Amer can A r A manac conver ed o oca

me

N trogen D ox de (NO2) The resu of n r c ox de comb n ng w h oxygen n he a mosphere A ma or componen of pho ochem ca smog N trogen Ox de (NO) Produc of combus on from ranspor a on and s a onary sources and a ma or con r bu or o ac d depos on and he forma on of ground eve ozone n he roposphere Nomex® Trade name for a f re res s an syn he c ma er a used n he manufac ur ng of f gh su s and pan s and sh r s used by f ref gh ers Aram d s he gener c name Non-atta nment Area An area den f ed by an a r qua y regu a ory agency hrough amb en a r mon or ng (and des gna ed by he Env ronmen a Pro ec on Agency) ha presen y exceeds federa amb en a r s andards Noncommerc a Forest Land Fores and ncapab e of y e d ng crops of commerc a y usefu wood because of adverse s e cond ons or produc ve fores and w hdrawn from commerc a

mber use hrough s a u e or adm n s ra ve regu a on

Nonf ammab e Ma er a un ke y o burn when exposed o f ame under mos cond ons see a so: F ammab e Nonprec s on Approach Procedure S andard a rcraf ns rumen approach procedure n wh ch no e ec ron c g de s ope s prov ded Nonstat st ca F re Any f re no pos ng a hrea o resources or proper y of he ur sd c ona agency regard ess of whe her ac on was aken by he agency Norma F re Season 1 A season when wea her f re danger and number and d s r bu on of f res are abou average 2 Per od of he year ha norma y compr ses he f re season based on h s or ca f re occurrence Norma zed D fference Vegetat on Index (NDVI) A sa e e observa on-der ved va ue ha s sens ve o vege a ve grow h measured a 1 1 km (0 6 m e) spa a and 1 week empora sca es Not ce to A rmen (NOTAM) No ce den f ed as e her a NOTAM or A rmen Adv sory con a n ng nforma on concern ng he es ab shmen cond on or change n any componen of or hazard n he Na ona A rspace Sys em he me y know edge of wh ch s essen a o personne concerned w h f gh opera ons Nozz e Asp rated Foam System A foam genera ng dev ce ha m xes a r a a mospher c pressure w h foam so u on n a nozz e chamber Nozz e Operator A person ass gned o opera e a f re hose nozz e usua y on a hand ne NWCG Standard A def ned behav or ac on process or equ pmen ype agreed upon by he Na ona W df re Coord na ng Group for w d and f re performance and s necessary o mee cons s en

n eragency f re managemen ac v es

Go to top

O Object ve 1 A descr p on of a des red cond on quan f ed and measured and where poss b e w h es ab shed me frames for ach evemen 2 Spec f c ach evab e measurab e me- m ed resu s o be ach eved hrough and managemen prac ces e her hrough a descr p on of a des red cond on or he degree of des red change n an a r bu e Observat on T me T me of day requ red o record me eoro og ca da a a a f re danger s a on Obstruct on to V s on Cond on n wh ch obscur ng phenomenon res r c s hor zon a v s b

y o s x s a u e m es (10 km ) or ess

Occ uded Front or Occ us on The fron ha s formed when and where a co d fron over akes a warm fron or a s a onary fron Occurrence Index (OI) A number n he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em re a ed o po en a f re nc dence w h n a pro ec on un Off-road Veh c e (ORV) Any mo or zed veh c e des gned for or capab e of cross-coun ry rave on or mmed a e y over and wa er sand snow ce marsh swamp and or o her erra n synonym: A Terra n Veh c e Off cer The ICS

e for personne respons b e for he Command S aff pos ons of Safe y L a son and Informa on

Offshore F ow W nd b ow ng from and o wa er On-Ca S a us of a federa casua or federa regu ar governmen emp oyee used for mekeep ng purposes An emp oyee s cons dered o be n on-ca s a us (off sh f -federa casua s and federa regu ar governmen emp oyees) when he or she s a owed o eave a e ephone number or o carry an e ec ron c dev ce for he purpose of be ng con ac ed even hough he emp oyee s requ red o rema n w h n a reasonab e ca -back rad us and may nc ude res r c ons on a coho consump on or use of cer a n med ca ons 5 CFR 551 431(b)(1) One L ck Method A progress ve sys em of bu d ng a f re ne on a w df re w hou chang ng re a ve pos ons n he ne Each worker does one o severa " cks" or s rokes w h a g ven oo and hen moves forward a spec f ed d s ance o make room for he worker beh nd One-hour T me ag Fue Mo sture (1-h TL FM) Mo s ure con en of one-hour me ag fue s One-hour T me ag Fue s Fue s cons s ng of dead herbaceous p an s and roundwood ess han abou one-four h nch (6 4 mm) n d ame er A so nc uded s he uppermos ayer of need es or eaves on he fores f oor see a so: One-hour T me ag Fue Mo sture One-hundred Hour T me ag Fue Mo sture (100-h TL FM) The mo s ure con en of he 100-hour me ag fue s One-hundred Hour T me ag Fue s Dead fue s cons s ng of roundwood n he s ze range of 1 o 3 nches (2 5 o 7 6 cm) n d ame er and very rough y he ayer of

er ex end ng from approx ma e y hree-four hs of an nch (1 9 cm) o 4 nches (10 cm) be ow he surface

see a so: One-hour T me ag Fue Mo sture One-thousand Hour T me ag Fue Mo sture (1 000-h TL FM) The mo s ure con en of he 1 000-hour me ag fue s One-thousand Hour T me ag Fue s Dead fue s cons s ng of roundwood 3-8 nches n d ame er and he ayer of he fores f oor more han abou 4 nches be ow he surface see a so: One-hour T me ag Fue Mo sture Onshore F ow W nd b ow ng from wa er o and Open Burn ng Burn ng of any fue ou doors w hou he use of mechan ca combus on enhancemen s Open L ne Refers o open f re fron where no ne has been cons ruc ed Operat ng We ght For he cop ers he equ pped we gh p us we gh of he crew and fue see a so: A owab e Pay oad Operat ona Contro The exerc se of au hor y over n a ng conduc ng or erm na ng any opera on Of en assoc a ed w h av a on opera ons Operat ona Per od The per od of me schedu ed for execu on of a g ven se of ac ca ac ons as spec f ed n he Inc den Ac on P an Opera ona Per ods can be of var ous eng hs a hough usua y no over 24 hours Operat ona Tempo The speed and n ens y of ac ons re a ve o he speed and n ens y of he unfo d ng even s n he opera ona env ronmen Operat ons Coord nat on Center (OCC) Pr mary fac y of he Mu -agency Coord na on Sys em (MACS) houses s aff and equ pmen necessary o perform he MACS func on Operat ons Sect on The sec on respons b e for a

ac ca opera ons a he nc den Inc udes branches d v s ons and or groups ask forces s r ke eams s ng e resources and s ag ng areas

Orb t A c rcu ar ho d ng pa ern of an a rcraf around a f xed oca on of en re a ed o a w d and f re For examp e he c rcu ar pa ern of an a r anker n he v c n y of a w d and f re wa ng o make a re ardan drop Organ c Matter Tha frac on of he so

ha nc udes p an and an ma res dues a var ous s ages of decompos on ce s and ssues of so organ sms and subs ances syn hes zed by he so popu a on

Organ c So Any so or so hor zon con a n ng a eas 30% organ c ma er (e g muck pea ) Orograph c Per a n ng o or caused by moun a ns Orthophoto Maps Aer a pho ographs correc ed o sca e such ha geograph c measuremen s may be aken d rec y from pr n s They may con a n graph ca y emphas zed geograph c fea ures and may be prov ded w h over ays of such fea ures as wa er sys ems fac Orthophoto Pho ograph ob a ned from he or hogona ( e hor zon a ) pro ec on of a correc y or en ed s ereoscop c mode formed by wo over app ng aer a pho ographs an or hopho o s free of

y oca on e c

and re ef d sp acemen s

Osborne F ref nder A s gh ng dev ce used by ookou s o de erm ne he hor zon a bear ng and some mes he ver ca ang e of a f re from a ookou synonym: A dade see a so: F ref nder Map Out-of-Serv ce Resources Resources ass gned o an nc den bu unab e o respond for mechan ca res or persona reasons Outs de A d F ref gh ng ass s ance g ven o ad acen areas and nearby commun es by con rac or o her agreemen ha covers cond ons and paymen for ass s ance rendered and serv ces performed Con ras ed o mu ua a d n wh ch ne ghbor ng f ref gh ng organ za ons ass s each o her w hou charge Outs de D ameter (OD) Ex erna d ame er of a cy nder or ube conduc or or coup ng as d s ngu shed from he n erna d ame er Overhau F re depar men procedure of nspec ng prem ses af er ex ngu shmen of f re o nsure ha f re s comp e e y ou and unab e o rek nd e before re urn ng con ro o owner or occupan s Overhead Personne ass gned o superv sory pos ons nc ud ng nc den commander command s aff genera s aff branch d rec ors superv sors un

eaders managers and s aff

Over oad 1 Gross veh c e we gh (GVW) n excess of he gross veh c e we gh ra ng (GVWR) spec f ed by he chass s manufac urer A so an excess of we gh over he gross veh c e ax e we gh ra ng (GAWR) spec f ed by he chass s manufac ure 2 A s ua on ha axes an opera ona sys em o he m of s func ona capab es Such as oo many f res for an nd v dua un o hand e (f re over oad) or oo many orders for an nd v dua d spa ch cen er o process (d spa ch over oad) Overw nter ng F re A f re ha pers s s hrough he w n er mon hs un

he beg nn ng of f re season

Ox dat on Process dur ng wh ch oxygen comb nes w h ano her subs ance Ox d zer The por on of a chem ca m x ure or compound wh ch furn shes oxygen for burn ng a fue or prope an crea ng an ox de Go to top

P Pack Test Used o de erm ne he aerob c capac y of f re suppress on suppor personne and ass gn phys ca f ness scores The es cons s s of wa k ng a spec f ed d s ance w h or w hou a we gh ed pack n a prede erm ned per od of me w h a

ude correc ons

Pack ng Rat o The frac on of a fue bed occup ed by fue s or he fue vo ume d v ded by bed vo ume Panoram c Photograph Pho ographs from a ookou po n bear ng az mu h and ver ca ang e sca es o ass s n oca ng f res w h a f ref nder Panoram c Prof e Map A panoram c ske ch drawn around he c rcumference of a f ref nder map o show he prof es of he opography as

appears from he ookou

Paracargo Any h ng n en ona y dropped or n ended for dropp ng from any a rcraf by parachu e by o her re ard ng dev ces or by free fa Para e Attack Me hod of f re suppress on n wh ch f re ne s cons ruc ed approx ma e y para e o and us far enough from he f re edge o enab e workers and equ pmen o work effec ve y hough he f re ne may be shor ened by cu ng across unburned f ngers The n erven ng s r p of unburned fue s norma y burned ou as he con ro ne proceeds bu may be a owed o burn ou unass s ed where h s occurs w hou undue de ay or hrea o he f re ne Para e Pump ng Procedure by wh ch he f ow from wo f re pumps s comb ned n o one hose ne Para e Tandem Pump ng Procedure by wh ch he f ow from wo f re pumps s comb ned n o a h rd pump Parameter A var ab e wh ch can be measured quan a ve y some mes an arb rary cons an assoc a ed w h popu a ons One of he unknown va ues ha de erm ne a mode see a so: Stat st c Part a R sk Factor Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) Con r bu on o human-caused r sk made by a spec f c r sk source a func on of he da y ac v y eve ass gned ha r sk source and he appropr a e r sk source ra o Part a R sk Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) Con r bu on of a spec f c source o human-caused r sk der ved from he da y ac v y eve ass gned a r sk source and s r sk source ra o Part a -th ckness Burn A burn where he ou er ayer of sk n s burned hrough and he second ayer of sk n (derm s) s damaged and s yp ca y a pa nfu n ury Burns of h s ype cause redden ng b s er ng and a mo ed appearance (a so ca ed Second Degree Burn) see a so: Fu -th ckness Burn Superf c a Burn Part c e S ze The s ze of a p ece of fue of en expressed n erms of s ze c asses Part cu ate Matter Any qu d or so d par c es "To a suspended par cu a es" as used n a r qua y are hose par c es suspended n or fa ng hrough he a mosphere They genera y range n s ze (d ame er) from 0 1 o 100 m crome ers Partners A agenc es and organ za ons ha engage n o n dec s on mak ng w h federa agenc es n p ann ng and conduc ng f re managemen pro ec s and ac v es Parts of a F re D fferen areas of he f re usua y de erm ned by he predom nan d rec on of f re spread and de nea ed from he fas es mov ng area (head) o he s owes mov ng area (base or a ) The mos rap d y mov ng por on s des gna ed he head of he f re he ad o n ng por ons of he per me er a r gh ang es o he head are known as he f anks and he s owes mov ng por on s known as he rear or he base of he f re Pass ve Crown F re A f re n he crowns of rees n wh ch rees or groups of rees orch gn ed by he pass ng fron of he f re The orch ng rees re nforce he spread ra e bu hese f res are no bas ca y d fferen from surface f res Patch Burn ng Burn ng n pa ches o prepare s es for group p an ng or sow ng or o form a barr er o subsequen f res Patro T me E apsed me from comp e on of or g na mopp ng up un

he f re s dec ared o be ex ngu shed

Patro Un t Any gh mob e un w h m ed pump ng and wa er capac y Patro 1 To rave over a g ven rou e o preven de ec and suppress f res Inc udes n erac on w h he pub c for w d and f re preven on and educa ona purposes 2 To go back and for h v g an y over a eng h of con ro ne dur ng and or af er cons ruc on o preven breakovers suppress spo f res and ex ngu sh over ooked ho spo s 3 A person or group of persons who carr es ou pa ro ac ons Pattern C usters A group of nd ca ors n a c ose prox m y of he same or d fferen ca egor es ha exh b cons s en d rec ona va ues Pattern The d s r bu on of an aer a y de vered re ardan drop on he arge area n erms of s eng h w d h and momen um (ve oc y x mass) as

approaches he ground The a er de erm nes he re a ve coverage eve of he f re re ardan on fue w h n he pa ern

synonym: Drop Pattern Pay oad We gh of passengers and or cargo be ng carr ed by an a rcraf Peak F re Season Tha per od of he f re season dur ng wh ch f res are expec ed o gn e mos read y o burn w h grea er han average n ens y and o crea e damages a an unaccep ab e eve Peak Month y Average H ghes mon h y average of human-caused f res ca cu a ed for a pro ec on un Peak W nd D rect on D rec on a Peak W nd Speed Peak W nd Speed Max mum w nd speed dur ng he prev ous 60 m nu es Peak W nd The grea es 5-second average w nd speed dur ng he prev ous hour ha exceeded 25 kno s Perco at on Passage of qu d hrough a porous body as movemen of wa er hrough so Perenn a P ant A p an ha

ves for more han wo grow ng seasons For f re danger ra ng purposes b enn a p an s are c assed w h perenn a p an s

see a so: Annua P ant Performance Chart A char ab e or graph prov ded by he manufac urer for use n de erm n ng an aspec of he cop er and f xed-w ng a rcraf performance Performance Or ented Object ves On- he- ob performance enhancemen s a resu of on ne ra n ng Performance or en ed ob ec ves or earn ng ob ec ves for h s ra n ng s deve oped agreed o and es ed o ensure sk ransfer The purpose of earn ng ob ec ves s o def ne he ype of earn ng or performance ou comes ha w occur a he conc us on of ns ruc on and how earn ng w be assessed Bo h ob ec ves and performance ou comes shou d be wr en as prec se y as poss b e n order o bes de erm ne whe her hey have been ach eved Per meter Access Any road ra

or rou e ha w

a ow f ref gh ng forces o reach he per me er of a w d and f re

Per od of A ert Per od of me when suppress on crews equ pmen and a rcraf are kep ready for dep oymen on shor no ce usua y emp oyed when f re danger reaches a prede erm ned sever y ndex Permafrost A shor erm for "permanen y frozen ground" any par of he ear h s crus bedrock or so man e ha rema ns be ow 32? F (0? C) con nuous y for a number of years Persona Protect ve Equ pment (PPE) Tha equ pmen and c o h ng requ red o m ga e he r sk of n ury from or exposure o hazardous cond ons encoun ered dur ng he performance of du y PPE nc udes bu s no resp ra ors hear ng pro ec on cha nsaw chaps and she er

m ed o f re res s an c o h ng hard ha f gh he me s shroud gogg es g oves

Personne Accountab ty The ab y o accoun for he oca on and we fare of personne accomp shed when superv sors ensure ha he ICS pr nc p es and processes are func ona and personne are work ng w h n hese gu de nes Personne Poo Personne who have repor ed o he nc den w hou an ass gnmen ( e

hey are no ass gned o an ncremen s r ke eam or organ za ona un )

P ng and Burn ng P ng s ash resu ng from ogg ng or fue managemen ac v es and subsequen y burn ng he nd v dua p es P ot Ba oon Operat on (PIBAL) A me hod of de erm n ng w nds a of by per od ca y read ng he e eva on and az mu h ang es of a heodo e usua y a one-m nu e n erva s wh e rack ng he ascen of a sma free- f ba oon A PIBAL s common y used for cons ruc ng a w nd prof e P ot- n-Command P o respons b e for he opera on and safe y of an a rcraf dur ng f gh

me

P otage Nav ga on of a rcraf by v sua reference o andmarks P n Lug Coup ng A hose coup ng w h one or more cy ndr ca s uds on s ou s de r m The s uds a ow he use of a spanner wrench o gh en he coup ng P ncer Act on D rec a ack around a f re n oppos e d rec ons by wo or more a ack un s Usua y conduc ed from he f re s a

o head

P ng-Pong Ba System Mechan zed me hod of d spens ng DAIDs (De ayed Aer a Ign on Dev ces) a a se ec ed ra e The DAIDs are po ys yrene ba s 1 25 nches n d ame er con a n ng po ass um permangana e The ba s are fed n o a d spenser genera y moun ed n a he cop er where hey are n ec ed w h a wa er-g yco so u on and hen drop hrough a chu e ead ng ou of he he cop er The chem ca s reac herma y and gn e n 25-30 seconds The space be ween gn on po n s on he ground s pr mar y a func on of he cop er speed gear ra o of he d spenser and he number of chu es used (up o four) see a so: Aer a Ign t on Dev ce De ayed Aer a Ign t on Dev ces He torch P ast c Sphere D spenser P an of Attack The se ec ed course of ac on and organ za on of personne and equ pmen n f re suppress on as app ed o a par cu ar f re or o a f res of a spec f c ype P anetary Boundary Layer Tha par of he ear h s ower a mosphere ha s d rec y nf uenced by he presence of he ear h s surface and responds o surface forc ngs such as fron s fr c on evapo ransp ra on and convec ve m x ng P anned Ign t on The n en ona n a on of a w d and f re by managemen ac ons o mee spec f c ob ec ves see a so: Prescr bed F re P ann ng Interva Per od of me be ween schedu ed p ann ng mee ngs P ann ng Meet ng A mee ng he d regu ar y hroughou he dura on of an nc den Inc den Ac on P an

o se ec spec f c s ra eg es and ac cs for nc den con ro opera ons and o p an for needed serv ce and suppor On arger nc den s he p ann ng mee ng s a ma or e emen n he deve opmen of he

P ann ng Sect on Respons b e for he co ec on eva ua on and d ssem na on of ac ca nforma on re a ed o he nc den and for he prepara on and documen a on of nc den ac on p ans The sec on a so ma n a ns nforma on on he curren and forecas ed s ua on and on he s a us of resources ass gned o he nc den Inc udes he s ua on resource documen a on and demob za on un s as we as echn ca spec a s s P ast c Sphere D spenser (PSD) Dev ce ns a ed bu e sonab e n a he cop er wh ch n ec s g yco n o a p as c sphere con a n ng po ass um permangana e wh ch s hen expe ed from he mach ne and a rcraf Th s produces an exo herm c reac on resu ng n gn on of fue s on he ground for prescr bed or w d and f re app ca ons see a so: Aer a Ign t on Dev ce De ayed Aer a Ign t on Dev ce He torch P ng-Pong Ba System P ow L ne F re ne cons ruc ed by a f re p ow usua y drawn by a rac or or o her mo or zed equ pmen see a so: Dozer Dozer L ne Tractor Tractor P ow P ume R se How h gh above he eve of re ease an em ss on p ume r ses P ume-dom nated W d and F re A w d and f re whose ac v y s de erm ned by he convec on co umn P ume A convec on co umn genera ed by combus on (of w d and fue ) see a so: Convect on Co umn PM10 Par cu a e ma er of mass med an aerodynam c d ame er (MMAD) ess han or equa o 10 m crome ers PM2 5 Par cu a e ma er of mass med an aerodynam c d ame er (MMAD) ess han or equa o 2 5 m crome ers Pocket Weather Meter A handhe d e ec ron c dev ce ha measures empera ure hum d y w nd speed and poss b y o her a mospher c var ab es depend ng on brand and mode Pockets of a F re Unburned nden a ons n he f re edge formed by f ngers or s ow burn ng areas Po nt of Attack Tha par of he f re on wh ch work s s ar ed when suppress on crews arr ve Po nt of Or g n The oca on where a compe en gn on source came n o con ac w h he ma er a f rs gn ed and sus a ned combus on occurred Po nt Source F re Pred ct ons Pred c ons ha app y o an n a ng f re burn ng dur ng a me when cond ons have been re a ve y cons an or where

can be assumed ha he f re w

ma n a n a bas ca y e p ca shape

Po nt Source A permanen source of a r po u on ha can be d s nc y den f ed such as a smokes ack Po nt Zone Protect on A w df re response s ra egy wh ch pro ec s spec f c asse s or h gh y va ued resources from he w df re w hou d rec y ha ng he con nued spread of he w df re Def n on Ex ens on 1) Po n s or zones be ng pro ec ed may be commun es nd v dua s ruc ures areas of h gh resource va ue e c 2) Con nued w df re spread may be des rab e n order o ach eve managemen ob ec ves or may be nev ab e due o ex reme burn ng cond ons safe y concerns or o her m a ons See a so Mon tor ng Conf ne Conta ned Suppress on Po se Un of f u d v scos y n f re re ardan def ned as angen a force per un area (dynes square cen me er) requ red o ma n a n un d fference n ve oc y (1 cen me er second) be ween wo para e p anes separa ed by 1 cm of f u d (1 po se=1 dyne-second cub c cen me er) Portab e Pump Sma gaso ne-dr ven pump ha can be carr ed o a wa er source by one or wo f ref gh ers or o her conveyance over d ff cu

erra n

Portatank Con a ner e her w h r g d frame or se f suppor ng wh ch can be f ed w h wa er or f re chem ca m x ure from wh ch f re suppress on resources can be f ed I can a so be a source for charg ng hose ays from por ab e pumps or s a onary eng nes Pos t on Currency Requ rement The requ remen o perform sa sfac or y n a spec f ed pos on w h n he as f ve years ( hree years for av a on and expanded d spa ch pos ons) n order o ma n a n qua f ca on for he pos on Pos t on Performance Ass gnment An ass gnmen n wh ch an nd v dua s be ng eva ua ed for asks found n he pos on ask book see a so Pos t on Task Book Pos t on Task Book (PTB) A documen s ng he performance requ remen s (compe enc es and behav ors) for a pos on n a forma ha a ows for he eva ua on of nd v dua ( ra nee) performance o de erm ne f an nd v dua s qua f ed n he pos on Successfu performance of PTB asks as observed and recorded by a qua f ed eva ua or w resu n a recommenda on o he ra nee s home un ha he nd v dua be cer f ed n he pos on see a so Agency Cert f cat on Behav or Competency Eva uator Home Un t Tra nee Pos t ve D sp acement Pump A pump wh ch moves a spec f ed quan y of wa er hrough he pump chamber w h each s roke or cyc e pumps and p s on pumps are common examp es of h s ype

s capab e of pump ng a r and herefore s se f-pr m ng bu mus have pressure re ef prov s ons f p umb ng or hoses have shu -off nozz es or va ves Gear

Potato Ro Qu ck me hod of ro ng hose for p ck up hose s ro ed as a ba of s r ng Pounds per Square Inch (PSI) Measuremen of pressure (e g pump pressure nozz e pressure fr c on oss n hose pressure oss or ga n due o e eva on) Pre-Green In he 1978 vers on of NFDRS he herbaceous s age approx ma e y 30 days pr or o green-up Preattack B ock Un of w d and de nea ed by og ca and s ra eg c opograph c fea ures for prea ack p ann ng Preattack P ann ng W h n des gna ed b ocks of and p ann ng he oca ons of f re nes f re camps wa er sources and he spo s p ann ng ranspor a on sys ems probab e ra es of rave and cons ra n s of rave on var ous ypes of a ack un s and de erm n ng wha ypes of a ack un s ke y wou d be needed o cons ruc par cu ar f re nes he r probab e ra e of f re ne cons ruc on and opograph c cons ra n s on f re ne cons ruc on Preattack A p anned sys ema c procedure for co ec ng record ng and eva ua ng pref re and f re managemen n e gence da a for a g ven p ann ng un or prea ack b ock The p ann ng phase s usua y fo owed by a cons ruc on and deve opmen program n egra ed w h o her resources and ac v es Precaut onary Land ng A and ng necess a ed by apparen mpend ng fa ure of eng nes sys ems or componen s wh ch makes con nued f gh unadv sab e Prec p tat on Amount The o a amoun of prec p a on ha occurred w h n he preced ng 24-hour per od Prec p tat on Durat on T me n hours and frac on of hours ha a prec p a on even as s More prec se y for f re danger ra ng purposes he eng h of me ha fue s are sub ec ed o qu d wa er Prec p tat on Gauge Dev ce common y used o co ec and perm measuremen of any form of ra n and snow suff c en y heavy o have fa en o he ear h s surface A so known as a ra n gauge Prec p tat on Any or a forms of wa er par c es

qu d or so d ha fa from he a mosphere and reach he ground

Prec s on Approach Procedure A s andard ns rumen approach procedure for f xed-w ng a rcraf n wh ch an e ec ron c g de s ope s prov ded such as ILS and PAR Prec s on Approach Radar (PAR) B nd and ng n wh ch he a rcraf s observed from he ground by means of radar and d rec ed a ong a su ab e g de pa h by ns ruc ons rad oed o he p o Preconnected Hard suc on hose or d scharge hose carr ed connec ed o pump e m na ng de ay occas oned when hose and nozz es mus be connec ed and a ached a f re Pred ct ve Serv ces Those Geograph c Area and Na ona - eve f re wea her or f re danger serv ces and produc s produced by w d and f re agency me eoro og s s and n e gence s affs n suppor of resource a oca on and pr or za on Pre gn t on Combust on Phase Therma or chem ca decompos on of fue a an e eva ed empera ure Th s s he pre-combus on s age of burn ng dur ng wh ch d s p ches and gases These gn e when m xed w h oxygen o n a e he f am ng combus on phase

a on and pyro ys s predom na e Hea energy s absorbed by he fue wh ch n urn g ves off wa er vapor and f ammab e ars

Pre gn t on Phase Pre m nary phase of combus on n wh ch fue e emen s ahead of he f re are hea ed caus ng fue s o dry Hea nduces decompos on of some componen s of he wood caus ng re ease of combus b e organ c gases and vapors Preparedness Leve Incremen s of p ann ng and organ za ona read ness d c a ed by burn ng cond ons f re ac v y and resource ava ab

y

Def n on Ex ens on Response and suppor o non-f re nc den s requ r ng a s gn f can comm men of resources may a so affec Preparedness Leve s Preparedness P an A wr en p an prov d ng for me y recogn on of approach ng cr ca f re s ua ons pr or y se ng he dep oymen of forces and o her ac ons o respond o hose s ua ons Preparedness 1 Ac v es ha ead o a safe eff c en and cos -effec ve f re managemen program n suppor of and and resource managemen ob ec ves hrough appropr a e p ann ng and coord na on 2 Men a read ness o recogn ze changes n f re danger and ac promp y when ac on s appropr a e 3 The range of de bera e cr ca asks and ac v es necessary o bu d sus a n and mprove he capab y o pro ec aga ns respond o and recover from domes c nc den s see a so Read ness Prescr bed Burn ng App ca on of prescr bed f re Prescr bed F re Burn P an A p an requ red for each f re app ca on gn ed by managemen P ans are documen s prepared by qua f ed personne approved by he agency adm n s ra or and nc ude cr er a for he cond ons under wh ch he f re w var es among he agenc es

be conduc ed (a prescr p on) P an con en

synonym Prescr bed F re P an see a so Imp ementat on P an Prescr bed F re Modu e A eam of sk ed and mob e personne ded ca ed pr mar y o prescr bed f re managemen ha can gn e ho d and mon or prescr bed f res see a so W d and F re Modu e Prescr bed F re P an A p an for each prescr bed f re prepared by qua f ed personne approved by he agency adm n s ra or wh ch nc udes cr er a for he cond ons under wh ch he f re w

be conduc ed (a prescr p on)

synonym Prescr bed F re burn P an Prescr bed F re Any f re n en ona y gn ed by managemen ac ons n accordance w h app cab e aws po c es and regu a ons o mee spec f c ob ec ves see a so W df re W d and F re Prescr pt on In he con ex of w d and f re a prescr p on s measurab e cr er a ha def ne cond ons under wh ch a prescr bed f re may be gn ed Prescr p ons may a so be used o gu de se ec on of managemen responses o w df re o def ne cond ons under wh ch managemen ac ons are mos ke y o ach eve nc den managemen ob ec ves Prescr p on cr er a yp ca y descr be env ronmen a cond ons such as empera ure hum d y and fue mo s ure bu may a so nc ude safe y econom c pub c hea h geograph c adm n s ra ve soc a or ega cons dera ons Pressure Grad ent The d fference n a mospher c pressure be ween wo po n s on a wea her map Tha s he magn ude of pressure d fference be ween wo po n s a sea eve or a cons an e eva on above sea eve W nd speed s d rec y re a ed o pressure grad en If d s ance be ween cons an pressure nes s reduced by one-ha f w nd speed w be doub ed Converse y f d s ance be ween nes s doub ed w nd speed w be reduced by one-ha f Pressure Loss Reduc on n wa er pressure be ween a pump or hydran and a nozz e due o expend ure of pressure energy requ red o move wa er hrough a hose nc udes osses due o back pressure fr c on oss e eva on oss and or osses n f

ngs

Pressure Pattern The d s r bu on of surface a mospher c pressure fea ures over an area of he ear h as shown on a wea her map Surface pressure fea ures nc ude nes of cons an pressure ( sobars) h ghs ows and pressure grad en The pressure pa ern s d rec y re a ed o w nd speeds and d rec ons a spec f c oca ons Presuppress on Ac v es n advance of f re occurrence o ensure effec ve suppress on ac on Inc udes p ann ng he organ za on recru ng and ra n ng procur ng equ pmen and supp es ma n a n ng f re equ pmen and f re con ro mprovemen s and nego a ng coopera ve and or mu ua a d agreemen s Pretreat The use of wa er foam or re ardan a ong a con ro

ne n advance of he f re Of en used where ground cover or erra n s cons dered bes for con ro ac on

Prevent on of S gn f cant Deter orat on (PSD) A program den f ed by he C ean A r Ac o preven a r qua y and v s b y degrada on and o remedy ex s ng v s b y prob ems Areas of he coun ry are grouped n o 3 c asses wh ch are a owed cer a n degrees of po u on depend ng on he r uses Na ona Parks and W derness Areas mee ng cer a n cr er a are "C ass I" or "c ean area" n ha hey have he sma es a owab e ncremen of degrada on Prevent on Ac v es d rec ed a reduc ng he nc dence of f res nc ud ng pub c educa on aw enforcemen persona con ac and reduc on of fue hazards (fue s managemen ) Ac ons o avo d an nc den o n ervene for he purpose of s opp ng an nc den from occurr ng or o m ga e an nc den s effec o pro ec fe and proper y Inc udes measures des gned o m ga e damage by reduc ng or e m na ng r sks o persons or proper y essen ng he po en a effec s or consequences of an nc den Pr mary Lookout A ookou po n ha mus be s affed o mee p anned m n mum seen area coverage n a g ven oca y For ha reason con nuous serv ce s necessary dur ng he norma f re season and he ookou (person) s no sen o f res Pr m ng F

ng pump w h wa er when pump s ak ng wa er no under a pressure head Necessary for cen r fuga pumps

Probab ty Forecast A forecas of he probab

y of occurrence of one or more of a mu ua y exc us ve se of wea her con ngenc es as d s ngu shed from a ser es of ca egor ca s a emen s

Probab ty of Ign t on The chance ha a f rebrand w

cause an gn on when

Probab ty A number represen ng he chance ha a g ven even w

ands on recep ve fue s

occur The range s from 0% for an mposs b e even

o 100% for an nev ab e even

Procurement Un t Func ona un w h n he F nance Adm n s ra on Sec on respons b e for manag ng a f nanc a ma ers per a n ng o vendor con rac s Progress ve Hose Lay A hose ay n wh ch doub e shu off wye (Y) va ves are nser ed n he ma n ne a n erva s and a era

nes are run from he wyes o he f re edge hus perm

ng con nuous app ca on of wa er dur ng ex ens on of he ay

Progress ve Method of L ne Construct on A sys em of organ z ng workers o bu d f re ne n wh ch hey advance w hou chang ng re a ve pos ons n ne Project Act v ty Leve (PAL) An app ca on of f re danger ra ng o suppor regu a on of con rac ors nvo ved n and managemen ac v es for f re preven on purposes n Ca forn a Project Object ves The spec f c resu s expec ed from comp e ng a pro ec Proport oner A dev ce ha adds a prede erm ned amoun of foam concen ra e o wa er o form foam so u on Protect ng Agency Agency respons b e for prov d ng d rec nc den managemen w h n a spec f c geograph ca area pursuan o s ur sd c ona respons b

y or as spec f ed and prov ded by con rac coopera ve agreemen e c

see a so F re Agency Respons b e F re Agency Protect ng Un t The en y respons b e for prov d ng d rec nc den managemen and serv ces o a g ven area pursuan o s ur sd c ona respons b

y or as spec f ed by aw con rac or agreemen

Def n on Ex ens on 1) Pro ec on can be re-ass gned by agreemen 2) The na ure and ex en of he nc den de erm nes pro ec on (for examp e - W df re vs A Hazard ) Protect on Area Tha area for wh ch a par cu ar f re pro ec on organ za on has he pr mary respons b (e g a umber opera or) Severa agenc es or en es may have some bas c respons b

y for a ack ng an uncon ro ed f re and for d rec ng he suppress on ac on Such respons b y may deve op hrough aw con rac or persona n eres of he f ref gh ng agen es (e g pr va e owner) w hou be ng known as he f re organ za on hav ng d rec pro ec on respons b y

synonym D rect Protect on Area Protect on Boundary The ex er or per me er of an area w h n wh ch a spec f ed f re agency has assumed a degree of respons b Protect on Ind cators Fue s ha are unburned or exh b a ess damaged appearance on he non-or g n s de of he fue

y for w d and f re con ro I may nc ude and n add on o ha for wh ch he agency has ur sd c on or con rac ua respons b

y

se f or o her ob ec s

Protect on Un t A geograph ca area wh ch s adm n s ra ve y def ned and wh ch s he sma es area for wh ch organ zed f re suppress on ac v es are forma y p anned Protect on The ac ons aken o m ga e he adverse effec s of f re on env ronmen a soc a po

ca econom c and commun y va ues a r sk

Psychrometer Genera name for ns rumen s des gned o de erm ne he mo s ure con en of a r A psychrome er cons s s of dry- and we -bu b hermome ers ha g ve he dry- and we -bu b empera ures wh ch n urn are used o de erm ne re a ve hum d y and dew po n Pub c A rcraft A rcraf used on y n he serv ce of a governmen or a po

ca subd v s on I does no nc ude any governmen -owned a rcraf engaged n carry ng persons for commerc a purposes

Pu ask A comb na on chopp ng and rench ng oo w de y used n f re ne cons ruc on wh ch comb nes a s ng e-b ed axe b ade w h a narrow adze- ke rench ng b ade f ed o a s ra gh hand e Punky Mater a Par y decayed ma er a such as o d wood n wh ch f re can smo der un ess

s carefu y mopped up and ex ngu shed A good recep or for f rebrands when dry

Pyro ys s The herma or chem ca decompos on of fue a an e eva ed empera ure Th s s he pre gn on combus on phase of burn ng dur ng wh ch hea energy s absorbed by he fue wh ch n urn g ves off f ammab e ars p ches and gases Pyrotechn c A m x ure of chem ca s des gned o produce hea

gh gas smoke or no se

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Q Quadrang e Mapp ng un wh ch def nes an area n erms of ong ude and a ude d s ance Two common sca es are 1 24 000 quadrang es wh ch are 7 5 ong ude x 7 5 a ude and 1 62 500 quadrang es wh ch are 15 ong ude x 15 a ude Qua f cat on Sheet A wr en resume of an exper w ness used o show ha exper ?s suff c en spec a exper se n he f e d Qua f cat ons and Cert f cat on Th s subsys em of NIIMS prov des recommended qua f ca on and cer f ca on for hose personne respond ng o an nc den reg ona y or na ona y a ow ng for he deve opmen of oca m n mum s andards o mee oca needs S andards yp ca y nc ude ra n ng exper ence and phys ca f ness see a so Nat ona Interagency Inc dent Management System Go to top

R Rad a A magne c bear ng ex end ng from a ground-based nav ga ona sys em prov d ng a rborne nav ga on nforma on Rad ant Burn A herma rauma ha maybe a superf c a par a h ckness or fu

h ckness burn

Rad ant Heat F ux The amoun of hea f ow ng hrough a g ven area n a g ven me usua y expressed as ca or es square cen me er second Rad at on 1 Propaga on of energy n free space by v r ue of o n undu a ory var a ons n he e ec r c or magne c f e ds n space ( e by e ec romagne c waves) 2 Transfer of hea n s ra gh nes hrough a gas or vacuum o her han by hea ng of he n erven ng space Rad o Cache A cache may cons s of a number of por ab e rad os base s a on and n some caches a rad o repea er ha s s ored n a prede erm ned oca on for d spa ch o nc den s Rad o F x De erm na on of pos on by one or more rad o nav ga ona a ds Rad osonde A dev ce carr ed a of by a ba oon equ pped w h measur ng ns rumen s ha au oma ca y conver empera ure pressure and hum d y da a n o e ec r ca mpu ses and ransm

h s nforma on o a ground recorder

see a so Sound ng (Upper A r Sound ng) Ra road F re A f re resu ng from any opera on or ac v y of a ra road excep smok ng Range F re Any w df re on range and Ranger D str ct An adm n s ra ve subd v s on of a na ona fores (under a d s r c ranger) or o her rac of pub c and Rappe ng Techn que of and ng spec f ca y ra ned and cer f ed f ref gh ers from hover ng he cop ers nvo ves s d ng down ropes w h he a d of fr c on-produc ng dev ces Rate of Spread Factor A fac or usua y on a sca e of 1 o 100 wh ch represen s a re a ve ra e of forward spread for a spec f c fue cond on and f xed wea her cond ons (or fue mode ) Fac ors can be used as mu p ers argumen s for en er ng ab es or prov de a ra o of va ues be ween wo fue s Rate of Spread Meter A dev ce ha compu es he probab e ra e of spread of a f re for d fferen comb na ons of fue mo s ure w nd speed and o her se ec ed fac ors Rate of Spread The re a ve ac v y of a f re n ex end ng s hor zon a d mens ons I s expressed as ra e of ncrease of he o a per me er of he f re as ra e of forward spread of he f re fron or as ra e of ncrease n area depend ng on he n ended use of he nforma on Usua y s expressed n cha ns or acres per hour for a spec f c per od n he f re s h s ory see a so Forward Rate of Spread Rat ng Per od Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) The per od of me dur ng wh ch a f re danger ra ng va ue s cons dered va d or represen a ve for adm n s ra ve or o her purposes Norma y

s 24 hours ex end ng from m dn gh o m dn gh

Raw nsonde Me hod of upper-a r observa on cons s ng of an eva ua on of he w nd speed and w nd d rec on empera ure pressure and re a ve hum d y a of by means of a ba oon-borne rad osonde racked by a radar or rad o d rec on-f nder Re-Cert f cat on Conf rma on hrough he re- ssuance of an nc den qua f ca on card ha an nd v dua has rega ned qua f ca ons for a spec f ed pos on ha was os hrough a ack of curren exper ence A key componen n he cer f ca on or re-cer f ca on process s he sub ec ve eva ua on by he appropr a e agency off c a of an nd v dua s capab y o perform n a pos on React on Intens ty The ra e of hea re ease per un area of he f am ng f re fron expressed as hea energy area me such as B u square foo m nu e or Kca square me er second see a so Combust on Rate Read ness 1 Cond on or degree of be ng comp e e y ready o cope w h a po en a f re s ua on 2 Men a read ness o recogn ze changes n f re danger and ac promp y when ac on s appropr a e see a so Preparedness Rear (Of a F re) 1 Tha por on of a f re spread ng d rec y n o he w nd or down s ope 2 Tha por on of a f re edge oppos e he head 3 S owes spread ng por on of a f re edge A so known as a hee of a f re Reasonab y Ava ab e Contro Measures (RACM) Con ro measures deve oped by EPA wh ch app y o res den a wood combus on fug ve dus and prescr bed and s v cu ura burn ng n and around "modera e" PM-10 non-a a nmen areas RACM s des gned o br ng an area back n o a a nmen and uses a smoke managemen program wh ch re es on wea her forecas s for burn no-burn days see a so Best Ava ab e Contro Measures Reburn 1 Repea burn ng of an area over wh ch a f re has prev ous y passed bu ef fue ha a er gn es when burn ng cond ons are more favorab e 2 An area ha has reburned Reconna ssance (RECON) To exam ne a f re area o ob a n nforma on abou curren and probab e f re behav or and o her re a ed f re suppress on nforma on Recorders Ind v dua s w h n ICS organ za ona un s who are respons b e for record ng nforma on Recorders may be found n p ann ng og s cs and f nance adm n s ra on un s Recovery 1 The ncrease n fue mo s ure as a resu of ncreased re a ve hum d y usua y occurr ng overn gh 2 The genera erm used o descr be he max mum overn gh va ue of a mospher c re a ve hum d y Recreat on F re A f re resu ng from recrea ona use excep smok ng Recurrent Tra n ng Tra n ng schedu ed a es ab shed n erva s ha has been den f ed as requ red ra n ng n order o ma n a n pos on currency Red F ag Warn ng Term used by f re wea her forecas ers o a er forecas users o an ongo ng or mm nen cr ca f re wea her pa ern see a so: F re Wea her Wa ch Ree A frame on wh ch hose s wound now ch ef y used for "boos er" or sma hose (3 4- or - nch hose) (19 or 25 mm) supp ed by a wa er ank on he appara us a so a hand-drawn 2-whee frame for 2-1 2 nch (64 mm) hose used n ndus r a p an s Reg ona Haze Vsb

y mpa rmen caused by he cumu a ve a r po u an em ss ons from numerous sources over a w de geograph c area see a so Haze

Rehab tat on Effor s under aken w h n hree years of a w d and f re o repa r or mprove f re damaged ands un ke y o recover o a managemen approved cond ons or o repa r or rep ace m nor fac

es damaged by f re

see a so Burned Area Rehab tat on Rek nd e Re- gn on due o a en hea sparks or embers or due o presence of smoke or s eam Re at ve Greenness (RG) An NDVI-der ved mage of vege a on greenness compared o how green

has been h s or ca y

see a so Greenness Factor Re at ve Hum d ty (RH) The ra o of he amoun of mo s ure n he a r o he max mum amoun of mo s ure ha a r wou d con a n f

were sa ura ed The ra o of he ac ua vapor pressure o he sa ura ed vapor pressure

Re ay Tank A ank usua y co aps b e used as a reservo r n he re ay of wa er from one f re pump o ano her Re ay Use of wo or more f re pumps o move wa er a d s ance wh ch wou d requ re excess ve pressures n order o overcome fr c on oss f on y one pump were emp oyed a he source Re ease Order The order ha def nes when personne and or equ pmen w

be ready for re ease from an nc den

Re ef Va ve A pressure-con ro ed dev ce wh ch bypasses wa er a a f re pump o preven excess ve pressures when a nozz e s shu down Re oad Base An a rf e d where a r ankers are re oaded bu no permanen y s a oned see a so A r Attack Base Remote Automat c Weather Stat on (RAWS) A wea her s a on ha ransm s wea her observa ons v a GOES sa e

e o he W d and F re Managemen Informa on sys em

Repeater A rad o s gna s a on ha au oma ca y re ays a rad o ransm ss on some mes over a d fferen frequency hereby ncreas ng he range of ransm ss on Repea ers are of en named for he moun a n ops or peaks where hey are ns a ed Report T me E apsed me from f re d scovery un

he f rs personne charged w h n a ng ac on for f re suppress on are no f ed of s ex s ence and oca on

Reportab e F re Any w df re ha requ res f re suppress on o pro ec na ura resources or va ues assoc a ed w h na ura resources or s des ruc ve o na ura resources Report ng Locat ons Loca on or fac

es where ncom ng resources can check- n a he nc den Check- n oca ons nc ude nc den command pos (resources un ) nc den base camps s ag ng areas he bases he spo s and d rec o he ne Check- n a one oca on on y

see a so Check- n Report ng Un t The en y subm

ng a g ven nc den repor

Def n on Ex ens on The en y mus have a va d NWCG Un Iden f er (ID) Requ red Exper ence Documen ed sa sfac ory performance n a spec f ed pos on needed o qua fy for ano her (usua y h gher eve ) pos on Requ red exper ence canno be cha enged Requ red Tra n ng A course or courses ha mus be comp e ed pr or o n a ng a pos on ask book Tra n ng wh ch has been den f ed as requ red canno be cha enged an agency equ va en course may be used as a subs u e when he course mee s or exceeds a requ red course s earn ng and performance ob ec ves Rescue Med ca Veh c e Any s affed ground veh c e capab e of prov d ng emergency med ca care and s affed w h appropr a e number of ra ned personne and equ pmen for ha nc den Rescue Med ca Any s affed ground veh c e capab e of prov d ng med ca serv ces Rescue Sav ng a fe from f re or acc den remov ng a v c m from an un enab e or unhea hy a mosphere Reserve In w d and f re suppress on erm no ogy resources no ass gned o a spec f c ask bu ava ab e for ass gnmen Res dence T me The me n seconds requ red for he f am ng fron of a f re o pass a s a onary po n a he surface of he fue The o a eng h of me ha he f am ng fron of he f re occup es one po n Res dua Combust on Stage The smo der ng zone beh nd he zone of an advanc ng f re fron Res dua Smoke Smoke produced by smo der ng ma er a The f ux of smoke or g na ng we af er he ac ve f am ng combus on per od w h Res stance to Contro The re a ve d ff cu y of cons ruc ng and ho d ng a con ro Res stance to L ne Construct on The re a ve d ff cu y of cons ruc ng con ro

e or no ver ca buoyancy and herefore mos suscep b e o subs dence nvers ons and down-va ey f ows

ne as affec ed by res s ance o ne cons ruc on and by f re behav or A so known as d ff cu y of con ro

ne as de erm ned by he fue

opography and so

Resource Capab ty The ab y of he w d and f re program o respond o curren and an c pa ed work oad needs for he area of concern Resource Order ng and Status System (ROSS) A na ona sys em ha prov des au oma ed suppor o n eragency and agency d spa ch and coord na on off ces The sys em w prov de curren s a us of resources ava ab e o suppor a -r sk ac v es enab e d spa ch off ces o exchange and rack resource order ng nforma on e ec ron ca y enab e d spa ch off ces o rap d y and re ab y exchange m ss on-cr ca emergency e ec ron c messages Resource Order The form used by d spa chers serv ce personne and og s cs coord na ors o documen he reques order ng or re ease of resources and he rack ng of hose resources on an nc den Resource Status Board V sua a d con a n ng per nen nforma on regard ng f re organ za on curren opera ona per od resources prev ous opera ona per od resources and nex opera ona per od resources be ng prepared p aced a a conven en oca on n f re camp for rev ew by f re ne overhead personne on arge f res Resource Va ue-at-r sk F re suppress on p ann ng oo prov d ng a re a ve express on ( n f ve c asses) of f re effec s on a resources (no he va ue of he resources hemse ves) Resources Un t Func ona un w h n he p ann ng sec on respons b e for record ng he s a us of resources comm ed o he nc den The un a so eva ua es resources curren y comm ed o he nc den and an c pa ed resource needs

he mpac ha add ona respond ng resources w

have on he nc den

Resources 1 Personne equ pmen serv ces and supp es ava ab e or po en a y ava ab e for ass gnmen o nc den s Personne and equ pmen are descr bed by k nd and ype e g ground wa er a r e c and may be used n ac ca suppor or overhead capac es a an nc den 2 The na ura resources of an area such as mber grass wa ershed va ues recrea on va ues and w d fe hab a see a so Act ve Resources A ocated Resources Ass gned Resources Ava ab e Resources Va ues To Be Protected Resp rator A s mp e f er mask for nd v dua pro ec on aga ns smoke and fumes recommended for use n f re suppress on on w df res on y no recommended for use on s ruc ure f res or f res nvo v ng mos hazardous ma er a s see a so A r Pack Se f-Conta ned Breath ng Apparatus Respond ng Un t Adm n s ra ve en y ha prov des resources n response o he nc den Def n on Ex ens on The en y mus have a va d NWCG Un Iden f er (ID) No he ype of resource respond ng No m ed o Jur sd c ona or Pro ec ng Un s (con rac ors vo un eer f re depar men s m Respons b e F re Agency Agency w h pr mary respons b

ary resources e c )

y for f re suppress on on any par cu ar and area

see a so F re Agency Respons b e F re Agency Restorat on The con nua on of rehab

a on beyond he n a hree years or he repa r or rep acemen of ma or fac

es damaged by he f re

Restr cted A rspace A rspace of def ned d mens ons den f ed by an area on he surface of he ear h w h n he f gh of an a rcraf wh ch s sub ec o res r c ons (bu no who y proh b ed) Restr cted Category A rcraf ha s genera y used for cargo re ardan dropp ng agr cu ura opera ons survey work and o her spec f c pro ec s and may no ranspor passengers Restr ct ons Measures aken by ur sd c ona agenc es o mpose bans and s andards of use on cer a n human ac v es ha cou d ead o he cause of w d and f re Res r c ons may be app ed o smok ng n des gna ed areas open f ame mechan ca opera ons n h gh-r sk areas and off-road use see a so C osure Retardant Base Ground fac

es for m x ng s or ng and oad ng f re re ardan n o a r ankers

Retardant Coverage Area of fue covered and degree of coverage on he fue by a f re re ardan usua y expressed n erms of ga ons per hundred square fee ( ers per square me er) Retardant Drop F re re ardan cascaded from an a r anker or he anker Retardant A subs ance or chem ca agen wh ch reduces he f ammab

y of combus b es

Return and Ho d An order o an a r anker p o o re urn o he re ardan base and awa fur her ns ruc ons m ss on comp e ed fur her oads no requ red Revers b e S amese (SIMWYE) Hose f ng ha performs he func ons of a S amese or a wye ( e

o comb ne he f ow from wo nes n o a s ng e ne or o perm

wo nes o be aken from a s ng e ne)

see a so S amese Wye Rheo og c Propert es F ow charac er s cs of qu d f re re ardan s espec a y he r cohes veness or ab

y o ho d oge her wh e fa ng hrough he a r

Rheo ogy Sc ence of deforma on and f ow of f re re ardan s and o her qu ds espec a y of he cohes veness bod es and s ress-s ra n re a onsh p of he r par c es R ch Too A ong-hand ed comb na on rake and cu ng oo

he b ade of wh ch s cons ruc ed of a s ng e row of mow ng mach ne cu er ee h fas ened o a p ece of ang e ron A so known as a f re rake or counc rake

see a so Counc Too R dge An e onga ed area of re a ve y h gh a mospher c pressure ex end ng from he cen er of a h gh-pressure reg on see a so Surface H gh R ng F re A f re s ar ed by gn ng he fu per me er of he n ended burn area so ha he ensu ng f re fron s converge oward he cen er of he burn Se around he ou er per me er of a resource o es ab sh a pro ec ve b ack- ne-buffer R sk Index A number re a ed o he probab

y of a f rebrand gn ng a f re

R sk Management (RM) A con nuous f ve-s ep process ha prov des a sys ema c me hod for den fy ng and manag ng he r sks assoc a ed w h any opera on R sk Source Rat o Por on of human-caused f res ha have occurred on a pro ec on un chargeab e o a spec f c r sk source ca cu a ed for each day of he week for each r sk source R sk Source Iden f ab e human ac v y ha h s or ca y has been a ma or cause of w df res on a pro ec on un

one of he e gh genera causes s ed on he s andard f re repor

R sk 1 2 3 4

The chance of f re s ar ng as de erm ned by he presence and ac v y of causa ve agen s A chance of suffer ng harm or oss A causa ve agen (NFDRS) A number re a ed o he po en a of f rebrands o wh ch a g ven area w be exposed dur ng he ra ng day

Rocker Lug Coup ng Hose coup ng n wh ch he ugs used for gh en ng or oosen ng are sem c rcu ar n shape and des gned o pass over obs ruc ons Ro C oud A urbu en a ocumu us- ype c oud forma on found n he ee of some arge moun a n barr ers The a r n he c oud ro a es around an ax s para e o he range A so some mes refers o par of he c oud base a ong he ead ng edge of a cumu on mbus c oud formed by ro ng ac on n he w nd shear reg on be ween coo downdraf s w h n he c oud and warm updraf s ou s de he c oud A so known as a ro or c oud

s

Rotor B ast A r urbu ence occurr ng under and around he ma n ro or of an opera ng he cop er A so known as a ro or downwash Rotor D ameter The ma n ro or arc n fee and nches (me ers) Used for p ann ng he spo c earance Rotorcraft An a rcraf ha depends pr nc pa y on he f genera ed by one or more ro ors for s suppor n f gh A so ca ed ro ary w ng synonym He copter Rotor Assemb y of a rfo s (ro or b ades) oge her w h a hub and a achmen s ha ro a es abou an ax s o prov de f and or hrus on a he cop er Rough Reduct on Reduc on of f re hazard n rough usua y by prescr bed burn ng Rough The accumu a on of v ng and dead ground and unders ory vege a on espec a y grasses fores

er and draped dead need es some mes w h add on of underbrush such as pa me o ga berry and wax myr e Mos of en used for sou hern p ne ypes

Route Card Index card used by a d spa cher and frequen y carr ed on f re appara us wh ch s s spec f c d rec ons for respond ng o nd v dua rura proper es The card frequen y nc udes a descr p on of he proper y wa er sources ava ab e and any spec a nforma on per nen o f re suppress on and rescue opera ons A so known as a runn ng card Run (Of a F re) Rap d advance of he head of a f re charac er zed by a marked rans on n f re ne n ens y and ra e of spread w h respec o ha no ed before and af er he advance Runn ng F re Behav or of a f re spread ng rap d y w h a we def ned head Rura F re D str ct (RFD) An organ za on es ab shed o prov de f re pro ec on o a des gna ed geograph c area ou s de of areas under mun c pa f re pro ec on Usua y has some ax ng au hor y and off c a s may be appo n ed or e ec ed Rura F re Protect on F re pro ec on and f ref gh ng prob ems ha are ou s de of areas under mun c pa f re preven on and bu d ng regu a ons and ha are usua y remo e from pub c wa er supp es Rura Any area where n res dences and o her deve opmen s are sca ered and n erm ng ed w h fores range or farm and and na ve vege a on or cu va ed crops Go to top

S Sadd e Depress on or pass n a r dge ne SAFENET (SAFENET) A form and process used by w d and f ref gh ng agenc es for repor ng and reso v ng nc den s re a ng o f ref gh er safe y The nforma on co ec ed s used o de erm ne ong- erm rends and prob em areas w h n he w d and f re ndus ry Safety Adv sory A safe y a er address ng w d and f re safe y nforma on ha sn re a ed o mm nen or po en a hrea s of n ury see a so Safety A ert Safety A ert A warn ng or a er concern ng cr ca nforma on re a ng o f ref gh er safe y ha s d s r bu ed v a ema

hrough an NWCG ma server There are hree ypes of a er s Safe y Warn ng Safe y Adv sory and Safe y Bu e n

see a so Safety Adv sory Safety Bu et n Safety Warn ng Safety Br ef ng A safe y br ef ng emphas zes key safe y concerns on he nc den and s presen ed a each br ef ng sess on The safe y br ef ng shou d con a n nforma on o a er nc den personne of po en a r sk hazard cons dered o be mos cr ca Safety Bu et n A safe y a er con a n ng a fac ua conf rma on of a ser ous w d and f re acc den

nc den or fa a y

see a so Safety A ert Safety C rc e An obs ruc on-free c rc e around he (he cop er) and ng pad Safety Warn ng A safe y a er address ng w d and f re safe y hazards ha pose an mm nen hrea or have po en a o pose a hrea

o fe or proper y

see a so Safety A ert Safety Zone An area c eared of f ammab e ma er a s used for escape n he even he ne s ou f anked or n case a spo f re causes fue s ou s de he con ro ne o render he ne unsafe In f r ng opera ons crews progress so as o ma n a n a safe y zone c ose a hand a ow ng he fue s ns de he con ro ne o be consumed before go ng ahead Safe y zones may a so be cons ruc ed as n egra par s of fue breaks hey are grea y en arged areas wh ch can be used w h re a ve safe y by f ref gh ers and he r equ pmen n he even of b owup n he v c n y see a so Dep oyment Zone Sa vo Drop To a re ardan or wa er oad dropped a a once Usua y done o knock down a ho spo Sa vo Dropp ng by an a r anker of s en re oad of f re re ardan a one me Samp e S ze The number of ems or observa ons n a samp e usua y deno ed by ower case e er n Samp e Par of a popu a on ha por on of he popu a on ha s measured Sand Tab e Exerc se (STEX) A ac ca dec s on game ha emp oys a hree-d mens ona erra n mode made from sand and var ous props o prov de a v sua represen a on of he s ua on descr bed n he ac ca dec s on game Scope of Pract ce The se of respons b

es and e h ca cons dera ons ha def ne he ex en or m s of he care prov der w h n he curren s andards of prac ce

Scorch He ght Average he gh s of fo age brown ng or bo e b acken ng caused by a f re Scratch L ne An unf n shed pre m nary con ro

ne has y es ab shed or cons ruc ed as an emergency measure o check he spread of f re

Scrubb ng The process of ag a ng foam so u on and a r w h n a conf ned space (usua y a hose) ha produces ny un form bubb es - he eng h and ype of hose de erm ne he amoun of scrubb ng and herefore foam qua y Sea Breeze A breeze (w nd) b ow ng n and from he sea genera y dur ng day me hours Sea- eve Pressure Pressure va ue ob a ned by he heore ca reduc on or ncrease of s a on pressure o sea eve The average a mospher c pressure a sea eve s 14 7 ps Season Code One of four des gna ons of seasona p an deve opmen used n he 1988 vers on of NFDRS Seasona Month y Average H s or ca y he average number of human-caused f res occurr ng on a pro ec on un per mon h dur ng he es ab shed f re season Seasona R sk C ass Ob ec ve rank ng of pro ec on un s w h n an adm n s ra ve group based on he number of human-caused f res for a eas he pas f ve years Second Order F re Effects (SOFE) The secondary effec s of f re such as ree regenera on p an success on and changes n s e produc v y A hough second order f re effec s are dependen

n par on f rs order f re effec s hey a so nvo ve n erac on w h many o her non-f re var ab es

see a so F rst Order F re Effects Second-In-Command P o who s des gna ed o be second- n-command of an a rcraf dur ng f gh

me

Secondary L ne Any f re ne cons ruc ed a a d s ance from he f re per me er concurren y w h or af er a ne a ready cons ruc ed on or near o he per me er of he f re Genera y cons ruc ed as an nsurance measure n case he f re escapes con ro by he pr mary ne Secondary Lookout A ookou po n n erm en y used o supp emen he v s b e area coverage of he pr mary ookou sys em when requ red by f re danger poor v s b The person who occup es such a s a on

y or o her fac ors

Secondary Weather Stat on S a on a wh ch m n mum wea her measuremen s are aken o compu e ra ngs of burn ng cond ons prov des supp emen ary nforma on on wea her exper ence Sect on Tha organ za ona eve w h respons b

y for a ma or func ona area of he nc den such as opera ons p ann ng og s cs f nance adm n s ra on The sec on s organ za ona y be ween branch and nc den commander

Secur ty Weather Watch Observers are pos ed a one or more s ra eg c oca ons n he prox m y of a f re o de ec and warn f re personne of pend ng cr ca wea her changes ha m gh s gn f can y affec he f re Seen Area Ground or vege a on grow ng hereon ha s d rec y v s b e under spec f ed a mospher c cond ons from an es ab shed or proposed ookou po n or aer a de ec on f gh rou e see a so V s b e Area Map Segment A geograph ca area n wh ch a ask force s r ke eam eader or superv sor of a s ng e resource s ass gned au hor y and respons b y for he coord na on of resources and mp emen a on of p anned ac cs A segmen may be a por on of a d v s on or an area ns de or ou s de he per me er of an nc den Segmen s are den f ed w h Arab c numbers e A-1 e c and are no o be used as rad o des gna ors Se f-Conta ned Breath ng Apparatus (SCBA) Por ab e a r (no oxygen) anks w h regu a ors wh ch a ow f ref gh ers o brea he wh e n ox c smoke cond ons Usua y ra ed for 30 m nu es of serv ce Used pr mar y on f res nvo v ng s ruc ures or hazardous ma er a s synonym Resp rator see a so A r Pack Separat on 1 Spac ng of a rcraf wh e and ng and ak ng off a a rpor s o ach eve safe and order y movemen n f gh 2 The hor zon a and ver ca spac ng of a rcraf work ng over or near a w df re or o her nc den 3 Spac ng of personne wh e perform ng ne cons ruc on ac v es Ser ous Acc dent Invest gat on Team (SAIT) A forma nves ga on eam ha s organ zed w h he purpose of conduc ng an acc den nves ga on for an occurred ser ous acc den The eam s g ven fu au hor za on o conduc he nves ga on from nvo ved agenc es hrough e er of de ega on Ser ous A rcraft Inc dent An nc den or ma func on ha cou d adverse y affec he safe y of f gh see a so A rcraft Inc dent Serv ce Branch A branch w h n he og s cs sec on respons b e for serv ce ac v es a he nc den Inc udes he commun ca ons med ca and food un s Serv ce Center Po n of suppor for ems no ordered hrough d spa ch Set 1 2 3 4 5

An nd v dua ncend ary f re The po n or po n s of or g n of an ncend ary f re Ma er a ef o gn e an ncend ary f re a a a er me Ind v dua gh n ng or ra road f res espec a y when severa are s ar ed w h n a shor me Burn ng ma er a a he po n s de bera e y gn ed for backf r ng s ash burn ng prescr bed burn ng and o her purposes

Sever ty Fund ng Suppress on funds used o ncrease he eve of presuppress on capab

y and f re preparedness when pred c ed or ac ua burn ng cond ons exceed hose norma y expec ed due o severe wea her cond ons

Sever ty Index A number ha nd ca es he re a ve ne effec s of da y f re danger on he f re oad for an area dur ng a spec f ed per od such as a f re season Sever ty see a so F re Sever ty Shaded Fue Break Fue breaks bu

n mbered areas where he rees on he break are h nned and pruned o reduce he f re po en a ye re a n enough crown canopy o make a ess favorab e m croc ma e for surface f res

Shareab e Content Object (SCO) Se f-con a ned un s of earn ng They can be used as bu d ng b ocks (or egos) o crea e packages ( essons) of SCOs bu hey canno be broken down n o sma er un s see a so Learn ng Content Management System Learn ng Objects Shareab e Content Object Re-usab e Mode (SCORM) A spec f ca on for s andard z ng he reusab y and n eroperab

y of earn ng con en SCORM has been deve oped by he Advanced D s r bu ed Learn ng n a ve (ADL) SCORM focuses on wo cr ca p eces of earn ng con en n eroperab

y

I def nes an aggrega on mode for packag ng earn ng con en I def nes an API for enab ng commun ca ons be ween earn ng con en and he sys em ha aunches see a so Learn ng Content Management System Shock Wave The ead ng edge of an expand ng a r mass Short Takeoff or Land ng (STOL) A rcraft An a rcraf wh ch has he capab y of opera ng from a STOL runway n accordance w h app cab e a rwor h ness and opera ng regu a ons Short Takeoff or Land ng (STOL) A rstr p Deve oped or undeve oped area ha has been es ed and w

accommoda e STOL a rcraf

Short-Range Spott ng F rebrands f am ng sparks or embers are carr ed by surface w nds s ar ng new f res beyond he zone of d rec gn on by he ma n f re The range of such spo ng s usua y ess han 1 4 m e Short-Term F re Retardant F re re ardan ha nh b s combus on pr mar y by he coo ng and smo her ng ac on of wa er Chem ca s may be added o he wa er o a er s v scos y or re ard s evapora on hereby ncreas ng s effec veness Short-Term Persons or work for wh ch emp oymen s ess han 12 mon hs (exc ud ng f ref gh ers h red for a par cu ar f re) Shou der Carry Me hod of carry ng hose on he shou ders Shrub Type The wo-ca egory (evergreen dec duous) c ass f ca on of shrubs vege a on n he 1988 vers on of NFDRS Shrub A woody perenn a p an d ffer ng from a perenn a herb by s pers s en and woody s em and from a ree by s ow s a ure and hab of branch ng from he base Shutoff Nozz e Common ype of f re hose nozz e perm

ng s ream f ow o be con ro ed by he f ref gh er a he nozz e ra her han on y a he source of supp y

Shutoff Pressure Max mum pressure a cen r fuga pump w

a a n when wa er f ow s c amped or shu off

S amese Hose f

ng (preferab y ga ed) for comb n ng f ow from wo or more nes of hose n o a s ng e s ream one ma e coup ng o wo fema e coup ngs see a so Revers b e S amese Wye

S gn f cant F re Event An even measured by he occurrence of f re(s) ha requ res mob za on of add ona resources from ou s de he f re even area S gn f cant F re Potent a The ke hood a w d and f re even w

requ re mob za on of add ona resources from ou s de he area n wh ch he f re s ua on or g na es

S gn f cant Weather Tr gger A wea her phenomenon resu ng n an env ronmen ha has a s gn f can mpac on f re spread n ens y or occurrence Examp e s rong w nd uns ab e a r mass e c S mms Bucket Se f- eve ng he bucke s ung under a he cop er wh ch can be f ed by hover ng over a wa er source S mp e Hose Lay A hose ay cons s ng of consecu ve y coup ed eng hs of hose w hou a era s The ay s ex ended by nser ng add ona eng hs of hose n he ne be ween pumps and nozz e A so known as s ng e hose ay S mu at on An ac v y ha m a es some h ng rea bu Ed or

s no rea

se f and

can be a ered by users for he spec f c purpose of prov d ng an exper en a earn ng env ronmen Examp es Sand Tab e Exerc se or CBT WBT Fores Serv ce W d and F re S mu a on Scenar o

S ng e Arson st An offender who n en ona y se s one f re S ng e Door Drop Techn que whereby f re re ardan s re eased from on y one compar men of an a r anker S ng e Resource An nd v dua a p ece of equ pmen and s personne comp emen or a crew or eam of nd v dua s w h an den f ed work superv sor ha can be used on an nc den S ng e Stage Pump Cen r fuga pump w h a s ng e mpe er S te Preparat on Burn ng F re gn ed o expose adequa e m nera so and con ro compe ng vege a on un S te Preparat on Remova or k

seed ngs of he des red spec es become es ab shed

ng of unwan ed vege a on res due e c by use of f re herb c des or mechan ca rea men n prepara on for refores a on and fu ure managemen

S tuat on Ana ys s Ana ys s of fac ors wh ch nf uence suppress on of an escaped f re from wh ch a p an of a ack w

be deve oped nc udes deve opmen of a erna ve s ra eg es of f re suppress on and ne effec of each

S tuat on Awareness (SA) An on-go ng process of ga her ng nforma on by observa on and by commun ca on w h o hers Th s nforma on s n egra ed o crea e an nd v dua s percep on of a g ven s ua on synonym S tuat ona Awareness S tuat on Un t Func ona un w h n he p ann ng sec on respons b e for he co ec on organ za on and ana ys s of nc den s a us nforma on and for ana ys s of he s ua on as

progresses Repor s o he p ann ng sec on ch ef

S tuat ona Awareness (SA) An on-go ng process of ga her ng nforma on by observa on and by commun ca on w h o hers Th s nforma on s n egra ed o crea e an nd v dua s percep on of a g ven s ua on synonym S tuat on Awareness S ze C ass of F re As o s ze of w df re C C C C C C C

ass ass ass ass ass ass ass

A - one-four h acre or ess B - more han one-four h acre bu ess han 10 acres C - 10 acres or more bu ess han 100 acres D - 100 acres or more bu ess han 300 acres E - 300 acres or more bu ess han 1 000 acres F - 1 000 acres or more bu ess han 5 000 acres G - 5 000 acres or more see a so C ass of F re

S zeup The eva ua on of he f re o de erm ne a course of ac on for suppress on Sk d Hose Load Load of hose spec a y arranged on op of a s andard hose oad o perm dropp ng he work ng ne a he f re Sk d Tra Any road or ra formed by he process of sk dd ng ogs from s ump o and ng Sk dder Un t A se f-con a ned un cons s ng of a wa er ank f re pump and hose spec a y des gned o be carr ed on a ogg ng sk dder for use n fores f re suppress on Sk mmer Any a rcraf equ pped o p ck up wa er wh e mov ng on or over wa er Sky Cover Amoun of c ouds and or o her obscur ng phenomena ha are de ec ab e from he po n of observa on S ash D sposa Trea men of s ash o reduce f re hazard or for o her purposes Preferred o "Brush D sposa " S ash Debr s resu ng from such na ura even s as w nd f re or snow breakage or such human ac v es as road cons ruc on ogg ng prun ng h nn ng or brush cu ng I nc udes ogs chunks bark branches s umps and broken unders ory rees or brush S ng Load Any cargo carr ed benea h a he cop er and a ached by a ead ne and sw ve S ng Psychrometer A hand opera ed ns rumen for ob a n ng we and dry bu b empera ure read ngs and subsequen y re a ve hum d y S ng A ne a ached by a anyard o a he cop er cargo hook and used o hau supp es S p-on Tanker A ank a ve hose ree or ray an aux ary pump and an eng ne comb ned n o a s ng e one-p ece assemb y wh ch can be s pped on o a ruck bed or ra er S ope C ass One of f ve ca egor es used o descr be he opography of a f re danger ra ng area S ope Percent The ra o be ween he amoun of ver ca r se of a s ope and hor zon a d s ance as expressed n a percen One hundred fee of r se o 100 fee of hor zon a d s ance equa s 100 percen S ope W nds Sma sca e convec ve w nds ha occur due o oca hea ng and coo ng of a na ura nc ne of he ground see a so Genera W nds Loca W nds S opover A f re edge ha crosses a con ro

ne or na ura barr er n ended o conf ne he f re

synonym Breakover S ug F ow The d scharge of d s nc pocke s of wa er and a r due o he nsuff c en m x ng of foam concen ra e wa er and a r n a compressed a r foam sys em Sma A rcraft An a rcraf of 12 500 pounds (5 669 kg) or ess max mum cer f ca ed akeoff we gh Smog Genera y cons dered on y pho ochem ca a r po u on Or g na y mean a comb na on of smoke and fog Smoke Concentrat on The amoun of combus on produc s found n a spec f ed vo ume of a r common y expressed as m crograms of em ss on per cub c me er of a r Smoke Intrus on Smoke from prescr bed f re en er ng a des gna ed area a unaccep ab e eve s Smoke Management The po c es and prac ces mp emen ed by a r and na ura resource managers d rec ed a m n m z ng he amoun of smoke en er ng popu a ed areas or mpac ng sens ve s es avo d ng s gn f can de er ora on of a r qua y and v o a ons of Na ona Amb en A r Qua y S andards and m ga ng human-caused v s b y mpac s n C ass I areas Smoke Pa Ex ens ve h ck b anke of smoke spread ng more or ess hor zon a y from a f re Smoke P ume The gases smoke and debr s ha r se s ow y from a f re wh e be ng carr ed a ong he ground because he buoyan forces are exceeded by hose of he amb en surface w nd see a so Convect on Co umn Smoke Sens t ve Area (SSA) Area n wh ch smoke from ou s de sources s n o erab e for reasons such as heavy popu a on ex s ng a r po u on or n ens ve recrea on or our s use Smoke Target An area ha may be adverse y affec ed by smoke from a prescr bed burn A so known as a smoke sens ve area Smoke Vent He ght Leve n he v c n y of he f re a wh ch he smoke ceases o r se and moves hor zon a y w h he w nd a ha eve Smokey Bear The symbo of he Coopera ve Fores F re Preven on Program s nce 1945 Smokey s mage s pro ec ed by US Federa Law and s adm n s ered by he USDA Fores Serv ce he Na ona Assoc a on of S a e Fores ers and he Ad Counc Smoke Sma par c es of carbon arry and wa er vapor resu ng from he ncomp e e combus on of carbonaceous ma er a s such as wood coa or o Smok ng (As a F re Cause) W df res caused by smokers from ma ches

gh ers obacco or o her smok ng ma er a

Smo der ng Combust on Phase Phase of combus on mmed a e y fo ow ng f am ng combus on Em ss ons are a w ce ha of he f am ng combus on phase see a so Smo der ng Combust on Smo der ng Combust on Comb ned processes of dehydra on pyro ys s so d ox da on and sca ered f am ng combus on and g ow ng combus on wh ch occur af er he f am ng combus on phase of a f re of en charac er zed by arge amoun s of smoke cons s ng ma n y of ars Snag A s and ng dead ree or par of a dead ree from wh ch a eas he eaves and sma er branches have fa en Of en known as a s ub f ess han 20 fee a Snorke Tank A f xed ank a ached o he be y of he he cop er ha has a pump-dr ven snorke a ached The he cop er hovers over he wa er source w h he end of he snorke mmersed he pump hen f s he ank Soft Suct on Common y accep ed erm for shor eng h of arge d ame er sof hose used o connec a s ruc ura or w d and eng ne w h a hydran No vacuum s nvo ved because he hose s usefu on y when he eng ne rece ves wa er a a ra e of f ow n excess of he demand of he pump So ar Rad at on The amoun of sun gh exposed o he fue s Soot ng Ind cators The b ack carbon based soo depos ed on ob ec s n he f re s pa h Found on he s de of ob ec s owards he or g n Soot Carbon dus formed by ncomp e e combus on Sort e S ng e round r p made by an a r anker from a anker base o a f re and re urn Sound Warb er A s gna ng dev ce moun ed on re ardan a rcraf wh ch genera es a remu ous s ren sound o warn f ref gh ers on he ground ha a p ane s approach ng o drop re ardan Sound ng (Upper A r Sound ng) A samp ng of upper a r cond ons made by means of ns rumen s and a sma rad o ransm er on a free ba oon Au oma c rad o s gna s or g na ed by ac on of wea her ns rumen s are sen o a ground rece ver These s gna s are n erpre ed for use n ana yz ng and pred c ng upper a r cond ons over a w de area of he ear h Wea her e emen s de erm ned a a number of a ude po n s as he ba oon r ses are empera ure a mospher c mo s ure pressure w nd d rec on and speed S m ar sound ngs may be made us ng f xed ba oons or e hersondes see a so Rad osonde Source A po n sources

ne or area a wh ch mass or energy s added o a sys em e her ns an aneous y or con nuous y Examp es of sources n he con ex of a r po u on are as fo ows a smoke s ack s a po n source a freeway s a ne source f e d or s ash burn ng are area

Spa ng Ind cators Cra ers or ch ps n he surface of rocks wh ch nd ca e d rec on of f re spread Spa ng Ch pp ng or p

ng of concre e masonry or s one surfaces

Span of Contro The superv sory ra o of from hree- o-seven nd v dua s w h f ve- o-one be ng es ab shed as op mum Spanner Me a wrench used o gh en and free hose connec ons Span D s ance equa o he w ngspread of he a r anker be ng used used for correc ons r gh or ef of he f gh pa h Spark Arrester A dev ce ns a ed n a ch mney f ue or exhaus p pe o s op he em ss on of sparks and burn ng fragmen s Spec a Interest Group (SIG) In WIMS a group of wea her s a ons Spec a V sua F ght Ru es (VFR) A rcraf opera ng n accordance w h c earances w h n con ro zones n wea her cond ons ess han he bas c V sua F gh Ru es wea her m n ma Spec f c Heat The hea requ red o ra se a un mass of a subs ance one degree ke v n I s he hea capac y of a sys em per un mass

e

he ra o of he hea absorbed (or re eased) o he correspond ng empera ure r se (or fa )

Spec f c Or g n Area The sma er area w h n he genera or g n ha f rs shows he nf uence of w nd fue and or s ope Speed of Attack E apsed me from or g n of f re o arr va of he f rs suppress on force Sp ke-Out S andby crew n an area of expec ed h gh f re occurrence genera y on a day of cr ca f re wea her Sp t Drop Re ardan drop made from one compar men a a me from an a r anker w h a mu -compar men ank Sp t F ow A d vergen w nd f e d S orms mov ng n o a sp

f e d end o ose s reng h W nds are genera y gh n such a f ow f e d

Spontaneous Combust on Combus on of a herma y so a ed ma er a n a ed by an n erna chem ca or b o og ca reac on produc ng enough hea o cause gn on Spot Burn ng A mod f ed form of broadcas s ash burn ng n wh ch he grea er accumu a ons of s ash are f red and he f re s conf ned o hese spo s Some mes known as "Jackpo Burn ng" or "Jackpo ng " Spot F re Techn que A me hod of gh ng prescr bed f res where gn on po n s are se nd v dua y a a prede erm ned spac ng and w h prede erm ned m ng hroughou he area o be burned Spot F re F re gn ed ou s de he per me er of he ma n f re by a f rebrand Spot Weather Forecast A spec a forecas ssued o f he me opography and wea her of a spec f c nc den These forecas s are ssued upon reques of he user agency and are more de a ed represen a ve observa on s requ red for a forecas o be ssued

me y and spec f c han zone forecas s Usua y on-s e wea her observa ons or a c ose

see a so Genera F re Weather Forecast Inc dent Weather Forecast Spotter In smoke ump ng rappe ng and paracargo opera ons he nd v dua respons b e for se ec ng drop arge and superv s ng a aspec s of dropp ng smoke umpers rappe ers or cargo Spott ng Behav or of a f re produc ng sparks or embers ha are carr ed by he w nd and wh ch s ar new f res beyond he zone of d rec gn on by he ma n f re Spray Wa er app ed hrough an or f ce n f ne y d v ded par c es o absorb hea and smo her f re o pro ec exposures from rad a ed hea and o carry wa er oward o herw se naccess b e f re Spread Component Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) A ra ng of he forward ra e of spread of he head of a f re Spread Index Meter Dev ce for comb n ng measured ra ngs of var ous f re danger fac ors n o numer ca c asses or ra es of spread Spread Index A number used o nd ca e re a ve (no ac ua ) ra e of spread Spur R dge A sma r dge wh ch ex ends f nger- ke from a ma n r dge Squa L ne Any nonfron a ne or narrow band of ac ve hunders orms ex end ng across he hor zon I s of mpor ance o f re behav or due o accompany ng s rong gus y w nds and he poss b be ng repor ed A so known as ne squa

y of such a ne pass ng be ween regu ar wea her observa on s a ons w hou

Squa Sudden ncrease n w nd speed o a eas 17 mph (15 kno s) ha s sus a ned for a eas 1 m nu e bu no more han 5 m nu es Stab e Atmosphere Cond on of he a mosphere n wh ch he empera ure decrease w h ncreas ng a

ude s ess han he dry ad aba c apse ra e In h s cond on he a mosphere ends o suppress arge-sca e ver ca mo on A so known as s ab e a r

Stab e Layer of A r A ayer of a r hav ng a empera ure change ( apse ra e) of ess han dry ad aba c (approx ma e y -5 4 degrees F per 1 000 fee ) hereby re ard ng e her upward or downward m x ng of smoke see a so Atmospher c Invers on Atmospher c Stab ty Invers on Stack A rcraf orb ng he rendezvous area usua y refers o ver ca dep oymen a 500-foo (150 m) a

ud na separa on be ween a rcraf

Staff R de A case s udy of a prev ous nc den ha s conduc ed on he ac ua phys ca s e where he nc den occurred A s aff r de s an exper en a earn ng me hod ha nvo ves hree d s nc par s a pre m nary s udy a s e v s Staff ng Index A NFDRS componen

and a pos -v s

n egra on sess on

ndex or re a ed nd ca or ( gn on componen spread componen energy re ease componen burn ng ndex Kee ch-Byram drough ndex) whose ou pu s are corre a ed o he oca f re prob em used o de erm ne s aff ng eve s

Staff ng Leve The bas s for dec s on suppor for da y s aff ng of n a a ack resources and o her ac v es A eve of read ness and an nd ca or or da y preparedness Stag ng Area Loca ons se up a an nc den where resources can be p aced wh e awa ng a ac ca ass gnmen on a hree (3) m nu e ava ab e bas s S ag ng Areas are managed by he Opera ons Sec on Stagnant Cond t ons A mospher c cond ons under wh ch po u an s bu d up fas er han he a mosphere can d sperse hem Sta n ng Ind cators G ossy varn sh- ke s a n usua y gh ye ow o orange o dark brown n co or wh ch s depos ed on he or g n s de of ob ec s Stand Rep ac ng F re F re wh ch k s a or mos of he v ng overs ory rees n a fores and n a es fores success on or regrow h A so exp c y descr bes he na ure of f re n grass ands and some shrub ands Stand-By Crew A group of ra ned f ref gh ers s a oned a a d spa ch po n for qu ck rap d dep oymen Standard Coup ng F re hose coup ng w h Amer can Na ona S andard (NH) hreads Standard Dry ng Day Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) Day wh ch produces he same ne dry ng as exper enced dur ng a 24-hour per od under abora ory cond ons n wh ch dry-bu b empera ure s ma n a ned a 80º F and re a ve hum d y s ma n a ned a and re a ve hum d y s ma n a ned a 20% Standard Hydro og c Exchange Format code (SHEF) A wo-charac er code o descr be each measuremen aken a a wea her s a on Standard Operat ng Procedure (SOP) Spec f c ns ruc ons c ear y spe ng ou wha s expec ed of an nd v dua every me hey perform a g ven ask A s andard opera ng procedure can be used as a performance s andard for asks ha are rou ne y done n he opera ona env ronmen synonym Standard Operat ona Procedure Standard Operat ona Procedure (SOP) Spec f c ns ruc ons c ear y spe ng ou wha s expec ed of an nd v dua every me hey perform a g ven ask A s andard opera ona procedure can be used as a performance s andard for asks ha are rou ne y done n he opera ona env ronmen synonym Standard Operat ng Procedure State Forest Fores s owned and adm n s ered by a s a e and no by a federa governmen State Imp ementat on P an (SIP) A p an requ red by he C ean A r Ac and prepared by an A r Qua y Regu a ory Agency wh ch descr bes how he s a e w State of Weather A code wh ch expresses he amoun of c oud cover k nd of prec p a on and or res r c ons o v s b

a a n and ma n a n a r qua y so as o no v o a e Na ona Amb en A r Qua y S andards

y be ng observed a he f re danger s a on a bas c observa on me

State Park An area es ab shed by he governmen of a s a e pr mar y for pub c recrea on or for he preserva on of un que na ura or h s or c resources adm n s ra ve de a s vary ng w de y NOTE Such parks may a so be es ab shed by esser adm n s ra ve un s e g coun es mun c pa es and a so by arge pr va e owners Stat c Pressure Wa er pressure head ava ab e a a spec f c oca on when no wa er s be ng used so ha no fr c on oss s be ng encoun ered S a c pressure s ha pressure observed on he eng ne n e gauge before any wa er s aken from he hydran Stat c Water Supp y Supp y of wa er a res wh ch does no prov de a pressure head for f re suppress on bu wh ch may be emp oyed as a suc on source for f re pumps (e g wa er n a reservo r pond or c s ern) Stat on Cata og A WIMS f e ha con a ns a

he nforma on def ned for a wea her s a on

Stat on ID A s x-d g number ass gned o a spec f c wea her s a on by he serv c ng Na ona Wea her Serv ce F re Wea her Off ce Stat on Pressure Pressure of he a mosphere a an ass gned s a on oca on and e eva on Stat st ca F re In genera an ac onab e f re on wh ch any f re agency repor s and ma n a ns spec f ed nforma on (e g cause da e and po n of or g n s ze f re damage) Stat st cs A branch of ma hema cs dea ng w h he co ec on ana ys s and n erpre a on of numer ca da a Stat st c The number ha resu s from man pu a ng raw da a accord ng o a spec f ed procedure assoc a ed w h samp es see a so Parameter Step Test F ve-m nu e es used o pred c a person s ab

y o ake n ranspor and use oxygen (aerob c capac y) he mos mpor an fac or m ng he ab

y o perform arduous work

Storm Center The cen ra po n or area of a wea her sys em assoc a ed w h ncreased w nds c ouds or prec p a on (or any comb na on hereof) Stra ght Stream Nozz e A hose p spou des gned o prov de he max mum reach of wa er w hou fea her ng Stra ght Stream Wa er or f re re ardan pro ec ed d rec y from he nozz e (as con ras ed w h a fog or spray cone) prov ded by a so d s ream or f ce or by ad us ng a fog e n o a s ra gh s ream pa ern Stra ner A w re or me a guard used o keep debr s from c ogg ng p pe or o her open ngs made for remov ng wa er used n pumps and on suc on hose o keep fore gn ma er a from c ogg ng or damag ng pumps Strateg c Object ve A broad s a emen spec f ed n a and resource managemen or f re managemen p an ha den f es change n wa er so a r or vege a on from he presen o proposed cond ons or descr bes an ex s ng resource cond on ha shou d be ma n a ned S ra eg c ob ec ves dea w h arge areas over ong me per ods and pro ec n ended ou comes of managemen ac v es ha con r bu e o he ma n enance or ach evemen of des red cond ons Strategy The genera p an or d rec on se ec ed o accomp sh nc den ob ec ves Strength of Attack Number of resources used o a ack a f re Strength of Force To a f ref gh ng resources ava ab e dur ng a spec f ed per od o conduc and suppor f ref gh ng opera ons Str ke Team Spec f ed comb na ons of he same k nd and ype of resources w h common commun ca ons and a eader Str nger A narrow f nger or band of fue ha connec s wo or more pa ches or areas of w d and fue Str p Burn ng 1 Burn ng by means of s r p f r ng 2 In hazard reduc on burn ng narrow s r ps of fue and eav ng he res of he area un rea ed by f re Str p F r ng Se ng f re o more han one s r p of fue and prov d ng for he s r ps o burn oge her Frequen y done n burn ng ou aga ns a w nd where nner s r ps are f red f rs o crea e draf s wh ch pu f ames and sparks away from he con ro

ne

Str p-Head F re A ser es of nes of f re gn ed near and up w nd (or downs ope) of a f rebreak or back ng f re so hey burn w h he w nd (or ups ope) oward he f rebreak or back ng f re Structura F re Protect on The pro ec on of homes or o her s ruc ures from w d and f re Structure (Vegetat ve) The arrangemen of vege a on n erms of dens y basa area cover and ver ca arrangemen Structure F re F re or g na ng n and burn ng any par or a of any bu d ng she er or o her s ruc ure Structure Protect on P an A p an deve oped by he S ruc ure Pro ec on Spec a s ha prov des opera ona gu de nes o suppress on resources respons b e for prov d ng w d and f re s ruc ure pro ec on see a so Structure Protect on Spec a st Structure A cons ruc ed ob ec usua y a free-s and ng bu d ng above ground Subs dence Invers on An nvers on caused by subs d ng a r of en resu ng n decreased a mospher c m x ng cond ons Subs dence Downward or s nk ng mo on of a r n he a mosphere Subs d ng a r warms due o compress on Increas ng empera ure and decreas ng hum d es are presen n subs d ng a r Subs dence resu s n a s ab e a mosphere nh b ng d spers on Subs dence s genera y assoc a ed w h h gh a mospher c pressure Success on The process of vege a ona deve opmen whereby an area becomes success ve y occup ed by d fferen p an commun es of h gher eco og ca order Suct on L ft In f re serv ce he number of fee (me ers) of ver ca f from he surface of he wa er o he cen er of he pump mpe er In es ng e g f re depar men pumpers are requ red o d scharge he r ra ed capac y a 150 pounds (1034 kPa) ne pump pressure a a 10-foo (3 me er) f The suc on gauge wou d nd ca e he ver ca suc on f n nches of mercury when he pump was pr med w h no apprec ab e wa er f ow ng Sunny The ad ec ve c ass f ca on of he sky when 5 10 or ess of he sky s obscured by c ouds Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) Sunset and Sunr se The mean so ar mes of sunse and sunr se as pub shed n he Nau ca A manac conver ed o oca s andard me for he oca y concerned Superf c a Burn A m nor herma burn nvo v ng he ou er ayer of sk n

e "a sunburn" I s charac er zed by redden ng of he sk n and perhaps some swe ng w hou b s ers A so known as F rs Degree Burn

see a so Fu -th ckness Burn Part a -th ckness Burn Superv sor The ICS

e for nd v dua s respons b e for command of a d v s on or group

Supp ementa F re Department Resources Overhead ed o a oca f re depar men genera y by agreemen who are mob zed pr mar y for response o nc den s or w d and f res ou s de he r d s r c or mu ua a d zone Supp emen a f re depar men resources are no a permanen par of he oca f re organ za on and are no requ red o a end schedu ed ra n ng mee ngs e c of he depar men s aff Supp es M nor ems of equ pmen and a expendab e ems ass gned o an nc den Supp y Un t Func ona un w h n he suppor branch of he og s cs sec on respons b e for order ng equ pmen and supp es requ red for nc den opera ons Support Branch A branch w h n he og s cs sec on respons b e for prov d ng personne equ pmen and supp es o suppor nc den opera ons Inc udes he supp y fac

es and ground suppor un s

Support Costs On- nc den cos s and off- nc den cos s On- nc den cos s nc ude ca erer shower un s mob e comm ssary cache supp es and ma er a s e c Off- nc den cos s nc ude expanded d spa ch buy ng eams adm n s ra ve paymen eams cache personne area command ranspor a on o from nc den e c Support Resources Non- ac ca resources under he superv s on of he og s cs p ann ng f nance adm n s ra on sec ons or he command s aff Support ng Agency An agency prov d ng suppress on or o her suppor and resource ass s ance o a pro ec ng agency see a so Agency Ass st ng Agency Cooperat ng Agency Support ng Techno og es Any echno ogy wh ch may be used o suppor NIIMS Examp es of hese echno og es nc ude GIS mapp ng nfrared echno ogy NFDRS commun ca ons d spa ch coord na on and na ona cache sys em see a so Nat ona Interagency Inc dent Management System Suppress a F re see Suppress on Suppressant An agen ha ex ngu shes he f am ng and g ow ng phases of combus on by d rec app ca on o he burn ng fue Suppress on Crew Two or more f ref gh ers s a oned a a s ra eg c oca on for n a ac on on f res Du es are essen a y he same as hose of nd v dua f ref gh ers Suppress on F r ng In en ona app ca on of f re o speed up or s reng hen f re suppress on ac on on w df res Types of suppress on f r ng nc ude burn ng ou coun er f r ng and s r p burn ng Suppress on A w df re response s ra egy o "pu he f re ou " as eff c en y and effec ve y as poss b e wh e prov d ng for f ref gh er and pub c safe y Def n on Ex ens on A so known as "per me er con a nmen " and "con ro " The goa of h s s ra egy s o m n m ze acres burned See A so Mon tor ng Conf ne Conta ned Po nt Zone Protect on Surface Area-to-Vo ume Rat o The ra o be ween he surface area of an ob ec such as a fue par c e o s vo ume The sma er he par c e he more qu ck y

can become we dry ou or become hea ed o combus on empera ure dur ng a f re

Surface F re F re ha burns oose debr s on he surface wh ch nc udes dead branches eaves and ow vege a on Surface Fue Fue s y ng on or near he surface of he ground cons s ng of eaf and need e

er dead branch ma er a downed ogs bark ree cones and ow s a ure v ng p an s

Surface H gh An area on he ear h s surface where a mospher c pressure s a a re a ve max mum W nds b ow c ockw se around h ghs n he Nor hern Hem sphere bu due o fr c on w h he ear h s face end o cross cons an pressure nes away from he h gh cen er A r s usua y subs d ng above a surface h gh Th s causes warm ng due o a r compress on Th s resu s n s ab e a mospher c cond ons and gh surface w nds see a so R dge Surface Low An area on he ear h s surface where a mospher c pressure s a a re a ve m n mum W nds b ow coun er-c ockw se around ows n he Nor hern Hem sphere bu due o fr c on w h he ear h s surface end o cross cons an pressure nes oward he ow cen er Upon converg ng n o he ow s cen er a r curren s are forced o r se As a r r ses coo s due o expans on Coo ng reduces s capac y o ho d mo s ure so c oud ness and prec p a on are common n ows If a ow cen er n ens f es suff c en y w ake on he charac er s cs of a s orm cen er w h prec p a on and s rong w nds Surface Tens on The e as c- ke force a he surface of a qu d end ng o m n m ze he surface area and caus ng drops o form Expressed as New ons per me er or dynes per cen me er (1 New on m=1 000 dynes cm) Surface W nd W nd measured a a surface observ ng s a on cus omar y a some d s ance (usua y 20 fee ) above he average vege a ve surface o m n m ze he d s or ng effec s of oca obs ac es and erra n Surfactant A surface ac ve agen any we ng agen A formu a on wh ch when added o wa er n proper amoun s w

ma er a y reduce he surface ens on of he wa er and ncrease pene ra on and spread ng ab

es of he wa er

Surge Rap d ncrease n wa er f ow wh ch may resu

n a correspond ng pressure r se

Surp us Property Any excess persona proper y no requ red for he needs and he d scharge of he respons b

es of a federa agenc es as de erm ned by he Genera Serv ces Adm n s ra on (GSA)

Surv va Zone A na ura or c eared area of suff c en s ze and oca on o pro ec f re personne from known hazards wh e ns de a f re she er Examp es nc ude rock s des road beds c ear ngs knobs w de r dges benches dozer nes we areas c eared areas n gh fue s and prev ous y burned areas These are a areas where you expec no f ame con ac or pro onged hea and smoke see a so Dep oyment Zone Safety Zone Susta ned Attack Con nu ng f re suppress on ac on un

f re s under con ro

Swamper 1 A worker who ass s s fa ers and or sawyers by c ear ng away brush mbs and sma rees Carr es fue o and oo s and wa ches for dangerous s ua ons 2 A worker on a dozer crew who pu s w nch ne he ps ma n a n equ pmen e c o speed suppress on work on a f re Swampout Ac of c ear ng brush and o her ma er a from around he base of rees and where rees are o be bucked pr or o fa ng or buck ng as pro ec on aga ns saw k ckback and o prov de safe foo ng Sw ve An accessory used be ween he he cop er cargo hook and s ng oad o a ow free urn ng of he oad Synopt c Chart In me eoro ogy any char or map on wh ch da a and ana yses are presen ed ha descr be he s a e of he a mosphere over a arge area a a g ven momen n me Synopt c L era y a one me Thus n me eoro og ca usage he wea her cond ons over a arge area a a g ven po n n me Go to top

T T-Card Cards f ed ou w h essen a nforma on for each resource hey represen The cards are co or-coded o represen d fferen ypes of resources Tact ca Dec s on Game (TDGS) A s mp e ro e-p ay s mu a on echn que ha cha enges par c pan s o make dec s ons and commun ca e hose dec s ons o o hers A ac ca dec s on game s an exper en a earn ng me hod ha s ac ca n na ure and has me and nforma on cons ra n s o pu par c pan s under some eve of s ress see http: www f re eadersh p gov Tact ca D rect on D rec on g ven by he opera ons sec on ch ef wh ch nc udes he ac cs appropr a e for he se ec ed s ra egy he se ec on and ass gnmen of resources ac cs mp emen a on and performance mon or ng for each opera ona per od Tact cs Dep oy ng and d rec ng resources on an nc den o accomp sh he ob ec ves des gna ed by s ra egy Tag-on Connec ng a (a r anker) drop o he forward par of a prev ous drop Ta Rotor A sma ro or moun ed on he a of a conven ona he cop er wh ch coun erac s orque of he ma n ro or and prov des a measure of d rec ona con ro Ta board Back s ep of a w d and or s ruc ura f re eng ne Ta gate Safety Sess on Br ef mee ngs he d a he beg nn ng dur ng or end of an opera ona per od o d scuss new work ass gnmen s new work me hods changes n p ans use of oo s and equ pmen and recogn on and pro ec on aga ns work hazards ha may be encoun ered Tandem Two or more un s of any one ype work ng one n fron of he o her o accomp sh a spec f c f re suppress on ob he erm can be used n connec on w h crews of f ref gh ers power pumps bu dozers e c Tank and Gat ng System Tanks doors and re ease mechan sm ns a ed n a rcraf for cascad ng f re re ardan s Tank Tra er Spec a zed ra er on wh ch s moun ed a ank f re pump hose and anc ary equ pmen Target Hazard Fac es n wh ch here s grea

ke hood of oss of fe or proper y

Target Spec f c por on of he f re on wh ch f re re ardan or wa er s o be dropped by a r ankers or he ankers see a so Drop Zone Task Force Any comb na on of s ng e resources assemb ed for a par cu ar ac ca need w h common commun ca ons and a eader A ask force may be pre-es ab shed and sen o an nc den or formed a an nc den Task A un of work ac v y ha s a og ca and necessary ac on n he performance of a behav or how he behav or s demons ra ed or performed n a par cu ar con ex see a so Behav or Techn ca Adv sory Un t Th s un cons s s of adv sors w h spec a sk s who are ac va ed on y when needed Adv sors may be needed n he areas of wa er resources env ronmen a concerns resource use and ra n ng Temperature Coeff c ent The re a ve change of some measurab e quan y w h change of empera ure

ke burn ng me per un

eng h mos y expressed as mean change per degree n percen age of mean empera ure w h n a cer a n range

Temporary F ght Restr ct on (TFR) A res r c on reques ed by an agency and pu n o effec by he Federa Av a on Adm n s ra on n he v c n y of an nc den wh ch res r c s he opera on of nonessen a a rcraf n he a rspace around ha nc den Ten-hour T me ag Fue Mo sture (10-h TL FM) The mo s ure con en of he 0-hour me ag roundwood fue s Ten-hour T me ag Fue s Dead fue s cons s ng of roundwood 1 4 o - nch (0 6 o 2 5 cm) n d ame er and very rough y he ayer of

er ex end ng from mmed a e y be ow he surface o 3 4 nch (1 9 cm) be ow he surface

see a so Ten-hour T me ag Fue Mo sture Terra Torch ® Dev ce for hrow ng a s ream of f am ng qu d used o fac

a e rap d gn on dur ng burn ou opera ons on a w d f re or dur ng a prescr bed f re opera on

synonym F ame Thrower Terror sm Any premed a ed un awfu ac dangerous o human fe or pub c we fare ha s n ended o n m da e or coerce c v an popu a ons or governmen s Test F re A prescr bed f re se o eva ua e such h ngs as f re behav or f re effec s de ec on performance or con ro measures Therma Be t An area of moun a nous s ope (charac er s ca y he m dd e h rd) where he op of he rad a on nvers on n ersec s he s ope I yp ca y exper ences he eas var a on n d urna empera ures and has he h ghes average empera ures and hus he owes re a ve hum d y I s presence s mos ev den dur ng c ear wea her w h gh w nd Therma Imagery The d sp ay or pr n ou of an nfrared scanner opera ng over a f re A so known as nfrared magery see a so Infrared Th n Layer Layer of c ouds whose ra o of dense sky cover o o a sky cover s 1 2 or ess Th n Sky Cover Sky cover hrough wh ch h gher c ouds or he sky can be de ec ed Threat F re Any uncon ro ed f re near o or head ng oward an area under organ zed f re pro ec on Throw Out So pushed over he edge of a f re ne by a rac or p ow or dozer see a so Berm Thunderstorm Loca zed s orm charac er zed by one or more e ec r ca d scharge(s) T e-In Ac of connec ng a con ro

ne o ano her f re ne or an n ended f rebreak

T me De ay Dev ce A dev ce emp oyed o a ow a f rese er he oppor un y o eave he scene pr or o he gn on of he f re T me n Serv ce W h respec o ma n enance me records he me from he momen an a rcraf eaves he surface of he ear h un T me Un t Func ona un w h n he F nance Adm n s ra on Sec on respons b e for record ng personne

ouches a he nex po n of and ng

me and manag ng he comm ssary

T me-Temperature Curve Graph show ng he ncrease n empera ure a a spec f ed po n n a f re as a func on of me beg nn ng w h gn on and end ng w h burnou T me ag (TL) T me needed under spec f ed cond ons for a fue par c e o ose abou 63 percen of he d fference be ween s n a mo s ure con en and s equ br um mo s ure con en If cond ons rema n unchanged a fue w con en af er 4 me ag per ods

reach 95 percen of s equ br um mo s ure

T nder Burnab e organ c ma er a (duff pea ro en wood e c ) w h a h gh surface o vo ume ra o T ps Nozz e ps used o change or f ce s ze of a hose s ream Torch ng The burn ng of he fo age of a s ng e ree or a sma group of rees from he bo om up synonym Cand ng Torch 1 Ign on and subsequen enve opmen n f ames usua y from bo om o op of a ree or sma group of rees 2 To se f re o proper y de bera e y and ma c ous y 3 A profess ona f rese er-for-h re Tota Fue A p an ma er a bo h v ng and dead ha can burn n a wors case s ua on Tota Mob ty The capab

y o move pos on and u

ze es ab shed forces o mee ex s ng and an c pa ed f re pro ec on needs na onw de

Tota R sk Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) Sum of gh n ng and human-caused r sk va ues canno exceed a va ue of 100 Tota Suspended Part cu ate Matter (TSP) Par c es em ed from a po u on source regard ess of s ze Federa and s a e amb en and em ss on s andards ex s for TSP Touchdown Pad Tha por on of a he por or he spo where he he cop er ands Tox c Substance A chem ca or m x ure ha may presen an unreasonab e r sk of n ury o hea h or he env ronmen Tox c Re a ng o a harmfu effec by a po sonous subs ance on he human body by phys ca con ac Tractor P ow Any rac or w h a p ow for cons ruc ng f re ne by expos ng m nera so

nges on or nha a on

A so as a resource for yp ng purposes a rac or p ow nc udes he ranspor a on and personne for s opera on

see a so Dozer P ow L ne Tractor Tractor A rubber red or racked r der-con ro ed au omo ve veh c e used n w d and f re managemen for pu ng a d sk or a p ow o cons ruc f re ne by expos ng m nera so see a so Dozer P ow L ne Tractor P ow Traff c Pattern Traff c f ow ha s prescr bed for a rcraf and ng a

ax ng on and ak ng off from an a rpor Usua componen s of a raff c pa ern are upw nd eg crossw nd eg downw nd eg base eg and f na approach

Tra Drop An unbroken ne of re ardan used for cons ruc ng a re ardan

ne

Tra er Combus b e ma er a such as ro ed rag b anke s and newspapers or f ammab e qu d used o spread f re from one area o o hers usua y used n con unc on w h an ncend ary dev ce Tra nee An nd v dua who has me a requ red ra n ng and pos on exper ence for a spec f ed pos on and s approved by he r home un s cer fy ng off c a

o n a e a performance based ra n ng ass gnmen n order o become qua f ed n he pos on

Tra ner Coach A pos on-qua f ed nd v dua who prov des ns ruc on o a ra nee n he c assroom on- he- ob or on an nc den Wh e many of he requ remen s of he ra ner coach are s m ar o he eva ua or separa e Transfer of Command The ICS managemen process n wh ch he on-scene nc den commander a a spec f ed me hands off command respons b

es o he nc den commander ha w

s mpor an ha he ro es of ra n ng and eva ua on rema n

be ak ng over nc den command

Trans t on In he 1978 vers on of NFDRS he herbaceous s age when herbaceous fue mo s ure s be ween 120% and 30% Trans at ona L ft L f ha s ga ned when a he cop er rans a es from a hover n o forward f gh add ona

f ncreases w h ncreas ng a rspeed and s der ved by he ro or sys em mov ng n o und s urbed a r

Transport W nd Speed A measure of he average ra e of he hor zon a ranspor of a r w h n he M x ng Layer May a so be he w nd speed a he f na he gh of p ume r se Genera y refers o he ra e a wh ch em ss ons w

be ranspor ed from one area o ano her

see a so M x ng Layer Vent at on Factor Transportat on Map Base map of he p ann ng un show ng a roads ra s he por s and a rf e ds ex s ng and programmed for cons ruc on Trave T me Map Map show ng he me requ red for he n a a ack crew o reach var ous par s of a pro ec on un from spec f ed pos ons Trave T me Compensab e me en rou e o or from an emergency nc den Trench A sma d ch of en cons ruc ed be ow a f re on s op ng ground (undercu or unders ung ne) o ca ch ro ng ma er a Trough An e onga ed area of re a ve y ow a mospher c pressure usua y ex end ng from he cen er of a ow pressure sys em Truck Tra Subs an a ranspor a on rou e for f re suppress on mo or veh c es bu

pr or o a f re A so known as a f re road

True A rspeed Ve oc y of an a rcraf n s f gh pa h re a ve o he a r hrough wh ch

s mov ng

True Bear ng Bear ng by rue nor h ra her han magne c nor h Turbu ence Irregu ar mo on of he a mosphere usua y produced when a r f ows over a compara ve y uneven surface such as he surface of he ear h or when wo curren s of a r f ow pas or over each o her n d fferen d rec ons or a d fferen speeds Turn the Corner Con a n a f re a ong a f ank of he f re and beg n con a n ng

across he head Refers o ground or a r a ack

Turnaround T me T me used by an a r anker or he anker o re oad and re urn o he f re Turnout Coat A coa w h a f re res s an ou er she and a herma and mo s ure barr er ner Used pr mar y by s ruc ure f ref gh ers A so known as a f re coa Two-Way Rad o Rad o equ pmen w h ransm ers n mob e un s on he same frequency as he base s a on perm

ng conversa on n wo d rec ons us ng he same frequency n urn

Type Refers o resource capab ask

y A Type 1 resource prov des a grea er overa capab

y due o power s ze capac y e c

han wou d be found n a Type 2 resource Resource yp ng prov des managers w h add ona nforma on n se ec ng he bes resource for he

Go to top

U U tra H gh Frequency (UHF-FM) Rad o frequenc es from 300 Megaher z (MHz) o 3 000 MHz w h a norma range of ess han 50 m es Rad o frequency common o m MHz o 512 MHz

ary a rcraf and used n he og s cs rad o sys em The mos common frequenc es used by f re and pub c safe y are from 406

Unacceptab e R sk Leve of r sk as de erm ned by he r sk managemen process wh ch canno be m ga ed o an accep ab e safe eve Uncontro ed A rport A rpor no hav ng an approved agency w h rad o commun ca ons o d rec a rcraf ake-offs and and ngs Uncontro ed F re Any f re wh ch hrea ens o des roy fe proper y or na ura resources and (a) s no burn ng w h n he conf nes of f rebreaks or (b) s burn ng w h such n ens y ha

cou d no be read y ex ngu shed w h ord nary oo s common y ava ab e

see a so W df re Underburn A f re ha consume surface fue s bu no he overs ory canopy see a so Understory Burn ng Undercut L ne A f re ne be ow a f re on a s ope Shou d be renched o ca ch ro ng ma er a A so ca ed unders ung ne see a so Cup Trench Understory Burn ng Prescr bed burn ng under a fores canopy see a so Underburn Un com VHF AM a rcraf rad o frequenc es ass gned by he FAA for use n a r- o-ground commun ca ons a uncon ro ed a rf e ds The frequenc es mos common y used are 122 8 MHz and 122 85 MHz Un f ed Area Command A un f ed area command s es ab shed when nc den s under an area command are mu

ur sd c ona

Un f ed Command In ICS un f ed command s a un f ed eam effor wh ch a ows a agenc es w h ur sd c ona respons b accomp shed w hou os ng or abd ca ng au hor y respons b y or accoun ab y

y for he nc den e her geograph ca or func ona

o manage an nc den by es ab sh ng a common se of nc den ob ec ves and s ra eg es Th s s

Un ty of Command The concep by wh ch each person w h n an organ za on repor s o one and on y one des gna ed person Un ty of Effort A command ph osophy ha encourages eaders o work oge her o f nd common ground and ac n he bes n eres of hose respond ng o he nc den

he pub c and he resources ha are hrea ened

Un t The organ za ona e emen of an nc den hav ng func ona respons b

y for a spec f c ac v y n he p ann ng og s cs or f nance adm n s ra on ac v y

Un ned F re Hose Hose common y of co on nen or syn he c f ber cons ruc on w hou rubber ube or n ng of en used for w df res because of s gh we gh and se f pro ec ng (weep ng) charac er s cs such hose s a ached o f rs -a d s andp pes n bu d ngs A a spec f ed f ow fr c on oss n un ned hose of a s a ed d ame er s abou w ce ha of ned f re hose Unp anned Ign t on The n a on of a w d and f re ha was unp anned regard ess of cause see a so W df re Upper Leve (Co d) Low Upper Leve D s urbance Co d Low A of A c rcu a on fea ure of he upper a mosphere where pressure a a cons an a ude s owes W nds b ow coun er-c ockw se around he cen er n an approx ma e y c rcu ar pa ern Upper eve ows are usua y qu e sma The mechan cs of hese upper ows s such ha a poo of coo mo s a r a ways accompan es he r deve opmen There s of en no ev dence of ow pressure a he ear h s surface An upper ow may ex s above a surface h gh pressure sys em Upper Leve (Co d) Trough Trough Trough A of Upper Leve [Co d] Low An e onga ed area of re a ve y ow pressure a cons an a ude n he a mosphere The oppos e of an upper eve r dge Upper eve roughs are usua y or en ed nor h-sou h w h he nor h end open Tha s a r curren s mov ng from wes o eas around he ear h f ow around hree s des of he rough hen urn eas ward ra her han oward he wes as n he case of a c osed c rcu a on A arge upper eve rough may have one or more sma upper eve c osed ow c rcu a on sys ems w h n Upper Leve H gh Upper H gh H gh A of Upper Leve R dge A c rcu a on fea ure of he upper a mosphere where pressure a a cons an a ude s h gher han n he surround ng reg on W nds b ow c ockw se around an upper eve h gh A r n an upper eve h gh s usua y subs d ng Th s resu s n compara ve y warm dry a r w h gh w nds over a arge area An upper eve h gh may ex s w hou here be ng h gh pressure a he ear h s surface Upper Leve R dge (Upper Leve H gh R dge A of ) An e onga ed area of re a ve y h gh pressure a a cons an a dur ng summer hey may assume random or en a ons and vas d mens ons

ude n he a mosphere The oppos e of an upper eve rough Upper eve r dges are of en or en ed nor h-sou h a erna ng be ween upper eve roughs however

Use Leve The appropr a e ra o of qu d foam concen ra e o wa er recommended by he chem ca manufac urer for each c ass of f re usua y expressed as a percen (such as 0 5%) Use of W d and F re Managemen of w df re or prescr bed f re o mee resource ob ec ves spec f ed n and resource managemen p ans see a so Prescr bed F re W d and F re Usefu Load Max mum compu ed gross we gh m nus equ pped we gh of a he cop er Go to top

V V Pattern Ind cators The overa "V" or "U" shape of he ex er or per me er of a f re V Pattern Charac er s cs f re cone-shaped pa ern ef by a f re on a wa

a or near s po n of or g n

see a so V Pattern Ind cators Va ues To Be Protected Inc ude proper y s ruc ures phys ca mprovemen s na ura and cu ura resources commun y nfras ruc ure and econom c env ronmen a and soc a va ues Vapor Suppress on Crea ng a sea w h foam wh ch preven s a re ease of f ammab e vapors from fue s Var ab e Ce ng A ce ng of ess han 3 000 fee (900 m) wh ch rap d y ncreases or decreases n he gh by one or more repor ab e va ues dur ng he per od of observa on Var ab e Danger Resu an of a f re danger fac ors ha vary from day o day mon h o mon h or year o year (e g f re wea her fue mo s ure con en cond on of vege a on var ab e r sk) Var ab e Sky Cond t on A sky cond on ha var es be ween repor ab e va ues of sky cover amoun s dur ng he per od of observa on Var ab e V s b ty A cond on when he preva ng v s b

y s ess han 3 m es (5 km) and rap d y ncreases and decreases by one or more repor ab e va ues dur ng he per od of observa on

Var ab e W nd D rect on W nd d rec on wh ch var es by 60 degrees or more dur ng he per od of me he w nd d rec on s be ng de erm ned Var ab e Any chang ng charac er s c n s a s cs a measurab e charac er s c of an exper men a un Vectors D rec ons of f re spread as re a ed o ra e of spread ca cu a ons ( n degrees from ups ope) Vegetat ve Regenerat on Deve opmen of new aboveground p an s from surv v ng p an par s such as by sprou ng from a roo crown or rh zomes Even f p an s form he r own roo sys em hey are s

gene ca y he same as he paren p an

Vegetat ve Reproduct on Es ab shmen of a new p an from a seed ha s a gene ca y d s nc nd v dua Veh c e F re F re or g na ng n or on a veh c e or mob e equ pmen Vent at on Factor A numer ca va ue re a ng he po en a of he a mosphere o d sperse a rborne po u an s from a s a onary source ca cu a ed by mu p y ng he m x ng he gh by he ranspor w nd speed see a so M x ng Layer Transport W nd Speed Vent at on Index A measure of he vo ume ra e of hor zon a ranspor of a r w h n he m x ng ayer per un d s ance norma o he w nd Un s are measured n square me ers per second or kno -fee Vent The re ease of enc osed smoke and hea from a s ruc ure by crea ng open ngs n

as by hack ng a ho e n he roof o a ow free passage of a r

Vert ca Fue Arrangement Fue s above ground and he r ver ca con nu y wh ch nf uences f re reach ng var ous eve s or vege a on s ra a Vert ca Temperature Prof e P o of he ac ua dry-bu b empera ure aga ns he gh above he ear h s surface mos common y de erm ned by a RAWINSONDE observa on Very H gh Frequency (VHF-AM) Rad o frequency range from 30 MHz o 299 MHz The sub-bands mos common y used by f re are VHF-FM Lo band Frequency Modu a on 30 MHz - 80 MHz of wh ch f re frequenc es are be ween 30 MHz and 50 MHz VHF-FM H band Frequency Modu a on 150 MHz - 174 MHz Th s s he mos w de y used band by f re agenc es VHF-AM Amp ude Modu a on Th s band s common y referred o as he "V c or or VHF" band The frequency range s from 118 MHz o 136 MHz The on y au hor zed use of h s band s for av a on The FAA con ro s and ass gns a frequenc es w h n h s sub-band VHF Omn d rect ona Rad o Range (VOR) Sys em of rad o nav ga on n wh ch any magne c bear ng re a ve o a spec a rad o ransm er on he ground may be chosen and f own by an a rcraf p o V gor A sub ec ve assessmen of he hea h of nd v dua p an s n s m ar s e and grow ng cond ons or a more spec f c measure based upon a spec f c face of grow h such as seed s a k or

er produc on per p an or per un area

V rga Prec p a on fa ng ou of a c oud bu evapora ng before reach ng he ground V scos ty Th ckness of a qu d he degree o wh ch

res s s f ow

V scous Water Wa er ha con a ns a h cken ng agen o reduce surface runoff ends o c ng o burn ng fue s and spread n ayers ha are severa h ckened wa er

mes h cker han p a n wa er hereby hav ng an ncreased capac y o absorb hea coo fue and exc ude oxygen A so known as

V s b ty The grea es hor zon a d s ance a wh ch se ec ed ob ec s can be seen and den f ed or s equ va en der ved from ns rumen a measuremen s V s b e Area Map Map show ng he d fferen c asses of v s b e area covered by a ookou po n or po n s may d fferen a e be ween seen areas nd rec y v s b e areas and b nd areas or on y be ween seen areas and b nd areas A so known as seen area map see a so Seen Area V sua F ght Ru es Cond t ons (VFR) Bas c wea her cond ons prescr bed for f gh under V sua F gh Ru es ce ng above 1 000 fee (300 m) and f gh v s b

y n excess of 3 m es (5 km)

see a so Instrument F ght Ru es Cond t ons V sua Greenness (VG) An NDVI-der ved mage of vege a on greenness compared o a very green reference such as a go f course see a so Greenness Factor V sua Range Max mum d s ance a wh ch a g ven ob ec can us be seen by an observer w h norma v s on V sua Resource Management (VRM) The nven ory and p ann ng ac ons aken o den fy v sua va ues and o es ab sh ob ec ves for manag ng hose va ues and he managemen ac ons aken o ach eve he v sua managemen ob ec ves V sua Resources The v s b e phys ca fea ures on a andscape (e g

and wa er vege a on an ma s s ruc ures and o her fea ures)

Vo at es Read y vapor zed organ c ma er a s wh ch when m xed w h oxygen are eas y gn ed Vo at e Read y changeab e n o vapor a ow empera ures Vo unteer F re Company A f re depar men company or a response un

he members of wh ch are no pa d

Vo unteer F re Department (VFD) A f re depar men of wh ch some or a members are unpa d Vo unteer F ref ghter Lega y enro ed f ref gh er under he f re depar men organ za on aws who devo es me and energy o commun y f re serv ce w hou compensa on o her han Worker s Compensa on or o her s m ar dea h and n ury benef s Vortex Turbu ence M n a ure wh r w nds ra ng from he w ng ps of any a rcraf n f gh Vor ex w be n he form of a hor zon a wh r w nd w h ve oc es up o 25 mph (40 km) per hour or more A so crea ed by ac on of ro or b ades on he cop ers hese wh r w nds end o move downward oward he ground If an a rcraf f es ow over a f re vor ces may reach he ground and sudden y cause v o en and erra c f re behav or Go to top

W Wa k Test The wa k es s des gned o de erm ne he ab evacua e o a safe y zone

y o carry ou

gh du es I cons s s of a one-m e es w h no oad ha approx ma es an aerob c f ness score of 35 A me of 16 m nu es he pass ng score for h s es ensures he ab

y o mee emergency and

see a so Work Capac ty Test Warm Front The ead ng edge of a re a ve y warm a r mass wh ch moves n such a way ha warm a r rep aces co der a r ha moves away from a reg on W nds assoc a ed w h warm fron a ac v y are usua y gh and m x ng s m ed The a mosphere s re a ve y s ab e when compared o co d fron ac v y Water Bar A sha ow channe or ra sed barr er e g a r dge of packed ear h or a h n po e a d d agona y across he surface of a road or ra so as o ead off wa er par cu ar y s orm wa er (Frequen y ns a ed n f re nes on s eep s opes o preven eros on ) Water Expans on Pump ng System (WEPS) Appara us u z ng an a r compressor and pos ve d sp acemen pump coup ed o he same eng ne p umbed o a non-pressur zed ank for produc ng foam The opera on nvo ves n ec ng compressed a r n o a qu d s ream con a n ng a su ab e foam ng agen Water Expans on System (WES) Appara us u z ng a pressur zed ank hose and nozz e for produc ng foam by n ec on of compressed a r or gas n o a qu d s ream downs ream from he pump ng source The qu d s ream mus con a n a su ab e foam ng agen Water Hammer A force crea ed by he rap d acce era on or dece era on of wa er common y crea ed by open ng or c os ng a va ve oo qu ck y Pressures deve oped n a wa er hammer propor ona o he mass mu p ed by he square of he ve oc y can damage a p pe or hose Water Source Any s ra eg ca y oca ed supp y of wa er ha s read y ava ab e for pumps anks rucks he cop ers or f re camp use Water Supp y Map A map show ng oca on of supp es of wa er read y ava ab e for pumps anks rucks camp use e c Water Tender Any ground veh c e capab e of ranspor ng spec f ed quan

es of wa er

Water Th ef A ype of b eeder va ve des gned for ns a a on a conven en po n s n hose nes o perm draw ng off wa er for f

ng backpack pumps or o her use w hou n erfer ng w h pump or nozz e opera on

Wave A d s urbance ha ransfers energy from one po n o ano her po n and may ake he form of a deforma on of pressure or empera ure In he a mosphere such d s urbances may resu cond ons Deve opmen of a wave on a fron usua y s ows he advance of he fron due o ransfer of energy o he wave deve opmen and movemen

n ma or s orms or mere y resu

n changes n c oud w nd and empera ure

Weather Adv sory In av a on forecas ng an express on of hazardous wea her cond ons no pred c ed n he zone wea her forecas as hey affec he opera on of a r raff c Weather Informat on Management System (WIMS) A cen ra zed wea her da a process ng sys em a wh ch da y f re danger ra ngs are produced We ghted Month y Occurrence Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) Number used o de erm ne seasona r sk c ass for a pro ec on un

ca cu a ed by mu p y ng peak mon h y average by wo and add ng seasona mon h y average

Wet Foam A ow expans on foam ype w h few and var ed bubb es and rap d dra n me wh ch s used for rap d pene ra on and f re ex ngu shmen Wet L ne A ne of wa er or wa er and chem ca re ardan sprayed a ong he ground and wh ch serves as a emporary con ro

ne from wh ch o gn e or s op a ow- n ens y f re

Wet Storage F re re ardan s m xed w h wa er and s ored n anks a a r a ack bases for mmed a e use by a r ankers see a so Dry Storage Wet Water Wa er w h added chem ca s ca ed we ng agen s ha ncrease wa er s spread ng and pene ra ng proper es due o a reduc on n surface ens on Wet-bu b Depress on The d fference be ween he we and dry-bu b empera ures recorded by a psychrome er used n con unc on w h he dry-bu b empera ure as a measure of he re a ve hum d y of he a r Wet-bu b Temperature The owes empera ure o wh ch a r can be coo ed by evapora ng wa er n o he bu b as a coo ng ( hrough evapora on) dev ce

a a cons an pressure when he hea requ red for evapora on s supp ed by he coo ng of he a r I s measured by he we bu b hermome er wh ch usua y emp oys we ed w ck ng on

Wet-bu b Thermometer In a psychrome er he hermome er w h s bu b covered w h a acke of c ean mus n wh ch s sa ura ed w h d s Wett ng Agent A chem ca ha when added o wa er reduces he surface ens on of he so u on and causes

ed wa er before an observa on

o spread and pene ra e exposed ob ec s more effec ve y han he un rea ed wa er

Wett ng Ra n A w despread ra n ha over an ex ended per od of me s gn f can y reduces f re danger One- en h of an nch may be suff c en o reduce f re danger n grass fue mode s One ha f nch may be necessary for mber fue s under c osed canop es Whee base The d s ance from he cen er ne of he fron ax e o he cen er ne of he rear ax e For a andem rear ax e veh c e he cen er ne s m dpo n be ween he cen ers of he wo rear ax es W dow-Maker A oose mb op or p ece of bark odged n a ree wh ch may fa on anyone work ng benea h W df re An unp anned unwan ed w d and f re nc ud ng unau hor zed human-caused f res escaped w d and f re use even s escaped prescr bed f re pro ec s and a o her w d and f res where he ob ec ve s o pu he f re ou (def n on curren y under rev ew) W df re Response Strateg es The range of op ons ava ab e for response o a w df re Def n on Ex ens ons 1) Common s ra eg es nc ude Mon or Conf ne Con a n Po n Zone Pro ec on and Suppress on bu hybr ds and nove s ra eg es may a so be deve oped as he s ua on demands 2) One or more s ra eg es may be emp oyed on any g ven w df re The s ra egy or s ra eg es be ng emp oyed may vary empora y or spa a y W df re Suppress on An appropr a e managemen response o w df re or prescr bed f re ha resu s n cur a men of f re spread and e m na es a W d and F re Assessment System (WFAS) An n erne -based nforma on sys em prov d ng na ona v ews of wea her and f re po en a

den f ed hrea s from he par cu ar f re

nc ud ng na ona f re danger and wea her maps and sa e

e-der ved greenness maps

W d and F re Leadersh p Pr nc p es E even pr nc p es descr b ng ang b e behav ors ha ref ec and demons ra e he w d and f re eadersh p va ues The e even pr nc p es are Be prof c en n your ob Make sound and me y dec s ons Ensure asks are unders ood superv sed and accomp shed Deve op your subord na es for he fu ure Know your subord na es and ook ou for he r we -be ng Keep your subord na es nformed Bu d he eam Emp oy your subord na es n accordance w h he r capab es Know yourse f and seek mprovemen Seek respons b y and accep respons b y for your ac ons Se he examp e see a so W d and F re Leadersh p Va ues W d and F re Leadersh p Va ues Three gu d ng va ues ha shou d be he bas s for he dec s ons ha eaders make The hree va ues are Du y How a eader va ues he r ob Du y beg ns w h every h ng requ red by aw and po cy bu s much more han ha A eader comm s o exce ence n a aspec s of he r profess ona respons b y so ha when he ob s done hey can ook back and say "I cou dn have g ven any more " Respec How a eader va ues he r co-workers Respec for he nd v dua forms he very bas s for he ru e of aw n Amer ca Th s va ue rem nds eaders ha hose who fo ow are he r grea es resource No a fo owers w succeed equa y bu hey a deserve respec In egr y How a eader va ues h mse f or herse f An nd v dua canno be n charge of o hers un ess hey are n charge of he r own ac ons Peop e of n egr y separa e wha s r gh from wha s wrong and ac accord ng o wha hey know s r gh even a persona cos W d and F re Management Informat on (WFMI) A web s e prov d ng curren wea her and gh n ng da a as we as h s or c f re occurrence da a NWCG Un Iden f ers are a so ma n a ned on he s e W d and F re Modu e A group of 7-10 h gh y sk ed personne spec f ca y assoc a ed w h he p ann ng and mp emen a on of p anned and unp anned w d and f re and hazardous fue s rea men s Maybe c ass f ed as a Type 1 or Type 2 dependen on qua f ca ons and exper ence W d and F re Ser ous Acc dent Any acc den where one or more fa a $250 000 or more

es occur and or hree or more personne are npa en hosp a zed as a d rec resu

or n suppor of w d and f re suppress on or prescr bed f re opera ons Acc den may resu

n subs an a proper y or equ pmen damage of

W d and F re Any non-s ruc ure f re ha occurs n vege a on or na ura fue s W d and f re nc udes prescr bed f re and w df re see a so Prescr bed F re W df re W d and Urban Interface (WUI) The ne area or zone where s ruc ures and o her human deve opmen mee or n erm ng e w h undeve oped w d and or vege a ve fue s Descr bes an area w h n or ad acen o pr va e and pub c proper y where m ga on ac ons can preven damage or oss from w df re see a so I-Zone W d and An area n wh ch deve opmen s essen a y non-ex s en excep for roads ra roads power nes and s m ar ranspor a on fac

es S ruc ures f any are w de y sca ered

W nd D rect on Compass d rec on from wh ch w nd s b ow ng W nd Prof e A char of w nd speed n re a on o he gh mos common y de erm ned by a p o ba oon observa on W nd Shear A var a on n w nd speed and or d rec on n a ayer of he a mosphere or be ween ayers The var a on may be n he hor zon a or ver ca d mens ons and may resu n s gn f can urbu ence depend ng upon he magn ude of he w nd speed d rec on d fferences A s rong w nd shear may ac ke an nvers on and nh b p ume r se I may a so frac ure he smoke p ume no a ow ng smoke o r se much above erra n eve s A s rong hor zon a an cyc on c shear resu s n downward mo on and may br ng smoke a of o he surface W nd Sh ft 1 For av a on purposes a change n he average w nd d rec on of 45 degrees or more wh ch akes p ace n ess han 15 m nu es f he w nd speed dur ng h s per od s 6 kno s (3 m s) or grea er 2 For ground observa on purposes a change of a eas 45 degrees n he d rec on of a s gn f can w nd wh ch occurs n a re a ve y shor me frame W nd Speed 1 W nd n m es per hour measured a 20 fee above open eve ground or as ad us ed o mee h s s andard o compensa e for he gh of ground cover uneven ground and nearby obs ruc ons 2 (NFDRS) W nd n mph measured a 20 fee above ground or above he average he gh of vege a on and averaged over a eas a 10-m nu e per od A so known as w nd ve oc y W nd Vectors W nd d rec ons used o ca cu a e f re behav or W nd-dr ven W d and F re A w d and f re ha s con ro ed by a s rong cons s en w nd W ndfa Tree ha has been uproo ed or broken off by w nd W ndrow Burn ng Burn ng s ash ha has been p ed n o ong con nuous rows A so nc udes w df re n vege a on p an ed o pro ec mprovemen s or agr cu ure W nds A oft Genera y w nd speeds and w nd d rec ons a var ous eve s n he a mosphere above he doma n of surface wea her observa ons W ndspeed Meter A handhe d dev ce wh ch nd ca es w nd speed usua y n m es per hour W nd The hor zon a movemen of a r re a ve o he surface of he ear h Woody Fue Mo sture In NFDRS a ca cu a ed va ue represen ng he approx ma e mo s ure con en of he ve woody vege a on n he ra ng area expressed as a percen age of he oven dry we gh of he samp e Woody Vegetat on Cond t on Par of he Na ona F re Danger Ra ng Sys em (NFDRS) A code ref ec ng he mo s ure con en of he fo age and sma

w gs [ ess han 1 4 nch (0 6 cm)] of v ng woody p an s

Work Capac ty Test (WCT) A fam y of es s o de erm ne f ref gh er phys ca capab es Work capac y es s are used o ensure ha persons ass gned o f re ac v es are phys ca y capab e of perform ng he du es of w d and f ref gh ng and o mee Na ona W df re Coord na ng Group (NWCG) s andards for w d and f ref gh ers (W d and F re Qua f ca on Subsys em Gu de 310-1 NWCG 1993) The WCT s a fam y of es s o de erm ne f ref gh er phys ca capab es a hree eve s Arduous "Du es nvo ve f e d work requ r ng phys ca performance ca ng for above-average endurance and super or cond on ng These du es may nc ude an occas ona demand for ex raord nar y s renuous ac v es n emergenc es under adverse env ronmen a cond ons and over ex ended per ods Requ remen s nc ude runn ng wa k ng c mb ng ump ng w s ng bend ng and f ng more han 50 pounds he pace of work yp ca y s se by he emergency cond on " Modera e "Du es nvo ve f e d work requ r ng comp e e con ro of a phys ca facu es and may nc ude cons derab e wa k ng over rregu ar ground s and ng for ong per ods f ng 25 o 50 pounds c mb ng bend ng s oop ng squa ng w s ng and reach ng Occas ona demands may be requ red for modera e y s renuous ac v es n emergenc es over ong per ods Ind v dua s usua y se he r own work pace " L gh "Du es ma n y nvo ve off ce- ype work w h occas ona f e d ac v y charac er zed by gh phys ca exer on requ r ng bas c good hea h Ac v es may nc ude c mb ng s a rs s and ng opera ng a veh c e and ong hours of work as we as some bend ng s oop ng or gh f ng Ind v dua s a mos a ways can govern he ex en and pace of he r phys ca ac v y" Each performance eve has s own un que Work Capac y Tes Pack Tes The pack es s a ob-re a ed es of he capac y for arduous work I cons s s of a 3-m e h ke w h a 45-pound pack over eve erra n A me of 45 m nu es he pass ng score for he es approx ma es an aerob c f ness score of 45 he es ab shed s andard for w d and f ref gh ers F e d Tes The f e d es s a ob-re a ed es of work capac y des gned for hose w h modera e y s renuous du es I cons s s of a 2-m e h ke w h a 25-pound pack A me of 30 m nu es he pass ng score approx ma es an aerob c f ness score of 40 Wa k Tes The wa k es s des gned o de erm ne he ab y o carry ou gh du es I cons s s of a 1-m e es w h no oad ha approx ma es an aerob c f ness score of 35 A me of 16 m nu es he pass ng score for he es ensures he ab y o mee emergenc es and evacua e o a safe y zone Work Rest Rat o An express on of he amoun of res ha s requ red for each hour an nd v dua s n work s a us Curren NWCG gu de nes requ re one hour of res for every wo hours n work s a us Woven Jacket F re Hose F re hose of conven ona cons ruc on woven on ooms from f bers of co on or syn he c f bers Mos f re depar men hose s doub e acke ed ( e

has an ou er acke pro ec ng he nner one aga ns wear and abras on)

Wye A hose connec on w h wo ou e s perm

ng wo connec ons of he same coup ng d ame er o be aken from a s ng e supp y ne

see a so Revers b e S amese S amese Go to top

Z Zone Weather Forecast A por on of he genera f re wea her forecas ssued on a regu ar bas s dur ng he norma f re season spec f ca y o f c ma o og ca areas usua y near y he s ze of an nd v dua fores or d s r c Go to top

he requ remen s of f re managemen needs

e

me areas and wea her e emen s These zones or areas are a comb na on of adm n s ra ve and

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