Epidemiology - ACIAR

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Epidemiology Transmigration Areas

Cases of Malignant Catarrhal Fever in West Sumatra, Riau and Jambi Samrosi Pakpahao*

Abstract

gastroenteritis, dysfunction of the respiratory tract, keratoconjunctivitis, encephalitis, and enlargement of lymph glands. In West Sumatra, this disease has been thought to occur since 1978, while in Riau and Jambi it was first observed in 1984.

Base?

on clinical signs, epidemiology, pathology and histopathology cases of dIsease m Kabupaten Natuna, Riau Province, and Kecamatan Muara Bulian, Jambi Province, were diagnosed as malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The cases of this disease were found in Bali cattle from South Sulawesi and Nusa Tenggara Timur Provinces. There were no reports of MCF in other breeds of cattle or in other species. The disease occurred after the introduction of Bali cattle from other areas . ~atoml~al

Materials and Methods The Disease Investigation Centre (DIC) at Bukittinggi services the three provinces of West Sumatra, Riau and Jambi. The data in this report are based on the observations of the DIC from 1984 until July 1986. Histopathological investigations were on organs submitted to the laboratory .

Abstrak Berdasarkan pemeriksaan klinik, bedah bangkai, histopatologis dan secara epidemiologi, maka penyakit yang terjadi di Kabupaten Natuna, Propinsi Riau, dan di Kecamatan Muara Bulian Propinsi Jambi adalah malignant catarrhal fever' (MCF). Semua hewan terserang adalah sapi Bali yang berasal dari Propinsi Sulawesi Selatan dan Nusa Tenggara Timur. Kasus tersebut tidak dilapor~an pada bangsa sapi dan hewan lainnya. P~nyaklt muncul setelah ada sapi Bali yang dldatangkan dari daerah lain.

Results Background of the Disease In West Sumatra, MCF has been suspected since 1978. In Riau Province, reports of a disease resembling MCF have been received from Natuna Island in the Kabupaten of Riau Island. Bali cattle from South Sulawesi were introduced to Natuna in June 1984. According to the report of the Provincial Dinas Peternakan in Riau, there were 148 males and 852 females. The sheep population in this kabupaten is officially 20. In Jambi Province, clinical signs suggestive of MCF were reported in Bali cattle imported from Nusa Tenggara Timur (NIT) Province. These were introduced into Kecamatan Muara Bulian in Kabupaten Batanghari in 1984. The s~eep population in this kabupaten was 400, WIth more than 70 in Muara Bulian.

Introduction Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a disease that occurs sporadically, more often affecting canle than buffalo. Clinical signs usually involve the mucous membranes of the head, sometimes with nervous system involvement and signs of septicaemia with or without haemorrhagic enteritis (Rosenberger 1970). Dahme and Weiss (1983) stated that the morbidity is low, while fatalities are high, usually more than 90%. According to Blood et al. (1979), clinical signs are stomatitis and *Disease Investigation Bukittinggi, Indonesia.

Centre

Region

Prevalence There are no prior reports of MCF in either of these provinces. Details of the total number of

II,

44

specimens received and the method of diagnosis are given in Table 1.

Table 1. Specimens received and the method of diagnosis.

Clinical Signs

Province/ Kabupaten

Information was collated from the reports of veterinary officers and farmers . Signs observed included fever, hyperiachrymation followed by inflammation of the eyes progressing to opacity in severe cases, yellow mucoid nasal discharge with foul smell, low appetite but increased thirst, bloody diarrhoea and death within 5 days. Case Report

Riau, Kep. Riau

Species Clinical Histodiagnosis pathology 2

2

14

5

Bali Canle (2)

Jambi, Kep Batanghari

Bali Cattle (14)

Histopathology

The lungs showed bronchopneumonia, mononuclear cell infiltrates and vasculitis. There was extensive haemorrhage and vasculitis in the heart.

Mononuclear cell infiltrates and vasculitis were present in the liver. The spleen showed haemorrhage and inflammation. There was mononuclear cell infiltration in the kidney. There was a nonpurulent encephalitis, vasculitis of vessels in the central nervous system with necrosis of vessel walls, and gliosis.

DIC staff, together with veterinarians from the B type laboratory in Jambi, had the opportunity to necropsy an affected adult female Bali cow. Clinical Signs

The body condition was very poor, there was conjunctivitis, yellow mucoid nasal discharge and inflamed vulval mucosae.

Discussion Signs of a disease resembling MCF in Bali cattle ftrst occurred in Natuna, Riau Province, and in Muara Bulian, Jambi Province, in 1984 after the introduction of Bali cattle from Sulawesi Selatan and NTT, respectively. Cases in other species of livestock have not yet been reported in the two mentioned areas, which have sheep. Rosenberger (1970) stated that sheep act as the carrier of MCF. From the macroscopic pathology seen in the intestine and in the head, MCF can be suspected. Dahme and Weiss (1983) stated that, in MCF, the changes in the intestine always happen in the head and eye form. Moreover, they also said that the changes in the mucosae of the nose, pharynx, larynx and trachea were a diffuse to acute catarrhal inflammation. In a discussion of the diagnosis of MCF, Dahme and Weiss (1983) referred to the clinical signs, epidemiology, anatomical pathology, and especially to the histopath-ology. Characteristic histopathological changes are the non purulent inflammation of the blood vessels, and mononuclear cell infiltrates in the lungs, liver and kidney. Changes in the brain include a

Anatomical Pathology

In the respiratory tract there was laryngitis, pharyngitis and inflammation of the trachea. Mucous membranes were red with a yellow mucoid exudate. The diaphragmatic lobes of the lungs were enlarged and frothy on the cut surface, and there was some cornification, and inflammation of the apical and cardiac lobes. The pericardium was cloudy and atrial fat was atrophied. There was dilatation and petecheae on the bicuspid valves. Mucous membranes of the stomach showed hyperaemia, and there were areas of inflammation in the intestine. The liver was swollen, red and cirrhotic. The spleen was thickened and on the cut surface the red pulp was dark and the connective tissue unusually prominent. The kidneys were of normal size and the capsules easy to peel, but there was atrophy of the fatty tissue. The surface of the organ was rough like a tumour, and on the cut surface the pyramidal line had disappeared.

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massive meningoencephalitis and vasculitis and necrosis of the walls of the blood vessels. In the early stages, there is subendothelial infiltration of lymphocytes and granulocytes, while in the parenchyma can be found multi focal necrosis and gliosis. Pathology in the examined cases was considered consistent with these features.

References Blood, D.C., Henderson, J.A., and Radostits, O.M. 1979 . Veterinary Medicine, Fifth Edition. London, Bailliere Tindall. Dahme, E., and Weiss., E. 1983. Grunriss der Speziellen Pathologischen Anatome der Haustiere, 3. Stuttgart. Auf!. Ferdinand Enke Verlag. Rosenberger, G. 1970. Krankheiten des Rindes . Berlin and Hamburg, Verlag Paul Parey.

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Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Lampung, South Sumatra and Bengkulu Hadi Prabowo·

slaughtered, tissues were fixed in 10% formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Histological sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin.

Abstract Malignant catarrhal fever has been investigated in Lampung, South Sumatra and Bengk:ulu. Clinical signs have been recorded and histopathological examinations have been carried out. Until now, only buffalo and Bali cattle have been affected by this disease . From field investigations and field reports it seems the disease happens if cattle or buffalo are grazed together with sheep.

Results Basic data on livestock numbers in the three provinces are presented in Table 1. Based on the records of the DIC laboratory, MCF has been occurring at a low level for some years. MCF has been diagnosed from clinical symptoms such as high fever, decreased appetite or anorexia, depression, reddening of conjunctiva, lacrimation, serous or mucopurulent nasal discharge, and diarrhoea. Usually, faeces containing blood, and corneal opacity were found . Erosions and ulcers of the tongue, pharynx and palate were also observed. Microscopically, the most common and prominent findings were the proliferation of lymphoid cells throughout the body. Perivascular lymphoid cell infiltration and lymphoid vasculitis were found in most organs. Encephalitic changes were apparent. In Lampung, MCF has been reported from the Seputi Mataram, Sukadana, Seputi Raman, Punggur, Sekampung, Metro and Kalirejo districts in Kabupaten Central Lampung, from Teluk Padang in Kabupaten South Lampung, and from Kedaton in Kabupaten North

Abstrak Malignant catarrhal fever di propinsi Lampung, Bengkulu dan Sumatra Selatan, telah didiagnosis berdasarkan pemeriksaan gejala klinik dan histopatologik. Sampai sekarang yang terserang hanya sapi Bali dan kerbau . Berdasarkan penyelidikan dan laporan dari lapangan diduga bahwa penyakit muncul apabila sapi atau kerbau digembalakan bersama domba.

Introduction The Disease Investigation Centre (DIC) at Tanjungkarang has a responsibility for acting as the veterinary diagnostic laboratory for the provinces of Lampung, South Sumatra and Bengkulu, which together cover the southern third of the island of Sumatra (Fig. 1). Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) has been recognised as a serious disease of livestock in these provinces in recent years. This report outlines the nature and scope of the problem.

Table 1. Livestock population in Lampung, South Sumatra and Bengk:ulu provinces.

Materials and Methods Province

MCF has been diagnosed particularly on the basis of clinical signs. If veterinary staff were present when cattle or buffalo died or were

Sheep

Goats

Lampung 31379 18800 South Sumatra 38119 101477 Bengkulu 23600 93000

*Disease Investigation Centre Region III Bandar Lampung.

Cattle Buffalo 97727 35081 267238 148198 57959 69300

Source: Annual Report BPPH Wi!. ill 1984/85.

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Table 2. Incidence of MCF in Lampung, South Sumatra and Bengkulu. Year

1980 1982 1983 1984 1986

Lampung South Sumatra Bengkulu Cattle Buffalo Cattle Buffalo Cattle Buffalo

5 4 4

2

3

1

1

3

1

4

18

5 12 33

Kercap in Kabupaten north Bengkulu and from Talo in Kabupaten South Bengkulu. The incidence of MCF per province is presented in Table 2. There has been variability in the number of cases each year, with a tendency for Bengkulu to suffer the greatest losses. In the provinces of South Sumatra, both cattle and buffalo have been affected, but most cases have been seen in cattle.

Fig. 1. Location of the provinces of Lampung, South Sumatra, and Bengkulu.

Lampung. Cases have occurred in a central band from the east through to the south of the province.

Discussion Depending on market factors and the quality of the animal, the price for bovines ranges from Rp300 000 to Rp500 000, while for buffalo the price, at Rp350000 to Rp550000, is slightly higher (Rp 1100 = US$l.OO). If an animal is sold for emergency slaughter because of illness, then the farmer receives only about half its the nominal value. Hence MCF imposes severe hardship on the farmer whose animal is affected. For control, it is suggested that cauie and buffalo be kept separate from sheep.

In South Sumatra, cases have been reported only in the west of the province, in areas adjacent to some of the districts where cases have been reported in the neighbouring province of Bengkulu. Districts affected were Ulu Terawas, Tugumulyo, Jayaloka and Muara Kelingi in Kabupaten Musi Rawas and KOla Lahat in Kabupaten Lahat. In Bengkulu, cases have been reported from Curup and Kepahiyang in the eastern Kabupaten of Rejang Lebong, in

48

MaHgnant Catarrhal Fever in Southeast Sulawesi Hasa Mardijono*

Abstract Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in Southeast Sulawesi is confined to two regions, Kendari and Kolaka. Only Bali cattle are affected, and the case fatality rate is 100%. The number of cases is high in areas where the disease is reported for the first time. Although sheep are implicated as the carrier, contact is not necessarily direct, but can be by flowing water. Because of the high mortality development of effective methods of prevention and cure is a high priority. MCF is causing a constraint to increased production, not only of Bali cattle, but also of sheep in Southeast Sulawesi.

Abstrak Kejadian malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) di Sulawesi Tenggara terbatas hanya pada dua daerah, yaitu Kendari dan Kolaka. Hewan terserang hanya sapi Bali dengan angka kematian 100% . Pada daerah dimana pertama kali MCF ditemukan, jumlah kasus yang ada sangat tinggi. Domba diduga merupakan hewan pembawa penyakit, akan tetapi kasus MCF dapat muncul tidak perlu harus dengan adanya hubungan lang sung antara hewan peka dengan domba, tetapi dapat juga melalui ali ran sungai . Pencegahan dan pengobatan merupakan prioritas utama karena angka kematiannya sangat tinggi. Menghambat peningkatan produksi temak, tidak hanya terhadap sapi Bali akan tetapi juga terhadap domba di Sulawesi Tenggara.

glvmg 25 persons/km 2 . The annual rate of population growth is 3.1 %. Climatically, the province may be divided into two regions: the north where the rainfall is about 2000 mm per year; and the south where the rainfall is lower. The period of highest rainfall is between April and July, and the lowest is between August and October. Minimum temperatures are in the range 18-21°C and maximums 32-34°C. Average humidity is 87-89%. Livestock population data are given in Table 1. In 1985,95% of the cattle were Bali cattle, with some local and imported Bos indicus and some imported Sahiwals.

MCF in Southeast Sulawesi The fIrst clinically diagnosed MCF case occurred in 1978 in Kecamatan Panomeeto in Kendari. Throughout 1978 further fatalities were recorded. Local reports indicated that the disease had probably been occurring in the district fer some years, although not at epidemic levels. Since 1975, field officers have continued to observe MCF cases. Reports were received from two neighbouring villages in a transmigration area, Tatibali and Sindangkasih. Treatment of field cases was attempted without success. The following points were noted about these sporadic cases of MCF. Only Bali cattle were affected, and the disease rarely affected more than one of any animals housed together. In Tatibali there were no sheep, but cases occurred along an irrigation ditch which came from Sindangkasih where sheep were present. All cases died or were slaughtered for salvage of the meat. It is known that cases of suspected MCF in these villages have been slaughtered without being reported to fIeld officers. According to SEST/ADP Project data, the

Introduction Southeast Sulawesi is a young province on Sulawesi Island. IL is located between 3° and 6 0 S. latitude and 120°45' and 124°E. longitude, and has an area of 36091 km 2 . The province is divided into four Kabupaten (Kendari, Kolaka, Buton and Muna) and then further divided into 45 kecamatan containing 720 desa and kelurahan (villages). In 1980, the population was 950000, *Livestock Services, Southeast Sulawesi, Kendari .

49

brought a few sheep that subsequently reproduced. Most sheep distributed in Buton went to Kecamatan Poleang. Although Bali cattle were kept in the same villages here, they were kept separately from the sheep. A similar situation was found in north Kolaka, in Kecamatan Lasusua. From these two districts there have been no reports of cases of MCF, perhaps because of the separation of the sheep and cattle. According to the data on livestock population growth, cattle are increasing more rapidly (22% per year) than sheep (14% per year). It was therefore hoped that the farmers could be persuaded to concentrate their efforts on cattle only, but because of the traditional forms of agriculture practiced, this approach has not been widely accepted. Reliance has therefore been placed on educating farmers of the potential danger posed by sheep as potential carriers of MCF. Sheep movements associated with transmigration increase the distribution of sheep as each year passes. The officers of the livestock services have tried to stop this movement, especially to areas where there are Bali cattle. MCF causes economic losses to farmers. To solve the problem by separation of sheep and cattle is difficult, as farmers are reluctant to put a constraint on sheep production. Compounding factors are the lack of effective treatments and preventative vaccination. Collection of accurate epidemiological data is also difficult because farmers familiar with the syndrome kill affected animals without reporting the illness to veterinary field services. The susceptibility of Brahman and Sahiwal crosses with Bali cattle is not yet known in Southeast Sulawesi, an aspect which needs more attention.

Table 1. The livestock population of Southeast Sulawesi. Species

Population

Annual growth (%)

Cattle Buffalo Goats Sheep

106 082 12052 69966 302

22 11 6

14

population of Bali cattle in Sindangkasih in February 1982 was 122, decreasing to 51 in February 1986, a 14.5% decrease per year. Data on the MCF cases in this village and the neighbouring Tatibali were collected. Of 45 Bali cattle owners contacted, 18 reported having had cattle affected by MCF. Of an estimated 185 cattle owned by these farmers during the period, 24 were affected. In 1983 an outbreak of MCF was reported in Kolaka region after sheep had been introduced into an area upstream on a river running through the site at Sambilambo village. In the third week of August, four cattle died of the same clinical syndrome. Subsequently, although treatment and isolation of sick animals was practiced, a total of 26 cattle died or were sent to emergency slaughter. Diagnosis of the disease was based mainly on clinical signs. In some cases, specimens were submitted to the Disease Investigation Centre (DIC) in Ujung Pandang and MCF was confirmed histologically. Initial precautions taken to prevent the disease included antibiotic therapy of affected animals. This was discontinued because of unsatisfactory results, and replaced by slaughter of animals and disposal of organs. Affected animals were isolated and the stall cleaned. Field officers advised farmers of the risks involved in keeping sheep with Bali cattle.

Discussion According to the information available, MCF cases in Bali cattle in Southeast Sulawesi have been associated with sheep imported from West Java. These came with transmigrants to Sindangkasih in 1979, and with spontaneous transmigrants from the Mamuju region to Kabupaten Buton and North Kolaka, who

50

Epidemiology Special Situations

A High Prevalence of Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Banyuwangi, East Java M. Tranggono·

Abstract

Introduction

Throughout the region of Banyuwangi, cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats are raised, with sheep and goats being in approximately equal numbers. All districts have reported cases of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) . Bali cross cattle are the most frequently affected, with the age of affected animals varying from 2 to 5 years. MCF causes large financial losses for farmers, either through the death of the animals or through forced sales at low prices. The disease is most frequently found in areas with plantation crops or rice fields, and occurs mainly in the dry season between April and September. Sheep are suspected as the carrier animals, but this remains to be proven. Control at present can be attempted only by separation of large ruminants from small. MCF causes losses every year and more research is considered an urgent priority.

Kabupaten Banyuwangi is located at the eastern end of the province of East Java. It is the largest Kabupaten in East Java and has the potential to support increased animal husbandry development. To the north and west, it adjoins other districts of East Java, and to the east and south the Bali Strait and the Indian Ocean, respectively. As a consequence, the topography tends to slope from high land in the northwest to lower land in the southeast. Most of the land lies between 500 m and sea level, with a high proportion of the land in the southeast being rice fields. Land use patterns are given in Table 1. The Kabupaten has a total area of 459 903 ha and a population of l.37 million, most of whom are farmers in the rural villages. For local government administration, Banyuwangi is divided into 19 kecamatan containing a total 175 village units. Each kecamatan has been assigned an animal husbandry technical officer with an agricultural technical high school education. For the present, these people are considered adequately trained for their tasks. The cattle population in Banyuwangi is increasing, while there is a small decrease in the numbers of sheep and pigs. In 1985, there were an estimated 90 854 cattle, including 270 dairy cattle, 1685 Bali cattle and 7623 Bali cross cattle (sapi rambon). There were 30200 buffalo, 43660 goats and 37129 sheep. However, animal production is always accompanied by the problem of losses caused by animal disease, with most deaths in cattle and buffalo being caused by malignant catarrhal fever (MCF).

Abstrak Sapi, kerbau, domba dan karnbing merupakan ternak yang dipelihara di semua wilayah Banyuwangi dengan jumlah domba dan karnbing kurang lebih sarna. Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) dilaporkan terjadi di semua kecamatan, dengan sapi Bali persilangan dan keturunannya yang berumur antara 2 to 5 tahun paling banyak terserang. MCF mengakibatkan kerugian besar bagi petemak, baik karen a kematian temaknya maupun karena temak soot dijual dengan harga sangat murah. Penyakit ini sering muncul di daerah perkebunan dan juga persawahan terutama pada saat musim kemarau antara bulan April dan September. Domba diperkirakan merupakan hewan pembawa penyakit, akan tetapi hal ini harus dibuktikan lebih lanjut. Pencegahan penyakit sejauh ini hanya dapat dilakukan dengan cara pemisahan antara ruminansia besar dan kecil. MCF menyebabkan kerugian besar bagi petemak setiap tahun, sehingga penelitian terhadap penyakit ini harus diperhatikan sebagai prioritas utama.

Animal Disease in Banyuwangi

*Veterinary Services, Banyuwangi, East Java, Indonesia.

Kabupaten Banyuwangi, besides being the major

52

Clinical Signs

Table 1. Land usage patterns (%) in Banyuwangi. Rice fields Dry fields Plantation crops Forests/National Parks Other

15 13 11 57 5

General Signs of Disease In the peracute situation, there is anorexia, depression and a high fever of 41-42°C. The muzzle is hot and dry and the eyes inflamed with a turbid lachrymal discharge. The skin is dry and rough, with piloerection. There is an early serous nasal discharge that becomes turbid. The breathing is laboured and the animal tends to hold its head straight to the front. Death occurs in 1-2 days. In the acute situation, the animal shows similar signs, which develop further. There is a sudden loss of body weight, the discharges from the eyes and nose become more mucoid and darker and develop a foul odour. They may form a crust around the nostrils. The eyelids become swollen, the sclera becomes reddened and the cornea becomes progressively opaque, to the extent that the animal becomes blind.

livestock-producing area in East Java, is also a reservoir of such animal diseases as MCF, trypanosomiasis, haemorrhagic septicaemia, piroplasmosis, scabies, helminthiasis, distemper, Newcastle disease, chronic respiratory disease complex and perhaps Jembrana disease, as well as problems affecting individual animals. The diseases are mostly seasonal, and tend to be found mainly in certain areas. Not only is Banyuwangi a crossroads for animal traffic originating from Bali and other islands, but the climate and topography favour dissemination of infectious agents. Even if disease does not result in death, the farmers still feel a financial loss. Efforts to alleviate the problem, including treatments where appropriate, have had only limited success. There are several limitations, and the situation is not helped by the action of those who seek to profit from the farmers' problem.

Specific Signs The specific signs of an animal with MCF include severe respiratory distress caused by thick mucous production throughout the whole respiratory tract and resulting in the head and neck being held extended and a foul odour accompanying the nasal discharges. There is corneal opacity and also swelling of the lymph

Malignant Catarrhal Fever Also known as malignant head catarrh, corysa gangrenosum bovum, epitheliosis, snotsiekte, and radang tenggorokan jahat, MCF is an acute infectious disease of livestock, especially cattle and buffalo. It is caused by a filLerable virus that is very difficulL to isolate. Until the present time, sheep have been considered the source of the disease. A particular characteristic of MCF is the thick, mucopurulent and foul-smelling discharge from the respiratory tract. The digestive tract, the eyes and the brain can also be involved, and there is dehydration. The number of cases is usually low but the case fatality rate is high, ranging from 20-100%. In 1985, there were an estimated 186 cases of MCF diagnosed in cattle and 113 cases in buffalo. Cases occur mainly in the dry season (Table 2).

Table 2. Seasonal distribution of malignant catarrhal fever in Banyuwangi in 1985. MCF cases Cattle Buffalo January February March April May June July August September October November December

1 2 16 (2) 13 (1) 29 (1) 19 (3) 27 (2) 31 (6) 16 (2) 5 (1) 13 (1) 14 (2)

5 (1)* 2 2 6 12 10 (3) 15 (2) 18 (2) 17 (2) 2 (1) 8 (1) 16 (1)

mm

Rainfall Rainy days

161 208 321 86 97 21 56 2 3 141 158 29

* Number of cases confirmed histologically.

53

17 14 15 10 16 7 11 4 2 11 13 15

glands, especially of the head and neck. There may be a foul-smelling diarrhoea, and the case fatality rate is very high.

Diagnosis For a field diagnosis, apart from observing the clinical signs, an accurate history from the farmer is required. A description of the early clinical signs is helpful. However, in the early stages MCF may be difficult to differentiate from haemorrhagic septicaemia, ephemeral fever or pneumonia.

Treatment At the present time there is no effective treatment or prevention. Antibiotics, vitamins and antihistamines prevent only secondary infection and provide additional support for the animal. To prevent further spread, separation from other livestock is recommended. The housing should be clean, dry and protected from strong winds.

Prevention In the season when the disease is active it is recommended that the livestock do not graze in the fields, and that their work should not be excessive. Housing should be clean and dry, and there should be adequate food. Attempts should be made to keep cattle and buffalo housing away from that of sheep.

54

Discussion Because of the large livestock population, animal disease is particularly important in Banyuwangi. MCF is the disease causing the greatest losses to the farmer either through death or forced sales. A sick animal returns only 25--40% of its former value when sold for emergency slaughter. A compounding problem is that farmers sell sick animals early in the course of the disease to reduce their losses, before the differential diagnosis is clear. Although MCF is found in every district, it is more prevalent in areas of rice fields and estate crops. More investigation is needed on possible correlations with the system of agriculture, in order to identify possible predisposing factors. Communal grazing, including grazing the rice fields after harvest, may be a factor. Because of work commitments in the rice fields , the body condition of animals here is often poor, particularly in the drier harvest season. MCF is more prevalent in this season than in the wet season. The strong winds that blow at that time may also facilitate spread. Careful observation will show that in most grazing groups several types of livestock can be found, including cattle, buffalo, goats and sheep. In most cases of MCF there has always been previous direct contact with sheep. However, there are also farmers who raise cattle and sheep in adjacent barns who never encounter the disease. More study is needed in order to define the role of sheep in the spread of MCF.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever in West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) Agus R. Bale·

Abstract

The first report in Australia was in 1953 (Belschner 1974), but the disease has been known in Indonesia for almost a century (Mansjoer 1954).

Cases of malignant catarrhal fever in West Timor in cattle and deer have been associated directly with sheep. The attack rate in four investigations varied from 6.5 to 88%, while the case fatality rate was 100%. Bali cattle were involved more than other breeds. No cases were recorded in animals under 1 year old.

Background Geography and Climate

Abstrak

The province of NIT lies at the eastern end of the chain of islands that starts at Bali and also includes the province of NTB. The major islands comprising NIT are West Timor, Flores and Sumba, but there are also many smaller islands. This makes animal disease surveillance a difficult task, particularly as the local government districts must straddle many different islands. An example of this is Kabupaten Kupang, which includes the western end of West Timor and the smaller islands of Rote and Savu, each of which has a livestock population quite different from that on the main island. NIT lies to the east of the Wallace line and, by definition, has a climate markedly different from that of the western parts of Indonesia. It is a monsoonal climate with seasonal rains that start in November and are mostly finished by March or April. A relatively long dry season follows. As a consequence of the climate, fanning is not as widely practiced as on Java and Baii, whereas the raising of livestock by grazing is more important. The estimated livestock populations are presented in Table 1. The kabupatens in West Timor-namely Kupang, South Central Timor, North Central Timor and Belu-are the main cattle-producing areas in NIT. Although West Timor also has the most sheep, these are not usually kept on the main island because of prohibiting legislation but are kept in large numbers on the

Kasus malignant catarrhal fever di Timor Kupang pad a sapi dan rusa berkaitan erat dengan adanya domba. Attack rate pad a empat kali pengamatan menunjukkan angka antara 6.5 - 88%, sedangkan case fatality rate mencapai 100%. Sapi bali lebih sering terserang dibanding jenis lainnya. Tidak ada kasus yang tercatat pada hew an dibawah umur satu tahun.

Introduction Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is an acute, infectious and usually fatal disease of cattle characterised by encephalitis, symptoms in the upper respiratory tract and a wide range of other symptoms (Hungerford 1975; Smith et al.1974). The disease usually appears in cattle which are in contact with sheep or wildebeest (Smith et al. 1974). Both sexes and all breeds of cattle are susceptible to MCF. All ages are attacked but the incidence is highest in ages 6 months to 4 years (Jensen and Mackey 1974). Besides affecting cattle, MCF has been observed in wild deer (Jensen and Mackey 1974). The disease has a worldwide distribution.

*Animal Health Laboratory Type B, Livestock Services of NTT, Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT), Indonesia. 55

Table 1. Livestock population in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) Province. Cattle

Buffalo

Sheep

Goals

Kupang* South Central Timor(TTS) North Central Timor (TTU) Bel u A lor East Flores Sikh Ende Ngada Manggarai East Sumba West Sumba

135 495 161 274

29011 2 820

63 767

100 894 39 636

70

97 237

2 122

15 049

14

86 652 3565 783 3 144 5 318 15 572 4 074 31 402 9 833

16980

38475 14 829 41 056 27992 10 621 13 207 12 849 8 185 11 660

14 22

Total

554 349

District

3 13 29 28 45

17 182 187 558 022 246 095

170 240

91 4984 79 ? 49 1 351 70321

334503

Deer

20 27 8 175

Source: Annual Report of Provincial Livestock Services 1984/85 *Kupang District includes the islands of Savu and Roti.

callIe. The sheep and callIe were housed separately but grazed together. The first case occurred in a Bali bull in September 1975. Two ewes had lambed 2 months previously. In October 1975, 80 more sheep were imported from Savu to this location, which by this time also held 10 1 head of cattle. A few days after arrival, five ewes lambed, and 4 weeks later several callIe showed clinical signs including diarrhoea or dysentery, yellow mucopurulent nasal discharge, serous or purulent ocular discharge, corneal opacity to varying degrees, and hypersalivation. A week after the onset of symptoms in the herd, approximately 20 head of cattle had died. In November 1975, the 80 newly imported sheep were moved to Konotuef village in Central North Timor, but the six original sheep remained behind. In the period to March 1976, 89 cattle died, a mortality rate of 88% (Table 2). Specimens for laboratory examination were sent to the Disease Investigation Centre (DIC) at Denpasar, where MCF was diagnosed histopathologically.

islands of Roti and Savu. For historical reasons, the species of callIe kept on the main islands differ somewhat. West Timor has mainly Bali cattle, although artificial insemination has led to the production of cross breeds of different kinds. Some Bos indicus have also been imported to locations along the north coast. MCF in West Timor In West Timor, MCF was first recorded at the end of 1975 in Lili village in the Kupang district. The Provincial Livestock Services had imported fat tail sheep from Savu Island and they had subsequently been allowed to graze with cattle. MCF was recorded in adult animals but not in animals under 1 year old. Altogether four outbreaks of MCF have been recorded in NIT in recent years, and the case histories are presented below. Buffalo and goats have not been affected, although they are reared with sheep on some of the islands in the province.

Outbreak at LiIi, Kupang District

Outbreak at Konotuef, Central North Timor

The outbreak occurred at a holding ground of the Livestock Services section. In March 1974, six head of fat tail sheep from Savu Island were introduced to the area holding 30 head of Bali

In November 1975, the 80 sheep from Lili were placed in a holding yard containing

56

Table 2, Malignant catarrhal fever in cattle in West Timor.

Location

Liti,

Kupang Konotuef, TI1J Lifuleo, Kupang Lifuleo, Kupang

Time of incident

Cattle at risk

No. of sheep

No. affected

Attack rate

Case fatality

(%)

(%)

Oct 75 -Mar 76 Dec 75 - Jan 76 Feb 84

6-86

101

89

88%

100%

80

100

70

700/0

100%

11

400

26

6.5%

100%

May-Jun 84

16

400

60

15%

100%

approximately 200 head of goats and 100 Bali cattle. The first case of MCF in the cattle was observed in December 1975, and in a 1 month period approximately 10 sheep had lambed. Between December 1975 and February 1976, about 70 cattle died, giving an attack rate of 90% (Table 2). No specimens were submitted for laboratory examination.

Outbreak at Lifuleo Village, West Kupang Subdistrict In March 1983, nine head of sheep were illegally imported from Roti Island. The sheep were yarded separately about 300 m from cattle, but the two groups were allowed to graze together. The cattle were 400 head of Bali cattle owned by one person. In early 1984, two ewes lambed and 1 month later the first clinical signs of MCF occurred. Twenty-six head of cattle are reported to have died. In April, five more ewes lambed, and again a month later new cases occurred. From May to June 1984, approximately 60 head were affected. Half died and the rest were slaughtered by the owner or bartered for rice, com or brown sugar. Specimens were submitted to the DIC Denpasar and MCF was diagnosed histopathologically.

places in NIT province. At first they were kept in different paddocks, but were grazed together from the beginning of 1984. In the period to May 1984, four sheep had lambs. In May, cases of MCF started to occur. Diarrhoea with or without blood, mucopurulent nasal discharge, lacrimation, salivation and depression were observed. In 3 days, seven deer died, although 10 were reported sick. At postmortem, haemorrhages on the abomasum and small intestine were seen, as well as swelling of the liver and congestion of the brain. The deer were shifted from this location, but a further 29 died. Overall this represents an attack rate of 65.5%. Specimens were submitted to the DIC in Denpasar, and to Balitvet in Bogor. MCF was diagnosed histologically.

Discussion As a result of the field investigations of MCF outbreaks in NIT province, there is no doubt that sheep have an important role as the source of the disease. Clinical signs of MCF were observed if cattle and sheep were kept together, particularly after parturition in the sheep. The field experience in NIT is that Bali cattle are more susceptible than other breeds. There are no reports of MCF from Sumba and Rote Islands where sheep and ongole (Bos indicus) cattle are present, and no reports have been received from Flores where Madura cattle are kept as well as sheep. However, these are remote areas and sporadic cases may be unreported. The recent increase in the veterinary field and

An outbreak in deer at Kupang At the Governor's residence in Kupang, 55 head of Timor deer (Cervus timorensis) and 16 head of fat tail sheep were held. The sheep came from Savu Island in 1981 and the deer from various

57

laboratory staff in NIT province can be expected to help in the confinning of this situation. Treatment of cases with broad spectrum antibiotics has been unsuccessful. This has resulted in owners tending to slaughter or barter sick animals. However, the price of such an animal is usually 25% or less of the value of the animal when healthy. In NIT, the nonnal price of a 300-kg liveweight bull is about Rp300 000, but when the animal is sick the price drops to Rp60 000-75000.

Acknowledgments G. A. Thei, J. Savu, A. Sioh and A. Sana are thanked for their assistance in providing information on the early cases reported in this

paper.

References Belschner, H.G . 1974. Cattle Diseases. Fourth Edition . Sydney, Angus and Robertson, p. 48-51. Hungerford, T.G. 1975. Diseases of Livestock. Eighth Edition. Sydney, McGraw -Hill . p . 289-291. Jensen, R., and Mackey, D.R . 1974. Diseases of Feedlot Cattle. Second Edition. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, p. 9-14. Mansjoer, M. 1954. Penyelidikan Tentang Penyakit Ingusan pada Sapi dan Kerbau di Indonesia terutama di Pulau Lombok. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, University of Indonesia, Bogor. 189 p. (Indonesian, English Abstract) Smith, H.A ., Jones, T.C., and Hunt R.D. 1974. Veterinary Pathology. Fifth Edition. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, p. 426-428.

Disease Control 1. In districts where sheep and Bali cattle are kept, it is suggested they be kept separately. This applies to certain districts on the island of Flores, and in Alor district. 2. In areas where the Bali callIe population is concentrated, sheep should be removed. This has been done in all of West Timor. 3. The importation of sheep from Savu and Roti Islands to West Timor is prohibited.

58

Malignant Catarrhal Fever Disease Situation in West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) Abdul Muthalib*

The clinical signs of MCF in cattle are high fever, erosions of the mouth and nose, corneal opacity and mucopurulent discharges from the eye and nose. MCF occurs both sporadically and enzootically throughout NTB. Bali cattle and buffalo are the susceptible animals. Field reports show MCF occurs with a high annual incidence. To date there is no effective treatment. Sheep, the suspected carrier, are kept with susceptible animals in several regions, particularly on Sumbawa Island. Separation of sheep and cattle is the only method of prevention.

Abstract Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) has a high incidence in West Nusa Tenggara (NTB), with an average 420 cases occurring annually. Cases are normally associated with contact with sheep. Cattle are more often affected than buffalo because they are more frequently raised with sheep. The price obtained for sick animals is approximately one-quarter the value when healthy, so the disease has serious financial consequences. Prevention is being attempted by working towards movement of cattle into sheep-free areas. Abstrak

Background Information

MCF di Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) sang at tinggi angka kejadiannya, dengan perkiraan 420 kasus terjadi setiap tahunnya. Kejadian umumnya dihubungkan dengan adanya kontak dengan domba. Sapi lebih sering terkena dibanding kerbau, sebab ia lebih sering dekat dengan domba. Harga dari hewan yang sakit akan mefjadi seperempat dari harga normal, yang berarti penyakit ini sangat penting artinya dari segi ekonomi. Pencegahan sedang diterapkan dengan memisahkan sapi pada area yang bebas do mba.

Geography, Topography and Climate NTB is included in the Nusa Tenggara group of islands lying at 115°46'E. and 8 0 S'S. There are two main islands-Lombok and Sumbawasurrounded by the Java Sea to the north and the Indian Ocean to the south. To the west is the island of Bali. The climate of this province is tropical, with minimum temperatures between 21.1 ° and 23.5°C and maximum temperatures between 29.8° and 31.3°C. Average annual rainfall in Lombok is 1653 mm and in Sumbawa 1290 mm. Lombok is 4739 km 2 in area and Sumbawa 15414 km 2 , giving a total area of 20 155 km 2 for the province. The land usage patterns are outlined in Table 1.

Introduction West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) Province is one of the provinces in Indonesia with a large agricultural potential, and serves as a grain and a beef cattle resource for the other provinces. There are some obstacles to the further development of farming in NTB, and one of these is animal disease. Among the animal diseases the one most difficult to handle is MCF.

Livestock Population Livestock population figures are presented in Table 2. It is of particular interest that no sheep are recorded in Dompu.

*Animal Health Laboratory Type B Mataram, Lombok, Indonesia.

59

Table 2. Population of livestock in NTH (1984).

Table 1. Land usage patterns (%) in NTH. Rice fields (sawah) Dry-field farms and mixed cropping Estate crops Forest Other, mostly unproductive

10.0 7.5 1 .5 67.0 14.0

Kabupaten

The MCF Disease Situation MCF is distributed throughout NTB. Clinical diagnoses of MCF by field staff for the period 1981-85 are given in Table 3. These figures indicate an average of 420 cases per year in the province. It can be seen that the districts of Dompu and Bima had the highest incidence, and that cattle were more affected than buffalo. For confirmation of diagnosis, specimens from some cases were submitted to the Disease Investigation Centre (DIC) in Denpasar. Bima was the most active district in this respect, with 196 of 212 submissions from NTB in the period 1982- 85 being from there. In 40% of submissions the diagnosis was confirmed as MCF. There were no significant differences in percentages of confirmations between districts, or between cattle and buffalo submissions. The sale price of sick animals drops considerably in NTB , with such animals realising only a quarter to a third of their previous value. Hence, for a l-year-old, the price may drop from US$I00 to US$25 , and for an adult male from US$300 to US$80.

Prevention, Control and Treatment

Cattle

Buffalo

Goats

Sheep

West Lombok Central Lombok

74 470

7 118

38 728

5094

78 846

26 847

42 922 14307

East

78 373

11 287

81 413

13 293

Lombok Sumbawa Dompu Bima

27 252 6 189 26 578

86 892 20 955 55 491

26 626 14287 54 124

4559

Totals

208590 258100

43556

Source: Development Program, Livestock Services, NTH .

Table 3. Clinical diagnoses of MCF in NTB (1981-85). Kabupaten

1981 West Lombok cattle buffalo

Number of cases 1982 1983 1984 1985 Total

33

18 3

67 11

30 8

47

195 22

14

25 2

66 1

62 14

45 13

212 30

49 4

23 5

34

75 11

78 5

25 25

127 43

113

44

128 19

97 41

90 31

555 178

cattle buffalo

165 4

146 11

107 12

82 10

77

577 38

Annual Totals cattle buffalo

397 51

325 65

402 43

346 84

Cenlral Lombok cattle buffalo

East Lombok cattle buffalo Sumbawa cattle buffalo

Sheep are suspected as the carrier of MCF. Because of the lack of a vaccine, the only way to achieve control is to keep sheep and susceptible species separate. This criterion is strictly enforced in development programs in NTB in which livestock are distributed to farmers . Enforcing this rule is seen not only as a necessary protection for the cattle distributed, but also as contributing to an education process. Once disease has occurred the only control is to slaughter the affected animals. There is no treatment yet for MCF cases. The use of antibiotics and vitamins has proved unsuccessful.

291708

5303

Dompu cattle buffalo

9

Bima

337 1807 50 293

Source: Animal Health Section, Livestock Services, NTH

60

Discussion Based on field observations, the incidenl-e of MCF in NTB is relatively high, with an average 420 cases/year. In the last 5 years, 86% of the affected animals have been cattle. This high proportion of cattle is attributed to the fact that cattle are reared intensively and are kept with sheep, while the rearing of buffalo is more extensive with many being kept in forest areas. During the observation period, only 10% of suspected cases were submitted for histological confirmation of diagnosis. Logistical problems and lack of budget were the reasons. MCF in NTB occurs both sporadicaIly and enzooticaIly, and is closely associated with sheep. The low level of reports from Kabupaten

61

Sumbawa may be attributable to a lower level of surveillance in this district. An interesting exception to the general rule is seen in Kabupaten Dompu, where official figures indicate there are no sheep present, but the prevalence of MCF is stiIl quite high. There should be a specific investigation of this apparent anomaly. As noted, the planning of the future livestock development of NTB is based on the principle of keeping cattle and sheep separate. This approach has the support of government and farmers. Control of outbreaks is supervised by field officers of the Livestock Services Section, who oversee the compulsory slaughter of affected animals. Such animals lose 75% of their cash value, and so the disease represents a serious financial loss to the farmer.

Pathology and Differential Diagnosis

The Pathology of Malignant Catarrhal Fever R.S.F. Campbell*

African wildebeest-associated syndrome (WA-MCF) is linked conclusively with a bovine herpesvirus (B HV -3 or AHV -1), research workers in all other parts of the world have so far failed to unlock the secret of the non-African forms. Current evidence and opinion leans to the view that the disease is not a simple host-response to infection but a complex infectious agent- host cell-immune system equation that will need the weight of contemporary technology to solve.

Abstract

As the agent for sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever is not yet isolated or identified by serological or other means, many problems with respect to the disease remain unsolved . A consideration of the pathology helps to define these problems and indicates areas where research is required. In particular, it is necessary to discover whether differences in pathology between animals, species, breeds and geographical regions are the result of host factors or of the aetiological agent. Application of modern biotechnologies to the problems of identifying the agent will resolve these questions and allow an appreciation of the pathogenesis of the disease.

General Considerations Although a superficial reading of the literature might suggest that the pathology of MCF was generally of the same character and pattern, a closer analysis shows that significant differences occur in published accounts. These do not depend on an association with either W A-MCF or SA-MCF. Within the so-called SA-MCF group, some differences are indicated that could be related to different geographic areas, different ruminant species or breeds and, even more fundamentally, to different pathogens. It should be noted that SA-MCF in Asia has been observed in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, Bos javanicus, and Bubalus bubalis. The pathology in buffalo has shown some striking differences from that in cattle (Hoffmann et al. 1984). We may therefore ask if genetic factors and, in particular, the genetic characteristics of the immune system may be responsible for some of the variations. There is little basic information on the comparative immune responses of the ruminant tribe.

Abstrak

Agen penyebab penyakit MCF yang berkaitan dengan do mba sebagai sumber infeksi belum dapat diisolasi atau diidentifikasi secara serologis atau uji lainnya, karen a masih banyak masalah dari penyakit ini yang belum dapat dipecahkan . Perubahan patologi yano ada guna membantu menerangkan masalah diatas dan membantu mengarahkan penelitian sangat dibutuhkan . Terutama dalam mempelajari perbedaan patologi diantara ternak, species, bangsa dan letak geografisnya sehingga lebih menjelaskan adanya faktor induk semang atau agen penyebab penyakitnya. Penggunaan biotehnologi canggih pada penanggulangan masalah diatas dalam menyidik agen penyebab penyakit akan menjawab pertanyaan diatas dan menjadi jelas patogenesis dari penyakit MCF ini.

Introduction Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) remains one of the major mysteries of livestock disease in the world today. While the

General Pathology of MCF Common factors in the syndrome are, in probable order of pathogenetic significance, as follows:

*Graduate School of Tropical Veterinary Science James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.

64

(i) Iymphoreticular changes; (ii) vascular lesions which are clearly dependent to some extent on (i); and (iii) epithelial lesions. Descrip tions from all parts of the world contain elements of this triad, although the degree of involvement of these tissues and the precise nature of the changes may vary from outbreak to outbreak. Good general accounts are given by Berkman et al. (1960), Selman et al. (1974), and in buffalo by Hoffmann et al. (1984).

Macro scopi c Patho logy MCF can often be diagnosed clinically on the basis of the following criteria: contact with small ruminants; usually a low morbidity rate; a very high case mortality rate; respiratory catarrh, conjunctivitis and corneal opacity; (v) enlarged lymph nodes; and (vi) erosions which may be present in the respiratory and alimentary mucosae.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Of course, in some areas it may be necessary to differe ntiate foot-an d-mout h disease , rinderp est, mucos al disease , infecti ous rhinotracheitis, lembra na disease, and lantana toxicity among others, but the case mortality rate, usually 100%, is particularly striking. Most writers comme nt on a comple x of postmortem changes that includes the lesions already listed plus swelling of internal organs, foci of interstitial 'inflammation' in solid organs such as kidney and liver, and haemorrhages in the intestine and bladder. Arthritis may be present. To emphasise that sharp differences can occur it should be noted that an Indonesian study (Hoffmann et al. 1984) found a high (100%) prevalence of epicard ial haemorrhages with myocarditis. A comparative study of MCF in the United States, Europe and Austral ia of material from Bos taurus, Bos javanicus, bison and deer did not show similar severe lesions (Campbell, unpublished data).

Histo patho logy It is in the area of microscopic pathology that the similar ities and differe nces betwee n outbreaks are most apparent. Only the principal changes will be described here: a. Lymphorecticular tissues: Several groups of workers (Selman et al. 1974; Hoffmann et a1. 1984) have commented on the lack of follicular hyperplasia and germinal centre formation in lymph nodes, while at the same time finding marked activity in the paracortical T -lymphocyte areas and intense macrophage activity in the sinusoids. An occasional finding in Indonesian materia l was focal necrosi s and fibrino id deposition in the deeper cortical areas. b. Cardiovascular system: In the Indonesian study of buffalo by Hoffmann et al. (1984), emphasis was given to cardiac haemorrhage, pericar ditis, myocar ditis and calcific ation, features that were usually not marked in material examin ed by most authors . The extent of myocardial degeneration and Iymphoreticular infiltration was sometimes very severe in that species. All reports of WA-M CF and SA-MC F, however, gave emphas is to change s in the peripheral circulation. This generalised vasculitis of arteriol es and venules usually involve d lymphocytic infiltration, although one account of the disease in Bos taurus in Britain (Selman et al. 1974) emphasised polymorphonuclears. Some descrip tions (Liggit t and de Martin i 1980a; Hoffmann et a1. 1984) indicated that the adventitial layer was most severely affected, although medial and intimal lesions may occur and endothelial cells can hypertrophy or even prolife rate. Some differe nces emerge from descriptions of fibrinoid necrosis which was most marked in the material of Selman et al. (1974). Such lesions are widespread throughout the body, though greatest attention has been given to those in the brain, kidney, liver, heart, serosae and carotid rete. In the parenchymatous organs they may be associated with degenerative and infiltrative changes, hence the focal lesions that may be visible in the kidneys at autopsy as pale areas a few millimetres in diameter. c. Epithelial membranes: The upper and lower alimentary tract, biliary system, urinary bladder and choroid plexus are the preferred sites of change. Skin lesions may be present in natural 65

A vanatlon to this pattern was found by Selman et al. (1974) whose MCF material contained vascular lesions dominated by polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Careful consideration of the cytology of MCF was given by Liggitt and de Martini (1980a), who compared the lesions with Arthus reactions, host-graft rejection phenomena and lymphocyte-associated vasculopathies. On a cytological basis alone, they concluded that SA-MCF most closely resembled host-graft rejection lesions and some viral infections with marked lymphoid responses rather than other reactions which are dominated by acute neutrophil and plasma cell infiltrations. Such an interpretation takes no account of possible species or breed differences in immunological phenomena and it may be premature to assume the nature of the basic immunopathology of SA-MCF.

but not experimental cases (Liggitt and de Martini 1980b). This is another aspect of pathology that may vary widely in different outbreaks. Erosive lesions were common in Holstein cattle in the United States (Liggiu and de Martini 1980b) but relatively uncommon, only in about 8-14%, in affected Indonesian buffalo. The basic epithelial lesion is a multifocal intraepithelial necrosis that may take the form of a microvesicle and lead to frank superficial erosions. The predominant reactive cell is the lymphocyte. Like all other MCF lesions the erosions intensify as the disease progresses.

Pathogenesis In the absence of a known pathogen It IS difficult to understand the pathogenesis of SA-MCF. A knowledge of general pathology may offer some clues, but even these may be confused by differences in the immunological responses of different species and breeds of ruminant. This possibility has received little attention. Common to all descriptions of MCF are certain anatomical distributions and cellular responses. A number of questions are easily raised.

(iii) Do ephithelial lesions result from direct viral action? There is no evidence to support this view and the predominance of lymphoid cells indicates the possibility of some immunological process (Liggitt and de Martini 1980b). Alternatively, epithelial degeneration could relate to post-vasculitis infarction (Rweyemamu et al. 1976).

(i) Does SA-MCF result from direct viral cytolysis?

(iv) Is SA-MCF an expression of cell-associated virus?

Despite intensive cultural, electronmicroscopic and serological investigations, no consistent evidence of viral activity has been obtained from European, American, Asian or Australian studies.

Some of Koch's postulates can be confirmed with MCF. The disease can be transmitted and even passaged not only to large ruminants but also to rabbits. Only isolation and appropriate serological identification remain elusive. Current knowledge suggests that we must dig more deeply at the molecular level to solve the mystery of SA-MCF pathogenesis. The virologist mu st team up with the biochemist and explore the genome of lymphocyte populations and epithelia to determine if viral sequences can be found in cellular DNA. Experience suggests that herpesviruses are prime candidates but it should be noted that retroviruses (the notorious AIDS agents) have occasionally been isolated from MCF cases.

(ii) Does SA-MCF contain an immunopathological component? The majority of researchers emphasise a lymphocytic response in the perivasculitis, and poss ibly stimulation of T-Iymphocyte sets judging by the distribution of activity in the paracortical areas of lymph nodes. The role of T-Iymphocytes has been further supported by Reid et al. (1983), who isolated a cytotoxic T-Iymphocyte line from a rabbit infected with SA-MCF material. The possible role of the abundant macrophages in lymph nodes and other lesions is still unknown.

66

The technology now available will probably ensure that we will understand the pathogenesis of SA-MCF within 5 years. It should not be forgotten, however, that sheep and possibly other small ruminants are an essential link in the epidemiological chain of MCF, acting as subclinical carriers of the pathogenic agent. The key to the control of MCF may therefore be not in the use of vaccines, but in the simple management of large and small ruminants as separate production systems.

(Bubalus bubalis). Australian Veterinary Iournal, 61, 108-112. Liggitt, H.D., and de Martini, I.C. 1980a. The pathomorphology of malignant catarrhal fever. I. Generalized lymphoid vasculitis. Veterinary Pathology, 17, 58-72. Liggitt, H.D., and de Martini, I .C. 1980b. The pathomorphology of malignant catarrhal fever. II. Multisystemic epithelial lesions. Veterinary Pathology, 17, 73-83. Reid, H.W., Buxton, D., Pow, I., Finlayson, I ., and Berrie, E.L. 1983. A cytotoxic T -lymphocyte cell line from a rabbit infected with sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever. Research in Veterinary Science, 34, 109-113. Rweyemamu, M.M., Mushi E.Z. , Rowe, L., and Karstad L. 1976. Persistent infection of cattle with the herpesvirus of malignant catarrhal fever and observations on the pathogenesis of the disease. British Veterinary Iournal, 132, 393. Selman, I.E., Wiseman, A ., Murray, M., and Wright, N.G. 1974. A clinicopathological study of bovine malignant catarrhal fever in Great Britain. Veterinary Record, 94, 483-490.

References Berkman, R.N., Barner, R.D., Morrill C.C., and Langham E.R . 1960. Bovine malignant catarrhal fever in Michigan. II. Pathology. American Iournal of Veterinary Research, 21, 1015-1026. Hoffmann, D., Soeripto, S ., Sobironingsih, S., Campbell, R.S.F., and Clarke, B.C. 1984. The clinicopathology of a malignant catarrhal fever syndrome in the Indonesia swamp buffalo

67

Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Bali Cattle M.P. Young*, Sudarismant, P.L. Young§ Purnomo Ronohardjot and P.W. Danielst

menempatkan sapi agar kontak dengan domba beranak, kemudian dengan transfusi darah hewan penderita ke sapi lain, timbul sindroma yang berlainan pada kedua kelompok hewan percobaan terse but. Kalau dibandingkan antara hewan yang sakit spontan dengan hewan percobaan gejala opasitas kornea, leleran hidung profus mukopurulenta dan vaskulitis nekrotikan tidak begitu jelas; semen tara itu perubahan gastro intestinal, terutama pada abomasum dan usus halus terjadi sangat parah pada yang sakit spontan . Mengingat kejadian SA -MCF pada sapi Bali prevalensinya tinggi, karenanya mengenal sindrom penyakit secara baik sangat diperlukan agar diagnosa tepat dapat diperoleh.

Abstract Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) follows the broad clinicopathological course described for SA-MCF in other breeds, being characterised by fever, depression, lymph node enlargement and lymphoproliferative changes, variably severe involvement of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, consistently severe conjunctivitis, and 100% mortality. In a study in which SA-MCF was induced by placing cattle in contact with lambing small ruminants, and then by blood transfusions from affected cattle to other cattle, somewhat different syndromes developed in the two groups of animals. In the spontaneous cases as compared with the inoculated group, the diagnostic features of corneal opacity, profuse mucopurulent nasal discharge and necrotising vasculitis were not prominent, while the gastrointestinal change s, particularly of the abomasum and intestines, were more severe. SA-MCF occurs with a high prevalence in Bali cattle in Indonesia, and familiarity with the full range of possible syndromes is necessary to allow accurate diagnoses to be reached.

Introduction A clinicopathological syndrome of Bali cattle (Bos javanicus), Bos indicus cattle and swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) consistent with sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) has been recognised in Indonesia for many years (Mansjoer 1954; Ginting 1979; Anon. 1982; Ramachandran et al. 1982; Hoffmann et aI. 1984). The disease is usually of low population morbidity and a reported 100% case mortality. In most cases, an association with sheep has been demonstrated. Features of the disease in Bali cattle have been described by Ginting (1979), and a brief description given by Ramachandran et al. (1982). SA-MCF may be readily transmitted to susceptible Bali cattle by blood transfusion (Ramachandran et al. 1982; Sudarisman et aI. 1985). Sudarisman et al. (1985) described MCF in Bali cattle placed in contact with lambing small ruminants , and the successful passage of the disease to other Bali cattle by intravenous inoculations of large volumes of blood collected in the early stages of the febrile response. It was believed that the development of MCF after

Abstrak Gambaran kliniko -patologi SA-MCF pada sapi Bali (B os javanicus) mirip dengan apa yang ditulis untuk hewan lain seperti demam, depresi, pembesaran kelenjar pertahanan dan perubahan proliferasif, perubahan yang bervariasi pad a alat pemafasan, gastro intestinal dan saluran urinaria, konjungtivitis hebat secara konsisten, dan diahiri dengan kematian. Dalam studi SA-MCF dengan cara *c/- Department of Veterinary Pathology and Public Health, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Australia. t Research Institute for Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 52, Bogor, Indonesia . § Animal Research Institute, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane, Australia.

68

not related to the source of infection, either spontaneous or blood inoculation. Lesions were most consistently observed in the lymphoreticular, urinary, respiratory and alimentary systems, in that order. All lymph nodes were enlarged, oedomatous, congested and locally haemorrhagic. Peyer's patches and the palatine tonsils were prominent. The spleen was slightly enlarged and the lymphoid follicles were prominent in all cases. The mucosa of the urinary bladder and ureters was reddened, thickened and oedomatous with petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages. Renal lesions were not always present. Infarcts or discrete, raised, pale foci up to 2 mm in diameter were observed in some cases. Congestion and oedema, and serous exudation from the nasal mucosa, septum and turbinates were observed in most animals. In more severely affected animals, there was a more copious mucopurulent nasal exudate and the pharyngeal, laryngeal and tracheal mucosae were congested and oedomatous. Erosive and ulcerative lesions were observed. Pulmonary changes were variable and non-specific, including slight focal consolidation, emphysema and oedema. The conical papillae of the cheek were congested and the tips eroded, ulcerated or necrotic. Similar changes were observed on the inside of the lips and on the gingiva and palates. Ulceration and congestion of the mucosae of the lower alimentary tract, particularly of the abomasum, were important features of the disease. In this aspect the spontaneous disease tended to be more severe than the experimental. A higher proportion showed oedema, ulceration and severe inflammation of the abomasum. In the experimental cases petechial haemorrhages were seen rather than inflammation. Inflammation and ulceration were more severe in the small intestine of the spontaneous cases, and inflammation of Peyer's patches more severe. Small reddened fibrous tags were present on the superficial part of the greater omentum. Similar tags were present on the epicardium along the longitudinal and coronary grooves. Livers were congested and petechia were commonly found on the gall bladder mucosae. Focal petechial haemorrhages were observed at the corticomedullary junction of the adrenal gland in some cases. Slight cerebral and

exposure to the sheep represented natural disease. The clinical and postmortem findings are summarised in this paper as an aid in the differential diagnosis of MCF and similar diseases in Bali cattle.

Clinical Signs In the four spontaneous cases of SA-MCF, the incubation period ranged from 9 to 15 weeks following exposure to the lambing small ruminants. Fever, inappetence and depression were the initial and most commonly observed clinical signs. Superficial lymph nodes were enlarged and readily palpable throughout the disease course. In a few cases, lymph nodes were visible as protuberances beneath the skin. Ocular lesions were among the most prominent features of the clinical disease. There was reddening and oedema of the conjunctiva, congestion of scleral blood vessels, photophobia and a mild serous ocular discharge. Corneal opacity developed later in the course of the disease in one animal, beginning as a narrow white line at the limbus. It did not progress to involve the entire cornea. Profuse yellow mucopurulent nasal discharges were not seen in these animals. Congestion of the nasal and oral mucosae and mild erosive lesions of the tips of buccal papillae were also observed, becoming more severe in some cases to involve large areas of the oral mucosa. Saliva accumulated at the commissures of the lips. These Bali cattle died or became moribund between 4 and 11 days after the onset of clinical signs. The animals in the whole blood transmission experiments had a shorter incubation period of 13-29 days, but a more variable clinical course of disease ranging from 5-21 days. Corneal opacity was observed in four of five cases resulting from first blood passages, progressing to staphyloma in one case. Mucopurulent nasal discharges were common and were profuse and yellow in two cases. Sloughing of the skin of the muzzle occurred in one animal.

Gross Pathology There was marked variation in both distribution and severity of gross lesions among the animals, and for most lesion categories the severity was

69

hydropic degeneration, focal acantholysis and ballooning degeneration of epithelial cells accompanied the mononuclear infiltrate in the squamous epithelia in more severe cases. Central nervous system. Nearly all cases were affected, but with varying degrees of severity unrelated to mode of infection. In less severely affected cases, lesions were confined mainly to the white matter, but were present throughout the brain. Perivascular cuffing with mononuclear cells of mixed type consisting of small lymphocytes, Iymphoblasts and large pleomorphic mononuclear cells was the most evident lesion. Oedema, focal gliosis and perivascular haemorrhage were also present. Involvement of larger vessels was seen only in the meninges and supporting tissues, and there necrosis of the tunica media sometimes occurred. Non-suppurative meningitiS and focal mononuclear infiltration of the choroid plexus were observed in many cases. Heart. Vasculitis, serofibrinous epicarditis and myocardial degeneration were found to a variable degree in most cases. Other organs. Lesions in the joints were characterised by mild perivascular accumulations of mononuclear cells together with mild hyperplasia of the synovial epithelium. Mononuclear cell infiltration was also observed in the adrenals, hypothesis, kidney and liver.

cerebellar oedema and congestion of meningeal vessels was common.

Histopathology The characteristic lesions of SA-MCF in Bali cattle were found in arteries and arterioles of most organs, lymphoid tissues and epithelial surfaces throughout the body. Blood vessels . Small and medium-sized arteries, arterioles, capillaries and companion veins in most tissues and organs were affected. Changes were similar in all organs, but were particularly severe in the rete mirabile epidurale, brain, pampiniform plexus of the testes, kidney, adrenal and urinary bladder. Mild perivascular cuffing, oedema, haemorrhage and the accumulation of mononuclear cells in the adventitia were the most commonly observed changes. Vasculitis with mononuclear cell infiltration of the media, haemorrhage and medial fibrinoid necrosis was rarely observed in the spontaneous cases of SA-MCF, but was frequent in experimental transmissions. Intimal lesions including subintimal oedema, subendothelial accumulation of mononuclear cells, fibrinoid material and inflammatory debris, and endothelial cell hypertrophy were generally observed in association with either adventitial or medial involvement in experimental transmissions. Lymph nodes. Oedema, congestion and moderate to marked vasculitis of the hilar and capsular vessels were observed in lymph nodes. Degenerative and necrotic changes of the capsule and trabeculae were present in a few cases. Cortical and paracortical zones of lymph nodes were obscured by an active proliferation of small lymphocytes, Iymphoblasts and reticulum cells. In the medullary and subcapsular sinuses there were well-differentiated macrophages, and Iymphoblasts. Epithelial lesions. These were present in the oral and nasal mucosae, gastrointestinal tract, gall bladder, urinary bladder and ureters, skin, joints, ducts of salivary glands and pancreas, and lung. Perivascular and focal interstitial mononuclear cell accumulations, interstitial oedema and vasculitis were present in the lamina propria. Focal accumulations of mononuclear cells were present in the basal layers of the epithelium. Epithelial necrosis and sloughing,

Discussion Animals in the series showed clinical signs and pathological changes as reported in classical descriptions of MCF (Barker and Van Dreumel 1985). The case fatality rate was 100%, and fever, lymph node enlargement, ocular changes and, to some extent, upper respiratory tract involvement, were consistently observed. The abomasum and the urinary bladder showed gross pathological changes in nearly every case. Lymphoproliferative changes were a histological feature, and necrotising vasculitis was present in some tissues in some cases. Hence, the diagnosis of MCF can be substantiated. However, there was a tendency for the two modes of exposure to be associated with variations in the clinicopathological syndrome. In particular, differences in the severity of the ocular and nasal lesions and the lesions in the abomasum and intestines were observed between

70

manifestations of this disease throughout the country. Variations in syndromes among series of SA-MCF cases have occurred elsewhere. For example, in the United States one series of cases was characterised by severe upper respiratory tract involvement, lesions of the abomasum and corneal opacity (Berkman and Barner 1958; Berkman et at. 1960), while another series from New Zealand showed marked diarrhoea, and corneal opacity in only a very few cases (James et at. 1975). Both series of cases had a fibrinoid necrotising vasculitis. In the buffalo described by Hoffmann et at. (1984), the vasculitis had no fibrinoid component and, as in the present spontaneous cases from the same location, was not usually marked by necrosis and infiltration of the vessel walls. The differences may be breed or species effects, but a wide range of cases from various locations is needed for study. Identification of the causes of variation between cases may give information on the factors contributing to the disease itself.

the two groups. The importance of the observation lies in the fact that corneal opacity and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract are readily visible changes clinically and at necropsy, and so considerable reliance may be placed upon these features when reaching a diagnosis. A statistically significant difference between groups is not implied, but the results do illustrate clearly that MCF need not be accompanied by corneal opacity, and that it may show a severely haemorrhagic gastrointestinal tract. The usefulness of studying the vessels of the rete mirabile as recommended by Liggiu and de Martini (1980) has been confirmed. It is recommended that this tissue be examined in all cases where MCF is suspected or where it could be considered in the differential diagnosis. It was noted that the histological changes in the blood vessels were less severe in the spontaneous cases. Fibrinoid lesions were seen only in cases induced by blood transfusion, as was occlusion of vessel lumens. Necrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration of vessel walls were not features of several cases. Hence, reliance on necrosis and cellular infiltration of the tunica media in the vasculature of parenchymal organs as a pathognomonic lesion in the histological diagnosis of MCF may lead to confusion. Not only may this lesion be difficult to demonstrate in some cases of SA-MCF, but it also occurs in some cases of bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) viral infections in other bovine species (Barker and Van Dreumel 1985). The animals described in this report were only a small sample of the hundreds that die each year in Indonesia of SA-MCF. The syndromes reported were derived from the one source of infection under two different regimes of exposure. The range of syndromes that may be observed in association with other sources of infection under varying conditions of exposure cannot be predicted. The factors that lead to variation among cases are not known, but may include strain differences in the infectious agent, effects of dose, intercurrent infections, genetic susceptibility, and immunological or stress factors. Spontaneous disease may not always show less obvious clinical signs than textbook descriptions, but it should be appreciated that this may happen. A register of cases would be a useful step in defining the spectrum of

Acknowledgments The senior author is a postgraduate student at James Cook University, Townsville. Dr P.L. Young was supported by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau and Dr P.W. Daniels by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) . The study was financed by the collaborative research project on the Aetiology and Epidemiology of Malignant Catarrhal Fever conducted by ACIAR and the Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development.

References Anon.1982. Penyelidikan Penyakit Ingusan (Malignant Catarrhal Fever) di Kabupaten Banyuwangi, Jawa Timur. Report, Tim Penyelidik BPPH VI, Denpasar. 28 p. (Indonesian) Barker, I.K., and Van Dreumel, A.A. 1985 . The alimentary system. In: Jubb, K.V.F., Kennedy., P.C., and Palmer, N., Eds. Pathology of Domestic Animals, 3rd Edition, Volume 2. London Academic Press . 1-239.

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Berkman. R.N .• and Barner. R.D. (1958). Bovine malignant catarrhal fever. I. Its occurrence in Michigan. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 132. 243-248. Berkman. R.W .• Barner. R.D .• Morrill. C.C .• and Langham. R.F. 1960. Bovine malignant catarrhal fever in Michigan. II. Pathology. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 21. 1015-1026. Ginting. N. 1979. Kasus penyakit ingusan (bovine malignant catarrh) pada sapi Bali di Jawa Barat. Bulletin L.P.P.H.. 11 (Number 17). 7-22. (Indonesian. English Abstract) Hoffmann. D .• Soeripto. S .• Sobironingsih. S .• Campbell. R.S.F .• and Clark. B.C. 1984. The c1inicopathology of a malignant catarrhal fever syndrome in the Indonesian swamp buffalo (Buba/us buba/is). Australian Veterinary Journal. 61. 108-112. James. M.P .• Neilson. F.J.A.. and Stewart. W.J. 1975. An epizootic of malignant catarrhal fever. 1. Clinical and pathological observations. New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 23. 9-12.

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Liggitt. H.D .• and De Martini. J.C. 1980. The pathomorphology of malignant catarrhal fever . I. Generalized lymphoid vasculitis. Veterinary Pathology. 17. 58-72. Mansjoer. 1954. Penyelidikan Tentang Penyakit Ingusan pada Sapi dan Kerbau di Indonesia Terutama di Pulau Lombok. Disertasi. Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan dan Peternakan. Universitas Indonesia. Bogor. 189 p. (Indonesian. English Abstract) Ramachandran. S .• Malole. M .• Rifuliadi. D .• and Safriati. T. 1982. Experimental reproduction of malignant catarrhal fever in Bali cattle (B os sondaicus). Australian Veterinary Journal. 58. 169-170. Sudarisman. Daniels. P.W .• Young. P.L .• Wiyono. A .• Young. M.P .• Dharsana. R. and Ronohardjo. P. 1985. Epidemiological aspects of the control and prevention of malignant catarrhal fever in Indonesia. In: Proceedings. 4th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics. Singapore Veterinary Association. Singapore. 230-232.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever as Compared with Other Diseases of Bali Cattle, with Special Reference to Jembrana Disease Soeharsono·

condition. The presence of wild Bali cattle elsewhere in Indonesia and in the Northern Territory of Australia is an indication of their adaptability. The rapid increase in numbers of Bali cattle distributed by the Small Holder Cattle Development Project (an IFAD/World Bank Project) in transmigration areas in Sumatra revealed that this breed is the most highly prized of Indonesian cattle. The superior productive capacity of Bali cattle is balanced a little by a susceptiblity to several diseases. In the order of perceived economic importance the diseases are Jembrana disease (JD), malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS). MCF should be carefully differentiated from JD, bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) and HS. This paper describes some differences between MCF and other diseases of Bali cattle on the basis of epidemiology, pathology and aetiology.

Abstract

Bali cattle have a reputation in Indonesia for superior productivity under many of the environmental conditions found in that country. For this reason, they are distributed widely in agricultural development projects. However, Bali cattle are susceptible to certain diseases, particularly Iembrana disease, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) and haemorrhagic septicaemia. Problems of differential diagnosis can arise, but if attention is paid to the epidemiology, the clinical signs and gross pathology, and to laboratory findings, these diseases can be distinguished. Abstrak

Sapi Bali di Indonesia terkenal unggul dalam hal produktifitas dibawah kondisi-kondisi lingkungan setempat. Karena itu sapi-sapi tersebut disebar secara meluas pada proyek-proyek pengembangan pertanian. Tetapi sapi Bali peka terhadap penyakit tertentu, khususnya penyakit Iembrana, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) dan haemorrhagic septicaemia. Permasalahan dalam diagnosa banding yang muncul meminta kita untuk mencurahkan perhatian pada epidemiologi, gejala klinik dan gambaran patologi, sehingga penemuan laboratorium terhadap penyakit-penyakit tersebut dapat dibedakan.

Jembrana Disease Compared with MCF Epidemiology (i) Distribution

The first outbreak of JD was reported in the district of Jembrana in Bali in December 1964 (Pranoto and Pudjiastono 1967). Within a few months, the disease spread to neighbouring districts and, by August 1965, all eight districts of the island were affected. In 1976, a disease affecting Bali callie that could not be differentiated from JD appeared in Lampung, Sumatra. The disease was first called Seputih Raman disease (Soeharsono and Darmadi 1976), but subsequently became known as Rama Dewa disease. In 1978, a similar disease was reported

Introduction Bali cattle, which are believed to be directly descended from the wild banteng (B 0 s sondaicus), are regarded as the best of the indigenous callie in Indonesia in terms of reproductive performance and ability to thrive in poor conditions. The cattle are said to possess 'pioneering vigour', and survi ve in the feral *Bali Cattle Disease Investigation Unit (BCDIU), Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.

73

among Bali cattle and Rambon cattle (Bali-Bos indicus crossbred cattle) in Banyuwangi, East Java. Further severe outbreaks of JD in Bali were reported in 1974 and 1981. JD is at present confined to the island of Bali. Nowadays JD is endemic in Bali. In Lampung, sporadic cases of Rama Dewa disease are still reported, but no more information is available concerning the disease resembling JD in Banyuwangi. The distribution of MCF among Bali cattle is wider than that of JD. It has been recorded in Sumatra (including Lampung), West Jawa, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara. (ii) Susceptible Animals

In contrast, MCF is very difficult to transmit artificially. Artificial transmission from a sick animal to a healthy one is possible by inoculation with large amounts of blood through the intravenous route. The evidence suggests that MCF is usually associated with the presence or close association with either sheep or wildebeest. In JD those animals are not necessarily present. (iv) Morbidity and Case Fatality Rate In the early outbreak of JD in the 1960s, the morbidity rate as well as the case fatality rate was very high. However, JD is no longer a mass-killing disease, but it still occurs enzootically with a morbidity rate of 10-40% and a case fatality rate of 10-20%. Prolonged observation of JD experimental animals in the 1970s disclosed that relapses can occur 2- 5 times. In the field, the second relapse often caused sudden death. In Bali, MCF is sporadic. In the rural areas, the morbidity rate is perhaps less than 1%. Recovery of animals with clinical MCF has never been reported, and the case fatality rate is therefore nearly 100%.

Only Bali cattle are susceptible to JD. During the first outbreak in 1964, buffalo were reported to have died, but no postmortem or laboratory examination was carried out (Pranoto and Pudjiastono 1967). To date , no laboratory animal has been found to be susceptible to JD. Bali cattle are perhaps the animals most susceptible to MCF. Their inability to survive in West Jawa (where sheep are abundant) suggested that Bali cattle are more susceptible to MCF than ongoles and buffalo. The outbreak of MCF among wild Banteng in San Diego Wild Animal Park (Hatkin 1980) revealed that these animals are also very susceptible to wildebeest-associated MCF. However, all breeds of callIe are apparently susceptible to MCF to some degree. MCF has also been diagnosed in deer in Indonesia by the DIC Region VI, Denpasar, in cases from Surabaya zoo and from Kupang.

The gross pathology of JD as seen in the 1960s and 1970s was characterised by extensive haemorrhages in various organs, leading to early descriptions of the disease as 'rinderpest-like disease'. At present, the pathological changes are much milder. The differences between JD and MCF are summarised in Table 1.

(iii) Mode o/Transmission

Aetiology

Observation of field cases of JD suggests that the di sease is most probably transmitted by vectors. The role of a vector is still under investigation by the BCDIU, Denpasar, with the help of an entomology team from the Bogor Veterinary School (lPB). Artificial transmission of JD can be carried out easily by inoculation with heparinised blood, or suspensions of spleen or lymph nodes from diseased animals, by either the subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal or intravenous routes. Macrophage cultures from Jembrana-diseased animals can also transmit JD parentally.

The causal agent of JD is currently thought to be an Ehrlichia sp. The agent can be isolated in macrophage cultures of diseased cattle. Attempts to isolate the agent through laboratory animals and various other cell cultures have been unsuccessful. Serum samples from an Ehrlichia bovis endemic area in Zimbabwe, when tested against JD antigen from macrophage culture, showed positive complement-fixing antibody. Attempted isolation of the agent through murine macrophage cultures is still under study. The aetiology of MCF has been clearly defined as a bovine herpesvirus.

74

Pathology

Table 1. The comparative pathology of Jembrana disease and malignant catarrhal fever.

Bovine Ephemeral Fever Compared with MCF BEF occurs sporadically among Bali cattle in Bali. During the field investigations of JD by the BCDIU team, some cases which were reported as JD by animal health assistants were revealed to be BEF by close clinical observations. The rise of temperature and anorexia of BEF could not be differentiated from early signs of JD and MCF. The stiffness or lameness seen in BEF was not found in MCF. Mortality due to BEF in Bali cattle has never been reported. The affected animals recover spontaneously within 3-4 days.

Clinical signs and postmortem observations

JD

Corneal opacity Haemorrhage, anterior chamber of the eye Oral ulceration Nasal discharge

Yes No Occasionally No

Blood sweating Enlargement of spleen and lymph nodes Endocardial and subendocardial haemorrhage Haemorrhage of serosa of abomasum, rumen and intestine Linear haemorrhages in rectal mucosa Encephalitis Vascular wall changes Endotheliosis

Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Compared with MCF In Bali, HS is endemic, affecting buffalo, pigs and Bali cattle. An acute case of HS followed by sudden death in Bali cattle in Bali could be confused with JD or MCF. In HS, the postmortem changes in the lungs are prominent (bronchopneumonia, hepatisation), whereas in JD the changes in the lungs are minimal. A definitive diagnosis of HS can be made by isolation of Pasteurella multocida from blood, oedema fluid and organs of affected animals.

MCF

Yes Seromucous No smell Yes Yes

Yes Mucopurulent Bad smell No Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No No Yes

Yes Yes No

Source: BCDIU progress report January- April 1985 (Ressang et al. 1985).

JD. As Bali cattle have been chosen by the government as 'pioneering cattle' for distribution to new areas, they should receive more attention, especially with respect to disease prevention.

Conclusions Bali cattle, which are very productive for farmers, are very susceptible to certain diseases such as JD, MCF, and HS. Knowledge about disease management for JD and MCF is still minimal. As a result those two diseases are difficult to control. Lack of knowledge of epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology of Bali cattle diseases by animal health assistants in the field could lead to misdiagnosis. Careful examination of clinical signs is useful for separating BEF from JD and MCF. Correct specimens for histopathological examination are necessary to differentiate MCF from JD or HS . For bacterial isolation, especially in HS-suspected cases, immediate submission of specimens should be attempted by the investigator. The laboratory at the DIC, Denpasar, is able to diagnose MCF, HS and

Recommendations To improve the health care of Bali cattle the following recommendations are made. 1. Research on Bali cattle diseases should be a continuing program carried out by a permanent institute. 2. The priorities for Bali cattle disease research are JD, MCF and HS, in that order. 3. The place for the Bali cattle Research Unit should be close to the diseases. Denpasar would be the correct place.

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References Hatkin, J. 1980. Endemic malignant Catarrhal Fever at the San Diego Wild Animal Park. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 16, 439-443. Pranoto, R. A., and Pudjiastono. 1967. An outbreak of a highly infectious disease in cattle and buffalo on the island of Bali. Folia Vet Elveka, I, 10-53.

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Ressang, A. A., Budiarso, I. T., Hartaningsih, N., Leestyawati, N W, Mulyanto, P., Soeharsono, and Soetrisno. 1985. Jembrana Disease and malignant Catarrhal Fever in Bali. In: Progress Report, Bali Cattle Disease Investigation Unit (BCDIU). January-April, 1985. Denpasar. 9-14 . Soeharsono and Darmadi, P . 1976 . Percobaan pengobatan penyakit 'Seputih Raman' dengan antibiotika pada sapi Bali di Kabupaten Lampung Tengah. Jakarta, Direktorat Kesehatan Hewan.

The Differential Diagnosis of Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Indonesia D. Unruh, Budi Tri Akoso and Sudarto, W.*

then try to establish cause. The effects may be any of clinicopathological, population, or production effects. Based on the most prominent of these effects, several potential causes are hypothesised (differential diagnoses). These potential causes are differentiated and eliminated on the basis of evidence at hand, to come to a specific cause for the effects observed. Confirmation for cause may be sought by seeking further evidence or carrying out specific laboratory tests. Both groups, those involved in research and those involved in diagnosis, are interdependent. The researcher is dependent on the diagnostician for information on effects that are being observed in the field and the laboratory, particularly for those effects for which the cause is not clearly established, in order to establish the direction of research. The diagnostician on the other hand is dependent on the researcher for information on new causes and their specific effects in order to improve his ability to differentiate diseases in the field. This paper, besides presenting some differential features of MCF, will attempt to illustrate the need for interaction between the two groups.

Abstract The differential diagnosis of diseases with similarities to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in Indonesia is presented. The subject is approached on the basis of clinical, macropathological and histopathological features. Some of the current problems associated with histological diagnosis are discussed, with special reference to MCF and trypanosomiasis . Studies on field material are presented.

Abstrak Diferensial diagnosa dari penyakit-penyakit yang mempunyai persamaan dengan MCF di Indonesia didiskusikan. Pendekatannya melalui dasar-dasar gambaran klinis, gambaran neuropatologi dan gambaran histopatologi . Beberapa risalah baru sehubungan dengan diagnosa secara histologis didiskusikan, dengan tekanan pad a MCF dan trypanosomiasis. Pengamatan material lapangan juga disajikan.

Introduction The feature that binds veterinarians involved in research and veterinarians involved in diagnosis is an interest in the scientific process of establishing cause-and-effect relationships. The difference between these two groups is in the approach to establishing cause-and-effect relationships. Veterinary researchers usually work first from hypothesised causes which they experimentally try to control and then study the effects. Veterinary diagnosticians, on the other hand, working either in the field or in the laboratory, usually move in the reverse direction. They usually study effects first and *Disease Investigation 10gjakarta, Indonesia.

Centre

Region

MCF: the Clinicopathological Entity on Java MCF is a familiar disease to veterinary laboratory staff and prominent among field submissions to the Disease Investigation Centre (DIC) at Jogjakarta, as indicated in the proportional histopathological diagnoses of large ruminant submissions (Tables 1 and 2). MCF in Indonesia can be described in relation to its various effects. These are usually as classically described.

IV,

77

Table 2. Distribution of MCF cases by species and breed.

Population Effects MCF as described in European and North American literature is said to occur sporadically with a very high case fatality rate. The latter appears to be true on Java as well. Our experience indicates that the occurrence of the disease in Indonesia is more than sporadic. We have at different times seen several cases of MCF occurring in a small radius of a few kilometres, at the same point in time. In one instance, all buffalo (2) on one farm were clinically affected. Tables 1 and 2 indicate that the proportional mortality rate due to MCF is around 8%, which also suggests that the disease is more than sporadic on Java. A possible better description of the population effect on Java is low to moderate incidence rather than sporadic. From our data from Java (Table 2), we can say little about differences in breed susceptibilities, as the quantity of our diagnostic records is still too limited. Table 2 may indicate that there are differences in susceptibilities between local buffalo and buffalo imported from Australia. However, in the imported group there are disproportionately high numbers of stress-related conditions, and local diseases to which the imported animals had not previously been exposed. This in all likelihood accounts for the relatively low proportional mortality rate in the imported group.

Species/ breed

Cattle Total MCF Submissions

E. Java 131 C. Java 13 W. Java 14 Jogjakarta 4 Jakarta 6

15 0 1 0 0

%

12 0 7 0 0

Buffalo Total MCF Submissions 143 14 2 6 0

11 0 0 0 0

MCF cases

93 12 26 9 66 97

8 1 0 0 8

Local Bos indicus Bali and Madura Cattle Friesian-Holsteins Brahman Local Buffalo Buffalo ex Australia

(Based on Pathological Submissions to DIC Jogjakarta November 1985 to July 1986).

C lini co p at h ologica l

Effects

Based on our field observations of MCF cases in Indonesia, we would divide the clinicopathological effects into two groups: those that are more prominent and those that are less. (a) The most prominent clinicopathological changes (those most frequently present in field cases or most easily observed by field personnel on either clinical or postmortem examination) (i) Ocular: • photophobia • lachrymation leading to mucopurulent discharge • severe conjunctival hyperaemia • keratitis (corneal opacity) (ii) Upper Respiratory: • mucoid to mucopurulent discharge • erosions of the muzzle • stertor (ngorok is the Indonesian term often used) • rhinitis and laryngitis which is often necrotising

Table 1. Distribution of cattle and buffalo MCF cases by province on Java Island.

Province

Total submissions

%

(iii) Upper Gastrointestinal: • mucoid hypersalivation • erosive stomatitis • glossitis • pharyngitis • oesophagitis

8 0 0 0 0

(iv) Lymphoid: • prominent lymph node enlargement with evidence of hyperplasia (in our experience this is less prominent in buffalo)

(Based on Pathological Submissions to DIC Jogjakarta, July 1985 to July 1986).

78

cal effects. Moreover, because of shortages of veterinarians and for other reasons, diagnostic observations are often made by veterinary assistants, whose abilities to observe and interpret changes are not as good as those of veterinarians. Hence, there is often a problem of differential diagnosis and mistaken diagnosis. In the writers' experience, a variety of diseases have caused problems of differentiation with regard to MCF for field personnel. Many of these problems can be related to incomplete clinical observations. Table 3 is a list of diseases that occur or potentially occur in Indonesia that have caused confusion with MCF at field level. This list is based on the most prominent clinical and pathological changes of MCF. Included are the differential features of these diseases which, it is hoped, might be of use to field veterinarians in the future .

(v) General: • high fever • seve.·e depression (b) The less prominent clinicopathological changes (those not as frequently present, or more difficult to observe in the field) (i) Nervous: • hypermetria, terminal convulsions (ii) Cutaneous: • exanthema • cometitis of the hoof (iii) Reproductive: • vaginal erosions (usually superficial) (iv) Urinary: • hacmorrhagic cystitis • focal infiltration in the kidneys (v) Gastrointestinal: • erosive gastroenteritis

Histological

Problems of Differential Diagnosis Based on Histopathology

Effects

In our laboratory, in the absence of other diagnostic aids for MCF (which we assume to be sheep-associated), confirmation is still based on histopathology. The diagnostic feature used is vasculitis which can be described as necrotismg with fibrinoid or hyaline degeneration of vessel walls. In addition, there is infiltration of mononuclear cells around vessels. These changes can be seen in many organs. We see it most readily in the brain, but also encounter it in the lymph node medullas, spleen and kidney. Additionally, there is noted lymphoreticular hyperplasia in lymph nodes as well as nonsuppurative infiltration in liver and kidney. Necrotising vasculitis remains, however, the most characteritic change that we use to confirm MCF in our laboratory. We are relatively conservative in this regard.

In our laboratory, we find that the changes of MCF are most consistently and clearly seen in the brain, although changes may be seen also in other organs. As mentioned previously, these can best be described as a nonsuppurative encephalitis with vasculitis. In the past 2 years, we have encountered three diseases that cause nonsuppurative encephalitis in cattle and buffalo, which could cause confusion with MCF. Two have been toxoplasmosis and rabies. Although encephalitis is present in both diseases, the distinguishing features of toxoplasma pseudocysts and tachyzooites in the former and Negri bodies in the latter are present and can be used for differentiation. A third, relatively large group of 29 cases has presented some difficulty in terms of diagnosis. This group has the following characteristics. It has been confined mostly to imported buffalo that have been resident in the country for several months. There is mononuclear cell infiltration in meninges and Virchow Robins space. The cell types consist of lymphocytes and macrophages with plasma cells and Russel bodies (cells of Mott) often being present. This meningoencepahalitis ranges from mild to

Problems of Differential Diagnosis: the Clinicopathological Approach In Indonesia, we must realise that a majority of diagnoses are still done at field level without laboratory backup, and are based on field observations of population and clinicopathologi-

79

Table 3. Differential diagnosis of MCF: a clinicopathological approach. MCr

Population Effects 1. Morbidity rate 2. Case fatality rate

00

0

Clinicopathology I. Clinical course 2. General (a) Temperature (b) Depression 3. Oral (a) Hyper salivation (b) Erosive stomatitis (c) Vesicular stomatitis (d) Ulceration 4. Ocular (a) Photophobia (b) Mucopurulent discharge (c) Conjunctivitis (d) Keratitis 5. Respiratory (a) Stertor (Ngorok) (b) Mucopurulent discharge (c) Pulmonary congestion/oedema (d) Rhinitis (e) Tracheitis 6. Cutaneous (a) Blood sweating 7. Foot lesions (a) Digital vesicles (b) Coronitis 8. Enteric (a) Necrotic peyerpatches (b) Haemorrhagic mucosae 9. Renal (a) Focal white spots (b) Haemorrhagic cystitis 10. Generalised (a) Petechiation and haemorrhage Ac

Disease with

oral and

upper gastrointesti nal changes

Disease with eye lesions

Disease with upper respiratory changes

lembrana

BVD

Rinderpest

Ibaraki

FM

Ulcerative stomatitis

fiK

Tryps

fiR

HS

Dipth

Lo Hi

Lo-Hi Med-Hi

Lo Hi

Hi Hi

Lo- Hi Lo

Med- Hi Lo

Lo Lo

Med-Hi 0

Lo-Hi Lo-Hi

Lo-Hi Lo

Lo-Hi Hi

Lo Lo

Ac-Chr

Var

Ac- Chr

Ac-Chr

Ac

Ac-Chr

Chr

Ac-Chr

Chr

Ac

Ac

Chr

Inc ++

Inc ++

Inc ++

Inc ++

Inc

Inc

Nor

Nor

Var

Inc

+

+

+

Inc ++

Var

+

++ ++

++ ++

++ ++

++ ++

++ ++

++

+

++

+ +

++ ++ ++

+++ +++

+

++

++

+/-

++ ++

+

++

+

++ ++

+/-

+

++

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+/-

+++ ++

++ ++

++

+/-

+++

++ ++

+/+

+ + +/-

+/-

+++

+++ -

+

+

+/-

+/-

+

+ + ++

+/-

=acute; Chr = chronic; Inc =increased; Var =variable; - = usually not present; +/- = sometimes present; + =usually present. mild; +++ = usually present. severe.

+

++

severe. Moderate lymphoid infiltration is often present in other organs, such as kidney, spleen and heart. Necrotising vasculitis, however, is absent. On the other hand, characteristics of anaemia are almost always presenl. This includes centrilobular degenerations and necrosis in the liver, accumulation of bile pigment in the liver and haemosiderosis in the spleen. When the first cases were received in the laboratory they were classified as suspect MCF cases on the basis of a nonsuppurative encephalitis. Subsequent visits to the field indicated that the clinical picture was not consistent with MCF. Field veterinarians felt the major problem was trypanosomiasis, based on blood examination and clinical signs of circling, incoordination and the eating of soil. Further submissions were of brain tissue along with other organs from dead animals. The observed changes were as described in the previous paragraph and in Table 4. At present we are tentatively regarding these cases as Trypanosoma evansi infections rather than MCF. Our reasons for this tentative classification are as follows:

It is of interest that almost all such cases observed have been in imported buffalo, although we get a similar number of routine local buffalo submissions. A number of possible explanations could be considered. The buffalo imports come from a trypanosome-free country and have therefore not been exposed to natural selective pressure of trypanosome exposure as has the local population, and are therefore genetically more susceptible. Additional transportation and adaptational stress from a wild to a domesticated environment may also be predisposing factors. An alternative explanation for the nonsuppurative encephalitis is that it is virus-induced. An unusual type of MCF reaction cannot be entirely ruled out (Hoffmann et al. 1984).

Discussion The above problems of differential diagnosis raise some questions that can really be answered only by research. 1. Does the MCF agent, whatever it is, cause

1. The Trypanosoma brucei group of trypanosomes which includes T. brucei. T. rhodensii and T. gambiense has received extensive pathological study (Losos and Ikede 1972). Encephalitis is commonly found in experimental cases as well as in natural cases. This includes human trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness) where cells of Molt (Russel bodies) along with encephalitis are considered relatively pathognomonic . Studies of the pathological changes due to T. evansi appear sparse. We have found one paper by Ikede et al . (1983) which describes analogous encephalitic changes in three horses infected with T. evansi.

Table 4. Histopathology in imported buffalo (38 of 97 cases in which brain was received).

Encephalitic Group I changes (n=9) No enceph alitis

Mononuclear infiltration Plasma cells Russel bodies Oedema Gliosis and satellitosis Suppurative changes Meningitis only Encephalitis only Meningitis and encephalitis

2. The clinical histories from the field lend some support to this diagnosis. Unfortunately, we have been unable to get specific information on each pathological submission regarding the presence of trypanosome infection prior to death. This would potentially lend strength to the diagnosis. 3. We have been able to reproduce a nonsuppurative encephalitis in three guinea pigs which we inoculated with a trypanosome strain from the area where the buffalo cases occurred. Further experimental work is needed.

81

0 0 0 0 0

GroupiiA (n=15) mild encephali tis

Group lIB (n=14) moderate to severe encephalitis

15

14

7

11 10 12 13

o 8 12

o

0 0

3

o

0

2

o

0

10

14

clinical and pathological changes that have a wider spectrum than has originally been described for this disease? 2. The clinical and pathological changes associated with T. evansi infection appear to be incompletely studied, and poorly defined. What are these changes? Are these changes different in imported, previously unexposed, buffalo? 3. Agent identification for trypanosomiasis is usually done on material collected while animals are alive . Are there better methods for identifying trypanosomes or trypanosome antigens in either semi-fresh or formalised tissue to confirm the presence of antigens? 4. The identification of the agent of sheep-associated MCF is a goal we all seek. We would hope that diagnostic tests would follow, so we would not have to rely on only histopathology. These are questions that the diagnostic laboratory veterinarians cannot answer unless they step into the role of research. As stated in the introduction , there is a need for the veterinary diagnostician and the veterinary researcher to interact, and this is an area where such interaction could be usefully applied here in Indonesia. At the same time, diagnosticians at field and laboratory level cannot expect the researchers to find all the answers. The adage by Virchow still holds true: 'The study of things caused (effects) must precede the study of the cause of things.' The people in the best position to study the clinicopathological effects of disease are veterinarians in the field. This is the reason for the constant request for better clinical histories and records of clinical and pathological changes by laboratory diagnosticians. There is still a definite need for training of field veterinary personnel in order to improve their skills in differentiating disease at field level. Laboratory diagnosticians on the other hand too frequently become agent-oriented with an emphasis on collecting many samples, but without relation to a clinicopathological effect. This gap needs to be bridged in order for us to sort out some of the diagnostic problems that relate to MCF, trypanosomiasis and other diseases.

82

References Hoffmann, D., Soeripto, S., Sobironingsih, S., Campbell, R.S .F., and Clarke, B.C. 1984. The c1inicopathology of a malignant catarrhal fever syndrome in the Indonesian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) . Australian Veterinary Journal, 61, 108-112. lkede, B.O., Fatimah, I., Sharifuddin, W., and Bongso, T.A . 1983 . Clinical and pathological features of natural Trypanosoma evansi infections in ponies in West Malaysia. Tropical Veterinarian, I, 151-157. Losos, G.J., and Ikede, B .O . 1972. Review of pathology of diseases in domestic and laboratory animals caused by Trypano soma congolense, T . vivax, T . brucei, T . rh odensiense and T . gambiense . Veterinary Pathology, 9 (Supplement), 1-71.

The Differential Diagnosis of Malignant Catarrhal Fever: Unusual and Difficult Cases P.W. Da niels, Rini Da maya nti and Sud a r isma n * darah. Karenanya, kerusakan-kerusakan yang terjadi pada pembuluh darah akan menentukan juga kehebatan gejala klinik yang timbul. Karena pada hewan terserang, sering ditemukan perbedaan-perbedaan dalam gej ala klinik, kehebatan perubahan yang ditemukan pada limfoid dan pembuluh darah; dan juga terdapat persamaan dengan penyakit lain, maka masalah diferensial diagnosis pun muncul. Makalah ini mencoba mengadakan telaahan beberapa variasi dalam kejadian SA-MCF alami dan tentang gambaran patologi beberapa penyakit yang dapat mempersulit dalam diagnosis sindroma MCF di Indonesia. Penyakit yang terkait dengan T . evansi, bovine virus diarrhoea, beberapa arbovirus, rickettsia, dan retrovirus hewan besar, dibahas sehubungan dengan kasus. Beberapa dari agen penyakit tersebut dapat menimbulkan infeksi kronis atau menahun, sehingga kemungkinan infeksi ganda adakalanya harus dipertimbangkan . Beberapa rekomendasi tentang aspek tertentu dalam penglTlman spesimen untuk laboratorium diagnostik juga diulas.

Abstract Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) can occur with any of a range of clinical signs, and so mild, peracute, gastrointestinal, 'head and eye' and chronic forms have been described. Mortality is nearly 100% in the last four forms. The disease processes are based on, or accompanied by lymphoid proliferation, with invasion of many tissues including blood vessels by lymphoid cells. It is usually accepted that the damage to blood vessels causes the severe clinical manifestations. Because of the variability in clinical signs and variability in the severity of lymphoid and blood vessel changes among affected animals, similarities with other diseases can occur and problems in differential diagnosis arise. This paper reviews briefly some of the variation in naturally occurring sheep-associated MCF and also the pathology of several diseases that may complicate the diagnosis of some MCF syndromes in Indonesia. Disease associated with Trypanosoma evansi, bovine virus diarrhoea virus, several arboviruses, rickettsia and large ruminant retroviruses are discussed in relation to case material. Some of these agents can establish chronic or persistent infections, and so the possibility of dual infections may have to be considered on occasions. Recommendations are made on some aspects of submitting specimens to a diagnostic laboratory.

In troduction The clinicopathological syndrome of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) has been well described, both in original reports (Plow right 1953; Berkman et al. 1960; Selman et a1. 1974; Liggiu et al. 1978; Liggi tt and de Martini 1980a, b), and also in pathology texts (Barker and Van DreumeI1985), where the microscopic changes are said to be highly characteristic. A similar syndrome has been described in the swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) by Hoffmann etal. (1984). Unfortunately for the diagnostic pathologist, the manifestations cover a wide spectrum of possibilities including peracute, gastrointestinal, head and eye, and mild clinical forms. A fifth form-chronic MCF-has also been described (Snowdon 1985). Consistently, there is nearly 100% mortality except, of course, in the mild

Abstrak Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) dapat terjadi dalam berbagai bentuk . Bentuk seperti ringan, perakut, gastro intestinal, kepala dan mata, serta knonik, adalah bentuk yang telah lama dikenal. Angka kematian dari ke empat bentuk terahir itu sampai mencapai 100%. Perjalanan penyakit bergantung pada atau diikuti oleh proliferasi limfoid, dengan invasi sel limfoid ke jaringan-jaringan tubuh termasuk juga pembuluh *Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Bogor, Indonesia.

83

form . The unifying feature of the disease as so far described is the histopathology. The effect of the disease is pan trophic. Although there are lesions of the mucosal and epithelial surfaces, the features that are consistently present and on which diagnosis is usually based are a characi.~ ristic lymphoid proliferation and a vasculitis. Most descriptions of the lymphoid element emphasise the presence of large, immature Iymphoblasts frequently with a high mitotic index. The vasculitis is described as necrotising. The essential feature is an invasion by mononuclear cells that usually contain some Iymphoblasts. The infiltrate is nearly always perivascular in the adventitia, and in every MCF case it should be possible to find infiltration of the vessel wall and necrosis of the smooth muscle in a variable number of vessels. Mononuclear cells can also accumulate under the endothelium causing some constriction of the lumen. Severely affected animals may have fibrin deposited in the vessel wall, but this is not a consistent finding . Although these changes together are highly characteristic of MCF, none is unique to the disease. Given the highly variable clinical syndrome and the variable expression of the characteristic histology in some animals, problems of differential diagnosis in diseases with similar features arise that are particularly important to those attempting to evaluate the result of experimental infections for research purposes or to reach a diagnosis on field material. This paper will examine and discuss several cases that have posed problems or that illustrate certain features of the diagnostic dilemma. In most of them, the investigation from which the case was derived is not complete and will be described in full elsewhere. Firstly, the disease agents known to be present in Indonesia which could produce clinical signs or pathology similar to those described in the cases presented are briefly reviewed so a clear appreciation of the range of probabilities can be developed.

Naturally Occurring

Sheep-associated MCF Descriptions of naturally occurring SA-MCF in cattle (Bos taurus) are available from the USA (Berkman and Barner 1958; Berkman et al.

84

1960), Canada (Murray and Blood 1961), the United Kingdom (Selman et al. 1974) and New Zealand (James et al. 1975). Although all authors emphasised variability in the syndrome among the cases in their series, it can also be noted that there is variation between reports in the typical syndrome described . Hence, respiratory distress and severe pathology in the upper respiratory tract were emphasised in all except the report from New Zealand. The abomasum showeL 'edema or inflammation in all cases except the ~':N Zealand series. Corneal opacity was a prominent feature in only the cases from the USA (Berkman and Barner 1958) and the UK (Selman et al. 1974). In the series of Murray and Blood (1960) and James et a1.(1975), without significant corneal opacity, diarrhoea was a prominent feature of the latter but not the former. Whether such differences reflect different susceptibilities in the affected populations or different strains of infectious agent or intercurrent infection is not known. In all cases a fibrinoid necrotising vasculitis was reported as the diagnostic feature. In buffalo with MCF, conjunctivitis with hyperaemia and serous discharge has been reported as a unifying clinical feature in one series of cases in Indonesia, with corneal opacity developing to some degree only late in the course of the disease in 30 of 50 animals. Diarrhoea was seen in half the cases. Erosions of the mouth and rhinitis were rarely encountered, and inflammation of the upper respiratory tract at postmortem was not a feature. Hence, the syndrome in these buffalo differed from some of the bovine series. Vasculitis was present in all cases but was never fibrinoid, and marked necrosis and infiltration of the vessel wall was not usually encountered. Hence, even the essential diagnostic lesion differed in degree in these buffalo (Hoffmann et a1. 1984). Myocarditis was, however, severe. In the neighbouring country of Malaysia, MCF has been reported in buffalo and cattle (Omar 1971) and in cattle (Bos indicus) (Vaneslow 1980). Twenty-one of 35 cases reported by Omar (1971) were in buffalo. Of these, details of clinical signs were given for 14. Respiratory distress was observed in most, as was conjunctivitis with serous discharge that progressed to mucopurulent in about half the cases. Corneal opacity was observed in three

vasculitis, but this change was not noted in the two Indonesian cases available for study. Only reports of naturally occurring SA-MCF have been considered. A previous report in this volume (Young et al. 1988) has shown how experimental MCF can differ from naturally occurring MCF. In the Bali callie (B 0 s javanicus) under study, the pathology was less severe in the naturally induced cases than in those resulting from blood transmissions. The latter more closely resembled the description of cases from North America (Berkman et al. 1960; Murray and Blood 1961) and the UK (Selman et dl. 1974), but the natural cases resembled a little the reports of MCF in buffalo (Hoffmann et al. 1984) and in cattle in New Zealand (James et al. 1975). It is clear that the severe clinicopathological picture of 'classical' MCF is not observed in all episodes of MCF, particularly the diarrhoea, mucopurulent oculonasal discharge, corneal opacity and the fibrinoid component of the vasculitis. The constant features have been the massive lymphoid proliferation in lymphoid tissue and infiltration of other organs, and the associated vasculitis.

animals which tended to have had a longer illness than others in the series. Diarrhoea was reported in 50% of cases. Gross pathological changes included erosions and ulceration in the oral cavity, inflammation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, and catarrhal inflammation of the abomasum and intestines in those showing diarrhoea. A large range of changes affected various animals within the series, emphasising the variability of the syndrome. Histologically, no distinction was made between buffalo and callie cases. There was vasculitis in the CNS which was fibrinoid in a few cases. Similar lesions were present in many organs, including the kidney. Changes in the intima were prominent in some cases. Mononuclear cells with prominent lymphoblast and primitive reticular cell types infiltrated parenchymal organs as well as comprising the vascular infiltrates. From the above description it seems that the buffalo in Malaysia showed more severe respiratory involvement and pathology in the upper respiratory tract than in Indonesian cases, but that the ocular pathology and the incidence of diarrhoea were similar. In the bovine cases of Vaneslow (1980), breed differences were noted in the speed with which the disease progressed, but not in the range of clinical signs. Early disease was characterised by diarrhoea, and corneal opacity developed later. Respiratory distress was again not a feature, in contrast to the reports from North America (Berkman and Barner 1958; Murray and Blood 1961) and the UK (Selman et al. 1974). Prominent vasculitis with marked mononuclear cell involvement of the media was reported, but it was not described as fibrinoid. Deer are very susceptible to MCF, but variability in syndromes has again been noted in reports from the Australasian region. In Indonesia, MCF in Cervus timorensis has presented differently from Australian cases. In Indonesia, diarrhoea and rapid death were prominent manifestations (Sudarisman et al. unpublished), while in Australia oculonasal discharge and corneal opacity were noted more frequently (Denholm and Westbury 1982). The cases of MCF in C. timorensis in Indonesia more closely resembled MCF of C. elaphus in New Zealand (McAllum et al. 1982; Oliver et al. 1983). Most reports emphasise a fibrinoid

Trypanosomiasis Reports of the pathology of Trypanosoma evansi infections in callie and buffalo are limited. Mohan (1968) in reviewing the diseases of buffalo stated that T. evansi infections are mostly latent and subclinical, but that pathogenic epizoa tics can occur for undefined reasons that may include strain differences in parasites or stress or other concurrent infections in affected animals. Naive animals may be more susceptible. Trypanosoma evansi spreading to new areas has been reported to cause severe disease and death in wild animals (Losos 1986). Verma and Gautam (1978) infected buffalo and cow calves by inoculation. Eight of 10 buffalo calves died 30-96 days post infection, while two recovered and remained carriers. Other experiments in which a high proportion of experimentally infected buffalo died were reviewed. It seems that under certain circumstances T. evansi can kill buffalo. However, comprehensive descriptions of histopathology are lacking. Verma and Gautam (1979) reported on the histopathology of their experimentally infected animals, but did not

85

examine the central nervous system, the tissue that seems to be part of the current problem of differential diagnosis. In lymph nodes, the corticomedullary junction was obscured and germinal centres were absent, changes that are also seen in MCF. Sinuses of the spleen were dilated and contained reticular cells, and there was variably 'hyalinisation' and haemosiderosis. The changes reported in other organs were non-specific. In studies at RIVS, weight loss and anaemia have been the main clinical signs noted, and myocarditis and haemosiderosis were prominent histopathologically (Wilson et al. 1985). Early Dutch literature from Indonesia, reviewed by Dieleman (1983) and Partoutomo (pers. comm.), indicated that both acute and chronic infections were observed in buffalo, and that affected buffalo showed signs of central nervous system involvement. Emaciation occurred in spite of a good appetite. Other clinical signs of surra in buffalo recorded in early literature included fever , rapid respiration, ocular discharge, mucopurulent nasal discharge, scale formation on the nose, salivation, swollen lymph nodes and crusty excema, all signs that have been reported in MCF. In addition, there were the more commonly cited signs of trypanosomiasis, including anaemia, cachexia, icteric mucous membranes and oedema in the laryngeal region and the distal parts of the legs (Dieleman 1983). The suspicion arises that the problem of differential diagnosis is not entirely recent. Indeed, some investigators are reported to have said that surra was usually similar to MCF, and that they both could resemble haemorrhagic septicaemia and anthrax. No histological observations were reported , the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis being based on the demonstration of parasites in the blood, body fluids or tissue smears or by laboratory animal inoculation. It must be remembered that the presence of a ubiquitous parasite such as T. evansi in a sick animal is not proof of the cause of its disease. As a guide to changes that might be expected, the pathology of reported natural trypanosomiasis in more susceptible species can be considered. In horses, there may be petechial or ecchymotic haemorrhages on the epicardium and endocardium, in the intestines, the capsule of the

86

spleen, the kidneys and the bladder. The stomach may show erosions and ulcerations (Stephen 1986). Histopathology observed in horses in Malaysia included a variably severe nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with perivascular cuffs of large lymphocytes, histiocytes and plasma cells and some foci of gliosis. Large morular cells with eccentric nuclei and large eosinophilic globules in the cytoplasm were present in inflammatory infiltrates. Additionally, there were lymphoid hyperplasia in nodes and spleen, mononuclear periportal infiltrates in most cases and mild non suppurative myocarditis in a few cases (Seiler et al. 1981). Essentially similar findings were reported by Ikede et al. (1983) in other Malaysian ponies. MCF experiments should ideally be conducted in animals either uninfected by T. evansi or treated with Naganol. Although parasitaemias can be monitored, it is noted that T. evansi is regarded as a tissue parasite (Stephen 1986) which may leave the circulation and which also may be difficult to locate in histological sections. Hence, doubts could remain about the possible involvement of this parasite under some circumstances. There is a need for experimental work to clarify the pathology of T. evansi infection in buffalo.

Arboviruses The tropical climate of Indonesia could be expected to support substantial populations of arthropod vectors of arboviruses and other infectious agents. The possibility of arbovirus infection causing transient fevers and subclinical encephalitis must be considered. Little work has been done on the effects in livestock of viruses of low pathogenicity and their specific effects in buffalo and Bali cattle are unknown . There is already evidence for some arbovirus infections of cattle and buffalo in Indonesia. Of the flaviviruses, serological evidence has been reported for infections with Japanese encephalitis B (lBE) in cattle and buffalo (Van Peenen et al. 1974a; Olson et al. 1983), and Sepik virus (Olson et al. 1983). Different flaviviruses cause encephalitis among a range of species. JBE was the first arbovirus to be isolated in Indonesia (Van Peenen et al. 1974b). Intranasal inoculation in calves has produced a fatal encephalitis (Sullivan 1985), and the virus

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Epidemiology Transmigration Areas Cases of Malignant Catarrhal Fever in West Sumatra, Riau and Jambi Samrosi Pakpahao* Abstract gastroenteritis, d...

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