Essentials of International Relations - GBV

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SUB Hamburg

A/542803

Essentials of International Relations fifth edition

Karen A. Mingst UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY

Ivan M. Arreguin-Toft BOSTON UNIVERSITY

W. W. NORTON & COMPANY NEW YORK• LONDON

CONTENTS

Preface xiii

1

Approaches to International Relations International Relations in Daily Life 1 Thinking Theoretically 3 Developing the Answers 4 History 4 Philosophy 6 The Scientific Method: Behavioralism 9 Alternative Approaches 11

In Sum: Making Sense of International Relations 13 Where Do We Go from Here? 13

2

The Historical Context of Contemporary International Relations The Pre-Westphalian World 16 The Middle Ages: Centralization and Decentralization 16 The Late Middle Ages: Developing Transnational Networks in Europe and Beyond 18

The Emergence of the Westphalian System 21 Europe in the Nineteenth Century 24 The Aftermath of Revolution: Core Principles 24 The Napoleonic Wars 25 Peace at the Core of the European System 27 Imperialism and Colonialism in the European System before 1870 30 Balance of Power 33 The Breakdown: Solidification of Alliances 35

The Interwar Years and World War II 37 World War II 39

The Cold War 43 Origins of the Cold War 44 The Cold War as a Series of Confrontations 48 The Cold War in Asia and Latin America 49 The "Cold" in Cold War 54 The Cold War as a Long Peace 56

The Post-Cold War Era 57 ® Explaining the End of the Cold War: A View From the Former Soviet Union 58 In Sum: Learning from History 63

3

Contending Perspectives: How to Think about International Relations Theoretically Thinking Theoretically 65 Theory and the Levels of Analysis 68 Realism and Neorealism 70 Liberalism and Neoliberal Institutionalism 76 The Radical Perspective 81 Constructivism 84 Theory in Action: Analyzing the 2003 Iraq War 86 ® Canadian Views of the War in Afghanistan 88 In Sum: Seeing the World through Theoretical Lenses 91

4

The International System The Notion of a System 93 The International System According to Realists 94 Realists and International System Change 100

The International System According to Liberals 102 Liberals and International System Change 103

The International System According to Radicals 104

Constructivism and Change 107 Advantages and Disadvantages of the International System as a Level of Analysis 108 f§| The International System: A View from China 110 In Sum: From the International System to the State 113

5

The State The State and the Nation 116 Contending Conceptualizations of the State 119 The Realist View of the State 121 The Liberal View of the State 121 The Radical View of the State 122 The Constructivist View of the State 122 Contrasting the Various Views of the State 123

The Nature of State Power

12 4

Natural Sources of Power 124 Tangible Sources of Power 127 Intangible Sources of Power 128

The Exercise of State Power

12 9

The Art of Diplomacy 129 Economic Statecraft 132 The Use of Force 134 Democracy and Foreign Policy 135

Models of Foreign-Policy Decision Making 137 The Rational Model 137 The Bureaucratic/Organizational Model 139 The Pluralist Model 141

Challenges to the State 144 Globalization 144 Transnational Crime 145 Transnational Movements 146 @ The Taliban in Pakistan: A Challenge to the Pakistani State? 148 Cases of Ethnonational Movements: Kashmir and the Uighurs 150

In Sum: The State and Challenges Beyond 153

6

The Individual Foreign-Policy Elites: Individuals Who Matter 156 The Impact of Elites: External Conditions 157 The Impact of Elites: The Personality Factor 159

® A View from Venezuela: Hugo Chavez 162 Individual Decision Making 164 Information-Processing Mechanisms 165

Private Individuals 168 The Cases ofA.Q. Khan and Aung San Suu Kyi 170

Mass Publics 172 Elites and Masses: Common Traits 173 The Impact of Public Opinion on Elites 174 Mass Actions by a Leaderless Public 176

In Sum: How Much Do Individuals Matter? 178

Intergovernmental Organizations, Nongovernmental Organizations, and International Law Intergovernmental Organizations 182 The Creation oflCOs 182 The Roles oflCOs 184 The United Nations 187 The European Union—Organizing Regionally 201

Nongovernmental Organizations 210 The Growth ofNGO Power and Influence 211 Functions and Roles ofNGOs 212 The Power of NGOs 215

@ NGOs: Views from the Former Soviet States 216 The Limits ofNGOs 218

International Law 219 International Law and Its Functions 219 The Sources of International Law 220 Enforcement of International Law 223

Realist Views of International Organization and Law 225

The Radical View of International Organization and Law 226 The Constructivist View of International Organization and Law 228 In Sum: Do Intergovernmental Organizations, Nongovernmental Organizations, and International Law Make a Difference? 229

8

War and Strife The Causes of War 234 The Individual: Realist and Liberal Interpretations 234 State and Society: Liberal and Radical Explanations 236 The International System: Realist and Radical Interpretations 238 The Case of Iraq's Invasion of Kuwait 240 The Case of South Ossetia 241

Categorizing Wars 244 Interstate and Intrastate War 245 Total and Limited War 246

How Wars Are Fought 250 Conventional War 250 Weapons of Mass Destruction 251 Unconventional Warfare 253 © Going Nuclear: A View from Iran 254 Terrorism 257 Piracy 261

The Just War Tradition 261 The Debate over Humanitarian Intervention 263

Approaches to Managing Insecurity 264 Realist Approaches: Balance of Power and Deterrence 266 Liberal Approaches: Collective Security and Arms Control/ Disarmament 272

In Sum: A Changing View of International Security 279

CONTENTS

9

International Political Economy The Evolution of the International Economy: Clashing Ideas and Practices 284 The Basis of the Contemporary International Economy

287

Key Concepts in Liberal Economic Theory 287 The Role of Multinational Corporations 288 Roles of the International Economic Institutions 291

How the Globalized Economy Works Today

293

International Finance 293 International Trade 296 International Development 298

Critics of International Economic Liberalism The Key Role of Petroleum Markets

305

307

Economic Globalization and Regionalism European Economic Integration 311 The North American Free Trade Agreement

311 314

Emerging Challenges to Economic Globalization

316

Case Study: The Global Economic Crisis 317

© The Global Economic Crisis of 2008: A View from African States 320

10

Transnational Issues Health and Communicable Disease—Protecting Life in the Global Commons 327 HIV/AIDS as a Transnational Issue 329 Beyond HIV/AIDS 333 A Theoretical Take 334

The Environment—Protecting the Global Commons 335 Conceptual Perspectives 335 Population Issues 336 Natural Resource Issues 339 Pollution 340

® The Environment: A View from Indonesia 342 Environmental NGOs in Action 346 A Theoretical Take 347 CONTENTS

Human Rights—Protecting Human Dignity 349 Conceptualizing Human Rights and the Development of a Regime 350 The Human Rights Regime in Action 352 Other Human Rights Actors 357 Women's Rights as Human Rights: The Globalization of Women's Rights 357

Transnational Crime 361 The Impact of Transnational Issues 362 Will Transnational Issues Lead to Global Governance? 368 In Sum: Changing You 369

Notes Al Glossary A17 Credits A33 Index A35

CONTENTS

xi

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Essentials of International Relations - GBV

SUB Hamburg A/542803 Essentials of International Relations fifth edition Karen A. Mingst UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY Ivan M. Arreguin-Toft BOSTON UNIVE...

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