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The decline of the neo-classical pastoral 1680-1730: a study in theocritean and virgilian inuence. Wood, Nigel Paul

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Wood, Nigel Paul (1983)


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ABSTRACT of THESIS The Decline of the Neo-Classical Pastoral, 1680-1730: A


in Theocritean and Virgilian Influence

The classical pastoral was an accredited genre in antiquity usually associated with a series of contrasts between the country and the city or between the supposedly natural and artificial worlds. With the decline in allegorical writing, however, the Restoration's neo-classical translators, especially Thomas Creech (Theocritus, 1684) and John Dryden (1697), offered a pastoral with most of the potentially ironic commentaries on contemporary life either softened or erased altogether. Creech's Theocritus is free of the Doric alternations between the Heroic (Idyll I) and Rustic (Idylls 4 and 5l. Dryden 1 s Eclogues pay homage to a transcendent classicism calculated to contrast with post-Revolution beliefs in limited traditions of authority. These two images of the classical pastoral provide one facet unacceptable to neG-classicism (Theocritean rusticity) and one which casts doubt on its bucolic status altogether (Virgilian artifice). This dualism in the classical legacy is seen as rooted in opposed definitions of "simplicity", one a lyrical and affective quality, the other paying testimony to the classical past by imitating what was taken to be its bolder and enduring melodies. The foundation of the Modern variety, as exemplified by Ambrose Philips (1709), lies in its depiction of indigenous shepherds and their freedom from the classical, but not the rustic (Spenser and Theocritus). Alexander Pope's Pastorals (1709),on the contrary, demonstrate an Ancient preoccupation with a current culture's indebtedness to its traditional sources of inspiration. His Strephons or Alexises wander amongst Windsor/Mantuan groves. The disappearance of much fresh neo-classical pastoral writing is then studied, especially in the mock-forms of the years 1710-16, particularly John Gay's The Shepherd's Week (1714). Within the Ancient pastoral Gay discovers sentiments incommensurate with contemporary rural poverty and so obviously redundant mimetically, but also an "unofficial" gusto in Theocritus and less imitated material that points forward to the particularity of the georgic. In short, Gay's mock-pastoral work, in the service of the prevailing Landed Interest, not only uncovers urban corruption but also the deceptions of the Ancient mode. In Furney's Theocritean pastorals (1717) a.nU Ramsay's Scots Doric ( 1723-28) , it is the Theocri tean example wb.ich survives, not the more celebrated Eclogues of Virgil.

THE DECLINE OF THE NEO-CLASSICAL PASTORAL 1680-1730: A Study in Theocritean and Virgilian Influence.

by Nigel Paul Wood

The copyright of this thesis rests with the author. No quotation from it should be published without his prior written e<>nsent and information derived from it should be acknowledged.

Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, in the Department of English Studies, Durham University



2l f.P:i.1984



J:.."jbrev:.atior..E: used iYJ text


':'he ~~ugus7-an Tt.eacrihcs (18) -- Tha 'l':;:o2.r..slato:rs~ Theoc:dtus (51) = - Icl.yEs ; and 7 (60) g 'a1 Tdy1, 1 (6"'' 'b'lI -:-c_,.ll 7 f7~' =~ -o_y1l~ \ I .._ -\ \ J ·\ I 'J 4~ 5 and 10 (80)g (e.) :dyll ~- (82L {b) Idyll 5 (88) 9 (c) Idyl::.. 10 (93) == Ccnclusic::J. (102) I~






vi:rgilian ~y-:cicisrr: c:.nd Al:ego.cy { 122) == :Cryden e..nd ChetHood on the Pastoral (135) Eclogues 1 and 9 (158)g (a) Eclogue 1 (162) 9 (b) Eclogue 9 (173) --Eclogue 4 (!84.) = = Eclogues 3 and 5 (203) == Conclusion (239) 'J:'EE TAS'IE :?CR SH1PLICITY AND ITS EFFECT ON PASTORJI_L POETRY 9 1680-1730 oo oo



The Simplicity of the Shepheardes Calendar (249) -- The Origins of ?assionate Simplicity (260) == Stylistic Simplicity ~~d the Portrayal of the Countryman (285) -- Conclusion (318) CFJ.,.PTER 4


o o


Ambrose Philips s Pastoral Simplicity (336) The Tender Pastorals of Ambrose Philips (352) -~The Ancient Objection to Philips 0 s Pastorals (376) Conclusion (386) 1




Pope 0 s Pastoral Theory (408) -= Pope 0 s Artifice in his Pastorals (416) -= Conclusion (452) CHAPTER 6







The Validity of the Distinction Between 'l ory and Hhig ( 1680-1714) (454) ~ (a) Tory Ideologies of Order and Providence ( 454L (b) \•lhig Ideologies of Contract (464~-- Gay 0 s The Shepherd 0 s Heek (1714) and the Landedlnterest (470) ~ (a) Gayu s Contact 1c1ith the Landed Interest (471) 9 {b) Gay 0 s Poetry~ 1713-14 (479) The Shepherd 9 s V!eek as a Nock-Pastoral 1

(490) _.,;.








0 L 1J



Chapters 1-3

0 N E



I should like to acknowledge my debt to the follow·ing people, without whose advice and support this study could never have been completed: Dr. Raman Selden of the University of Durham whose careful supervision helped clarify and particularize my original ideas;

Dr. Helen Cooper

of University College, Oxford who suggested several medieval and Renaissance influences;

Mr. Duncan Cloud and Dr. Norman Postlethwaite

of the Department of Classics, Leicester University for their interest and sound advice;

Dr. Martin Stannard of the Department of English,

Leicester University for his help in editing a troublesome chapter, and Dr. Alison Yarrington for her long-suffering patience and invaluable help over a long period. I am also grateful for the practical help and advice from the librarians of the Bodleian, Durham and Leicester bibliographical departments;


Research Board grants from Leicester University which helped me gain access to a number of classical texts and Dr. Michael Rudd who gave me generous leave-of-absence when at Evansville, Indiana. Great thanks is also due to Mrs. Doreen Butler for her care and attention during the typing of much of the thesis, and to those who completed it: Clare Russell, Lesley Woodbridge, Sue Osmond and Sylvia Garfield: efficient and uncomplaining.


Finally, I would like to thank my parents

and brother, Christopher, for moral support and reassurance.

I only

regret that limited space does not permit me a mention of the many others who have contributed to the writing of this study.


This thesis is the result of my own work and includes no material previously submitted for a degree in this or any other university or which is the result of joint research.

EBBREVIATIONS USED IN TEXT .!ll\ill BIBLIOGRAPHY Pnblice.:tions of the r.1odern Langc:.age Jl.SSOCiation of America


':'1vickenl:am Edit3..on of the Poems of Pope (1939~69)

First referer..ce :lin, footnotes to uorks cited in Bibliograpny is given in full9thereafter abbreviation is

by title alone if primaTy source 9 by author if secondaryo


Introduction It is not often recognized that certain forms of literature can dieo

In two recent studies of genre classification 9 it is assumed

that nevi t•Jorks need to promote some strong recognition of their traditional influences in order to be intelligible 9 either as parody or allusiono


This radical traditionalism is voiced most succinctly

by ToSo Eliot when he claims that this coercive force is a



sense 0 where the writer is not only imbued with a contemporary spirit 1

in his bones 0 but also


with a feeling that the whole of the· literature

of Europe from Homer and within it the whole of the literature of his own country has a simultaneous existence and composes a simultaneous order 1 o The


timeless 0 and the


temporal 0 fuse to form tradition and

the new writer must be a representative of that tradition:


You cannot

Both Jonathan Culler and EoDo Hirsch 9 Jnro 9 in their various ways 9 have provided explanations for generic change that occlude historical particularityo Culler defines a genre as 0 a set of literary norms to which texts may be related and by virtue of which they become meaningful and coherent 1 (Structuralist Poetics: Structuralism Lin istics and the Stud of Literature (London 9 1975 po 145 o This coherence is ensu.red by a "Naturalization" 9 an assimilation that brings a text 0 within the modes of order which culture makes available 0 (po 137)o Possible subversions of generic definition still prove its existence 1 as surely as the failure to keep a promise is made possible by the institution of promising. v (po ll6)o In agreeing that such definitions aid orderly critical writing 9 it is also necessary to point to the conservative nature of the "Literary Competence" that ordains them 9 and which culture "naturalizes" the texto Hirsch 1 s concept of "intrinsic genre" often takes on the role of an invariant touchstoneo For example 9 it is differentiated from 1 meaningv 9 a distinction that lays the foundation for its 0 precise and stable definition 1 (Validity in Interpretation (New Haven 9 1967) ppo78=89 This view has been adopted by Paul Hernadi (~yond (po 82))o Genre: New Directions in Literar Classification (Ithaca 9 NoYo 9 1972 whose procedural survey of about sixty genre systems owes more to Gestalt psychology than literary historyo See his claim that the "representational modes" are 0 best applied in the study of what may be called the "molecular structure" of discoursev Cpo 14)o For a valuable refutation of such positivism 9 see Alastair Fowler's work in "The Life and Death of Literary Forms 11 9 New Directions in Literary Histor~ 9 edited by Ralph Cohen (London 9 1974) 9 ppo 77=94 (especially PPo 3-88) and Kinds of Literature: An Introduction to the Theory of Genres and Modes (Oxford 9 1982) 9 PPo 235-55o


value him alone; the deadou


you must set him 9 for contrast and comparison 9 among

This concept of genre envisages pastoral 9 epic or lyric

on a gruduo.l c•:oluticr..a.ry model; the is appropriated by traditiona


new11 work both appropriates and

The basic units of literature reappear

and 9 although the surface details enter differently each time 9 there is some sustaining foundation or essence which 9 if open to change 9 mutates both slowly and orderlya The classical pastoral had 9 however 9 by 1680 9 so declined that it had become irrelevant both mimetically and expressivelyo


the bucolic was still written 9 its survival was increasingly nominal Notwithstanding this 9

and by the 1730s had all but vanishedo neighbouring


kindsn such as the Odes on Solitude 9 the general topos

of Retirement 9 and Descriptive poetry flourishedo

However much the

twentieth century may associate the pastoral with these forms 9 the original l4ylls and Eclogues were distinct from them 9 dramatizing the wistful longing of urban life in collision with an ineluctable reality created by those same forceso

Both Ralph Cohen and John

Barrell have recently commented on the growth of interest in the georgic as an alternative to the ecloguea shift 9 distinguishes between history by noting



Cohen 9 in observing this

innovation 9 and


variation 9 in literary

new relations of poetic features to poetic ends:

the speaker assumes a new role 9 or the rhetorical devices are given new functions 9 new subjects are introduced ooov


This is in the face

of repeated translations and editions of both Theocritus and Virgil 9


nTradition and the Individual Talent" (1919) 9 Selected Prose of ToSo Eliot 9 edited by Frank Kermode (London 9 1975) 9 po 3So


"Innovation and Variation: Literary Change and Georgie Poetry11 9 in Literature .and Histor : Pa ers read at a Clark Librar Seminar 9 March 3 9 1973 plus Murray Krieger Los Angeles 9 Cao 9 197 9 ppo 4=5o Cohen sees some significant "role changes 11 between pastoral and georgic from Denham onwards (ppo 24=34)o

3 tJhere 9 it might be assumed 9 the reading public 1:1ere kept informed of classical normso to


These role changes were instituted by a new desire

LT.agery that yoked t.hP. perception of nature with more

rationalistic and commercial concernso

No longer was the countryside

so convenient a backdrop for the embodiment or perpetuation of speci= fically


~literary 11


interest in the georgic a


John Barrell finds in the renewed

v;ay of admitting into the Pastoral exactly

those everyday concerns of work 9 organisation and management 9 that are hidden in the landscapes imported from Italy and in Virgilian eclogueo 1 This "realism" must however be heavily qualified as 9 t.;hilst the form allowed the depiction of rural labour 9 it also softened its harsh appearance enough to provide an image of Britain 9 s aristocrats as 1

leisured consumers 9 and


interested patrons of her agricultural and

1 mercantile expansion 1 o It must also be emphasized 9 though 9 that the variety of classical pastoral is not accurately represented by a picture of a shepherd 9

lentus in umbra 9 during an Arcadian eveningo

In Theocritus 9 s 1£ylls 9

and 9 indeed in some of the particulars of the Eclogues themselves 9 Cos or Arcadia invite artifice and contradictiono

In lgyll 10 9 Bucaeus

and Milon are reapers through whom Theocritus dramatizes the


dictions of what was to become in the Restoration and afterwards a pleasing bourgeois imageo

Bucaeus 9 s simple sentiments are upbraided

and "placed" by Milon 9 the workero


Similarly in 1£111 3 9 the goat=

herd 1 s pathos is undermined by the sophisticated adoption of an urban form-for his rustic lamento 3

In the Eclogues 9 there are many non=


The Dark Side of the Landscape: the Rural Poor in English Painting 9 1730-1840 (Cambridge 9 1980) 9 po 12o


See ppo 93=102o


See ppo 52= 59 o



Arcadian" detailso


In the translations of the



importunate details were softened or blurred to achieve a coherent "1."1

- - ..J


Iwpe:rceptibly ~ the cle.ssical norms that. Rhould have survived

through translation or imitation were altered and the bucolic signified more of an Arcadian ideal and less of the self=questioning originalo In the first two chapters of this study 9 therefore 9 I attempt

to establish three


firstly 9 that classical pastoral carried

traces of forms that later ages sought to separate from it;

secondly 9

that the simplified models of "classical" bucolic promoted by trans= lation were very much nearer to lyric than their


and lastly 9

that the Modern apologies for literature 9 stressing the respectability of new non=classical models 9 found their own lyrical and yet indigenous bucolic model in Theocritus and Spensero

One does not have to turn

to the georgic as a classical counterbalance to Virgilian pastoral; the suggestion of a labouring countryman exists in much classical pastoralo It is possible 9 thus 9 to find in the neo=classical pastoral several loosely associated models: of Virgil (1697)


the heroic hubris of Dryden's translations

Ambrose Philips's sweet rusticity


9 Pope's

classical ideal (1709) 9 Thomas Furney's enervated Doric (1717) and Allan Ramsay's dialectal Doric (l72l-28)o all comprehended by the one term: cast doubt on such generalizationo





Pastoral" 9 is diverse enough to Indeed 9 I favour the terms often

used in the contemporary debate to differentiate opposed literary practices:

that of Ancient 9 to signify theories where all innovation

was more or less


and Modern 9 for theories where it was nato

Furthermore 9 central distinctions still need to be made in studies of

5 the periodo

Recent work 9 Howard Weinbrot 1 s in particular? has stressed

the divided aims of the


all indiscriminately described as

I retain the term as historir.al


but must

stress that its extension into matters of a common style or complexion for the period of study: a



is both misleading and


too apt to take critical abstractions on trusto


One of these consensus qualities believed to reside in the writing of the age was a classical


Simplicity11 o

In chapter 3 9 I argue that

its frequent use when describing the pastoral at this time often conflated norms of stylistic perspicuity 9 the uncivilized na£vete of the rustic figure and a fabricated "artistic" plainness associated with the bold sublime of Homer and taken from like "Pastoral 11 9 if unqualified 9



Longinus 11 o


where it appears 9 the

continuity of the traditional canon of taste 9 yet it also camouflages a profound divergence of opinion 9 one indeed the other Sentimental ("Pre-Romantic 11 )o

Classical ("Augustan")


The seeds of the flourishing

distrust of an imitative Simplicity are sown here 9 much earlier than texts such as Edward Young's Conjectures on Original Composition (l759)a


Augustus Caesar in Au stan En lando The Decline of a Classical Princeton 9 NoJ o, i'leinbrot throughout proposes that the early eighteenth ~entury did not conceive Augustus as an ideal at allo A valuable distinction between literary and historical Augustanism is made by James William Johnson (The Formation of English Neo~Classical Thought (Princeton, NoJo 9 1967), ppm l7-30)m See also Stewart Crehan 9 "The Roman Analogy"~ Literature and Histor:l_ 9 6 (1980) 9 19-42; Howard Erskine~Hill 9 "Augustans on Augustanism: England 1655-1759", Renaissance and Ivlodern Studies 9 ll (1967), 55-83; Rachel Trickett, "The Difficulties of Defining and Categorizing in the Augustan Period 11 9 New Literary History 9 1 (1970) 9 163~79 9 and PaDo Tripathi 9 "Literary 'Augustanism' in the Eighteenth Century: Questions and Hypotheses", Literature and Histor~, 8 (1982), l70~8lo ~


This has proved particularly tenaciousa See Francis Venables's edition and annotation of The Early Augustans (London, 1972): 'All the Augustans would acclaim with Addison "that beautiful simplicity which we so much admire in the compositions of the Ancients 110 (po xiv)o Venables's edition was an "A" level set text for the Joint Ivlatriculation Board (l974~77)o


The obvious fictiveness of the pastoral topoi became increasingly exposed and consequently rejected 9 both by the Ancients 9 who desired something beL te:c- tl1ru-J. tl1c depiction

-..P -.J..

e1.r!=l;.,~ ,_,.,u __ ...... _


and the



favoured more indigenous models and who 9 under the guise of a pastoral 9 wrote lyrics anywayo

Chapters 4 and 5 9 by focussing on the bucolics

of Philips and Pope 9 illustrate the Modern and Ancient formso Chapter 6 takes as its central text 9 (l?lL~)


for two reasonso

Gay~ s

The Shepherd 0 s \tJeek

Primarily 9 it is an instructive example of

a vvcounter=genre 11 in Tynyanov 0 s phrase 9 an indication that the generic features of a form are open to 9 and perhaps undergoing 9 radical reappraisaL

Rather than enjoying a smooth and gradual evolution 9 a

transference of typical features from pastoral to georgic 9 the change is more one of disruptiono

As Tynyanov puts it 9 °Any literary

succession is first of all a struggle 9 a destruction of old values 1 and a reconstruction of old elements 0 o

This nervousness about the

suitability of such artificial rural description is 9 however, not just a Formalist's universal, a tendency observable in the life of any literary form, but peculiarly applicable to the pastoral in these yearso

Gay's parody is of both Philips and the Arcadian type, and,

it is argued, particularly structured by current ideologies using country life as its raw materialo


The georgic is just one practice

arising therefromo lo

Quoted by Boris Eichenbaum 9 "The Theory of the Formal Method11 9 Russian Formalist Criticism: Four Essa s, translated by Lee To Lemon and Marion Jo Reis Lincoln 9 Nebo 9 1965), po l34o For a Formalist explanation of how this change could affect other genres, see Roman Jakobsen, "The Dominant", Readings in Russian Poetics~ edo by·Ladis1av M~tejka and Krystina Pomorska (Cambridge 9 Masso 9 1971) 2 °The hierarchy of artistic devices changes within the framework of a given poetic genre; the change, moreover 9 affects the hierarchy of poetic genres 9 and 9 simultaneously, the distribution of artistic devices among the individual genres' (po 85)o For a more thoroughgoing organicist conception of genre=systems, see Claudio Guillen, Literature as System (Princeton, NoJo 9 l97l)o


See ppo471=503o

7 Genre~studies

developments a

usually invite formalist explanations of formal

The most influential in the case of pastoral has been

William Empson!s 9 whose attaw.pt c.t a scsiclo!jica_l explanation for its

continuance ropes together works as diverse as The Beggar 0 s Opera and Alice in Wonderlanda


Essentially 9 the pastoral is always seen to

occur wherever there is a simple° Cpa 22)o


process of putting the complex into the

This emblematic pastoral has usimple people express

strong feelings (felt as the most universal subject 9 something


mentally true about everybody) in learned and fashionable language aoou (pa 11) o



shepherd 11 9 for Empson 9 manages 9 in a successful pastoral 9

to symbolize his whole society through the basic passions he believes are common to everyone 9 if stripped of their accidental social moreso Here are several assumptions which compromise any truly historical enterprise a

All too often 9 Empson seems to equate the distinction

between complexity and simplicity with that between the temporal and eternal or

•t ual o2

. sp~r~

Frank Kermode 9 in a similar study 9 boils the

form down to similar ingredients:

Nature versus Arto 3

pastoral criticism I would resist on two countso

This area of

One is that 9 through

the allegorical tradition 9 such work from the classical models to the early years of the seventeenth century stressed contemporary terms of reference 9 avoiding any notion of shared perspectives between "shepherds 11 9 however fundamental 9 and the second is that the full significance of


Some Versions of Pastoral (London 9 l950)o For an alternative view 9 see Valerie Edden 9 "Pastoral and the Literature of Rural Retreat" 9 Durham University Journal 9 41 (1979~80) 9 17~2lo


This is especially true of his reading of The Beggarvs 9Pera (ppo 195-250) o


"Introduction 11 9 The Tempest 9 Arden edition 9 6th edo (London 9 1958) 9 especially ppa xxxiv=lixa The Tempest is seen to concern itself with the opposition of Nature and Art 9 °as serious pastoral poetry always isv (po xxiv)o See also Kermode 0 s introduction to his edition of En~lish Pastoral Poetry from the Beginnings to Marvell (London 9 1952 o

8 those


strong feelings 0 and the


learned and fashionable language 0 in

which they are produced will only be fully comprehensible when the likely readership is


Such considerations are more properly

historical ones than many of the strong remarks that Empson lets fallo Some Versions of


hol·Jever 9 does provoke some fruitful

discussion 9 especially challenging when stressing the methods by which the pastoral genre constantly displaces real dilemmas or contradictionso From 1680 to 1730 the form could never be said to represent reality directly a

This does not mean 9 on the other hand 9 that historical

change was ineffective in the decline of the neo=classical pastoralo Convention the pastoral may be but that does not render it redundant historicallyo

As one of the few classically=ordained forms that

touched on depictions of rural life (even if merely as a textual fiction)~

the pastoral "shepherd11 and his immediate concerns



only a site of projected urban desires for escape but also a reminder that even in Arcadia 9 there were limitations regarded as perennialo The very fact that the "shepherd" lost his mythic power and was replaced by either "happy husbandmen" or poet-observers is still of historical importance 9 even if not directly relevant to changes in the material conditions of rural labourers themselveso It has been suggested very recently that discussions about the genre inevitably suppose a choice between a "mimetic" and a "semiotic" approach:


A choice is posed:

either we attribute


realism 11 to the

text which reflects the "real" with the greatest degree of fidelity 9 or we regard "realistic" texts as fraudulent ooo 1 o The semiotic critic would emphasize the conventional freedom of pastoral where 'the "real" never enters the process 9 but is merely an effect of sign=making 1 o On the "mimetic" side of the debate are ranged Erich Auerbach 9 Georg I

Lukacs and Raymond Williams 9 where "reflection"


is understood as an


elaborate cognitive process 9 a dialectical interplay bebJeen the particular and the generalj and between the individual and societyoul For Lht: cemiotic critic (Empson)




only a usemiotic

potentiality 0 where a Uformal pattern° recurs intermittently and the


signifiers slide beneath the signifieds untroubled by the demands

of denotation 1 (po 40) o

The latter view would hold more water if it

were concluded that genre=descriptions were merely a way of mapping the niceties of


taste 11 o

gradations of that


If 9 however 9 it is admitted that the various

taste 11 are not wholly an aesthetic matter insulate.d

from socio=economic considerations 9 then the way is open to theorize an elaboration of the "mimetic 11 approach that might be less reductiveo Poetic conventions and the varied ideologies that might be extrapolated from them may testify unwittingly to facts about urban attitudes to the rural poor, especially when the traditional insulation promised by Arcadian descriptions of "shepherd"=life is increasingly criticizedo On the other hand, it would be naive to conflate pastoral writing with contemporary historical eventso

The necessity of discovering

just how a poetic convention about rural life may be considered distinct from twentieth=century historiographical conclusions about contingent events is crucialo

In this I have found two works most helpfulo

Confronted with similar considerations in a study of topographical poetry from 1630 to 1660, James Turner identifies the problem as a matter of determining the social meaning of literature without losing sight of its specificity, to combine the insights of formalism and historicism 9 without falling into either erroro Literature is not 0 pure 0 form, but



neither is it pure evidence in a documentary study of public opinion oooo Any poem 9 any sentence in literature 9 can be uttered either as a statement or as a specimen of aesthetic gesture~ as content 1 or as rormoIndeeds the most valuable enquiries are inaugurated l'l'hen 1Dcontent 11 is seen to be structured by the The



forms 17 available for its expressiono

formsll themselves are part of a dialectic l•Jith the social events

that may be said to determine them more or less closelyc



I felt that a return to a Marxist analysis of ideology was needed 9 and this involved a consideration of the early writings of both Marx and In the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 9 Marx

Engels a

points out that 9 however material the (those



ideological reflexes and echoes 1

phantoms formed in the human brain°) may be in their effect 9

they are still 9 their



sublimates of


real 9 active menu and

material life=process 0 9 in short 9 consequent on material events



Literature is both product and processo

In The German

Ideology (1846) 9 Marx and Engels identify not only the hegemony of relations of ownership 9 but also the ideological power of the super= structures they perpetuate: every epoch the ruling ideaso


The ideas of the ruling class are in [These] are nothing more than the ideal

expression of the dominant material relationships' (pa 176)a

It is

no surprise 9 therefore 9 that the real rural poor are not heard in a genre that stigmatizes them as leisured songstersa The second work which elaborates valuably the "mimetic" position was Raymond Williams 1 s "Base and Superstructure in Marxist Cultural Theory11 9 an account of the dynamic relationship conceived to exist between economic forces and their relatively autonomous superstructural


Karl Marx : Selected Works 9 edited by David McLellan (London 9 1977)9 po 164o

11 practices a

For "ideology11 9 lrlilliams is more inclined. to read

Gramsci 1 s emphasis on


hegemony11 9 which is so dominant that it

: cor1cti tutes a sense of rco..li ty for most :people i!! the society; a

sense of absolute because experienced reality beyond which it is very difficult for most members of ·che society to move

o o

1 oa


hegemonic perspective is the sensus communis of the social formation 9 and art cannot claim privileged exemption; differentiae that make up


indeed 9 the generic

literature 11 as an institution are frequently

outcrops of such hegemonic material 9 a means by which pastoral "shepherds" fall in line with other literary


shepherds 11 from the

past and are not compared with contemporary equivalentso


distinction between a text as an object of critical activity and as an active critical activity itself leads hTilliams to disown the orthodox generic categorizations as idealist archaisms: ooo the irreducibly individual projects that particular works are 9 may come in experience and in analysis to show resemblances \V'hich allmV' us to group them into collective modeso These are by no means always genreso They may exist as resemblances within and across genreso They may be the practice of a group in a period 9 rather than the practice of a phase in a genreo But as we discover the nature of a particular practice 9 and the nature of the relation between an indivi= dual project and a collective mode 9 we find that we are analysing 9 as two forms of the same process 9 both its active composition and its conditions of composition 9 and in either direction this is a [po 16] complex of extending active relationshipso

In the period under review the pastoral genre does not quite square with what Williams terms a truly


collective mode 3 o

Not even critical con=

sensus is found as to what classical models should be chosen as representativeso


New Left Review 9 noo 82 (1973) 9 3=16 (po9)o Gramsci acknowledges Lenin as the originator of the concept (Selections from the Prison Notebooks 9 translated by Qo Hoare (London 9 1971) 9 po 357)o See Stuart Hall 9 Bob Lumley and Gregor McLennan 9 "Politics and Ideology : Gramsci" 9 On Ideolog;y_ 9 Working Papers in Cultural Studies 9 Noo 10 9 Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (Birmingham 9 1977) 9 ppo 45=76 (especially ppo 48=50) and Jorge Larrain 9 The Concept of Ideolo~ (London 9 1979) 9 ppo 80=83o


The temptation certainly exists to raduce


to ideologya

vJilliams himself has shotm. the inadvisability of this courseo 11



Marx11 of The GermAn TclP.oloR"v pointed out that in a class society it

is often the case that real economic relationships are idealized as pure ideas and eternal l64=68)o


unchangeable because

Just as it is the task of any new


distance itself from (and yet also modify) the which it seems to form



naturaJY (ppa

individual project 0 to 0

collective mcde 0 of

it inescapably interrogates the very

generic conditions of its 1Jliterary11 intelligibilityo

In such a way

does it also stand apart from the received definitions or norms that constitute the genreo

Just as ideology is never to be encapsulated

in just one text 9 a full genre cannot be articulated by one modelo In this t-Jay is it possible to claim that "pastoral" literary activity

will always stand as distinct from the traditional literary pre= suppositions that seek to idealize it by reducing it to its similari= ties to other texts and thus to an ideal pastoral "poem"o

This is

why so much of this study is given over to questioning the very validity of "pastoral" as a valid generalization to cover the immense variety of writing it seeks to define:

to expose its conservative

bias and to deconstruct it as a "natural" categoryo It is precisely this social appropriation of the pastoral whether discovered in the ]4ylls or


Eclogues~ that is ideologicalo 2


Marxism and Literature (Oxford 9 1977) 9 ppo 52=53o


I favour here the readings of the Narxist definitions of "Ideology" that stress its effect as negative and distortingo See Larrain°s reading of Marx 9 ppo 35=67 9 172=211~ plus his summary in "On the Character of Ideology : Marx and the Present Debate in Britain"~ Theory 2 Culture and Societ~ 9 l (1982) 9 ppa 5~22o The ideological appropriation of literary genres has been examined by both Terry Eagleton in Criticism and Ideology : A Study in Marxist Literary Theor;y, (London 2 1976) 9 especially in his definition of "Aesthetic Ideology" (po 60)~ and Pierre Macherey 2 A Theort of Literar;y Production (1966) 9 translated by Geoffrey Wal1London 9 1975) 9 ppo l36=56o Genre as a social codification has been called a 11 sociolect" by Rosalind Cm-Jard and John Ellis 9 Language and Materialism : Developments in Semiology and the Theory of the Subject CLondon 9 1977)~ po 38o

13 Hegemonic cultural activity groups and. organizes the very categories of comparison and contrast that are dubbed the genres or nkinds" of literature 9 and thereby it implicitly suggests

rnodes of \1riting that conform to themo



ann.. annroved ~~

l:Jhat it represents as static

and immutable is in practice active and variableo HGrub Streetn are socially constructed 9 not eternal essenceso


Consequently 9 the neo=classical pastoral for all its Virgilian authority went into a decline unannounced by what are now taken to be the foremost cultural spokesmen of the timeo

Marx 9 in his account of

The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852) 9 accounted for the fact that revolutionary bourgeois fervour had masked itself in the disguises and language of the past 9 in this case °Caesarism 0 9 by noting that its ideals 9 art forms and had provided indispensable



classically austere traditions 0

self=deceptions that they needed in order

to conceal from themselves the bourgeois limitations of the content of their struggles and to keep their enthusiasm on the high plane of the great historical tragedy 0 (po 30l)o


never so radical in

political effect 9 English neo-classicism was similaro

In a compre=

hensive inversion of the emphases in TaSo Eliot's account of the orderly transmission of European culture and the obedience of the individual talent 9 Marx highlights the presence of the past as far less liberating:


Men make their own history 9 but they do not make

it just as they please;

they do not make it under circumstances

chosen by themselves 9 but under circumstances directly encountered 9 given 9 and transmitted from the pasto

The tradition of all the dead

generations weighs like a nightmare on the brain of the living 0 (po300)o


On the critical construction of "Grub Street" 9 see Pat Rogers 9 Grub Street : Studies in a Subculture (London 9 1972) 9 PPo 18=939 and Kathy MacDermott 9 "Literature and the Grub Street Myth11 9 Literature and Histor~ 9 8 (1982) 9 159=69o

14 Genres exist as critical aids to intelligibility 9 trithout



indeed is the case c'Jith ideology 9 certain forms of art 9 as life 9 hTould hP. quite literally unthinkableo

The precise effect of this



gibility 11 is 9 hotvever 9 motivated and its units constru.cted for various ends not confined to aesthetic paradigmso

It is t.ri th a vieu to

discovering both hou pastoral criticism functioned as a practice and what conditions favoured or retarded the form 0 s neo=classic status that this study is attemptedo


CHAPTER l Theocritus and the Requirements of Pastoral The earliest classical criticism of the pastoral is an incidental remark by Quintiliano peculiar style 9 but his rustic and pastoral muse shrinks not only from appearing in the forum 9 but even from approaching the cityou


Theocritus 9 it would seem 9 has 9 from the first 9 presented problems for the critic of ancient pastoral poetryo

This rustic muse has

frequently signified an alien culture free of the disciplines and checks of the Attic styleo

The Doric dialect could 9 however 9 help

in constructing an image of directness and 9 therefore 9 honestyo


the very first account of the allegorical eclogue 9 Theocritus proves to be an exceptiono

Boccaccio explicitly states why he and his

master Petrarch chose Virgil rather than Theocritus for a model by claiming that all of the 12YllsQ meaning is explicit and therefore resists the bifocal perspective necessary in allegoryo


In both

Vidags De Arte Poetica (1527) and Scaligerus Ars Poetica (1561)



is Virgil rather than Theocritus that provides the touchstone of pastoral excellenceo

The virtues of polish, elegance 9 and art are

all necessary in creating a second nature that will vie with Nature itselfo

According to Scaliger 9 Virgil does


not seem to have been

taught by nature 9 but to have vied with it 9 or even better to have given it laws ooo 9 o

To the critical tastes of the humanistic

suo non forum 2o

Lettere di Giovanni Boccaccio 9 edited by Francesco Corrazzini (Florence 9 1877) 9 po 267o

16 Renaissance

Virgil is equated \vith Art 9 Theocritus with the


untutored irregularity of Natureo This reading of the ancient render the form vulnerable to



of pastoral poetry can


kinds of criticismo

Firstly 9

Virgil 0 s Art marries uneasily with its apparent subject matterg leisure=hours of a mere shepherdo


If decorum were strictly observed 9

then some of the rough l'lfildness of nrea11v shepherds '!.oJOuld have to be representedo

Secondly 9 however 9 Theocritean dialect can sometimes

be too rude and forthright for a

11 literary 1 ~


This is probably

why Sidney felt that pastoral was the most vulnerable form of poetryo In his An Apologie for Poetrie C1:~itten Co 1583 9 published 1595) 9

pastoral as usual appears at the bottom of his list of genreso antagonistic to the poetic act itself would 0

the hedge is the lowest 0 o


disdained 0 9 because




soonest leap over 0 where

However 9 the 'poor

pipe' should not be

sometimes 9 under the pretty tales of wolves and

sheep 9 ° the poet may implicitly consider the whole range of doing ~d patience;•o 2

It is obvious that the particular




nature 0

that Theocritus was supposed to have captured in the Jgylls was of little service to those who sought hidden significances to sanction the very act of poetic creation itselfo

Minus this extra dimension,

Puttenham 9 in his Arte of English Poesie (1589) 9 contemplates only 0

the meanest sort of men 9 as shepheards 9 heywards 9 and such like 0

making up the focus of interest 9 providing a style both 'base and humble' and in 1591 9 Sir John Harrington lumped the pastoral together


Select Translations from Scaliger 0 s Poetics 9 edited by Frederick Morgan Padelford (New York 9 1905) 9 po 52; see also Vida 0 s partiality for Virgil 9 whom he advises the poet 'ante alias animo venerare ~ The Art of Poetr~ 9 translated-by Christopher Pitt; edited by AoSo Cook (New York 9 1926) 9 Po 53o 0

An A)ology for 1973 9 Po ll6o

Poetr~ 9

edited by Geoffrey Shepherd (Manchester 9

17 with the sonnet and epigram and admitted that often they




t'\1'8Iltonnes and love and toying 9 and no'IPJ and then breaking the rules -..r!>



.L VC'"'..LJ g

This cH 13t:rust of Theocritus

go ia.""J.to

would seem to relegate the


to a marginal status in considerations

of the Augustan pastorale The precise nature of the problem that Theocritus posed for traditional classicism is? alternatively 9 most significanto Aristotelian coherence and a chaste interpretation of Horatian decorum were theories instrumental in recasting more usual definitions of "simplicity 11 and "nature 11 in the interests of a complex yet mellifluous style tlfhere the "literary" occasion evinced graceful craftsmanshipo .


On the other hand 9 the naivet~ of Theocritus 9 s assortment of goatherds 9 reapers and shepherds and his attempt to mirror this lack of pretension in the Doric mode 9 leads the reader to consider the very nature of such rural figures rather than admire the art that transforms themo Herein lies the danger to more fundamentalist classical tastes in literature and yet also their peculiar charmo Much recent criticism has discovered a far less "innocent" work: one that is dynamically interrelated and deliberately variedo Gianfranco Fabiano has analysed the style of the 1£ylls as constantly fluctuating between epic and realistic 9 literary and colloquialo


sharp discontinuity of style is seen as a conscious effect as it seems not to follow lines of chronological poetic development:


What seems

chiefly to characterize Theocritus 9 poetic language is the instability of the system at every levelo 9


Efforts to combat the levelling 9


Elizabethan Critical Essa~ 9 edited by GoGo Smith 9 2 vols (Oxford 9 1904)9 2: 27; 2: 209o


"Fluctuation in Theocritusv Style 11 9 Greek 2 Roman and Byzantine Studies 9 12 (1971) 9 517=537 ( 528)o

18 generic approach to the poems are found in the work of John Van Sickle and Charles Segalo


Far from being a


the Doric style emerges

as extraordinRriLy flexible and refractory to easy generalizationo Even on the level of verse 9 graceful lilt and melodious resonance can change suddenly to harsher and Bore abrupt rhythms and the songs of Pan~

the I'-1uses and Daphnis mingle uith the "realisticrr glimpses of

butting goats and nibbled olive shootso


The Augustan Theocritus It was not until Thomas Creech 0 s translation of the lSYlliums of Theocritus 9 with Rapin°s discourse of Pastorals 9 done into English (1684) that the first full translation of the Doric Greek original became availableo

Indeed 9 a reliable text would have been especially

difficult to obtain until Bishop Fellus edition in 1676o 3

The result

of this belated discovery of Theocritus was that there were two versions of his 1£ylls = the Theocritus that was produced out of hearsay and tradition alongside the more accurate opinion deduced directly from the Greek that only became available eight years before


"Epic and Bucolic (Theocritus 9 Ido VII9 Virgil 9 Eclo 1) 11 9 Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica 9 19 (1975) 9 45=72;. "Thematic Coherence in Theocritus 0 Bucolic _llills11 9 Wiener Studien 9 NoFo (1977) 9 35-68o


For sudden changes in rhythm 9 see. Idyll 4o 38=57 9 5o 31=629 45=53o The mingling of myth with rustic particularity has best been studied by Segal with special reference to Idyll 7g 0 Lycidas may smell of goats and rennet 9 but when he descends from his mountains to meet the city=dwellers on the plain 9 he brings with him not only the divine epiphanies of Homeric epic 9 · but also the mythic world of a shepherd singer ooo 0 0 nLandscape into Myth ~ Theocri tus Bucolic Poetryn 9 Ramus 9 4 (1975) 9 115=139 (_, 139) 0


Fell 0 s edition was largely based on the Ambrosian MSSo 390 and 104o- For a fuller account see Theocritus 9 edited by WoSoFo Gow 9 2 vols (Cambridge 9 1950) 9 lg xxx=xxxio Creech 9 however 9 did have the full canon.from which to work 9 even if his knowledge of the Doric dialect vmE inevitably rudimentaryo

19 the Creech translationo

A partial edition 9 containing material that

by 1676 had been declared spurious 9 in

1t::;.R.R -...,--

called Sixe

TrH1H::._l.,.m+. -"i ---



published anonymously at Oxford

it is fair to


1!Jas then more knotm by reputation than by studyo

th<.=~_t Theoc_"~"_;b_l_~=: -

This did not prevent

Alexander Barclay including him in a roll=call of great pastoral poets in the Prologe to his ~istle

o~:m Eclo~ 9

as did nEaKarJ in his

to Spenserus Shepheardes Calendar (1579)o


Sir Philip Sidney 9

in commending the Calendar 9 was 9 on the other hand 9 unhappy about the 0

framing of his style to an old rustic language 0 seeing that Theocritus

as well as Virgil and Sannazaro did not provide a precedent for it 9 whereas William Webbe was concerned with the pastoral poetvs motive and linked Theocritus with Virgil 9 Calpurnius and Mantuan: Although the matter they take in hand seemeth commonly in appearance rude and homely 9 as the usual talk of simple clot~s 9 yet do they indeed utter in the same much pleasant and profitable delighto For under these persons 9 as it were in a cloak of simplicity 9 they would either set forth the praises of their friends 9 without the note of flattery 9 or inveigh grievously against abuses 9 without any token of bitternesso3 In l•/e bbe 0 s opinion 9 the rugged naturalism of the Doric is a device to

disarm the unwary reader and act as a decoy while more pertinent matters than


the usual talk of simple clowns 1 are in fact signifiedo

Sidney 9 however 9 differentiates a Spenserian Doric (an vold rustic language 1 ) from what is presumably a more current patois imitated by


Full title was: Sixe Idillia that is 2 sixe small 9 or petty Poems 9 or~glogues2 chosen out of the right famous Sicilian Poet Theocritus2 and translated into English verseo


The Eclogues of Alexander Barcla~ 9 edited by Beatrice White 9 Early English Texts Society 9 OoSo 175 (London 9 1928) 9 po 76; Spenser : Poetical Works 9 edited by JoCo Smith and Eo de Selincourt (Oxford 9 1970) 9 po 418o


An Apolo~ 9 po 133; 11A Discourse-of English Poetrie 11 (1586) 9 in Elizabethan Critical Essale 9 1: 262a




Hebbe on the one hand excuses the Doric for its function

in a wider moral framework whereas Sidney prefers to consider the style

a..s, less Rlien t.o



literary 11 standard.so

In Rene Rapin°s Dissertatio de Carmine Pastorali (1659) 9 translated

by Thomas Creech as

.A Treatise de Carmine Pastorali 11 (1684)




humanistic apology for pastoral poetry is significantly abs.ento is no hint of moral instruction or satire lefto shepherd metaphor must provide: Innocence~



Consequently 9 the

a perfect image of the State of

of that golden Age 9 that blessed time 0 when Sincerity and

Innocence 9 Peace 9 Ease 9 and Plenty inhabited the Plains ooo 01 To use that image to serve a greater purpose would be to deflect the reader's emotional attention from the image itselfo

In Rapin°s opinion 9

one should not look through and beyond the image but find it 9 in itself 9 exemplaryo

This has consequences for the pastoral form which extend

beyond its subject matter; utile:

Rapin emphasises the dulce more than the

0Therefore let Pastoral never venture upon a lofty subject 9

let it not recede one jot from its proper matter 9 but be employ 0 d about Rustick affairs: 24=25)o

such as are mean and humble in themselves ooo0 (ppo

Without examining Rapin°s terms any further 9 it is evident

that the perfect imitation of the Classical Golden Age could hardly co=exist with true Rusticity:


the humble and mean 1 o


Rapin °s treatise there is this dialectic betlr1een the transcendent image and the contemporary reality of a shepherd 1 s life with its nnon=literary" meannesso

It is this thin line between rusticity and simplicity that

a successful pastoral will upholdo discrimination~

In accordance with this fine

Rapin finds the pastoral next=of=kin to the epic 9 which

comprises two kinds of imitation 9 namely the Heroic and the Rustic 9 (pal9:)


"A Treatise de Carmine Pastorali" 9 in Idfliums of Theocritus 9 translated by Thomas Creech (Oxford 9 16'8) 9 po 5o

21 an ambivalence that is quietly perpetuated in his definition of the Pastoral UL'




urt is the imitation of the Action of a Sheaperd 9

taken U..J.der that character ~ ~ ~ u "(ppe 33= 34) n

Two totally

distinct traditions of pastoral poetry or drama are tveakly linked here as alternativeso

That there might be a vwrld of difference behreen

the realism of choosing to write directly of a shepherdus life and the potential allegory endemic in the masquerades of Le Petit Hameau or Sidney 1 s Arcadia seems not to be central to Rapinus theoryo


of these alternatives are chosen on the grounds that? in the Golden Age 9 even the most noble followed the shepherd us calling ( po24) o Hence Rapin is most particular in claiming that pastoral poems only imitate a shepherdus lifeo

The reapers of fulllO or the hunting and ploughing of the

Georgics are foreign to ito

Logically 9 when Virgil includes the

Golden Age or the Epicurean theory of Creation as themes in Eclogues 4 and 6

he also transgresses against pastoral decorumo

To reflect this balance between the epic and the "low 11 pastoral 9 Creech would have to be carefully neutral in his styleo

Usually 9

decorum demanded a style that would adequately clothe the subjecto As the subject is a shepherd 9 uor of one taken under that characteru it is not easy to realise just what this constituteso


Just as the

style could be too polite or too elegant it could also be too clow.nisho The shepherd becomes an ideal and must consequently be portrayed in an exemplary wayo

He escapes the vices of the Court by being transplanted

into country soil but as his lineage is noble 9 blood demands that he be free of his environmento and honey 9



As the Golden Age was seen as a time of milk

work would not tire or debase;

his education vmuld be born

The principal sources for the myth are: Hesiod 9 Works and Da¥§ 9 109= 20; Virgil 9 Eclogue 4 g 4-7 9 37-45; Ovid 9 Metamor;phoses 9 lg 89=103o


of spontaneous communion \1i.th NatUI'e 9 expressed in songo

Uhen Rapin

describes a style suitable to this poetic fiction 9 he can only approxi= mate:

uLet the Expression be plain and easy 9 but elegant and neat 9

and the purest v.vhich the language l'lfill affordu (po 35)o

Later 9 in

Part III of the treatise 9 "'Rules for \I'Jritin_g, Pastorals 119 this quality of plainness and elegance proves unmimetic:

uFor since the matter

must be low 9 to avoid being abject 9 and despicable 9 you must borrow some light from the Expression' ( po 57.) o

Far from being either a

picture of rural life or offering useful instruction 9 the pastoral emerges as a testimony ultimately to the transforming power of Art and its victory over Natureo uponu


Although VNature is chiefly to be lookt

it is also not quite enough 9(for nothing that is disagreeable

to Nature can please) yet that will hardly prevail naked 9 by it self 9 and without the polishing of art ooo 9 (po 44) o

The qualifications

uNatureu is only uchiefly 9 the focus of

are most significant hereo

attention and the parenthesis claiming that pleasure derives only from the portrayal of the unaturally 9 agreeable or fitting marks a thought that is indeed parenthetical to the main argument 9 but also necessary in advancing the hypothesis that the unakedness' of Nature as experienced is



not that it fails to render a true

image of life but that it is unpleasant and so will not pleaseo Consequently 9 it is not Rapinus view that the virtues of pastoral representation are mimetic oneso

In strictly Aristotelian terms 9

the "life" that the pastoral represents does not existo

If the object

of pastoral descriptions is "real 19 then it endures purely as a relation= ship between a poet and his readers or audience 9 where what will pass as a pleasurable image answers a permanent desire to find in the country= side a world where all the disagreeable stresses of the city and its social obligations evaporate or resolve themselveso

The exact character

23 of that desire may alter vrith the of


Alexandrians 9

Londoners remainso



but the psychological need

Augustan Romans and


However 9 it must also be allowed 9 if the pastoral

poem is primarily affective 9 that styles and diction may also altero Rapin°s

directions for pastoral style are based on a reinforcement


of the notion that its excellence lies in the tracing of an exact yet abstract 10J..iterary 11 qualityo

As with any Utopia or Arcadia 9 its

particular contours are mental and its map will be a psychological oneo

This position is defiantly an idealist oneg

is but




QFor since Eclogue

it seems not capable of those Commotions which belong to and Pulpit;

they must be soft 9 and gentle 9 and all its

Passion must seem to flow only 9 and not break out ooo 0 (po 62)o.


vie1rJ of the amoebaean structure of many !!!,ylls and Eclogu.es 9 to claim that the main interest of the pastoral does not lie in its drama is implicitly to deny the singing=contests of Corydon and Battus 4)


or Comatas and Lacon (,Myll 5) or Meliboeus and Ti tyrus (Eclogue 1)

to be conflicts or even competitionso

The plainness of the style

would forfeit elegance and neatness and its purity be compromised if disquiet were admittedo brilli~~ce

To be both seamless and

must be obvious


defined area of experienceo Creech 9 s style should be an

be appreciated as a compact, It is





its well~


innocent 11 idiom 9 free from the neigh=

bouring alternatives of the Heroic and the Clownisho Creech 0 s translation was reprinted in 1713

~~d 1721~

but was not

as popular as his much=praised translation of Lucretius's De Rerum Natura (1682)o

Both works were regarded as definitiveo

Pope even

regarded his rather pedestrian translations of Horace (1684) favourably 9

24 opening his Imitation of


Book Io Epistle 6

(1738) 11rith an

(inexact) quotation from his translation: Not to Admire~ is all the Art I know 9 make men happy 9 and to keep them soo 0 [Plain Truth 9 dear MURRAY~ needs no flow 0 rs of So take it in the very words of Creecho]l 0



A more direct commendation was to come from Thomas Purney in his A Full Enquiry into the True Nature of Pastoral (l?l?)o pastoral


When describing a

thought 0 as being not only agreeable or beautiful but also

possessing simplicity 9 he finds the rendering of the latter best exemplified by Creech 0 s translation of Theocritus


whose Language

(next to some of Spencer 0 s) is vastly the best we



for Pastoral 0o

Rapin 9 however 9 cast some doubt as to whether all of Theocritus 0 s 1flylls were pastoral as they were not all about shepherds (po20)9 Indeed 9 this simplicity did seem strange when compared with the necessary heightening needed to match the elevated subject matter of ]4ylls 13 16 18

(the story of Hylas from the Argonautica) 9 15 (the Adonis song) 9 (the request for patronage addressed to Hieron I of Syracuse) or (Helen°s Epithalamion)o

On the other hand 9 Rap in finds him

deficient in the depiction of the would mean that shepherds



of the Golden Age which

must be candid 9 simple 9 and ingenuous;

lovers of Goodness 9 and Justice 9 affable 9 and kind; fraud 9 cont:rivance 9 and deceit;

strangers to all

in their love modest 9 and chast 9 not

one suspitious word 9 no loose expression to be allowed 0 (po 6?)o



Imitations of Horace 9 edited by John Butt 9 Twickenham edition of the Poetry of Alexander Pope 9 6 vols (London 9 1939) 9 4: 237o


A Full Enguiry into the True Nature of Pastoral~ edited by Earl Wasserman 9 Augustan Reprint Society 9 Series Two 9 Nco 4 (Ann Arbor 9 1948) 9 ppo 46=47o This style might have recommended itself to Furney for its 'tendernesS 0 o See po67o

25 is perhaps not surprising that 'Iheocritus is found \•!anting; taxes him with allowing his shepherds to be to one




too sharp 9 and abusive

Indeed the railing between


and Lacon seems

as ubitter as BillingsgateD and thus not suitable to those Dsedate times of the Happy AgeD (pa 67)a Rapinus Golden Age functions as a filtering devicea

This ideal

needs no allegorical power for it enforces the reader to recognise his desire for a better life and yet it implicitly removes this abstraction out of the realm of human action and historyo a golden world;

Only the poets deliver

therefore 9 the shepherds are the creation of a

selective literary tradition not the objects of perceptiona


English reception of this myth may be initially dated from Samuel DanielDs gueenes Arcadia (1605)a

Whilst not actually using the phrase 9

the prologue 9 "To the Queenes most Excellent Majestie 9 11 defines the experience of the play as most suitable for a claustrall exercise 9 Where men shut out retyrud 9 and sequestered From publike fashion 9 seeme to sympatrize With innocent 9 and plaine simplicityo 000


othernessn of this Arcadia is its virtueo


Drama 9 indeed 9 could provide many opportunities for confronting convention with sordid realityo Arcadiao

Danielvs Arcadia had been a gueenes

In As You Like It (co 1598) and The Wintervs Tale (co 1609) 9

the Forest of Arden and Bohemia are topographical and yet also conventionalo

The aristocratic Arcadians of Spenser and Sidney here

encounter representatives of a native tradition often directly inimical to themo

Such a recovery of the folk traditions of peasant songs or

pastoral ballads was only possible t'fhen the more medieval dramaturgies


The Complete Works in Verse and Prose of Samuel Danielu edited by Alexander Bo Grosart 9 5 vols (New York 9 1963) 9 3~ 213 9 llo 14-17o

26 or the influence of the French pastourelle survivedo



therefore 9 can mix together Corin and Audrey 9 the earthy rustics 9 at nne


from the anonymous Sir Clvomon and Clamydes (1:Jritten

1570=90 9 published 1599) 9 with both the refined Silvius and Phebe (approximating to the delicacy of Sidney 0 s Arcadia (1590)) and the obviously courtly

Rosalind 9 Celia and Touchstoneo


exiled Duke and his followers from the court and feel not




like foresters 0 may enjoy their holiday

the penalty of Adam 9 ° and


The seasonsv

difference 0 9 yet the company of Jaques serves to remind the audience that even in Arcadia there is 9 if not death 9 then melancholic reactions to the unaccommodated truth of Man°s have to be killed for food

0 In


naturalV 1 condition and where deer

their assignvd and native

dwelling~place 0

In Bohemia 9 Prince Florizel has no difficulty in

recognising Perdita 1 s noble qualities through her


unusual weedsv


and 9

in dialogue with Camillo and Polixenes 9 she argues against the marriage of high and low 9 court and country (IV 9

4 9 79=108)}

However the

Bohemian simplicities do have an improving effect on the court=life of Sicilyo

Shakespeare 9 s emphasis on the positive qualities of a

more naturalistically realised pastoral culture has no authority from 4 his main source 9 Greene v s Pandosto (1588) o This dialectic bettveen lo

For the fullest account of both traditions concerning the pastoral form 9 see Helen Cooper 9 Pastoral : Medieval into Renaissance (Ipswich 9 1977) 9 ppo 24=4b9 50=70o


As You Like It 9 edited by Agnes Latham 9 Arden edition 9 second edition (London 9 1975) 9 ppo 29=30 9 33o


The Winter 0 s Tale 9 edited by JoHoPo Pafford 9 Arden edition 9 fourth edition (London 9 1963) 9 ppo 93=95o


For example 9 Autolycus and the Clown are additions to Greenevs ploto There is also an attempt to provide a greater value for the pastoral culture by giving the old shepherd more altruistic motivationo In Shakespeare 9 he thinks instinctively of caring for Perdita on finding her before discovering the accompanying treasure 9 whereas in Greene the baby and wealth are discovered simultaneously and covetousness is the prime instigation of the action of the shepherd and his wifeo


\1!hat the reader or auditor may k"'lm,.r .. to be actuality and 'lrJhat he or she 11Jill accept as as


li terary:l is only implicit in Rapino

~~terpreten ~y


resistance to accents as

neo=classicism~ 0

bitter as

The Golden Age 9

is a manifest fictione



is an attempt to

enforce a greater unity on the poetryg all the more reason to qualify the variety of Theocritus 0 s Doric and its dramatic contrastso This same puzzlement over Theocritus 0 s recalcitrance troubled Basil Kennet who prefaced Creech 0 s second edition in 1713 with a Life of Theocritusa definitely claim to be

The only poems in the ~


that he can

pastorals are 1 9 which is a popular

choice 9 9 (now generally regarded as spurious) and llo

Theocritus 0 s

1£Yll 1 concerns the death of Daphnis for reasons not fully explained but are generally associated with blighted loveo Song of the Cyclops for a hopeless love and again in similar guise in llo

Idyll 9 is the



The link between the three poems

seems only to be their preoccupation with the pathetic and the melancholy ambience which they evokea

Kennet seems more concerned

however to discover how shepherds may be portrayed in pastoralo Unrealistic over=refinement seems as much a vice as



Logically 9 he claims that the Doric dialect the poems were composed in was invented for the occasiono


The Old Dorian Phrase seems to have

been introduc 0 d on purpose for these Compositions: this was the plain language of the Golden Age; ness and dialectal edge to



Or one would think

{po 56· )o


The rough=

the old Dorian Phrase 0 is only analogous

to the speech of Sicilian herdsmen 9 not an attempt to reproduce ito However indecorous Doric promises to be 9 its rugged texture is 9 in


Kennet 0 s Life was a reprint of the relevant section of his The Lives and-characters of the Ancient Grecian Poets (1697)a :He is also responsible for an authoritative translation of Vida 0 s De Arte Poetica (170l)a

28 Kennetus opinion 9 a contrivance derived from only literary sourcesa To judge from the above quotation it is difficult to identify the It could be a



noble 9 state from which we have fallen into civilised corruption 9 or 9 as it is distinguished from a specificallycliterarf 7 intention 9 it could be real


something which exists in. fact rather than just in literature

= or 9 lastly 9 it could be a vague term of approval 9 which avoids such ontological problemsa

This ambivalence appears deliberate from what

follows almost immediatelyo

Kennet wonders whether the Doric may not

have rather betrayed Theocritus into vill=breeding 0 as opposed to 0



a little uncouth 0 9 °at least 9 ooo they appear so to the elegancy and


and has to admit that the °Country Air and Tone 0 seem

the niceness of Modern Times 0 o issue that he then argues as if the

So uncertain is he on this 1

plainnessv of shepherd=talk 9 far

from betokening a Golden Age 9 needs defending on realistic grounds; that 'unless the Shepherds are allow 1 d some ruder Liberties in their Words and Carriage 9 they will seem to be abridgvd of the Privileges of their Nature and their Condition ooo 0 9

that is 9 if it is

accepted that they are no princes/aristocrats in masqueradeo he feels that


Indeed 9

it would be a safer Error to let them smell rank of the

Field 9 than to deck them with the least spruceness of the City 0 (po 56)o On the other hand 9 the Theocritean shepherds are Sicilians and 9 in translating the original 9 it would seem wrong to


English" them and

allow them a more familiar and realistic statuso Both Rapin and Kennet are troubled by the rusticity of Theocrituso Rapin finds that it contradicts the seamless purity that he would expect of the pastoral and so the pleasure of a release from urban trouble is qualifiedo

Kennet cannot reconcile the deliberate artistry of

Theocritus with the desire to use that skill for the indecorous

29 portz-ayal of country c-Jo:rkerso

Hm.-Iever 9 it is batter to err o:c that

side than to create an obvious advBntae~s

of educationo


a shepherd displaying the

Both are agreed on the suitability of the

pastoral for the portrayal of tenderness and santimento translation was even celebrated for its amorous fireo

Creech 0 s ~ ~is

(1700) Creech is the subject of a pastoral lament akin 9 as the title suggests 9 to



Just as Daphnis dies a death of


Creech 9 in committing suicide 9 is similarly seen as sacrificing his art for the love of Lalageo

The anonymous poet is under no

illusions that Creech spoke the language of the passionso


is honoured as a poet whose verse could move A Rock to Pity 9 or a Stone to Loveo liho could 9 like ~ 9 tendrest Thoughts instill Should fall a Victim to a Woman°s Will? [llo 21=24] His achievement in pastoral is that he British Swains 0 (43)o


Discover 0 d Grecian loves 9 to

The concluding lines of the poem represent

quite fairly the intensity of the emotionalismo

Daphnis 9 who in

Theocritus 0 s version 9 is restrained and certain of his renunciation of love 9 becomes love=lorn in the 1700 elegy and I rage 9 I burn 9 oh~ let me fly

1°11 dye 0 (223-24)o



I rave 9

I To some dark desert Place 9 and there

The portrayal of shepherds does not have such

complexities if they are primarily represented as loverso herd 0 s work would be particular to him;

A shep=

if 9 however 9 he is a lover 9

then he becomes more general and more abstract:

the embodiment of

simple 9 artless passion 9 which lends itself to two alternative per= spectiveso

Firstly 9 the passion suffered or expressed by the human

representative dissolves his or her individuality until the emotion becomes typicalo

Examples of this would be


6 9 a singing=match

between Daphnis and Damoetas on the hopelessness of Polyphemus 0 s

30 desirz for Galatea 9 or full 11 uhere thz Cyclops is allc1:Jed his m-.'Il song of unrequited loveo

On the other hand 9 this pathos of impossible

des:i_re could be transformed to cruel grotesquerie t


and critical attitude

tm-Jards Simaetha of ..fSyll 2 and the unnamed goatherd of .fQ.yll 3o SimaethaQs spell and incantation 9 the characterizing reference to her unmarried state 9 her seduction by the wrestler Delphis and the urban details are more akin to Old Comic dramatic monologues than The singer of a form to a

3 serenades Amaryllis in

that is familiar as an urban form 9 usually a sequel


OU!J.1COO e.


ov o

Its transference to a rustic setting is clearly

incongruous and serves to isolate the singer from the readervs empathyo 2

The countryside is seen from an urban perspectiveo

Creech v s volume of the translated ,!s!ylls is 9 hovJever 9 introduced and presented as a collection of lyrical poemso

This is hardly

surprising 9 as both Rapin and Kennet expect the pastoral form to portray innocence 9 Simaetha notwithstandingo

If this requirement

were strictly enforced 9 the pastoral canon would be considerably reduce do

Only lSYlls 1 9 6 9 7 9 and 11 could then be considered

examples of perfect respectabilityo

William Walsh 9 in his Letters


See especially Theocritus ~ Select Poems 9 edited by KoJo Dover (London 9 1971) 9 ppo xxxviii = xliio Corroboration is difficult due to the small number of Old Comic textso Theocritus seems to have been most influenced by two fellow Syracusans: Epicharmus 9 who wrote verse=comedies in the first quarter of the fifth century BoCo 9 and Sophron 9 who wrote prose mimes in the fifth centuryo Their work exists only in fragments 9 although they are frequently cited by contemporarieso


The sentimental goatherd cites several inappropriate myths to contrast with both his bucolic tasks and his speech=patterno The best account is in Charles Segal 9 "Adonis and Aphrodite: Theocritus 9 ~yll III 9 48" from VAntiquite Classique 9 37 (1969) 82=88o Support can be found in Gilbert Lawall 9 Theocritus's Coan Pastorals (Cambridge 9 Masso 9 1967) 9 po 40 9 and Gow 9 2: 74o

31 and Poems Amorous and Gallant (1692) (by misreading) even bars



from that


The Design ought to be the representing the Life of a Shepherd 9 not only by talking of Sheep and Fields 9 but by showing us the Truth 9 Sincerity 9 and Innocence that accompanies that sort cf Life~ For though I k:lo1:J our Hasters 9 Theocritus and Virg_fb have not alvra.ys conform 0 d in this Point of Innocence9 Theocritus 9 in his Daphnis 9 having made his love too ~renton ooo Indeed 9 i
This view of what the

pastoral should aim to create is repeated by Thomas Tickell in his Guardian papers on pastoral poetry (1713) 9 especially

28 9 where

he commends Theocritus in particular for this quality even above Virgil: 000

there is

more innocence 9 simplicity 9 and whatever else hath


been laid do1rm. as the distinguishing marks of pastoral 9 in the Greek 02

than the Roman


On this same topic 9 Dryden had 9 in 16999

written to Elizabeth Thomas 9 advising her Virgil 0 s Pastorals;


not to trust too much to

for as excellent as they are 9 yet 9 Theocritus

is far before him 9 both in Softness of Thought 9 and Simplicity of Expression v o3

Dryden had expanded on this opinion in his 'Preface"

to §ylvae (1685) 9 emphasising the fact that Theocritus seemed most supreme in this


softness 9 and


simplicity 0 ~

That which distinguishes Theocritus from all other poets 9 both Greek and Latin 9 and which raises him even above Virgil in his Eclogues 9 is the inimitable tenderness of his passions 9 and the natural expression of them in words so becoming of a pastoralo A simplicity shines through all he wr1. 'tes: he shows his art and learning 9 by disguising botho

lo ''Preface't po 4o 2o

The Guardian 9 2 vols


The Letters of John Dryden 9 edited by Charles Eo Ward (Chapel Hill? NoCo 9 1942) 9 Letter 699 po 127o

32 Later 9 he compares Theocritus


Ovid 9 giving victory in cter.derness 0

to the formero he is softer than Ovid~ he touches the passions more delicately 9 and performs all this out of his o~m fond 9 uithout diving into the arts and sciences for a supplyo Even his Doric dialect has an incomparable sweetness in its clo~mishness 9 like a fair shepherdess1 in her country russet 9 talking in a Yorkshire tone ooo This rusticity works 9 in Dryden°s view 9 because Theocritus wrote for Sicilians who spoke the dialect 9 and therefore its


would not have been apparento In emphasising the affective in Theocritus 0 s poetry 9 a lyrical

pastoral is expectedo

Both allegory and the epic manner are suspecto

Innocent love and its artless expression supplant the symbol or the hero as the proper subject=matter of a pastorale

The attempt to

marry such simplicity with Theocritus 0 s rusticity proved difficulto Some would find the


his Discourse on Pastoral

guilty of indecorumo Poetr~

Rapin and Pope (in

(1717)) could find them defective in

This is a possible sub=text to Gay 0 s references to Theocritus in his"Proeme"to The Shepherd 0 s Week (1714)o


the whole poem is elusive in its irony, part of its interest lies in the many alternative readings \rJhich it could elicito

Certainly the

dissonance between rustic ill=breeding and innocent simplicity forms




Preface 1 to .§,ylvae : or the Second Part of Poetical Miscellanies 9 from Essays of John Dryden 9 edited by WoPo Ker 9 2 vols (Oxford 9 1900) 9 1: 265o Rapin distrusts the Doric dialect and any attempt to represent rural life with any verisimilitudeo Theocritus sins against such standards of purity 9 for the bucolics are full of a 0 broad way of pronunciation 9 9 which is 0 exactly fit for a Clown°s discourse' (po 36)o -The 0 manners 0 are therefore 0 1 apt to be-· faulty (po 67)o Pope finds that--Theocritus 0 is not so exact in his persons [as Virgil] 9 having introduced Reapers and fishermen 9 9 employments with little opportunity for transfiguring literary associations 'I'E 9 1 ~ 29 •





part of


main attractiona

The claim that he uas t11Y'iting the

poems on a Theocritean model is ambiguous in a positive way: Great !"'arvell hath it been 9 (and that not unworthily) to diverse 1r1orthy 1rlits 9 that in this our Island of Britain 9 in all rare Sciences so greatly abounding 9 more especially in all kL~ds of Poesie highly flourishing 9 no Poet (though othen1ays of notable Cunning in Roundelays) hath hit on the right simple Eclogue after the true ancient guise of Theocritus 9 before this mine Attempta 1 The sentence announces itself as ironic by the unnecessary complications of archaisms 9 superfluous qualifying clauses before the main verb and the proliferation of parentheseso of prideo phrase


Its verbosity is a Modern°s fault

The insularity of nationalistic pride is suggested by the

our Island of Britain° and of pride in contemporary achievement

by the mention of an abundance of scientific researcho

The persona

Gay assumes also exudes facile confidence in the multiplicity of kinds of poetry being theme

not in the excellence achieved in any one of

l~itten 9

Indeed 9 the paratactic diffuseness of the whole rproeme11 'should

destroy confidence in its author 0 s stylistic judgemento

The question

that is left unresolved despite this is whether the reader can conclude that it is Theocritus 0 s


true ancient 0 style of dottnright simplicity

that is discredited or the Proeme=writer 0 s pretensions to achieving ito That it might be the former is suggested by the comments on .!9:Yll 5o Eschewing


idle trumpery (only fit for Schools and Schoolboys) 0 9

Theocritus is thus commended as


rightly 0 having:


his louts give foul

language 9 and behold their Goats at Rut in all Simplicity 0 (1: 90) o


throughout the Proeme 9 the remarks in parentheses have an important role to playa


By dismissing the


idle trumpery 0 that Theocritus

John Gay : Poetry and Prose 9 edited by Vinton Aa Dearing with the assistance of Charles Eo Beckwith 9 2 vols (Oxford 9 1974) 9 1 : 90o


ignores as only suitable fer scholastic endeavour~ the ([Prceme=l."Jriter11~ unawares 9 floats the implicit suggestion that such simplicity is unlettered and thus uncivilisedo

Dryden t·Jas more favourably disposed

totcJards the Doric and the subject of the M;Yllsa the





his rJPreface11 to

the fact that Theocritus 0 s shepherds


never rise

above their country education in their complaints of love 0 unlike Virgil 0 s 9 who dabble in °the philosophy of Epicurus and of Plato 0 o All of Theocritus 0 s images are taken from the country because all of his shepherds are transcribed from


cottages and plains 0


265) o Dryden

does not clarify this last statement but it could be taken to mean that Theocritus is more realistic than Virgil in that he maintains the probability that country life is harsha 0

foul language 0 of



Gay certainly finds the

!£2 real to give pleasureo


readings produce a Theocritus who 9 quite apart from the tenderness in amorous courtship discovered in other quarters 9 creates an atmosphere of boorish truth that provokes as much tolerant amusement as an encounter with a rustic would produce in real lifeo This "realism 11 attracted attention from commentators or translators because it was a departure from the large appearances and grandeur of generali.zation that


essential to idealism,

Deprived of the taste

for allegory 9 the period read pastoral poetry as symphonic and transcendent rather than satirical and corporealo

It was


therefore 9 that the pastoral came to be regarded as lyrico

As soon

as that is granted 9 it is easier to acknowledge that love is a central preoccupation a

William Temple in his essay 110f Poetr:y''(l690) connects

the two unequivocally: The ~ick Poetry has been chiefly Conversant about Love 9 tho 0 turned often upon Praise too; and the

35 Vein of Pastorals and. Eclogues has run the sazne course ?l as may be observed in Theocrytus? Virgih 9 and Horaceooo This expressive theory of pastoral poetry demands a coherence of moodo It requires not an Aristotelian plot but a unity of sentiment and stylistic register so as to be emotionally convincingo proves to be only partially true to this ruleo


Bernard le Bevier de

Fontenelle 9 who wrote his Discours sur la Nature de l 0 Eglogue (1688) to challenge Rapin°s Golden Age preoccupations 9 takes over 9 however 9 his distaste for Theocritus 0 s


P. A.

Motteux 0 s trans=

lation appeared with le Bossu 0 s 1Treatise of the Epick Poem11 and Dacier 0 s "An Essay upon Satyr-"in 1695 and 111as 9 with Rapin 9 a seminal influence

on Pope 0 s Discourse o

It commences with a clear objection to

Theocritus 0 s clownishness as it leads to an inconsistency of atmosphere and takes as its two main defective texts ls!ylls 4 and 5: 0

May not these Discourses be thought too Clownish 9 and fitter to be

spoken by real Country Fellows than by such Shepherds as are introduc 0 d Fontenelle 0 s choice of the Eclogue as the obvious pattern for pastoral writers to follow is probably a deliberate reference to Virgil's worko black sheep in the familyo

Theocritus appears as an embarrassing In order to discount his influence

Fontenelle would have the eclogue

defiantly non=mimetic on the

grounds not of decorum or unity of plot but emotional consistency: 0

I therefore am of Opinion? that Pastoral Poetry cannot be very

charming if it is as low and clownish as shepherds naturally are; or if it precisely runs upon nothing but rural Matters 0 (po 28l.)o It is crucial 9 considering this conclusion 9 that the pastoral 0 s


Critical Essays of the Seventeenth Century 9 edited by JoEo Spingarn 9 3 vols (Oxford 9 1908) 9 3: 89o


"Of Pastorals 11 9 "Englished by Mro Motteuxn and published with Rene le Bossu 9 'Treatise of the Epick Poem'' (1695) 9 po 280o



be highly

cThe Business is not purely to


we must describe such Objects as are delightfule {po 285)o decorum had demanded


matter of a poemo


style that vas suitable to the subject=

Here there is a deliberate mystification of the

central characters and their localeg

instead of

become an affective synthesis charged



shepherds 9 they

the task of providing

illusion instead of trutho This idealism is only one


of interpreting the ]!yllso

and Dryden had found Theocritus too realistico


Lady Mary Wortley

Montagu found to her surprise that he directly rendered the details of the Sicilian landscape of his childhoodg I no longer look upon Theocritus as a Romantic Writer; he has only given a plain image of the Way of Life amongst the Peasants of his Country 9 which before oppresion had reduc 1 d them to want 9 were I suppose all employ 0 d as the-better sort of uem are nowo I don°t doubt had he been born a Briton his Idylliums had been fill 0 d with Descriptions of Thrashing and Churning 9 both which are unknown here [T~rKe~]o 1 For Purney 9 too 9 Theocritean detail serves a mimetic purpose in the sense that our recognition of the original is a pleasureo Fontenelle 9 finds Theocritus an irritatingly successful pastoral poet = irritating because influential 9 Furney himself composing his own Pastoralso

After the simple manner of Theocritus

Theocritus 9 however 9 is carefully re=modelledo graphs of A Full


in 1717o

In the opening para=

(1717) 9 he proposes three alternative

courses for a pastoral poet in describing the landscape: 0

Purney 0 s

tis suppos 1 d to have been in the Golden Age 1 )


Rapin°s ( 0 as

Fontenelle 0 s ( 0 his own

COUNTRY but touching only what is agreeable in it 0 ) or a third option 9 that he



may depaint the life of Swains exactly as it is 9 their Fatigues

The Complete Letters of Lady Mary Wortley Halsband 9 3 vols (Oxford 9 1965) 9 1: 332o

Monta~ 9

edited by Robert


and Pleas2res being equally blended togethero most 1!Jriters have given (ae



And this 9 last Kind

for Theocritus 0 s rude unmanner 0 d Muse

Criticks have stiled. it, not m1_1r:h amiss) naturally led him

into this Nethod 0 {Po 5)o reinterpretingo

Furney fo'und Theocritus 0 s example needed

He returns to this theme in Chapter II 9 section lo

Here he laments the derivativeness of modern pastorals 9 assuming certain material details that are not immediately familiar nowg We alt~ys see 0 em sweating with a Sicle in their Hands; beating their Cows from the Corn; or else at Scoldingo Yet doubtless a kind of Pastorals of this Nature might be made extreamly delightful 9 if the Writer would dare to write himself 9 and not be lead so much by Theocritus and Virgil [po 24Jo This


delightfulness 0 9 derived from habitual courses of life and homely

daily tasks 9 is only so by its power to provide an alternative for the town=dwellero

The shepherd or cowherd is


other 11 than




and 9 if shown to indulge in dissensions or to be beset by privation 9 the reader 0 s imagination would not be enticed to embrace such cityo


On the contrary 9 We love the Country for its 0 Soft Retirements 9 its 0 Silence 9 and its 0 Shades 9 and can 'live love a Description of it that sets none of these before us? ooo If the Toils of the Country=Folk took my Observance 9 °twould only be for Variety ooo [po 26]

not for informationo



variety 0 embeds these pastoral figures in

a plausible working community without which the t'higher" pleasure of enjoying their


retired 1 existence would seem

!££ ideal and gratuitouso

In short 9 it does not suggest the Georgicsat all where the depiction of

labour is pervasiveo

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu wondered whether 9 if

a British Theocritus were alive today 9 he might not portray such tasks as threshing or churningo

This poetry would be far from Golden Age

portraiture in that it would anchor this ideal in one spot and at one

particu.lar stage of agrarian indu.stryo

In such a uay did Theocritu.s

come to symboli.ze a rough=hetro nrealismru and sanction 9 united t'ITith Spe!lser~

s example; a.

verna.cul~u· pE~.storHl th-"~t

native elements and perhaps dialectal formso Guardian paper on pastoral poetry


:into :it

Thomas Tickell 0 s last

(32) is set in the form of an

allegory I.'Jhere certain poets present themselves characteristically as suitors before Amarylliso

Theocritus comes °Clothed in a garment

of rough goatskins 9 his hair was matted 9 his beard neglected; person uncouth 9 and aukward in his gait 0 o the sound on his pipe is 0 harsh and jarring 0

in his

He is not successful as ~1



This home=

In The Battle

spun rusticity could be accepted as a positive virtueo

of the Authors Lately Fought in Covent Garden (1720) 9 which Edward and Lillian Bloom attribute to John Dennis 9 the two principal gonists are Horatius Truewit and Sir John Edgaro on Horatius 0 s side



Theocritus fights

under the banner of Ambrosius who is

clad all in Green 9 except a Tragick Mantle 9 V"Jhich hung down behind him 9 with a Shepherd 0 s Crook in one hand 9 and a Scrip by his side 9 with the Rural Pipe hanging before him; there was good Nature and calmness in his Face 9 with a glimpse of Hajesty which in a proper Place his Performances have discover 0 d ooo 2 Ambrosius is a significant figure to choose to represent pastoral poetry a

As leader of the Britons in the fifth century he checked

the advance of Saxon invaders 9 but he was also of Roman birth 9 a descendant of Constantineo

As such he typifies the native pastoral;

although bearing marks of its descent from classical origll1S 9 it is now fully naturalizedo This did not necessarily produce 9 on the other hand 9 quite the


Therefore in opposition to Virgilo


by Edward Ao and Lillian Do Bloom

39 charsh and jarringv melodies that



Doric was softened quite deliberatelyo

In his


In his hands 9 the

Advertisement concerning

the Language" 9 pastoral poetry is best sampled by reading Theocritus 9 Spenser~

and cthe incomparable Pastorals of Mro Phillipsa o Phillipo .

is praised for his talent in imitating Spensercs umannerc changing the vulgar dress




of his words 9 yet leaving the Main Body

This ingredient in pastoral language is due to the csimple and tender 0 characters that shepherds are taken to bee This apology is often near to being a manifesto on behalf of this 0

native 0 tradition:


no one but Theocritus 9 Spenser 9 and our present

British Swains 9 durst ever venture themselves in this Pastoral Path 9 being affraid and unwilling to forgo that Honour which either a refin°d language or a sublime one procuredao Spensercs variety with its



Purney 0 s

vulgar dressa


is not even

for it is not the roughness


of the idiom that is significant so much as its tendernesso In "Paplet : or 9 Love and Innocence 11 9 Purney 1 s first pastoral 9

the verse is set in an identifiable landscape: The time 9 in this PIECE 9 is from ~ to Night 9 The Season Summer; and the Scene on the Banks of the Brook Eden [really Iddon]; which runs out of the Medwa;y 9 some Miles West of TUNBRIDGE in ~ [ po 8] o The poem itself eludes such definitiono

It opens with a prime example

of Purney 0 s tender Muse: A Gentle Swain *yfed in Kentish Mead 9 The gentlest Swain that ever Flock did feedo Soft he beside the Stream of EDEN lay 9 And grazad abie the Banks of fair MEDWAY ooo [llo 1=4] 2 Purney 0 s note to the asterisked


yfed 0 runs

Words ooo are for softness of sound 1 o


YFED 9 a 9 and y ooo before

When introducing the two lovers 9

Purney 1 s dainty lyricism renders them with porcelain careo


Works 9 edited by HoOo White (Oxford 9 1933) 9 po 4o


The full text is found at ppo 8=20o

Soflin and E,_a,."QJ.et they7 (ah dainty THEYE) That ripe as Rose~ this a soft=aged MEY*a Both lith as Youngling Roe 9 all=tender too As Ladybird that lives on blinkling Del'! [ lla 43=46] 0

MEY 0 to mean Maid is a substitution Purney claims to have transferred

from Chaucer 0 as it has not the vulgarness of Maid 9 and is of a sound particularly sweet and simple 0 o

Such equable agreement behJeen sound

and subject domesticates the rural figures and hardly fits Purney 0 s image of Theocritus in A Full Enquiry vlith his portrayal of


the Life

of S\"Jains exactly as it is 0 to say nothing of Tickell 0 s satyr of Guardian 32 or the follower of Ambrosiuso Perhaps Theocritus 0 s most successful follower in the period was Allan Ramsay? \·Jhose own Scots Doric could demonstrate a continuity with an oral tradition and yet also suggest some of the more conventional aspects of a ''literary 11 shepherdo

Ramsay furnished

his collected Poems of 1721 and 1728 t1Tith simple glossaries 9 thus advertizing both the origins of the dialect and its strangenessa Principally 9 however 9 the Scots element is part of a concerted effort to produce an alternative to the English received standards of the time a

This is obvious from Ramsay 0 s association >rith the Easy Club 9

tapping the strong Scottish nationalism and perhaps Jacobitism that flourished in Edinburgh in the years after the Union of Parliaments of 1707o

His first collection of 1715 contains about eighty poems 9

of which about half were in English 9 half in various shades of obtrusively Scots idiomo

By 1724 9 the English element 9 that is 9

the "poetic" London style 9 is all but absento

In that year 9 Ramsay

issued the first of five volumes of The Tea=Table Miscellany 9 a collection of songs in which Scots songs intended to be sung to traditional tunes were given prominenceo

Later in the year 9 he

resurrected several medieval Scots lyrics in The Ever Greeno

In the

41 :;?refacei~

Ramsay defended cthat :natural Strength of Tho"J.ght aud

Simplicity of

our Forefathers practised ooo 0 o



Simplicity 0

to Ra."nsay >:!a.s annexed to notions of bold Rt:rength and a certain 0


dome stick;







copied from those Fields and Ivieadm:JS

and their 1:re


1 every Day behold' o

This vigorous native idiom survives almost without check in his pastoral works~

notably in his pastoral play 9 The Gentle Shepherd (1725)o

ballad=opera version followed in 1729 when some of the songs from Tea=Table


and The Ever Green were incorporatedo

was a self=conscious stand is evident from several sourceso

A ~

That this In the

'Preface" to his first collection (1721) ~ for example 9 he claims that 0



which perhaps may offend some over=nice Ear 9 give

new Life and Grace to the Poetry 9 and become their Place as well as 2 the Doric Dialect of Theocritus 9 so much admired by the best judges 0 o There is little doubt that the example of the


provided Ramsay

with an excuse to develop an answer to the vogue for enervated diction and mellifluous simplicity exploited by Purneyo The Gentle Shepherd 9 A Pastoral


has its weaknesseso


need to incorporate a patrician element in Sir William Worthy 0 s speeches stretches the credibility of his disguise as a shepherdo true nature is


and vocabularyo

When his

he all but drops the Doric speech=patterns

The rustic swains Patie and Roger together with

Peggy the milkmaid 9 all of whom prove to be of higher lineage than they at first know 9 cast off much of their racy Scots as they gain in social statuso

The Doric is very much a possession of less


The Works of Allan Ramsa~ 9 6 vols 9 Vols 1=3 edited by Burns Martin and John Wo Oliver 9 Vols 4=6. edited by Alexander Kinghorn and Alexander Law (Edinburgh 9 1951=72) 9 Scottish Text Society 9 4: 236o


Quoted from "Dro Sewel" 9 Works 1: xixo

problematic rustics


as Jenny 9 Bauldy and Mauseo


the comic

element of the play stems from the direct 9 unvarnished description that Ramsay 0 s Doric allowso


Act I 9 Scene

Peggy and Jenny discuss their suitorso



twa barefoot Beauties 0 ~

Jenny 0 s distrust of Roger is

comic in its command of a 1.vealth of superficial


He kaims his Hair indeed 9 and gaes right snug~ With Ribbon=knots at his bletor Bonnet=lug:; lihilk pensily he wears a thought a=jee 9 1 And spreads his Garters diced beneath his Knee [llo 37=40] Act I 9 Scene 1 ~ \·Jhich originally appeared as 'upatie and Rogerto (1721) ~ demonstrates a capacity of the style to embellish more serious senti= ments with a roughness often reminiscent of Spenser 0 s otm Rogo


I 0 m born 9 0 Patieg to a thrat1art Fate; IPm born to strive with Hardships sad and greato Tempest may cease to jaw the rowan Flood Corbies and 'Ibds to grein for Lambkins Blood; But I 9 opprest with never=ending Grief 9 Maun ay despair of lighting on Relief [llo 15=20]

Here the diction is itself poetic in its synthesis of a variety of speech=patterns which are sufficiently divorced from the established correct usage to interest the reader and yet particularized enough to lend a



This can be illustrated on a small

scale with reference to the scene=settings before each dialogueo


I 9 Scene 1 opens Beneath the South side of a Craigy Beild 9 Where Crystal Springs the halesome Waters yield 9 Twa youthful Shepherds on the Gowans lay 9 Tenting their Flocks ae bonny Morn of May [llo 1=4] Peggy and Jenny are located at the start of Act I 9 Scene 2 on a Howm between twa verdant Claiths 0 U~oThe




Lasses use to wash and spread their

Gentle Shepherd is hardly localized more than in Scotland

and amongst the labouring classeso

The Doric only suggests a location

as definite as in Purney 0 s Theocritean pastorals but in fact the play is generalized enough to afford Ramsay the opportunity to achieve a more


The full text is found at Works 9 2g 205=77o

elevated register 111hen requi:::-edo

He can only accomplish this s


by indicating that the events of the play are of provincial significanceo For Ramsay 9 this was of positive valuea Green~ 0

In the 1Preface 1 to

there is a powerful alliance of nostalgia and

\JIIhen these good old Bards t1rote ~

Trimming upon our



Th~ F.v~r


had not yet made Use of imported

nor of Foreign Embroidery in our Writingso

Their Poetrr is the Product of their ovm


not pilfered and

spoiled in the Transportation from abroad: o oo 0 ('1: 236) o Ramsay 0 s Doric pretends to a descriptive plainness sanctioned by a prelapsarian spontaneity of expressiono This option would not be open to Creech for two reasonsa


as a translator 9 he would have to make over Theocritus in as neutral a medium as possibleo

To indulge in a dialect analogous to the Greek

Doric would be to limit some of the more universal aspects of the original styleo

Secondly 9 in selecting Rapin and then Kennet to

preface the translation 9 Creech obviously shared with them a taste for an


pastoral more acceptable to an urban culturea

In any case 9 Theocritus is hardly straightforwardo

The rusticity

that is suggested 9 if not directly enacted 9 in the Doric challenged a decorum that strove to exclude the ugly and unpleasant from problematic representationo this problem was resolvedo


There were three separate means by which Firstly 9 there is the ultimately


factory position of Rapin and to a lesser degree Kennet 9 which attempts to account for rusticity by arguing from its function 9 that is 9 it is an acceptable breach of literary good manners because the subject= matter is humbleo

However 9 engrafted onto this is Rapinqs desire

to transmute such subjects by idealizing their historical location

as a Golden Ageo

Consequently the plain and elegant exist uneasily

and to pass off the plain truth of rural life as elegant needs a sleight=of=hand that is defiantly unmimetico

Secondly 9 it



to represent Theocritus by a highly exclusive principle of selection so that his


simplicity" 1rJas derived from those .Idylls that included

expressions of elegiac or amorous sentimento


Furney commends

Creech 0 s translation for its language 9 he cites several passages



characterize such 0 simplicity11 and in each of them Theocritus is at his most lyrical and least dramatico


there is the grm:Jing

suspicion that the Doric dialect might have been a realistic attempt By analogy 9 it was

to record actual usage and a particular localeo

Ho1r1ever 9 unlike

possible to develop a native Doric to the same endo

Theocritus 9 this would be a literary convention not a direct transcriptiono The challenge that Theocritus represented to the necessary idealism of English neo=classical aesthetics is not minimized if the conventions of Hellenistic literature are consideredo

Surprisingly 9 considering

frequent dialogue in the 1Qylls 9 the poems are not composed in the iambic metre common to the drama and mime but in the dactylic hexameter common in the epic 9 hymn or in didactic poetry Amongst the contemporary works





higher' 1 genreso

in this form are Apollonius 0 s

Argonautica 9 Callimachus 0sKymns and Aratus 0sPhaenomenao

That Theocritus

was aware of this line of influence is obvious from the subject=matter of some of the Idyllso 24 9

lSyll 22 is in the form of a cult=hymn and 13 9 2 25 are short narrative episodes on subjects from heroic mythologyo

There is little doubt that the metre would associate the Bucolica with forms that represented exemplary and usually ideal subjects and personso


25 is now generally regarded as spuriouso 439=40o



Go~1 9


45 Quintillian certainly supported this view and placed Theocritus the epic and didactic poets pastor<'l.l



and in the anonymous Lament for Bion

theme~": rival those of traditional epic in importance a 2

KoJ o Dover has also pointed out ho1!J pervasive epic phraseology is in the _!.9,ylls 9 3 and hovJ conspicuous it is on the lips of herdsmeno


has led to two alternative conclusions concerning how pastoral figures appear in Theocrituso

It is undeniable that their concerns and

utterances seem shot through with reminiscences of the


but it

is still debateable whether this indicates that they are themselves epic figures or conversely inappropriate subject=mattero

Bruno Snell

voices much of this fascination: Theocritus takes some pains to present a realistic picture of the life led by Sicilian shepherdso But in one respect they are anything rather than country folk: their mood is a literary one coo; the dis= sonance between the bucolic simplicity of the pasture and the literary refinement of the city is never completely resolved 9 nor was it ever intended to be 9 for the whole po~t of Theocritus 1 humour lies in this dissonanceo lo

Institutio Oratoria 9 10olo55o Quintilian does 9 however 9 describe the 'musa rustica et pastoralis' as a special type of epico Longinus had compared Homer favourably with both Apollonius and Theocritus: ~








xaL a~~w~o, o A~oA.A.wv~o, ev ~oL' Apyovau~at, " "' "' "\ » , ,.. u ~oL~~~' xav ~oL' ~ouxoA.txo~~ ~~~v oA.Lywv ~wv e~weev 12.1 " ' , > ? 9 vo "' " o I!:!JEOX.pL~o, E~t~uxecna~os ~ ap ouv !J.~po, av j.LaA.A.ov ~ 'A~oA.A.wv~o, €e€A.ot, yev€o6at. e~e~~otye





(Granted that Apollonius in his Argonautica shows himself a poet who does not trip 9 and that in his pastorals Theocritus is 9 except in a few externals 9 most happy 9 would you not 9 for all that 9 choose to be Homer rather than Apollonius?) (Longinus on the Sublime 9 33 9 edited by Do Ao Russell (Oxford 9 1964) 9 Po 4l)o There seems no difference between the Bucolica and the Argonauticao 2o

See especially llo 71=84 9 The Greek Bucolic Poets 9 edited by JoMo Edmonds (London 9 1923) 9 po 450o


ppo li=liio This epic style can often provide a basis for a certain bucolic licence 9 for example 3o 40 ffo and 7o 148 ffo


"Arcadia : The Discovery of a Spiritual Landscape 11 9 in The Discovery of the Mind 9 translated by ToGo Rosenmeyer (Carnbridge 9 Masso 9 1953) 9 PPo 2B5= 86o

46 However~

Adam Parry in reference exclusively to Idyll

find the poem an vheroic songv observeG would be





where just such a dichotomy as Snell


To some extent Theocritus invites re=consideration of pastoral categories~

and 9 if some attempt were made to assimilate all of the

]£ylls to one model 9 then it would have to be so elastic as to be virtually

It has already been noted that not all the



1Qylls were pastorals

in that they described an alternative ideal

existence or sought to assuage the strife of urban and social life by a musical tenderness of diction and sentimento

To call Theocritus

a pastoralist is to fit his work into a category that has only a subsequent existenceo meaning


The Greek @ouxofl. bKa.. is derived f'rom @ouxoA.e: ~ v

herd cattlev which may allow some focus:

the domestication of natureo

that on herding and

However 9 the nearest Greek \•Jord to

describe such herders:@oux6A.ocpis itself far from endorsing such an origino


has been proposed that such vherdersu were members

of a club of poets in Cos who were ritual celebrants of Dionysus 3 poets masquerading as herdsmeno Theocritu8°s

own term for his poems:

(roughly translated as a vpastoral contestv) 9 refers


"Landscape in Greek Poetry" 9 in Yale Classical Studies 9 15 (1957) 9 11~ Gilbert Lawall draws certain parallels with the choruses of Attic drama 9 ppo 19=2lo See also ToGo Rosenmeyer 9 The Green Cabinet : Theocritus and the European Pastoral Lyric (Berkeley 9 1969) 9 ppo 152=53: vpastoral has the extroverted dimension 9 the public character 9 -that we associate with a staged performance ooo Virgil's speech does not show the variety 9 the differentiation between talk and piping and song 9 between grave lamenting and zestful serenade 9 that is the norm in Theocritus ooovo


Richard Reitzenstein 9 Epigramm und Skolion (Giessen 9 1893) 9 Cho 4; Erika Simon 9 "Ein Anthesterienskyphos des Polygnotos11 9 Alte Kunst 9 6 (1963) 9 11 9 no 36 and ToBoLo Webster 9 Hellenistic Poetry and ~ (New York 9 1964) 9 po 19~ no 4o

47 to their


and competitionsa

attempts to render the of


Once agaic where critical attention

as transparently just one type or form

the poems are simplifieda

~oetry 9

It is therefore more accurate to attend to the root meaning of ~yll 9 derived from E~bu/\.A.LOV 0 a little scene 0 9 °a miniature form [of


It is not until the latter years of the eighteenth century

that this root meaning is given an emotional flavoura

Herder 0 s

discussion of the term in the second volume of Adrastea (1801) finds nothing but


der sinnlichste Ausdruck der

h~chst versch~nerten


schaften und Empfindungen solcher Menschen 9 die in kleineren Gesell= Before 9 it is a technical term for a brief poem of any style or subject as ELOUAALOV1iterally interpreted means 'little picture 0 9 etymologically related to the Greek E~OEao What is more ascertainable is how Augustans interpreted the term of

Matthew Prior 0 s 1The


Lad~ 1 s Lookin~=Glassa

In Imitation of

a Greek Idyllium"(l703) is a short narrative of the poet 0 s walk with Celia to the sea=coast and is an elaborate analogy between the calms and sudden tempests of such a scene and the similar moods of the lady concernedo


The lines illustrate a simple analogy between Man and

Nature concluding in a witty complimento

Its main characteristics

seem to be the sentimental subject=matter 9 the narrative form and 9 finally 9 the poem's brevityo

Prior's JQYll derives very little from

the influence of Theocrituso

It is the brevity of the form that is

imitated not its bucolic charactero

Furney was to emphasise this

trait 9 asking


the most delicate expression of the most highly refined passions and perceptions of those men who live together in smaller groups 0 9 S~mtliche Werke 9 edited by Bernhard Suphen 9 32 vols (Hildesheim 9 1967) 9 23 : 302o


The Literary Works of Matthew Prior 9 edited by Ho Bunker Wright and Monroe Ko Spears 9 2 vols (Oxford 9 1959) 9 1: 198o


1-.fhether the Pastorals of Theocritus and Virgil are not rather to be stiled Sketches or Draughts~ of the Nature of Epigrams and Madrigals 9 than regular and perfect Poems? Since by such 9 we mean the Imitation 1 of one entire poetical Action~ having a moral Result~ Pastoral poetry is thus denied any 0 rnoral result 0 largely on account of its length and its lack of grand generalizationo too~ 0



as did


took an


There is little


to describe a brief

sketch 0 rather than a serious and extended narrativeo There still remains the possibility that the ]gyll could have been

taken to indicate a particular episode from a longer narrative or a detail from a larger frameworko suggests realistic detail or a

The question as to whether it thereby literary mood

is still not resolvedo

Whether the !3ouJ"oA.o Lare real herdsmen or disguised poets 9 or whether the


is barred automatically from providing a realistically

detailed as opposed to ''idyllic" image 9 depends on how the reader reacts to Theocritean Dorice

If the dactylic hexameter reminds the

reader of the heroic 9 the Doric invites him or her to feel indulgently superioro

TheocritusiS frequent use of the dialect confirms the

proposition that 9 however varied the topics dealt with in the ]4ylls 9 they may well have been conceived of as a certain


of poetryo

Nowhere else does Theocritus use the dialect nor does it appear that it was common amongst contemporary poets although Aristophanes cari= catures Doric=speakers frequentlyo

Dover concludes that


it might

seem that the language of Theokritos is essentially that of Syracuse or Kos in the early third century BoCo 9 flavoured with epic forms whenever these were metrically useful 0


(poxl) o It is defiantly not the

standard Attic speech and thus announces itself as "other"o

lo trpreface''to


The Bashful Stvain10 (1717) 9 in 1rJorks 9 po 57o See also PPo xxxviii=xxxixo


49 AoSoFo Gov gives a fuller account than in Dovarus adition and intro= duces tl1TO significant qualificationso dialect 9 but uone of the


Firstly 9 Doric was no local

broad divisinns nf the Greek la.ngt:ta.ge

and spoken with pronounced local variations from one end of the Greek 1

Ho:rld to the otheru o

Although not standard 9 it 1:ras comprehensible

and tvould have needed no glossaryo not pure Dorico

Secondly 9 Theocritean Doric is

Just as Burns us Ayrshire dialect was adulterated by

other Scottish and expressly literary


recognizably the Doric of living speech If

any source for the language of the



Theocritean Doric is both a literary extension of ito can be found 9 Ro Coleman

and Gow both decide on the literary Doric found in choral lyric poetry from Aleman

and Stesichorus onwards:

strong conventional structureso


a lyric form but with certain

For Dryden 9 in the'Dedicatiorr 1 to his

own translation of Virgil 0 s pastorals 9 this apparently calculated artifice did not appear stiff or rehearsed:


ooo the boorish dialect

of Theocritus has a secret Charm in it which the Roman language cannot imitate 0 }

Therefore 9 whilst the style suggests the real 9 it is not

ultimately a transcription of it but an elegantly=handled adaptation with elements of heighteningo


the other hand 9 it does signal the

simplicity of provincialism and is not the vehicle of Socrates or Aristophaneso

Far from its range being attenuated by its own self=

consciousness 9 Theocritean Doric can modulate from describing the near=mythical status of Daphnis in ]tyll 1 to the rustic obscenities


Gow 9 1




John Dryden ~ Selected Criticism 9 edited by James Kinsley and George Parfitt (Oxford 9 1970) 9 Po 28lo


Eclogues 9 edited by Robert Coleman (Cambridge 9 1977) 9 po3 9 Gow 9 1 : lxxii ff o Such 11 lyricismu is of a 11 publicn nature 9 not emotion that is overheardo Both Moschus (Europa) and Bion (Adonis) describe mythological subjects in the Doric styleo

50 of Idylls 4 and 5o


Such flexibility is not easy but its effects

connote simplicityo The fascinatior.. of Theocritcu:;VBstyle Rnd. choice of form lieR in

its occasional pat-Jer to amalgamate the tragic tuith the comic 9 the artificial with the realistic and the boorish with the politea


dissonance that produces humour in Snellvs account is an end result not an imperfection to be explained or smoothed awayo


Even if this

is now granted 9 however 9 it does not alter the fact that there is 9 on record 9 a strong view that the Augustan reader could find the effect of this style indecorous at times and so realistico There still remains to consider the strong traditional conviction that Theocritus chose to set his Liylls in a in Eclogue 4


real 11 landscapeo

invokes the Sicelides Musae (1)

Prima Syracosis dignata est ludere versu nostra nee erubuit silvas habitare Thalia Cllo in both cases identifying Theocritus with Sicilyo


and begins 6g

1=2J 2

There is some bio=

graphical evidence to suppose that he had left Syracuse before writing the major bucolic Idyllso 3

This would lead to the identification of

Sicilian and southern Italian details as nostalgic 9 especially as the area in the third century BoCo was often disrupted by waro

From the

vantage=point of Cos or Alexandria 9 such realism is a carefully cultivated stance = a set of circumstances frozen in time 9 apart from the civil unrest of the age and 9 crucially 9 apart from the daily


It must however be pointed out that the rustic context of the singers and their private dialogues are invariably Dorico


Gow 9 lg xviii ffo

experier.ce of his expected readershipa

The details of a l-ray of

farming and husbandry not Coan or Alexandrian are as much a device to express provincialism as thP. Dorj_c diRlect: of Hiero II at Alexandria might have found home farming methods as foreign as those of Sicilya landscapes 9 however 9 the

Hithout the specific mention of Sicilian


would not convey as fragile a sense of

otium 9 of peace enjoyed in the memory where the movement of troops and rural devastation do not exista There are thus several important discriminations for Creech and the other occasional translators of Theocritus to make in order to render this blend of real and ideal accuratelya

Fundamentally the

"realism" of the gylls is highly formalistic 9 for the Doric dialect and Sicilian landscapes are rhetorical strategies by which pleasing provincialism and nostalgic detail 9 not knowledge 9 may be projectedo As Creech chose to translate Theocritean Doric into 1


pure 0 and

elegant 1 English (according to Rapin) 9 not an English Doric 9 he

would have to decide whether to retain the rusticity of the language or the heroic potential in the metric formo The Translators 1s Theocri tus Thomas Creech was not alone in showing a translator 0 s interest in the Idyllso

In Dryden's First Miscellan~ (1684)


he includes his own


Amaryllis 9 or the third Idyllium of Theocritus 9 paraphras 0 d 911 alongside


Pharmaceutra 9 out of Theocritus" [Idyll 2] by William Bowles and "The

Cyclop 9 the eleventh Idyllium of Theocritus 9 English 0 d by Mro [Richard] Duke 11 o

One year later 9 Sylvae contained several moreo

Dryden trans=

lated 13Ylls 18 9 23 and 27 9 William Bowles supplied Idylls 10 and 20 and l3Ylls 1 9 12 and 19 were translated anonymouslyo of these poems are pastorale

By no means all

13711 2 is based on the urban mime

52 tradition 9 in uhich Simaetha employs magic to 1r1in her absent Delphis a


There are references to the gymnasium 9 the baths and the


and none to the keeping of sheepa

Idyll 18 iR an

epithalamion for the marriage of Helen and Menelaus 9 and 19 is an epigram on a honey=thiefa



factor in the other }&ylls

chosen for translation is thwarted love and its pathetic effecto It is quite probable that this choice from the Theocritean canon supports the reading of the


as love=lyrics with an elegiac

colouring a Dryden°s


23 9 however 9 is an example of how much the original

could eventually provide a non=lyrical translationa

The poem describes

the suicide of a spurned lover at the door of a cruel youtha whilst including the 0


in his edition 9 admits that the poem is

plainly 0 not by Theocritus and is l

Theocritean corpus 0 o altogether a poem:

Gow 9


the least attractive of the whole

KoJo Dover 0 s more recent edition omits it

Dryden censors the homosexual element 9 entitling the

"The Despairing Lover":


With inauspicious love 9 a 1rJretched

Svmin / Persu 0 d the fairest Nimph of all the Plain; 0 (l-2)



However 9

there is no evasion about the hanging which is transformed into an


The Poems of John Dryden 9 edited by James Kinsley (Oxford 9 1958) 4 vols 9 1: 424o The full text can be found at 1: 424=27o


This said 9 he took a stone and set it in the middle of the doorwaya Then he tied his slender cord to it and cast the noose about his neck; kicked the support from beneath his foot and hung there deado 0 0

53 TD.u_s having said 9 and f"!ll'io1.:s uith his Love; He heav 1 d uith more than humane force 9 to move A t,reighty Stone 9 (the labour of a Team 9 ) ooo The bounce burst ope the door; the Scornful Fair Relentless lookt 9 and saw him beat his quivering feet in Airo [llo 88=90? 96=97] The death is grotesque in its energy;

the lever uses


more thac humane

force 0 to move the stone 9 fuelled by the fury of loveo

The deadpan

description in the original stands in stark contrast to thiso similar drama is imported in the description of the scornful deatho

A 0

nimph 0 s 0

vfuen passing the statue of Eros in the baths 9 Theocritus 9 or

his imitator 9 has the statue leap on the cruel youth 9 a blow that kills himo

The account merely mentions the water reddened with his blood


Dryden emphasizes the violence (and anti=female insult) by

transferring the death to the bath=side: Pavement all besmear 1 d;



Her gushing Blood the

Although removing the homosexual

{108 )o

element 9 Dryden has sensationalized the violence and the surprise of the narrativeo Dryden°s enthusiasm for Theocritus here is inconsistent with the praise of his tenderness in the "Preface" to the collectiono translation is adept in portraying is the vestiges of heroic ations in the dactylic hexametero

What the associ~

This reading of Theocritus survives

in his translation of _!gyll 3 9 one of the nbucolic 11 poemso


of quite antithetical perspectives 9 the Idyll makes great use of both Doric modes:

the rough provincial and the boldly heroico

An unnamed

goatherd commits his flock to the care of Tityrus and then serenades Amaryllis who inhabits a caveo


When unsuccessful 9 the singer announces

The goatherd most noticeably assumes an heroic pose during his citation of legendary exempla (40=5~ o

54 h~s

intention of lying down to die at the entranceo

points out 9 about declarations of love in the

As ToGo Rosenmeyer

~ylls 9

A Polyphemus and a Satyriskos display a passion and a devotion t·Jhich beg not to be taken seriouslyo Their claims are undercut either through the agency of an incredulous bystander or by a note of disbelief sounded in the songs or speeches themselves ooo ve are made to sense their naivete more direct~y than their sufferingso There is a disproportion behreen the note of frustration or pain uttered and the innocence radiated by their personso [po 79] This disproportion is emphasised by the parody in the


pleading of the urban (and bawdy) XWJJ.O£ or 11:apa:xA.a.ua a, 6upov "1 ('a song at closed doors 0 )

a form where



young bloods after late

revelling tried to win admittance to their serenading hero


house by

If unsuccessful 9 the suitor might resort to breaking

in barred doors or pitching camp outside all night to impress the lady that the passion was seriouso The XW!J.O£ is thus a tactic in a refined courtly mode 9 a game where the entreaty and night 0 s vigil are not signs denoting depth of emotion primarily but connoting participation in a sophisticated convention a

The goatherd 0 s emotion may be earnestly expressed but

its effect is neutralized because tainted by obvious ignoranceo


goatherd not only does not know the rules but could not know the rules of this conventiono

Therefore the usincerity'' of his plea only

confirms a detached reading or perhaps implies a tension between a sympathy at the hopelessness of his plight and amused detachment 9 which notes his comic appearance and



Amaryllis 0 s

dwelling is no town=house but a cave and the only door a veil of foliageo

The reader learns that he has gained admittance before and

his present rejection causes doubts about his physical appearance 9


The fullest account is given by Francis Cairns 9 Generic Composition in Greek and Roman Poetry (Edinburgh 9 1972) 9 ppol45ffo

55 namely his


and beardo

Finally 9 the fcr;:nal. od.e tdth tJhich

he concludes his serenade is an unlikely display of mythological know= ledge on the subject of the successful suits of legendary lovers = information presumably only open to one of moneyed position and acquired educationo

The formal effect of these details is to substi=

tute a dramatic mode for a lyrical oneo involved in a narrative contexte


the serenade is

This is implicitly achieved by the

scene=setting in which his flocks are entrusted to an off=stage Tityrus =

a detail otherwise redundanto The poem

The 1684 version shows little sign of these contrastso

is more a Restoration love=lyric where the pastoral environment lends decorative grace and a thin veil of innocenceo

Dryden ignores the

division of scene marked in the Greek between the leave=taking of the goats and the arrival at the cave=mouth so as to reinforce lyrical coherenceo

His goatherd is far from a gauche innocento

For example 9

the opening lines of his serenade include an eroticism quite foreign

Ah beauteous Nymph 9 can you forget your Love 9 The conscious Grottos 9 and the shady Grove; Where stretch 0 d at ease your tender Limbs were laid 9 Your nameless Beauties nakedly display 0 d? Then I was call 1 d your darling 9 your desire9 2 With Kisses such-as set my Soul on Fireo [llo 6=11] Francis Fawkes 9 the next translator of all the fgylls (1767)




his'Preface'that although he had found Dryden°s versions valuable 9 he


0 Lovely Amaryllis 9 why no more do you peep out of this thy cave and call me in = me 9 thy svreetheart? Dost hate me? Am I 9 then 9 snub= nosed on closer view 9 maiden? And does my beard stick out? Thou 0 lt make me hang myselfo 0


The full text can be found at Poems 9 1: 366=69o

also distrusted the overall impression for


vJhenever he meets uith any

sentiment in an author which has the least tendency to indecency? he 1 always renders it worse 1 o


by omitting the demeanine

physical details characteristic of a satyr and substituting success in courtship 9 removes any possible pathos from the characterizationo His goatherd is indecent and fallen 9 not through a rustic breeding but from a sense of sino

lack of

Theocritus invites a condescension

by weaving the obvious discrepancy between reader and protagonist to the very fabric of the poemo


in writing a love=lyric 9 forgoes

such complication and posits a goatherd not of innocent impotence but libidinous energyo

When consulting the soothsayer


has the goatherd include the homely detail that she had until recently been cutting grass alongside himo

Dryden°s addition alters not only

the relationship between them but even supplies a patronizing aside: '?'






8!.71:8 >ia.t Aypo1.w 't'a.i\a.68a. xoaKLVOj..LO.V't"t<;~ xp&v xoLoi\oy8~aa. ~~:a.pa.L~~'t"L<; 9 o~V8X 1 ~yw ~~v


[llo 31=32]


(Agreo 9 that in Harvest us 0 d to lease; But 9 Harvest done 9 to Chare=work did aspire; Meat 9 drink and Two=pence was her daily hire:) [llo72=74] Dryden secularizes Agroeo by detailing an economic estimate of her worth 9 whereas for the goatherd such divination is not superstition but a living beliefo

Consequently 9 Agroeo becomes a witch or a



beldame 0 not a soothsayer 9 someone seen from the city as a hireling rather than as a person with plausible desires and problemso Creech 1 s version of the same ]!yll shares some of Dryden°s emphases but there is a major difference when there is occasion for


The Idylliums of Theocritus2 translated from the Greek with notes ooo (London 9 1767) 9 Po viiio


0 And Agroeo too 9 that divines with her sieve = she that was lately cutting grass by my side 9 told me truth ooo 0 o

57 direct emotional statemento

Hhereas Dryden had removed some of the

debilitating features of the goatherd 0 s passion in Theocritus? Creech uses them to promote a pathetic and vulne:r.ahl.e


\·lhen confronted

t-rith the cave=mouth? the goatherd in Theocritus is no poeto direct appeals do not reveal guile or urbanityo is still often 11




Creech 0 S reading

(far more so than Dryden°s);

however? this

sincerity 11 is conveyed by a naturalistic doggerel: Ah lovely ~yllis why so wondrous coyg Why won't you take me to the promis 9 d-joy? lifhy won°t you meet me now in yonder-Grove Lean on my Breast 9 and Kiss 9 and call me love? [po 22] This is no impromptu speech 9 but more of a set-pieceo

no sudden turns of thoughto Theocritus 9 so

Here are

However 9 Creech's goatherd is not

The dramatic possibilities of the parody of theform

do not arise and in its place is a more coherent lyrico

This also

involves a diminution of the goatherd 0 s character not just his appearance a

Dryden°s goatherd could be a courtier or young spark

in masquerade 9 but in Creech 9 he is an emotionally vulnerable simpleton = a man of feeling and little elseo

Theocritus 0 s comic parody does

not involve a complete less of sympathy vlith the goatherdo

His weakn.ess

stems from an inevitable incomprehension of a culture that must be foreign to himo

As he is portrayed dramatically 9 he is granted some

worth in love and the joke is not on account of the triteness of the sentiments he expresses but because of the whole framework of the poemo Creech 1 s goatherd is s.entimental in order to impress upon the reader that his life and the way it is lived common to many others is so


He misses several opportunities in the opening lines to wax lyricalo He remembers Amaryllis'lta.p>eU1C'tOLOC1( 1 peeping 9 ) out of her cave 9 a word with 1 low 1 comic associations of.a coquettish woman peeping at a man through a door or windowo She is also no 9 nymph 0 but rather a human girl addressed as 1 bride 0 ( 9 \!JU~cpa. 9 ) The goatherd is hardly ideal either 9 being OL~O' ( 0 snub-nosed 0 )o

unproblematic that he is troubled only by such artless and problems as are occasioned by blighted loveo




Creech 1 s

goatherd offers a goat to Phyllis: I have a pretty Goat~ a lovely white 9 She bears two Kids 9 yet fills three Pails at night 9 This tat~y Bess hath beg 1 d 9 and beg 1 d in vain; [po 24] The desire to anglicize his scene leads Creech 9 in effect 9 to tip the balance between the potentially heroic and the comically


toV>.ra.rds the nlot..r" concerns of more identifiable goatherds 9 not the idealized husbandmen of a recent paste

The Theocritus 9 by comparison 9

includes more of an indication of the disparity between the goatherd and his loved one 9 and so increases the pathos of his pretensions to her: 9


~ ~av

~&,v ~e xu~









Mep~vwvo<; ep1.oux~<;;


tawny Bess 0 o



u~ya ~uil.aaaw 9


~eil.uvox.o.w<;; 1 [.llo .34=35]

The analogy accurately conveys the plebeian

rustic status of Amaryllis 0 s rival 9 and shows a commitment on Creech 0 s part to modernize the poetryo

Absent on the other hand 9 is the notion

of an absurd name=dropping which the Lydian and aristocratic connotations of r1ermnon provide


In anglicizing Theocritus 9 Creech seems committed 9

in Idyll 3 9 to a more familiar approach to his classical originalo Fawkes 9 in 1767 9 found Creech 0 s translation remarkable for its lack of cadence 9 confessing that he had read it when young and when he had no ear for


poetical numbers 0 o

He found the Creech:


very bald

and hard 9 and more rustic than any of the rustics in the Sicilian band 0 o Amplifying his grounds for comment 9 Fawkes deplores the


Englishing 0 of

Theocritus and points to the substitution of Crocylus by Dick in Idyll


Truly I keep for thee a white nanny=goat with two kids which Mermnon°s swarthy serving=girl wants off meo 0 1


5 and of Argivus 9 Apis and Cleunicus by Tor:1 9 \'Jill and Dick in ~yg 14o 1 Absent is the necessary distance that lent enchantment to this view of shepherd=lifeo Creech 0 s Doric is not Dryden°s 9 but it is not the flexible style of the l&ylls either 9 which 9 powered by the grandiose rhythms of the dactylic hexameter 9 holds two contradictory moods in a tension impossible in the Englisho

As Rosenmeyer notes 9 there is a deliberate

indecorum in the very seriousness with which a goatherd would wish to 2 The same sentiments on the lips of a land= engage our sympathieso owner with acres 'IITOuld be more acceptable o ~ylls

Dryden°s interest in the

lies not in their tenderness but their debased 9 yet liberated 9

sexual gustoo

Creech does not grant his goatherd such delusions of

grandeur 9 but he comes nearer to the


soft and tender 0 Doric of simple 9

unvarnished feelings expressed in the clumsy directness that signifies rusticityo

This is an attempt 9 without becoming dialectal 9 to render

the non=standard aspects of the


Inevitably 9 however 9 some of

the more plaintive and desperate gestures are simplified in mode and in motiveo To some extent Idyll 3

is not a true test=caseo


simplicities are those closely associated with sentiment and tendernesso The goatherd in the original elicits an ironical reading that a might not havao 3


The greatest problems of translation occur when

Theocritus refuses emotionalism and either decisively honours or denigrates the bucolic charactero

In Idylls 1 and 7 there is potential

for portraying a shepherdvs life as ideal whereas the country life is




See Po 54o


Goatherds are rarely portrayed seriouslyo Idylls 3 and 11 provide such exampleso Priapus 0 s insult to Daphnis~~yll lo 86=88) captures this patronizing perspectiveo

(1767) 9 Po ixo

60 seen in a more realistic light in 4 9 5 and lOo

It is thus harder to

find rural affairs homely and unprepossessing in 1 and 7 and impossible to read 4 9 5 and 10 as portraying the Golden Ageo Augustan


In each



of Theocritean pastoral has not done justice to the

diversity and multiplicity of plots it can containo

Consequently 9

what might l.ave appeared as the direct transmission of an original plot found in the


is actually a subtle or 9 at times acknowledged 9

transformation of it 9 selecting and appropriating just so much as t-rould grant the new model the trappings of classical authorityo Idylls l and 7 IftYlls l and 7 portray characters and events which are suggested by the rural setting and yet which also signify life at a high pitch of imaginative scope and artistryo

It is precisely in these pastorals

that the shepherd metaphor and its rural context is most ambiguouso Daphnis 9 in Idyll 1 9 is hailed as a j3ou't"a.c; ( 0 neatherd 0 ) by Priapus but the rest of the poem seeks to deify himo


and Lycidas from Idyll 7 are not depicted working at allo

Simichidas 9

the narr.ator of the lgyll 9 is travelling to the co1.mtry from the to'.'m 9 and Lycidas 9 although identified (13) and dressing the part 9 is received by the travellers as a famous pipero Within each poem 9 the exact function of the rural references is symbolic 9 not mimetico

Both Daphnis and Lycidas are given the appropriate

bucolic "presence" and yet are still divorced from such a contexto



Daphnis figures much larger than the rest of his fellow herdsmeno Even gods visit him and fail to measure up to his greatnesso Eventually he dies heroically 9 not 1fJi th 11simplicity11 or yielding innocenceo The main sources for the myth are discussed at greater length in Dover 9 ppo 83=86 and Lawall 9 ppo l9=22o Lycidas 0 s relation to Simichidas reveals the former as the source of inspiration and poetic skillo This is the probable interpretation _of his gift of a xopuva.v ( 0 wild olive=stick 0 ) (43) to his young companion 9 a symbol alluding to the Muses 0 gift to Hesiod (Theogonl 30) which serves to embody his poetic-vocationo

61 Daphnis appears in the pastoral elegy sung by Thyrsiso is no attempt to


As such there

him in the same way that Thyrsis and the

unnamed goatherd are during their opening exchangeo


ThP. lam~nt for

Daphnis is presented as high artifice in that Thyrsis is striving to uin by his art the Goatherd 0 s stakeg

the decorated cupo


becomes a poet 9 the goatherd constitutes an audience and Daphnisus death is an apotheosis of the t11hole tradition of

&.o t. 60..<:,: u; In



~yll 7~







o o o

with 11rhich the Nuses inspire Thyrsiso

Simichidas narrates his encounter with Lycidas on the road

to a harvest celebration (a eoJ\. va!. a.) o

Lycidas is known for his power

of song and Simichidas attempts to match himo and Lycidas are primarily artists and their




as a whole are

predominantly concerned with the formal presentation and performance of such arto

Even if there are degrees of realism in both 14Ylls 9

Creechu s ''naturalism" accorded the goatherd of Idyll 3 would neither render these varied degrees precisely nor the nliterary" vocal accents of each performanceo a)

lgyll 1

Thyrsis 9 s song is not truly representative of the whole of 14Yll lo There are three distinct sections: the goatherd

the dialogues between Thyrsis and

(1=26 9 146=53) 9 the description of the cup (27=56) and

then Thyrsis 0 s song (64=145)o

The first section is a dramatic lyric 9

the second stands out stylistically by containing none of the formal refrains and symmetries of bucolic poetry but is 9 on the contrary 9 reminiscent of the descriptive set=pieces of epic and the last is an


The elements of idealized vocabulary that are introduced for Thyrsis 0 s song have been identified by Lawall 9 ppo 16=18o

62 elegiac hymno


HmJever ideal these details may appear as a 1rJhole ~

even these episodes are shot through 1rrith touches of realismo example~

in the song 9 there are the rustic comments from



and in the concluding comments from the goatherd (151=52) 9 there is an


descent into the particulars of material


<}jc)' ~ch~ I\Q,JOa..Ceao 'GU 6 Cl!J.C:7I.ye VLVo a.t ,..'i.. OE xCfla.LpCL!,9 ~ <:l "' ~ ( ~ v p o·v !LTJ CJJt:.p'ta.07j't8~ l.l.TJ 0 't;pa,yoc; U)J.fHV a.VO.O't;IJo

Here 9 at the poemus close 9 the goat is transformed from a symbol of victory (one of Thyrsisvs prizes) to an animal kept for survivalo The conclusion of the poem also places Thyrsisus lament in perspectiveo It is a trial of creative talent 9 not as it seemed before:

the very

peak of achievement: g}tl\.1)08


't8v Mo i:oa.1. c; cpO.ov Cl.vopa..~ 'tov ou ldJ~J, xa.Cpe'te 7eo71.Aax!. 9 j,·;o'Loa..t. ~ xa.Cpe't 1 eyw 0 1 UIJ.IJ.LV xa.i ec; UO'tepov ~OLOV 4owo 0

Similarly 9 the mythical mingles with what seemed precise and clearo Daphnis is allowed to die in eastern Sicily and the goatherd feels that Thyrsis 0 s talent deserves figs from Aegilus (147)o

The bucolic conventions with


The most famous example of epic description is of Achilles 0 s shield 9 Iliad XVIII 9 478 ffoo See also Heracles 0 s shield in the Hesiodic poem named after it 9 19 ffoo


°Come hither 9 Cissaetha; and milk her youo And you she=goats be not so frisky lest the buck=goat rouse himselfo 1


The tvaters closed over him tvhom the Muses loved 9 nor did the Nymphs mislike himo Cease 9 Muses 9 come cease the pastoral songo There 9 give me the goat and the cup 9 so that I may milk her for a libation to the Museso Faret·Iell 9 many times farewell 9 ye Museso A sweeter song will I sing you another dayo 0 0

lvhich Theocritus is 1r10rking allot! both perspectivesa Such stylistic and thematic



even if comprehensible as

several facets of an overarching pattern 9 still demand a mercurial alertness on the part of the translatoro


One of the most prominent

complications involves trrhere to locate Thyrsiso

If he inhabits the

Golden Age 9 there are fel·J places rr:.ore ideal for Daphnis to dieo he is transported to



then the vines and fierce noon=day heat

seem too incongruouso

Creech is faithful to the

musical patterns of the opening passage:



must have a ~ 9 a Goat 0 s ~! due 9 a~~ a lli belongs to~:

[po 1]

When compared to the treatment in the anonymous translation of 1685 9 these symmetries do not seem too 'OJ.iterary" at all and are reminiscent of the naturalistic directness of J§yll 3o are fulsomely u


poetic~ 9








't'E:OV )..LE:I\.0<; T} 'tO JfCL't"0.0,8<; 't'CL<; rd:'t'pCL<; }{Q.'tCLA.ei:[3e'ta.L Utjroeev vowpo 4 [llo 7=8]

W 7t0!.1J.T)Vp



The goatherd 0 s first lines


Sweeter thy Numbers 9 Shepherd 9 and thy Song 9 Than that fair lovely Stream which down along From yonder Hillock 0 s gently rising Side Pours the smooth Current of its easie Tideo [po 354] Indeed~

there is frequently the addition of elegance and tidiness to

the Theocritus:


For an example of such 172=.73


see Cairns on Idyll 10 9 ppo 145 9



See Segal (1977)o


0 If he choose the horned goat~ thou shalt have the she=goat 9 and if he has the she=goat for his prize 9 the kid falls to theeo 0


0 Sweeter 9 shepherd 9 falls thy song than yonder stream that gushes plashing from the rocks over thereo 0



... n


0 ·






G. "\




GA:,'C:J"J'LO!,O yepO'Jt:"Os


:.:Se :lp:..6ev 1


[ llo 45=46]


Not far from hence a seeming Vineyard grows 9 The Vines all neatly set in graceful Rows 9 Whose VJeighty Clusters bend the yielding Boughso [po 357] Creech 9 tco 9 is not averse to smoothing the c1ay through the poemo of the icons of the cup 0 s



the sea=worn 9 old fisherman 9

sheds years: He stands as labouring 9 and his Limbs appear All stretcht 9 and in his face mix hope and fear: The nerves in°s Neck are swoln 9 look firm and strong~ All~tho He 0 s old 9 and fit for one that's Youngo [po 3] The wooden cup does present a problem to Aristotelianso


The length

of the description seems disproportionate to any obvious thematic significanceo

As an image of art 9 it is segregated from the world

that Thyrsis inhabitso figures that appear;

Creech emphasises the perfection of the they become symbols not direct representations 9

Art not Natureo It is necessary 9 therefore 9 for Creech to supply a Thyrsis 0 s song and cup free from the miniaturizing attempted on the shepherd 0 s life and concernso

Although capable of song that transcends his everyday

activities 9 Thyrsis must still appear untransfiguredo

It is in the

interests of this segregation that the fisherman appears uncontaminated by the world from which he is abstractedo



It is not

as a fisherman that he catches the attention in Creech 0 s translation 9 but as one caught in a moment of stasis before vigorous efforto stands Art~


as labouring 0 ;

he does not labouro


As a result 9 he becomes

an icon 9 not an imitation which calls to mind the originalo

demarcation is not apparent in the original ]!yllo


Rosenmeyer has


0 And a little way from the sea=worn old man there is a vineyard with a ripe load of reddening clusterso 1


See 1£Ylliums 9 po 65o

described the classical pastoral form as


There is no single curve 9 no anticipation of a dramatic development oooo One analogy that might thro111r some light on 1r1hat Theocritus does is that of the suite or a similar musical form of successive units ooo a loose combination of independent elements ooo [po 47] This is indeed true if one searches for a narrative "action 11 in the poemo

As Charles Segal has argued 9 however 9 there is a unity founded

on parallels and verbal repetitions 9 in \'l'hich the three


worlds 11 and

styles of the lQyll explore the interdependence of myth 9 artistic creation and a reality rejuvenated constantly by botho


The virtue of Creechus translation is that it demonstrates two insights into the poemo is plainer and yet less

Firstly 9 Creechus style for the description '~aturalistic 11

than for the opening dialogue

and 9 secondly 9 there is some attempt to associate the



elements' of the poem without the logic of cause and effect that characterises the simpler narrative structureso the modification of another


This lies behind

the boy encircled by two foxeso

Theocritus does not offer a moral interpretation: au~~p



~v~spLXOLO~ xaAav ~AE~S~ axpt6o6~pav

O~OLV~ epap~OOO~Vo









1CASy~a~L[fl~652'='5 J2

The boy is more interested in the skilful interlacing of rush and asphodel to create a cage for crickets than he is in his duty (to protect the vines) or his own physical food in the wallet)o


(the threat to the

As crickets were kept for the pleasure of their

song 9 this self-absorption is inspired by aesthetic interests just as the fisherman's is by the effort of labouro

The trio of lovers are


>HSince Daphnis Diesu: The Meaning of Theocritus° First Idyll'' 9 Museum Helveticum9 31-(1974) 9 1=22o


0 But the boy is plaiting a pretty cricket=cage of bonded rush and asphodel 9 and has more joy in his plaiting than care for wallet or for vineso 0

66 similarly intent on the immediate concerns of passion and possessiona As depicted on the



these human icons become a cold

pastoral 9 more artefact than dramao gaze~

Art invites a disinterested

an appreciation of form more than

life as l'!ello


which 9 however 9 enriches

The 1:1ooden cup signifies hot11 the functionality of life

(the cup as drinking=vessel) is sanctified by Arto

The goatherd 9

therefore 9 recommends it to Thyrsis for its workmanship not its a.t11:o~1. c, Jtov o6..TJIJ..<1 o 'tepa..~ ~ n"'\ OUuE 'tL 11:W 11:0'bL XEL~O' v axpa.Y'1"0Va '



xe l'


'b-:.> Gupov





a'tu/;a.!. '"-"-9 0.~1\







Creech 1 s version of the boyus medallion interprets the scene as a moral fableo

One fox minds the Skrip 9 resolvud to seize And rob the Fondling of his Bread and Cheese; \Vhilst He sets idly busy~ neatly tyes Soft tender twigs 9 and frames a Net for Flyes;

ooo [po 4]

The boyus disinterested absorption becomes idleness and the object of his misguided curiosity is devalued until not only is it non=functional 9 which might be excused 9 but also of no aesthetic value as wello


modifications are not anarchic or a result of misreading as they show clear additions to the text not inexact equivalents of what appears thereo

In Creechus translation 9 the girl and her two lovers are

hardly altered at allo

The three icons that Creech produces resemble

its own genre of Hellenistic poetryo

From this point of view 9 the

fisherman is a detail taken from an epic 9 the lovers from lyric and the boy from didactic poetryo

What is significant 9 however 9 is that

the artificial simplicity of Thyrsis 1sexchange with the goatherd is dropped altogether in the description of the cupo

Although there are

significant alterations for Creechus version 9 the insistence on artifice and its positive value are still retainedo


A marvellous object it is to a goatherdvs eyes 9 a marvel that will strike thy heart with amaze; coo never yet has it touched my lips; it lies unsullied stillo 0 1

If the uorld inhabited by r;:'hyrsis and the goatherd is nou compared

t:rith the description of an plainero


Creech 0 s division is all the

It is in the interests of asserting this incommensurability

that the medallions become more iconic and less dramatic and 9 accordingly 9 the opening exchange is granted less seriousnesso cup is called a



fine T1;JO=handled Potu (po 3) by the goatherd and yet

such a literal 9 unrefined definition is certainly not the goatherd 0 s impression of it in the descriptive set=piece where it is magnified as a product of craftsmanlike love and careo

Similarly 9 the goat=

herd 0 s fear of disturbing Pan which is clearly presented as a sincere belief in the Theocritus

(15=18) is domesticated in the Creech:

And He lyes: .dmm to sleep by purling streams 9 He 0 s very touchy if we break his dreams: [po 2] However 9 in the elevated register of Thyrsis 0ssong 9 Pan°s majesty is respected: ~9 ~9

where e 0 re you keep your §ylvan court [ po 8]

and Thyrsis himself gains a heroic voice: v v c eupcn <; 00 wt; A!.,., "tVa.<;~ p


r;:;..." q, () wv"U.ol .::vupo t. 00<; a.oea.- cp Llo 65]

Tis !Qyrsis song 9 1'lwrsis from .lEtna came 9 Sweet is his voice 9 and sounding as his fameo [po 5] 0

The clearest evidence of this exaltation lies in the refraino ~Apxe"te pouxo\t.x&<;~ Mo~oat. cp[\a.t.~ ~PXE"t




[lo 64 9 passim]


becomes an unmistakeable plea for a less humble pastoral: Pan raise my voice 9 Pan move my learned tongue 9 Begin sweet Muse 9 begin the rural songo [po 59 passimJ In accentuating the special grandeur of the cup and in raising Thyrsis 1 s

voice for his lament for Daphnis 9 Creech can modulate smoothly from the simplicity of Thyrsis 1 s daily conversation to his capacity to compose



Thyrsis of Etna am I 9 and sweet is the voice of Thyrsiso 0



Begin 9 dear Muses 9 begin the pastoral songo 0

68 such highly stylised and high=flmm songso

Uhereas Theoc:ritus could

write in such a multi=valent medium as the Greek Doric dialect 9 Creech had to choose bet'!:Jeen mitigating the heroism of Daphnis and Thyrsis os song in general in orde:r to help the transition 9 elevating the opening dialogue or as he finally accomplishes 9 gradually building up to the heroic self=assertion of Daphniso


herd 0 s admonition to the she=goats at the sharpero


also force the goat=


close to be even

As a result 9 there is less surprise about the contrasts of

the Theocritus 9 but a more consistent sorting of the the

Artificial o

By the close of Creech 0 s




1 9 the simple

desires and pretensions of the shepherd and goatherd are firmly established as the bucolic locus of reality or its foreground and not the aspirations conveyed in Thyrsis 0 s songo The 1685 version so varnishes the opening exchanges between Thyrsis and his companion that they become positively Arcadiano easiness and gentleness replace the tumbling xa.'t"a.Xg<; descent amongst the rockso

Smoothness 9 of the stream!s

This is not propitious for the heroic

possibilities of Daphnis 9 and indeed the poem becomes much more tender and pathetico

Daphnis does not die of a broken heart in Theocritus

but wills his own death by keepi..>J.g faith in a vmv, presumably of chastityo



It is this very self=denial that earns Daphnis such an However 9 in this version Daphnis is a man of feelingo

Absent are the possible similarities with Aeschylus 0 s Prometheus noted by Rist


and the heroism that Virgil takes over in his own version of

the myth in Eclogue 5o

Adam Parry is unequivocal about Thyrsis 0ssong:

°Far more than Virgil 0 s and Milton°s imitations of it 9 this is an heroic


The full context of the debate is given in Dover 9 ppo 83=86o


The Poems of Theocritus 9 translated with introductions by Anna Rist (Chapel Hill NoCo, 1978) 9 Po 25o

69 son go

At least it represents with remarkable directness some of the

essential feelings of epic and tragic poetry = the sense of

fate~ of deliberate and dramatic resolutiono 01



For the 1685 trans=

lator 9 Daphnis is the victim of his mvn sensitivity not his 1tJillo In the Theocritus 9 Daphnis is attended by a consort of mourning animals: ~~vov ~&v jGe<;; 9 ~~vov ~G~o~ &o~aav~o "'
















[llo 71=72] They are described as having found a natural form for their



proposition reinforced by the formulaic repetitions redolent of oral epic songo

In 1685~ the natural world becomes a lachrymose funeral

train: For him the Panthers and the Tygers mourn°d: They came 9 they sa\11; and 1r.rith svmln Eyes return ° do Lyons themselves~ did uncouth sorrmvs bear 9 Their savage Fierceness softning to a Tearo [po 359] It follows that the central issue of Daphnis 0s death eludes the trans= latoro

Priapus informs the reader that the maiden in the poem is

searching for Daphnis

In the translation 9 the process

is reversed: 0\Vijy all this grief? ah& wretched Daphnis 9 why? While the false Nyrnph 9 unmindful of thy Pains 9 Now climbs the Hills 9 now skims it o 1 er the Plainsou [po 360] This is bound to qualify Daphnis 0s heroic qualitieso (Aphrodite 0 s) taunts that he had been bested in love elicit a defiance not just of Cypris but of the whole concept of "'Epw~ D~TJ yap fP&~69 ~~veu ~u~~ov a~~Lv080VX~Lv; li.a.cpvL<;;


A!.OQ xa.xov C::00£~0-L




[llo 102=3] The translation is content to keep matters to a personal level 9 between


"Landscape into Myth : Theocritus 0 Bucolic Poetry" 9 Ramus 4 (1975) 9 l15o


For him the jackals howled 9 for him the wolves; the lion of the forest made lamento 1


ooo do you dare to think 9 then 9 that all my suns are set already? Even in Hades shall Daphnis be a bitter grief to loveo 0


for him dead even

70 Dapl:mis ar.d


Too well I know 9 my fatal hour is come 9 My Sun declining to its Western Romeo Ye.t evun in Dea_th thy Scorns T t.rill Tepayn [po 362l This tenderness of sentiment also forces on the poem a coyness and reticence quite alien to the originalus mixture of styleso

In a

mythical song such as Thyrsisus 9 he dares have Priapus pity Daphnis

In the

1685 rendering 9 this 0 sport 0 has become 1 friskingu and Vplayingu

So the later translation of Idyll 1 offers an alternative Augustan reading of Theocritus as tender and sweeta

To perpetuate this reading 9

it is necessary to neutralize the several stylistic differences that Theocritus exploits in gaining a multiplicity of effects


humour 9

satire or pathetic incapacity to contrast with the grandeur of a tough 9 self=asserting heroismo poem is emasculatedo

Remove the contrasts and dissonances and the Creech 1 s more varied verbal registers give a

more accurate translation 9 but even here there are frequently just three nvoices 11 predominating:



mode for the opening

dialogue 9 a plainer 9 denotative style for the description of the cup and then the epic song of Thyrsiso

So as to avoid the discontinuities

of the Greek 9 there is more of a gradual elevation in style right up until the closing return to the importunities of an "unartful11 Nature signalled by frisky she-goats and recalcitrant male=goatsa contrast points the


of the translation:

between the world of imagination and that of worko



the clear contrast In order to

Neatherd were you called 9 but now you are more like the goatherd 9 who 9 when he sees the nannies at their sport 9 weeps that he was not born a goata 1 1

71 modulate from one to the


however 9 Creech begins the

style of dialogue before the song is finished at the climax of


the drovming of'

what is

plain right



This said He dyu d 9 fair Venus rub v d the S'bTain 9 And idly strove to bring him back againo For cruel Fate had broken every thread And o 0 re the ~ygian lake young Daphnis fledo [po 9] Theocritus 0 s description is markedly direct and unembellished: A













St.1CWV a1Ce?Ca.uaa:l;oo ~ov 6 Acppoot.~a. noc:A~ avopowaa.t.o ~aye uav ALVa. 1CaV~C AEA0~1CC:L t 0 8X MOLpO..Vg XW 6a.cpvL, C:~Q, pOOVo ~

~oao ~




It is a style to honour Daphniso

The lines even include the Homeric

detail that a thread spun by the Fates is coexistent with each human lifeo

Creech 0 s Daphnis does not aspire to such gravityo


indecorous action of rubbing ascribed to


Venus 0 (not Aphrodite 9 a

more august deity) 9 and the periphrastic




charge the passage

with a vulnerability that 9 in Theocritus 9 there is no need to emphasiseo In Creech 9 Daphnis dies a man;

in Theocritus 9 he is approaching the

Godse b) l£;¥11 7

Alone out of the poems that make up the bucolic corpus of the Idylls, the narrative of Idyll 7 is told in the first persono


provokes problems of interpretation rather than resolves themo


first person singular is no infallible indication of privileged insight in the Idylls as 3 and 20 both testify 9 but it could promise a more coherent formo

lEJll 7 stretches even the most ingenious commentator

in the search for a central actiono

Simichidas tells the tale of a

walk with two friends to the estate of an aristocratic family of Cos


So much he said 9 and ended; and Aphrodite would have raised him up again 9 but all the thread the Fates assigned was run 9 and Daphnis went to the streamo 0 0

72 to celebrate the harvesto

On the Hay the friends encounter a goatherd

named Lycidas who joins them and who Lycidas begins by singing of



songs with Simichidaso

with whom he

t-rhom he prays a fair voyage to Mityleneo

jR in

love Elnd for

Simichidas replies by

celebrating a love=affair of his friend Aratuso

Lycidas gives him

his staff as a pledge of friendship and their \vays parto



ends with an extended and lush description of their refreshment at the journey~s




The events of the narrative seem to have no clear companions are functionally redundant and the

appearance of Lycidas has only the loosest of connections with the festivities at the Theocritean





in a characteristic

two quite dissimilar songs are included as

divertissements along the routeo

There seems no attempt to exploit

either of them symbolically nor do they further the narrativeo appear merely as distractionso


The only possible link is between a

detail in Lycidas 1 s song describing his reaction on



arrival and the closing luxuriance o

and therefore not improvisedo

It cuts through the bucolic mood

initiated by the account up until that pointe


These descriptive details

And I on that day will bind my brows with sweet anise 9 roses 9 or tvhite stocks 9 and dra\,r from the bowl the wine of Pte lea as I lie by the fire; and beans shall be roasted on the heartho And elbow=high shall my couch be stret~ with fleabane and asphodel and curling celery~ and I will drink at my ease 9 remembering Agaenax in my drinking and gulping it down even to the dregso 1 0

73 are artificially assembled and are not directly mimetica Just as discontinuous is the poem 0 s stylea

The narrative opening

gives way to the hybrid'il:P07C EIJ.'iC'" & xov( ufare~vell song 0 ) / 'll:CH o L J«
Indeed 9 the epistle to Aratus is

digressive and conversational 9 not as rhapsodic or elevated as In between these set=pieces is the conversational give=

and=take between the two poetsa


When the friends arrive at

Thrasidamas 0 s farm 9 the description of the harvest=party suggests the sensuous particulars of Lycidas 1 s songo

In short 9 there is a constant

fluctuation in styles 9 offering a variety of formal and verbal effectso As a backdrop to this virtuoso poetry 9 Theocritus firmly localises the sceneso

Gow claims that the place (Cos) and even the month (July=

August) can be identified from the details of the poemo 3

This has led

to the critical hypothesis that the poem is a Mascerade bucoligue or 9 if particular poets cannot .be found to fit Lycidas or Simichidas 9 that it embodies a contribution to a literary debate between two schools of Alexandrian poetry: emulate Homer


lished 9 creationso



iv.ioLaC1v opUL)(.C:t;




who try to

those who are content with more modest 9 but


Just as in Idyll 1 9 the contrasts in style are


The two songs are contrasted in Josef=Hans KUhn 9 Theoktits (ide 7)" 9 Hermes 11 86 (1958)9 PPo 52=56o


This is not to say that the farewell to Ageanax is without bucolic colouringo There is interest in Daphnis and Comataso The pathetic fallacy of lines 74 ffo resembles Moschus 3ol ffo or Bien lo31 ffo Indeed 9 the whole point of the contrast may be to pit an elevated rusticity against an urbane detachmento


Got..r 9 2~. l27o For the evidence for a non=allegorical reading 9 see Charles Segal 9 11 Theocritus 0 Seventh ~11 and Lycidas 11 9 Wiener Studien 9 Neue Folge 9 8 (1974) 9 20~7 o


'The cocks of the Muses' yardo 1


Die Thalysien

74 p01r1erful 9 not to say irreverento Rabelaisian taste in loveo

Simichidas 0 s song betrays a

The characteristic tone is struck in (96) for

the opening words which refer to the Erotes QsneezingQ Simichidaso

In contrast to Lycidas 0 s song 9 bathed in spiritual

intensity 9 Simichidas images Aratus 0 s desire as located abeneath

(99) and 0 in his marrow 0

his gu.tsa



These physical

details lead easily into the catalogue of Pan°s rewards and punish= mentso

If Aratus is successful 9 Pan will no longer be flogged around

the flanks and shoulderso inflicted with his


His punishment will be biting and scratching (106)

fingernails 9 and sleeping in nettles


Such is Theocritusas heterogeneity that Creech omits such discontinuous and physical details 9 and interpolates a love=lyric of pathos and more acceptable


Ye smileing Loves 9 fair Venus soft delight 9 Like ruddy Apples pleasing to the sight 9 Leave Byblis 0 fountain 9 leave her purling streams ooo Shoot Philinus 9 wound his stubborn mind 9 Shoot 9 for he hath no pitty for his friend; Tho soft as Parsly 9 tender as the Vine 9 And oh that he would clasp his Arms in mine~ [po 47] Lycidas is

Creech is more accurate when he can idealise or glorifyo

introduced in terms that 9 whilst not departing radically from the Greek 9 are apt to show his figure in a more favourable lighto Cydonia


and a worthy 0

He is a man of He

U2) and wears an aged tunic

has already gained a reputation as the best of pipers and treats Simichidas with avuncular indulgence 9 dubbing him va sapling whom Zeus has fashioned all for truth 0 suggest Creech 0 s portrait: OUVOIJ.O.' j.l.eV b.U1(~00.V9 T)c;;



These details do not

oV a.t?t6i\.oc;;9 ouok_ xe J;qCc;; Llo 13



His name was Lycidas 9 and a goatherd was heo 0 Theocritus goes on to emphasise how very much like a goatherd he appearedo 0

75 His name tvas b.Y9d~ 9 the gay the young 9 A Cretan born 9 and fam 0 d for Rural Song [ po 42] decisively more 9 the transition from the relatively neutralg ll 9v _ a:A.A. a:ye uTlo t,uva. ya..p ooo<;; l;uvat:J oe Jta.L (l(D( 9 v p "' (3o:.moA.I.O..OOW].LEGoa.o --cax w--cepoc; a.il.il.ov o·va.Jet. 1 [llo 19=20] .~"










to the Arcadiang Gay 9 vigorous 9 sweet 9 and in the pride of youth 9 And as he spoke a smile sat on his mouth [po 43]o Rapin°s Golden Age deserves more than the goatherd aloneo To some extent this festive heightening is justified by the ea.A.UOQ,Q,

or harvest=festival? of Theocritus 0 s title? which also


provides the destination of the friends 0 journey from the city as well as the reader 0 s progress through the poemo is a smoother one in Creecho

This progression

For example 9 the country songs which

form the competition during the encounter were expressly so that one poet could learn from the othero pleasure seems the goal of the


Creech sustains a reading where


Let 0 s Pipe 9 and wanton as we walk along 9 For-we may please each other with a Song [po 44] This is a significant alteration 9 for no longer is the reader encouraged to applaud the cool artistic skill of both singers and profit by the formal display of their arto

There is only the

obligation to enjoy the contest and allow it to pass the timeo


is a deliberate diminution of the original poem 0 s complexity for the contrast between the two songs introduces a polarity between the


And with a quiet smile and twinkling eye he spoke to me 9 and laughter hung about his lipo 9


Theoqritus is





XCLL awe;~

on this

. t·. )., . ,. v ~"" POJ.n

~Y"' ~ u

u"'TJP ,n

J::uv::.~ y::.p ~ ~

f3ouxoA.LaOOWf.LEOoao-rQ.x 'w-repoc; uA.A.ov ovcwd o [llo 35=36J 9 But come; the 111ay and the day are ours to share; let us make country song 9 and each 9 maybe 9 shall profit the othero 9 These country songs are oaA. uo La. and therefore competitive in natureo

ot o~ o~ r~

country and the citya


there is no complete demarcation betueen

Lycidas 0 s hymning of rustic life and the knowing asperity of Simichidas 0 s urbanity 9 if they are both pleasurahle

in th~ir


cular ways 9 then the criticism of the city loses its force and point 9 and the polemical allure of Lycidasus not lead


festivala singing;


to the



of rural ease does

awareness of such beauty at the

It is only as a contest that Theocritus presented the

Creech 9


an ear for a melodic flow and lyric mood 9

cannot allow such contrasts of mooda Imperceptibly 9 these alterations 9 small in themselves 9 create an alternative plato

Absent from the Creech are not only the surprising

contrasts and dissonances of Theocritus 9 but the restraint of conscious artifice before the Harvest Festivala his


locus uberrimus 9 there is preparation for a symbolic reading

of the poem 0 s conclusion: Demeter a

Because Lycidas 0 s song includes

Simichidas 0 s enjoyment of the feast to

In Creech this associative narrative is not only absent

but even positively negated 9 for even though Theocritus 0 s title for the poem suggests a festive theme 9 that is not synonymous with the holiday that the singers and friends enjoy in the translationa


the original 9 Lycidasvs prayer for the safe landfall of Ageanax includes the earthly delights of the celebratory bowl of Ptelean wine only as a persuasive snare to entice the Prince to live with himo Creech 0 s version introduces a note of Epicurean self=forgetfulness instead: For then with Violets or with Roses croi~d I 0 le sport a Glass 9 and see his Health go round; I~le tost my Beans 9 to raise pall 0 d Appetiteo


Segal (1974) notes the similarities between the two 9 but also the difference: 0 This final scene (132=157) presents a tamer world than Lycidasva It is an agricultural 9 not a pastoral settingo The presiding deity is Demeter 9 not Pan aoo 0 (pa 58)o

77 Make me drink on~ and lengthen the Delight~ hfhilst stretcht on Beds P le spend my easy hours~ And raul~ till I have lost my self in flo1rrers [po 45]


there is more need in Creech 0 s translation for the delights

of the festival to be a fitting crescendo of sensual and poetic fulfilment since this has become increasingly apparent as the motive for the poemo

It is here that the musical analogy is most accurately

descriptive of its merits and its distinctive aimo


ltle lay 9 1r1e 1;Janton d on a flm,rry bed 9

Where fragrant Hastick 9 and where Vines \"/ere spread 9 And round us Poplars rais 0 d their shady head: Just by a spring with pleasing Murmurs flow 1 d 9 In every bush 9 and thicket of the wood Sweet Insects sang 9 and sighing Turtles coo 0 do The labouring Bees buz 0 d round the purling spring~ Their Hony gather 0 d 9 and forgot their Sting~ Sweet Summers choicest fruits 9 and Autum 0 s pride Pears by our head 9 and Apples by our side Lay round in heaps; and leaden Plums did stand With bending boughs 9 to meet the reaching hand: To please us more he pierc 0 t a Cask of Wine 9 Twas four years old 9 and from a noble Vine; [ppo 48=49] In inspiration this conclusion is redolent of Golden Age harmonyo


flowers accommodate themselves to form a bed;

poplars provide shade

and a spring pleases with its flowing musico

Even bees who are


labouring 9 contribute to the natural musico

It is also significant

that the almost transparent similes and parallelism that characterise Creech's "simplicity' are dropped altogether and replaced by a metrical variety ultimately contained by the overarching metre of the heroic couplet a

Unlike the


simplen warld of rustics 9 this is a serious

beauty free of demeaning pathoso

In Theocritus 9 s description not

only is there little attempt to harmonise the natural elements to Man 1 s desire but the organising principle behind the details 9 the celebration of the Harvest and Nature 0 s plenty is never far from viewo The friends laid themselves dovm on'[3a.6E~<1Ls




78 ( 1

deep couches 0 )



of S11Jeet rush~ and in the fresh=strippzd.

Poplars 9 elms 9 the sacred water from the cave of the


join irJitl1 cicadas end trcc=frcgs in




series of sound

fragrant of rich harvest and of fruit

object has its mvn music and its own autonomyo merely babbling soothingly but easy flowo




o Each natural

The waterfall is not

( 137:

plashing) 9



However 9 in relation to the narrative up until that point 9

the description is markedly interioro

LavJall believes that the passage

2 is an °allegory of poetic inspiration 1 o

What is certaL~ is that the

situation of the earlier narrative in Cos has been forgotten which is remarkable in that the care to set the journey in a recognisable land= scape was obvious beforeo ]gyll 7 is influential in the interpretation of Theocritus mainly on account of the widely=held belief that the first person of the poem might be Theocritus himselfo 3

Amongst later commentators 9 this has

encouraged a disposition to find the poem a direct reflection of the Coan landscape and its customso

It has already been noted that Lady

Mary Wortley Montagu found Theocritus realistic in his depiction of landscapeo

As this poem constitutes the only extended piece of

descriptive verse in the Idylls 9 she must have found the set=pieces of this 1£yll directly mimetico

It is also noteworthy that Tickell 0 s

description of Theocritus in his pastoral allegory in the Guardian (32)

more accurately describes Lycidas than it does Simichidaso

As it is hard not to conclude that Lycidas is a more sympathetic figure


It also echoes Homer at Iliad 9 XXI: 26lo


Lawall 9 po 12o


Some identifications are attempted in Lawall 9 ppo 74 ffo

79 than the


1' as narrator 9 there must be substantial doubt as to whether

or to what extent Simichidas could be equated with the poetic personality of Theocritus=

r.P'rt.::Jinlv -in th<> Tnv11 '7 --hP h.<=~~ nn+ ---- l,,.,..itin"' ··-----o rYf -- .::..::::?'--' -----------------~



a song such as that addressed to Aratus and it may be concluded that if he Nished. to t·.rrite autobiographically he t·muld have been clearer in his intention 9 as he is in the epistolary introductions to Idylls 11 and 13o



Simichidas 01 9 far from helping a reading to balance the disparate

styles and levels of diction in the poem 9 functions as a persona not a Sch;Usselname;

the full significance of the poem is only realised

if the narrator is placed as just one voice in the poem 0 s chorus not as a soloisto Creech 9 in accepting the poem as autobiographical 9 has an added responsibility to render an atmospheric unity; ~yll

as in the version of

1 9 he smooths out most inconsistencies of styleo

The exception

to this levelling of tone occurs in the exchange between Thyrsis and the goatherdo

"Nature" is rendered in a tender "simplicity" that is

quite unlike the style suitable for

Art 11 9 either Thyrsisvs song or


more questionably 9 the rusticities of Simichidaso

In maintaining

this stylistic divide between the eventually emasculated songs of the singers and the lyrical environment in which they are performed 9 Creech is choosing not to follow Theocritus in suggesting that high Art could be created in rustic conditions and 9 indeed 9 could derive much of its energy from a descent into lower styles of poetryo Doric


that Creech cultivates is a medium orthodox enough to avoid

regional limitations and yet 9 within these limits 9 simple and innocent enough to be Goldeno

80 .f9:ylls 4 9 5 and 10 Ancient comment on Theocritusus style usually defines it as 1 humil_is or 6-cp sA. TJ c;; o

Freed from the connotations of the literate

urban culture in 1rrhich Theocritus \irote the 1£!ylls 9 the style could imply an unpretentious clarity 9 freed from the conceitful difficulties of most contemporary Alexandrian formso

Consequently 9 Theocritus

1rms prepared to forgo the medium of Socrates and Aristophaneso


stylised Dorian 9 redolent of archaic choral poetry 9 suggested the past but did not express its mood obscurelyo

This variety of plain

style approximates to Demetriusvs formula in On Styleo


more directly intended for those composing prose oratory rather than poetry 9 the treatise accurately describes the Hellenistic Dorice


emphasises the need for short clauses with clearly felt 9 unprotracted endings (para 204) ~ recommends the avoidance of unusual trrords and pointed rhythmic effects (221) and endorses a concreteness and full presentation of details (209)o

The internal hiatus of long vowels

(207) 9 frequently employed to increase the effects of drama and tension at the expense of lucidity 9 is foreign to the 13Ylls as wello


This internal asyntaxis led Scaliger to characterize the Theocritean mode of pastoral as relaxed and extended 9 compared to Virgil who appears economical 9 concise 9 polished 9 smooth and compacta 3


unperiodic diffuseness was noticed by Rapin as well 9 who realised that the 'periods ooo have no conjunctions to connect them;v



See Servius 9 Proemo in Vergilii Bucolicon 9 edo Go Thilo (Leipzig 9 1887) 9 3~ l-2; Hermogenes ~otmoA.t.;wv 2o3o


Aristotle 9 The Poetics; VLonginus 0 9 The Sublime; Demetrius 9 On Style" 9 translated by 1rJo Hamilton Fyfe (London 9 rev a edo 1932) 9 Loeb Classical Library 9 ppo 426 9 428 9 436=37a


Select Translations 9 po 27o





stops and breakings offU :Po

Ll-O )o

It seems contradictory~

therefore 9 to turn to Purney and Pope 0 s observations that pastoral

as a



actions such as the epica

mere sketches rathP.T' than complete

This brevity of scope could 9 hm·rever 9 be

a consequence of the supposed limited capacities of the rustic character 9 1r1hich appeared incapable of abbreviating its discourse by pithy generalisationo

l and 7 could be construed as con=


fronting this rustic metaphor with imaginative myth 9 a display of transcendence a

The very looseness of style signifies a rusticity

that the heroic metre and its occasionally noble subjects would seek to effaceo

In the


now under consideration 9 it is harder to

consider their bucolic content as pleasurably transparent metaphoro Theocritus 0 s reputation for


lown realism and inadmissible coarse=

ness is not obvious in the two l4ylls just analysedo

In an inconsistent

canon of bucolic poems 9 where the attempt to make them fit one generic definition is difficult, the three most rustic Idylls have largely escaped critical noticeso

Where they have most attracted attention

is in their challenge to the heroic image of Theocritean pastoral if Thyrsis 0 s song or the lush descriptions of Nature are selected from Idylls land 7 9 or the reputation for tender sentiment is perpetuated, such as expressed by Polyphemus in Idyll 11 or the goatherd in Idyll 3o Most significantly these Idylls repudiate the notion of the Golden Age with its inherent idealism not only as concerns the character of a shepherd but also his surroundingso

In relation to this pastoral

myth the alternative presented by the dialogues between Battus and Corydon, Comatas and Lacon and finally Milon and Bucaeus is realistic


See ppo 12S...35o sentences 0 o

Pope deduces a !§.· 9 l~ 26o


brief 1 eclogue from



82 to the extent that it stresses the mo:re instinctive sid.e of r'Ian and his possibly debased desires? and resists a lyrical presentationo P.apin °s d.iste..ste e.t the r<:!.iline;


0 hitter

as Billine:s!'rate 0 is natural

uhen pastoral is expected to display an image of the 1

the Happy Age 0 o


sedate times of

It is no coincidence that these poems ot-Je Buch of

their inspiration to the techniques of the urban mime and exploit such possibilities for emphasising the contrast and conflict of a dramatic modelo

Consequently 9 the undramatic aspects of the more

normal Doric mode are forsaken for a superficial tension 9 some of the conflict that is a result of the plot of the amoebaean contests rather than its conceptual framev10rko a) Idyll 4 It proves something of a surprise to find by Creech with the headnote:



4 introduced

Battus and Corydon in a pastoral way

discourse of several things 0 (26~)o

As this comment is the only

direct gloss by Creech on his own translations 9 it certainly gains in significance as it points to the fact that 9 in Creech 0 s eyes 9 this Idyll is the only poem in need of oneo possible explanations for thiso

There are several

Firstly 9 the headnote might have

stood as an apology for the apparent formlessness of the poemo The verb


discourse 0 had long since been loosened from its academic


to reason in dialogue 9 and could now mean merely to

converse 0 so there is no obvious mock=heroic irony in the noteo The crux might be the description of the poem 0 s subject as things 0 o



Alternatively 9 this particular 'pastoral way 0 9 although not

the first mime in the collection 9 is certainly the most unpropitious


See po25o

in subject and stylee

Correspondingly 9 Creech is preparing the reader

for a particular pastoral diction that he would not have expectedo Finally~

the 'pastoral 1:Jay 1 could he a faintly derogatory reference

implying that the inconsequential looseness of the poem is merely what might have been expected of the genreo That


4 might not be as formless as its first commentators

believed has only recently been noticedo


What is more obvious is

the spontaneity of conversation suggested by the long chatter about the


of Aegon°s herd of cows left to Corydon°s caree

However wayward the topics of conversation there are some formal constraints that gradually become noticeableo

The dactylic hexameter

is an obvious example but just as important is the opening confirming the poem 0 s dramatic modele


This lasts for the first fifteen

lines to be succeeded by four units of three lines of speech eacho This patterning is only broken by Corydon's speech commencing at line 29 which lasts for nine lines and the intrusion of dramatic interest from outside their dialogue at line 44 when Battus realises that Corydon's herd is eating olives on the slopes below theme in driving back the herd 9 then spikes himself on some spindle=thornso Metrical order and the


is restored to some extent by the four

concluding speeches which are all of two lines eacho

By reference to

the appearance of the poem on the page it is possible to conclude that at least two of those



several things' are highlighted by breaking up

Lawall 9 ppe 50~51 9 claims that this Idyll exploits the tension between the two poles of erotic attitudes: 0 purely physical desires and sentimental longing' (pe 50) 9 whereas Rist 9 ppo 52=55 9 finds the predominant emotion-to be a kinship and fellow=feeling between man and beaste SegaP s 11 Theocritean Criticism and the Inter= pretation of the Fourth .full11 9 Ramus 1 (1972) 9 1=25 9 treats the poem as a test=case for the appreciation of the whole canono Once again the critical vocabulary stresses a dichotomy 9 for where 'time seems suspended and where nature is bountiful 9 serious and trivial can appear as aspects of the same thing 0 o The effect created is humble and rustic but still the 0 humor of Homer's Olympus 0 (po 17 ) o

84 a


The patterning is loose to allol:! the

discursive patterno

impression of unrehearsed speech to grou but not disjointed enough to


the tension of 7orm and the undifferentiated topics of speecho

The first break in the speech=pattern occurs when Corydon answers Battus 0 s jibe to the absent Aegon that his pipe is getting flecke& with milde\t through lack of use o

Corydon 9 in ansHer 9 asserts his ot-m

prm-Jess as a player and states that Aegon had left that pipe to himo Although 9 taken out of context 9 this assertion appears insignificant 9 the miniature frame that presents this image of artistic confidence sets it off most forcefullyo or 9 more specifically

The second break occurs when reality

in this case 9 Corydon°s duty as a cowherd

intrudes into the discussion and both Battus and Corydon become countrymen again rather than singerso

Judging merely from the form

of the poem there would seem to be a dichotomy in that a countryman both sings and yet also has work to do 9 the same ambiguity that taxed Rapin and Kenneto 1 As expected 9 Theocritus provides a precise topographical setting and a seasoning of


lowvr uords and phrases not least of which is the

closing belly=laugh about Aegon 1 s lecherous father (58ffo)o

What is

remarkable is the degree to which this occupies the forefront of the reader 0 s attentiono

Being wholly dramatic in mode 9 there are no

lyrical moments 9 and no songso

Indeed 9 Theocritus seems to be leading

up to the inclusion of a lament for Amaryllis when such impending transcendence is dispersed in three abrupt stages: sententiousness of Corydon


the Hesiodic

( 41 = 43) 9 the discovery that the cows

The cattle are pastured by the rivers Aisaros (17) and Neaithos (24)o This These are both near Croton on the southern coast of Italyo is crucial as Croton suffered continuously and severely in the first half of the third century BoCa o Livy ( 24: 3ol) comments on its consequent diminution and desolationo

have trespassed into the olive=grove Battus 1 s wound








49) and 9 the climax 9

the conversation feels free to

ignore its sv..rrormdi11gs Rg<'lin, it then hR6 Jost itF=: moment of s:piritu= -.

ality and there follows the coarsest comments of the poem about Aegon°s enduring virilityo states

Got"! 9

in his coii!lnentary on this poem and the next 9


The fourth and fifth Idylls are poetically on lower plane than To 0 S other bucolic Idylls and the conversations which they contain 9 owing to the reduction of the poetical element 9 approach more nearly to the possible speech of rustics than any= thing else in To except the remarks of Milon in I.do lOol This is of a piece with Rand 0 s description of realism 12 in that



5 as



poetry 0 is associated with an element that is added

to language that \vould other1rrise be clear denotationo

I f it is not

the choice of words that transforms reality into poetry 9 then 9 according to Gow 9 the poetry is is


rude 1 or uncultivatedo


lower 0 or 9 for Rand 9 such realism

As already noted (po 35 ) 9 Fontanelle 0 s

comment on 1£ylls 4 and 5 demonstrates a neoclassicist 0 s objection to the representation of


real Country fellows' as problematic characterso

Even Charles Segal 9 in an essay which argues that the Hellenistic conventions with which Theocritus was working stressed form rather than localised fine effects 9 argues that Theocritus 0 s poetry remains closer to the earth 9 more concerned with the rhythms of natureo 3


reception of the Idylls and 9 in particular 9 the less consciously ideal poetry 9 has as its basis the assumption that there is a direct corres= pondence between a verbal description and its objecto

Daphnia attracts


EoKo Rand 9 The Magical Art of Virgil (Hamden 9 Conno 9 1966) 9 po 84o


A 1 poetry which relaxes and dissolves tensions by its very limita= tions 9 by its rootedness in the soil and the earthy life of herds= men ooo 0 9 Segal (1975) 9 po 118o

86 the conventions of myth ru:d symbol but Battus seems untransformed and so less 'lpoetical 11 o

Hm-rever 9 just as there is a risk that the less

bucolic Idylls toJill be misread if they are conRidered nnrelieved.ly lyrical or ideal 9 the less mythic poetry believed to be "rude 11 or coarseo 11


be misunderstood if

In this vein 9 comments on Theocritus 0 s

realismu appear heavily loaded and conceal an adverse value=judgement

on the subjects of such verse as much as the poetry that refers to themo Creech 0 s apologetic approach to lQYll 4 is founded on a refusal to grant that the


has only a token realityo


Battus and Corydon are comic 9 that does not bar the whole poem from serious consideration 9 especially if a full appreciation of the complex= ities of the poem derives from its form rather than any assortment of isolated componentso

It is no surprise that the

01;" t. XO!J.

ue 1. a.


intensifies interest in form rather than character during the opening lines of the original is notably absent in Creecho Bo Co Bo

Whose Herds? Philonda 0 s? tell whose Herds they are 9 Aegon°s 9 for Aegon gave them to my care 9 Don°t-you play false 9 and sometimes milk a Cow 9 By stealth? Co No 9 my old Master eyes me so 9 Gives the Calves suck 9 and watches what I doo [po 26]

Creech stresses the conversational informality that is accurate in its rendering of the Doric but crucially limiting as far as the whole poem is concernedo

This same refusal to take the poem seriously is clearly

demonstrated by the translation of Battus 0 s ill=advised attempt to help Corydon round up the latter 0 s wandering herdo

Theocritus just dramatises

up the reflective mood of the dialogue:


~O'l;"'l;"W ~~6~o

• ~ u~o




a yap•

"' o~upovo

a ?i:Op'l;"L~


axa..voa ·"" ug

" pa.. 6 g~a~



[llo 50=52J

Creech emphasises this event quite out of proportion to its formal



Look at me 9 Corydon 9 for heaven°s sakeo A thorn has just got me under the ankleo How thick those thorns growo 0

87 signific~~ce

until it



the simple characters concerned rather

than furthers the poem 0 s more central Bo


Look here for God 0 s sake~ oh it :rrri_cksi i t pricks~ Pve caught a thorn 9 oh me hm·J deep it sticks& Pray 9 pull it out 9 dost see it? Look 0 tis thereo [po 29]

Battuscs reflection on his injury in ludicrous~ a o







r;-o 't'Ll!J.!..tCL~



is not insistently







OU!J.O.O c;!,. In Creech 0 s version 9 the gesture becomes positively mock=heroic 9 endorsing

a division between the simple lives of the rustics and their pretensions to epic grief: How small the wound 9 yet what vast Courage fellg This attitudinising comes from Battus not Corydono

[po 29]

The contrast between

them is clear and is consistent with the dramatic forme

Corydon is more

equable and quietly efficient whereas Battus is emotional and sentimentalo The differences appear both in language and in situationo

Battus lends

himself to a mock=heroic treatment by frequently giving vent to tragic exclamation~ cpsu cpc:Uo o oXU~ 'tUL o ••(26);




This is a

posture noticeable in the opening lines where Aegon°s disappearance assumes tragic proportions:

o f3ouxoA.o<;

to grant Battus a problematic status, the balance of the



By refusing Creech is disturbing

lending more weight to the sentimental view

of the countryman and far less to the more Hesio.dic Corydon who provides a countryman worthy of respect and who also exists with no obvious symbolical trappings that would seek to idealise simple country taskso



What a small wound to overcome a man as big as meo 0


Corydon°s contributions are usually practical and positiveo For instance 9 he notices when the cows get too close to the olive 1 1 trees~ OL't'6 o o o ah6 • o (45=6) and reassures Battus as he extracts the thorn~ v VCLL• VCLL• q ( 54) o

88 b) gy::.l 5

Daphnis appears in ]$yll 5 but the magic and myth appear but


as memories tossed proverbially into a song=cont.est or quarrel (21, This is the measure of hmv far c:J4ill§ 5 and 1 are from each ether in the Theocritean bucolic corpuso

lSYll 1 treated myth as

superseding or giving value to the everyday concerns of country uorkers; in .fs!yll 5 9 myths are taken for granted as if their pm•rer is t•reak 9 too weak to animate the coarse immediacies that occupy Lacon or Comataso \1/hen Lacon 9 in asking Comatas to stake a kid urges ~epov

(2lffo: vit doesn°t much matter 0 )

the absence of






he implicitly demonstrates

that sacred or numinous element prominent

in the settings of 1 and 7 (lo69 9 7ol36)o stresses a defiant and anti= literary

The harsh enjambement

impulse in both singerso

Finally the cup of cypress wood which Comatas unsuitably attributes to Praxiteles (104ffo) is a reduced and trivialised form of the wondrous cup of Idyll lo

Theocritus 9 in his more bucolic Idylls

may still be artful but his terms of reference are to materials that resist the Academyo l4Yll 5 presents a fundamental challenge to Creechvs programme of stylistic simplification in his Theocritean translationso

On the one

hand, Comatas and Lacon indulge in the most basic of verbal skirmishes but when this is formalised as a singing-contest, both provide polished well=turned songs radically different from the diction and conversational tactics of the rest of the poemo


In what is a characteristically

Theocritean perspective, high Art is all the more remarkable for its growth in the midst of the most unpoetic materialo


In 15!.yll 7 the

The contest (80-137) is extempore, the respondent attempting to cap the othervs coupletso Consequently, symmetry and ironic reversal are a necessary ingrediento Compare 94=9.5 with 92.-93 or the mockery of 122 with 120=2lo


modulate from the idiomatic to the formal with only a


little strain;

here the change is sudden and contrivedo

That this

is a -probable reading is endorsed by the presentab Ol'l. of both Comatas and Lacon as slaves tending another 0 s flock or herd = possibly to account for the especial coarseness of their behaviour 9 but 9 in the terms of the poem 9 the effect is to underscore the dramatic trans= formation that is effected by the artistic occasiono

That both country=

men are touchy about tending others 0 property is evident from the opening exchange in tAJhich both talk of the goats or sheep as their Comatas reminds Lacon he is Sibyrtas 0 s slave (5) where= upon Lacon addresses him t-Jith the ironic title: cbA.c;u6c;pc; retort to Comatas 0 s OWAE Eumeras (10) o




(5) 9 and casts a slur upon his master

That slaves can sing extempore is presented as

surprising in the formal contrasts but in their businesslike attitude towards it and the practised ease they accomplish such verbal dexterity 9 such surprise could turn to admirationo However 9 there is no synthesis or resolution achieved within the po_emo

Morson awards victory to Comatas who immediately taunts the

loser before reverting to more pressing matters: o~~o, 6 A.c;uxC~a, 6 XOpUK~[A.o,~ er ~LV 1 &xeuae~, ~av alywv, ~A.aaaw ~u~ Kptv ~ €~8 xa"AA.Lep~oaL ~aL, Nu~~at, ~uv a~VOVo 0 01 KUALVo aAAU yevoC~av p ., {

a~~~ ~u







p ~ av~L

[ t>


llo 147=50Jl

The poem ends with this gratuitous and unexplained curseo There are several suggestions in the poem which cannot be assimilated


You there the white butting billy 9 if you tamper with just one of the nannies before rave sacrificed the lamb to the Nymphs 9 I 0 ll castrate youo He 0 s at it again~ If I don't take my knife to you 9 may I be Melanthius and not Comataso 0 Even here 9 the translation does not do justice to the violence of ~A.cwow lrJhich literally means to bruise or poundo This is consistent with the reference to Melanthius (150): a goatherd whose savage castration and dis= memberment is recorded in the Osysse~ XXIIa475o 0

to a central thesis 9 one Hhich unit yo


either discursive or narrative

Conversely 9 there appear a concentration of elements which aim

to deconstruct the securitv of ... and inte&rritv ...... u

hn~oli~ mv+h_ - - - - - - -v ----




the contestants do not sing 9 but speak otherwise musical verses and they choose not to share the same locus amoenusa


J&yll 5 is the only

poem Hhich has an umpire to judge the bucolic contest 9 a detail in keeping "vJith the seriousness given to the agonistic elements per sea This umpire 9 1r1hat is more 9 cuts dovm oak trees professionally ( 64) and is therefore responsible for helping the destruction of the bucolic locus a

He is also a city=dweller 9 and is making for his home when he

is detained by the contestants (78)o to the movement out of the city in

As such ]4Yll 5 stands in contrast


7 (2)o

The dialectic between

the city and the countryside is the focus of many of the the contrast between Art and Natureo



as is

l&Yll 5 intensifies these differ=

ences and proposes the view that the 7COVO<; of life 9 far from alien to the pastoral 9 is a major term in its series of signifying devicesa Once again 9 Creech is confronted by a naturalistic Doric which is considerably "lower 11 than the songs of both herdsmen 9 a difference which questions the accuracy of an undifferentiated translationo As in Idxll 4 9 however 9 Creech 0 s translation attempts to steer a middle course between rusticity and gentilityo distinction between the two translations:


There is one salient ~yll

4 there is no

attempt to anglicise the locale or the speakers 9 but in 1£¥11 5 Lacon and Comatas are transplanted to not only Englar!d but the present as wello To this end 9 the efforts by Theocritus to place the singers in an exact Italian location are omitteda



Whereas the original has indications

(78) literally means to conversea The dispute over who has 1lhome advantage n is at 45=60o Comatas is apparently beneath the shade of oaks and pines but Lacon remains with his flocko

91 that Lacon and the 01:mer of the goats ara men of Sybaris


72) ~ that

the owner of the sheep is a man of Thurioi (72) and there are two clear references to the river Krathis (16. 124) 9 Creech does not attempt. t.n supply the same topography for his singers and omits all such exact indications of placeo

\Jhat he does supply is a flavouring of English

fruits and names placed in a scene where the Doric names of Lacon and Comatas are kepto such rustic by



This compromise has t\"10 main resultso


realism 11 as is represented in the collection most forcibly

5 appears on the one hand unfit to be given a v1ash of pastel

colouring afforded by southern Italian placenames from the indefinite past but 9 on the other 9 deserving of some particularised pointillist effects to suggest the physical presence of the English countrysideo Secondly 9 such anglicization suggests that in some way this landscape and these singers do not fit a scheme where pastoral song is sung in the Golden Age or in Arcadiao

Creech 9 considering this 9 transports

becomes an evocation of exclusively English beauty: Co

Who with the Rose 9 whose flower the bush adorns 9 Compares the meaner beauties of the Thorns?


And who will Sloes with Damzen Plums compare? For those are black 9 and these are lovely fair: [po 34]

Another extended example of such substitution is in the naming of Lacon°s cows:


vco: But the briar or anemone donvt compare with roses whose beds bloom by the wallo LA: Nor even wild=apples with acornso The oak provides but a thin rind to the acorn 9 but the apples are as sweet as honeyov


'Come away from that oak 9 Conarus 9 and you Cinaethao towards the east 9 where Phalarus iso 0

Feed here 9

92 becomes~

Ho 9 Sharp=horn 9 Bro\vning 9 leave those hurtful weeds 1 And come and graze this vmy 9 where Colli This

~ 1 Englishness rv


[po 35]o

is hardly of a robust or rugged nature o

is little of the scatological about ito

Indeed 9 there

Comatas 0 s concluding speech of

triumph implies that the goats are about to couple a fet'l feet al·Jay and that Comatas 9 in order to keep the sacrifice of the lamb to the Nymphs as sacrosanct as possible 9 t\Tas trying to prevent ito

Creech 0 s rendering

deliberately suppresses this tension between a ritualistic ideal and the potentially anarchic energies of an unheeding


Frisk 9 Goats 9 and leap; in Sybaris purling spring rule wash you all 9 and all the while I 9 le sing: Push not the Kids 9 you Goat 9 till I have done The Sacrifice 9 if you dare push but one 9 Thou shalt = how now? well 9 thou shallt smart for this 9 Or may Comatas 9 He that won the prize 9 Forget his Pipe 9 and loose his flock 9 be poor; And basely beg his bread at Lacous dooro [po 37] The last three lines are an addition by Creecho

Besides taking the edge

off Comatasus exultation by extending the poem and changing the mood 9 this version introduces a softening equilibrium in line with his strategy of translation elsewhere in the poemo

This is not a case where Creechus

blindness when confronted with Theocritus is merely dissimilar to our own 9 but a positive measure calculated to provide


order not found

in the Greeko This compensation is an attempt to allow all the disagreeables of Theocritus 9 s images of country labour to evaporateo lyrical and less disjunctiveo

The result is more

Such a Golden Age is peopled with

emotionally vulnerable swains whose complaints of love do not sting the reader because they are robbed of a problematic statuso

The singers

are exemplary not because they are morally superior but because they exist to express beautiful sentiments unqualified by urban reminders of a world of getting and spendingo

As soon as any dramatic interest

93 ce~tres

upon Daphnis or the contestants in 1&Ylls 4 ru1d 5 9 the incipient

discord and separateness suggested by this is carefully dilutedo


is why Creech is interested in Theocritus as a lyric poet rather than as a dramatic oneg

in lyrical poetry


is disparate is synthesized

but in drama there is necessary segregation 9 especially as at the conclusion of !Q,yll 5 there is a \·Jinner and a losero

In the Golden

Age 9 such a meritocracy is foreign and ultimately destructiveo c) Myll 10

It has recently been argued that Theocritus not only was master of several sophisticated Alexandrian genres but also deliberately put them by when attempting his more bucolic Idyllso


]Eyll 3 illustrates the

manipulation of a bucolic setting for comic effecto


The conventions

of the urban 'lC.W~oc;are applied to an incongruous situation and so help disqualify the goatherd from serious considerationo

This collision

between city and country works against the bucolic locuso

_fgyll 10

provides an example of the bucolic exposing the vulnerability of urban convention a

As some of the material is reminiscent of Hesiodic

didacticism and its attendant reliance upon the proverbial folk=culture that endorses the dignity of labour 9 there is an argument that this disqualifies the poem from the bucolic corpus propero 3

However 9 as

discovered in the consideration of both the more heroic Idylls and the "lower" bucolic ones 9 the principal concerns of full 10 are merely an intensification of the series of contrasts that animate most of Theocritusvs pastoral poetryo


See Frederick To Griffiths 9 Theocritus At Court (Leiden 9 1979)o


For a similar analysis of llill 10 9 see Francis Cairns 9 llTheocritusu Idyll 1011 9 Hermes, 98 (1970) 9 38=44o


Both Dover 9 ppo 166=73 and Segal (1977) 9 po 35 9 are doubtful about its bucolic statuso

94 l§,.yll 10 exp::..ores the discontinuity between sentimental longing

and its


the absorption of the self in 1'11orko

rlramatic in form, heine a ciialoeue hetHeP.n



It is '!Prholly one 1 nvesi_~k

and 9 as a result 9 unable to t-sork 9 and an experienced husbandman "Unsympathetic to the forlorn gestures of his


The inconsis=

tencies that are normally disguised in the Golden Age pastoral prove here to be the very stuff of the poetryo

Bucaeus cannot reconcile his

tvro roles of private amoreur and fellow=tvorkero

He feels he cannot at

one and the same time feel intensely and 1vork profitablyo Milon°s refusal to accept this is itself a gesture that dramatizes a contradiction bebreen pastoral and the Hesiodic alternativeo

It is fitting that

these poetic antitheses should be exemplified in songo

The lover

sings a homely song to his mistress and he is ans'!Prered with a Hesiodic harvest songo

Significantly, it is the worker who has the last


~uu~u XPD ~oxeev~as 8v aA~~ UVOPUs aeioeLVp ~ov OE ~80Vs Bouxa.~es 7CpE'K€!. AI.1..!.11POV epc..u~a. )..l.U6LOO€V ~ft. )..l.CL't"pb 'KCL~~ euvav Op6peUOLO'to 1 [llo 56=58]

Creech unpredictably accentuates the physical effects of such labour: Such songs should Reapers sing that toyl 9 and sweat 9 That work at Noon 9 and bear the burning Heato But starveing love should never vex thy head 9 Such tales will bring Thee to a bit of bread, Tales for thy Mother 9 as She lies a bed [po 59] However 9 the work=song is specifically a reaper 0 s creation not a herds= man°So

With this in mind the contradiction in the poem could quite

easily be avoidedo

No longer does it appear to dramatize alternatives

within pastoral but alters the terms to pastoral and georgic 9 on the grounds that reapers cannot signify to the extent that shepherds do; the 1vorld of vrork is too much 1rrith themo


0 That 0 s the stuff for men who labour in the sun to singo And as for your cheapskate love 9 Bucaeus = tell it to your mummy when she stirs in bed in the morningo 0

95 The proposition that this dichotomy exists in the poem has also been questioned from another quartero song a


sent;rnentality 0 that




Anna Rist finds in Bucaeus 0 s

ell points patent and exposed

renders it harmless and amusingQ (po 97)o


Bucaeus is 9 in viet·J of

this 9 hardly qualified to stand as a spokesman for the more lyrical end of the pastoral spectrurna

If this is accepted, then the poem is

scarcely pastoral at all and Milon°s comment on the love=lament is particularly ironic: Xa.A.O.c;; ~IJ.€ 1COWV ,.., eA.si\.a6s1. no1moc; &.or..oac;; Pt> we; su ~av Losa.v ~a.c; ap~ov~a.c;; s~s~pnasvo Wjl.O~ ~w 7\:W"(WVoc;; 9 ov aA.r:.eCwc;; avecpuaa.o [llo 38=40]2






This would introduce a satiric note not only difficult to trace by the internal evidence of the 19Ylls but also quite foreign to the undidactic techniques of all of the other ~yllso 3 from the rest of the corpuso

JSyll 10 is not marked off

By designating it a Hesiodic work=song

rather than a pastoral is to substitute definitions that have only subsequently become apparento

Indeed 9 Bucaeus represents himself

in much the same mode as the goatherd of Idyll 3 or Polyphemus of 12:,yll llo

Bucaeus is 9 as Milan exhorts him ( 22~23) attempting to

transform his unrequited desire through the artless naivete of songo A similar theme is found in most of the 1£yllso

Milan is the embodiment

of the implicit doubts that Theocritus habitually sows, concerning the integrity of such passiono

As such, he is the logical extension of

those signs that summon the world of work 9 such as straying goats or


Dover 9 Po 171 ffo argues that the Hesiodic note struck by Milan might be similarly bogus when compared with real Greek work-songso


Truly Bucaeus was a maker of fine songs 9 and we never knew ito How well he shaped his tune = curse the beard I 0 ve gro~m with so little profitQ 9 =that is 9 °although I 0 m older, I 1 ve not spent my time so well 0 9 an obviously complimentary statemento


Indeed 9 the Hesiodic sententiousness introduced by Milon°s work= song is the only example of sound advice to be gleaned from the canono


noon=day suno

In short? Milon signifies the



alternative to a more courtly lyric traditiono In line with his


of tranRlation in many of the other

poems Creech emphasises the vulnerability of the lyricisto


becomes a sentimentalist rather than a misguided juvenileo

This is

achieved by an accumulation of alterations Bhich gradually provide new emphaseso

In Theocritus Milon accosts Bucaeus with the matter=of=fact

enquiry: ~


epya't'LVa. Bomw,'Le~ 't'~

vvv~ w~upe~ 1C67COV6eL~lo



Creechns Milan is more admonitory and forbidding: Ah labouring Reaper 9 Wretch~ what ails thee now~ [po 58] For the purposes of the poem Theocritus never portrays Bucaeus as a 1rrorker at all 9 but here he is introduced as one and a reaper at that 9 not the traditional subject of pastorale u,~etchu

or object of pity 9 not as a


He is also reified as a able to alter that state

which softens to: Ah Milo~ thou canst.hold out all the day 9 But I 1 me grown weak; ah peice of flinty clay~ [po 58] The lyricist in Theocritus contrasts with the labouring man who longs for nothing that is absent or abstracto

In Creechns dialogue much of

the early emphasis is upon Bucaeus and his emotionso

The point and

counterpoint of Theocritus 1 s dramatic structure is ignoredo


Bucaeus may seem unalterably the amorist spurned 9 it is Milan that lacks an ans1r1ering steadfastness of alternative quality9 deflecting


VBucaeus 9 hey 9 what 9 s the matter with you 9 my friend?'


uMilon 9 you that can reap for hours 9 chip of the unyielding rock 9 didnvt it ever occur to you to long for one who 0 s absent?V

97 the reader 0 s attention back onto Bucaeuso

Sometimes Eilon can be

moralistic too 9 which is quite foreign to Theocritus 0 s texto ansHerine;

Bn~aP.uR 0 s


assertion that his love has lasted ten days 9 Milan

emphasises the difference between them:


~GOW CW'-:=1\.s~c;:; of:A.ovo 8yw C 0 EX().; cuo~ o.A.:,c;:;d~Dfs:Jl A vlealthy Han 9 enjoy thy fancy 0 d store~ I am 9 and am contented to be pooro [po 59]

Not only does Creech 9 in including the one word


fancy 0 d 0


create a

self=righteous Milon 9 but also a far less colloquial speaker 9 a change which minimises the dramatic contrast between the two speech=patternso The translation reads into the poem a consistent finality of judgement on Bucaeuso

This is most clearly demonstrated by contrasting the two

versions of Bucaeus 0 s rejoinder to Milon°s speech above:

'to tyO.p 'tu 11:po 6up0.v ~o '- 0.11:8 a11:6pw O.axa.A.a. 1Cav-r;a.o [lo 14]


Hence 1 tis that I 0 me o 0 rerun with lazy easeo My field 1 s neglected 9 and my Ploughs displeaseo [po 59] For Creech 9 there is no free play of contrastso

Consequently 9 his

translation is closed prematurely to differing perspectives in the interests of an


essential 11 coherenceo

The major problem lies in the portrayal of Bucaeus 1 s songo


the issue of his wrong-headedness is so clear-cut, then it would seem unnecessary to allow him to utter such engaging endearments as: Bo~~uxa t





[llo 36=37] 3


May be then? you've the store to draw ono weak at thato 0


That 0 s why the land before my door is all uncultivated since the sowingo 0 However 9 as Dover points out (po 168) this might not be a protracted negligenceo


°Charming Bombyca 9 whose feet are like knuckle=bones [Greek dice 9 but also referring to the capitals of Ionic columns] 9 and whose voice the belladonna 9 and whose ways = they are too much for me to describe o u


My drink 0 s sour? and


The absurdity of the clumsy similes aids the portrayal of an illi!Ocence that can offer them seriouslyo pathetic sentiment,


Here would be an opportunity for

y rendP.:rerl else1t1here by Creech in the

style reserved for the unproblematic rustico the reader very much at a Bomb~




simple 01

Instead Creech keeps


oh wouldst Thou be kind&

Ho1P1 s1r.reet thy voice& but 1rJho can tell thy Mind? [po

This version is more reminiscent of the coy Restoration




addresses urban nymphs from knowing S\vains than the unassimilable and discontinuous details of the ]fLyllso

By disallowing any sympathy for

Bucaeus 9 Creech is not only simplifying the poem but even clearly transforming its kind from a Theocritean pastoral to a dramatic Hesiodic parodyo William Bowles 0 s version in Dryden°s miscellany (1685) also attempts to soften the harsh outlines of both Bucaeus 0 s and Nilon°s perspectiveso In order to accomplish this 9 Milan becomes less of a worker and more of

an audience until the time comes for his own performanceo

Bucaeus 0 s

praise of Milon°s reaping until late and his descriptive metaphor of 'chip of the w!yielding rock 0 (?) establishes in the original a precise distinction between the two countrymeno

The amorist praises the worker

for his unflinching endurance 9 a steadfastness that has been eroded in his case by loveo

Bowles's Bucaeus is not offered as capable of any=

thing other than deep


Milo 9 thou piece of Flint 9 thou all of Stone 9 Dids 0 t never yet an absent Friend bemoan? [po 368] Some of these charges are meant to sticko

The metaphor describing

Milon°s rock-like qualities is adapted to a more


pathetic 11 reading of

the poem and becomes an index of emotional aridity not unyielding dutyo Even though Bucaeus 0 s opinion of Milan is rapidly discredited 9 its function here is note

The reader glimpses a less impeccable Milan

99 and supposes that Bucaeus 0 s vJeakness at 1:1ork is due to the capacity to feel more deeplyo

Bowles also has Bucaeus float the suggestion that

Hilon has not up until the present felt the absence of someoneo


in the original context is supposed never to have suffered such a lasso 1/Jithin the compass of just 58 lines 9 these modifications are major and contribute to an altered relationship behreen the two meno

In the

original poem 9 Theocritus has Milon and Bucaeus provide contrapuntal rhythms consistently throughout the poemo

Dover points out that the

colloquial vigour of the poem stems directly from Milon 9 full of cliches and proverbs 9 leaving the more lyrical but still naive sentiments to Bucaeus (po 167)o

Far from sympathising with Bucaeus 9

Milan is insensitively jocular 9 a reaction sustained by the concluding Bowles 9 s Milan is 9 initially 9 a convenient

emphasis of the poemo

sounding-board for Bucaeus until his stern response: but such Fools as thou 9 the absent Mind? Sure what concerns you more 9 you here may findo [po 368]


In the Theocritus 9 Milon does not sound such a moralistic note: ouoa~Uo



~oeo, ~wv EX~068V epyu~~ ~vopt 1 Llo 9]

From that point 9 the poem contains more of the elements of a morul fableo

Absent is the freer interplay of alternatives which is sustained

in the original until the last three lineso

Bowles marks a dramatic

change in the balance of the poem at Milon 9 s second speech that irrevocably casts Bucaeus in the role of misguided juvenile and Milan as the voice of righteous experienceo In order to sustain the exemplary role in which Bowles casts him 9

Milan has to be given speeches susceptible of judicious heightening rather than colloquial colouringo


Therefore 9 Milon°s difference from

9 Nevero What business has a working man with desiring anything outside his work? 9

:;_co Bucae~s

is not one of temperament but moral atlarenesso

This inter=

pretation needs bolstering by various additions to the original texto Bucaeus when confessing to his distraction through love not only points to the effects of the passion but even curses its very object: all neglected lyes before my Door 9 \.rfhile I run mad for a confounded ~Jhoreo


[po 368]

In his turn 9 Milo had sermonised on the inadvisability of such pre= occupations: The Gods preserve me from that restless Care 9 Oh Reapers all 9 the gilded Bait beware& [po 368] The God 0 s for some old Sins have sent this Evil 9 And shame long due has reach 0 d thee from the Devilo [po 369] This is a pointed but clumsily contrived modernizationo 10 is persistently secularo

Firstly~ ~11

Its only household gods are the Muses in

Bucaeus 0 s case or Demeter in Milon°s and 9 as they are only mentioned in the invocation to the two formal songs 9 it is probable that their importance is only nominalo

The real tutelary spirits of the two

figures are Eros and the sanctity of Labour not the Hebraic God that Bowles suggestso

In adopting such a pre-determined and polemical

course for the poem 9 Milon°s praise for Bucaeus 0 s singing seems either grotesquely sarcastic or completely out of placeo

As in Creech 0 s

version 9 the desire to harmonize the contrasting songs and singers in one scheme is effectively to excise the visceral and uunpoetic" details that form Milon°s songs and proverbs - details which are truly indecorouso Creech and Bowles 9 although different in the degree of their moralism 9 both rank the two songs in the light of Milon°s last wordso of being pupilo


companions Milan and Bucaeus assume the roles of teacher and This is especially true of Bowles 0 s version


faced with

the admiration Milan displays for the artfulness of Bucaeus 0 s challenges him as preface to his own songo


The original merely has

101 JVIi1on


eO..Jo.t. of} Theocritus refuses to relate the tvm songs until the closing



Bowles attempts to present the work=song as exemplary much earlier: How just the Rhymes 0 how equally they meet 9 The Numbers how harmonious 9 and how sweetg Yet mark 9 and this diviner Song attend 9 0 Twas by immortal byrierses penn°do [ppo370=7D Milon 1 s song has to be


diviner 0 according to the logic of Bowles 0 s

version 9 whereas in diction and rhythm it is less poetically elevated in the Greeko

The distance he is compelled to travel from Theocritus

in pre=empting the reader 0 s perspective on Bucaeus is concisely illus= trated in the translation of the closing speech: Such songs at once delight us 9 and improve; But thy sad Ditty 9 and thy tale of Love Keep for thy Mother 9 Battus 9 I advise 9 When stretch 1 d and yawning in her bed she lyeso [po 372] The Theocritean conclusion emphasises two themes that are either omitted or even denied in Bowles 1 s versiono

Firstly 9 it is apparent throughout

Idyll 10 that Milon is an alternative to Bucaeus but not superioro


points out by his song that Bucaeus 0 s state for hard work which he ought to be doing is unsuitableo

Bucaeus is a reaper not doing his job;

therefore such lyrics as he sings are superfluouso

I f Theocri tus \·las

interested in praising Milon°s work at the expense of Bucaeus 0 s


writing in general 9 this contrast would be better served if the latter were an idle 9 but tuneful 9 bystander not a fellow=worker guilty at his own inefficiencyc

Secondly 9 Milon re-introduces the disturbing anxiety

first suggested at lines 44 to 45 that the reapers have wages to earno If Bucaeus 0 s love=lorn condition continues 9 he will starveo


Bowles has

Come9 consider too these lines from the hero Lityerseso 0




They also have the pride of their work at stake 9 so Bucaeus 0 s distraction results in a loss of face as wello

102 Ivlilor. merely praising his ottrn kind of song as a literary critic rather than a fellow=labourero Raymond Williams has observed that the background of harvesting in

10 is only an intensification of the context of


all the l!J,ylls: 1 insistent 0 o

~nwing ~nd


c uorking

context c that is


recognizable and at times

By composing a moral fable 9 Bowles avoids the awkward

conclusion that Theocritus forces the reader to accept by setting the MJ"ll amidst


recognizably 0 strenuous work 1:1hich frames and tacitly

comments on the lyricism of Bucaeus: reality


that 9 when confronted by harsh

the Golden Age pastoral of simple love and delicate sensi=

bilities is exposed because it appears obviously cosmetico how artfully this

No matter

'realism 11 of work descriptions is presented 9 its


contrast with the abstract and idealised landscapes of song is a contradiction present in the 1£ylls as a whole and also in each poemo

In considering these translations of Theocritus 9 it is tempting to conclude that Creech and others misread their author and that therefore they wrote


incorrect 11 versionso

However 9 several of the

translations must be regarded as conscious recastings of the Greek rather than examples of scholarly or poetic inadequacyo that are represented in Creech's


The gylls

arc approximate versions

of the original textso

However 9 they do show an influence from Rapin 1 s

veneration for Virgilo

Cos is transfigured by Theocritus 9 it is true 9

but its connotations do not appear to be those of Arcadiao is not 9 by dialect;



large 9 separated from the orthodox mode of literary

the Doric does stamp Cos as nobly savage 9 at times the

dwelling=place of yokels but 9 just as frequently 9 of values that have been regrettably losto


As it is an artificial speech in the

The Country And The City (Harmondsworth 9 1973) 9 Po 14o

~ylls 9


'l'heocritus cm1ld suggest provinciality uhilst retaining a capacity fo.:c an occasional grand gestureo

As C.:ceechas Doric is the first attempt

at providing an English equivalent and laRted U.!lJ'i ve~led for over eighty years as a standard text 9 it is central to any understanding of the Augustan pastoral canono So much separates Francis Fa111kes from Creech that tvhen 9 in 1767 9 he attempted only the second full=length translation of Theocritus 9 he reported that his predecessor 0 s attempt satisfied him only in his youth and when he "vas


better pleased with the rough music of the last age 9

than the refined harmony 0 of his own (po ix)o 1

Fawkes found Creech 0 s

simplicity 1 too rustic to move the reader 9 and he selected three

examples where Creech had misguidedly anglicised Theocrituso is in &ll l when the noble pastoral cup becomes a In 1£¥11


fine hro handled

5 9 Crocylus is 0 Dicka and in f2Yll 14 Argivus 9

Apis and Cleunicus are recognisable English labourers: and


Dick 9 o

The first

This lack of


aTom 0 9 vll/ilP

refined harmony 0 is felt to be Creechvs

fault not Theocritus 1 sa The growing appreciation of landscape descriptions in a lyrical form that characterize the mid=century included Theocritus as one of its prime exampleso

Creech 9 s attempt to retain some of the rustic

power of the Greek dialect is not suitable for such readingso are hints of this in the early years of the centuryo


Lady Mary Wortley

Montagu had discovered in Italy that 9 to her surprise 9 the Idylls directly portrayed the enviable simplicity of country folk and especially their surroundingso


There was no need to

resort to myths such as the Golden Age as Sicily was golden enougho Theocritus becomes the most influential pastoral instance of such a

rejectiono stan~ard

The roots of this stem from the vogue for a

rough11 9 non=


sBeetness 9 the kind of smoothness suggested by a Yorkshire

rustic drawl noticed by Drydeno


Fawkes extends this distinction

between Theocritean Doric and subsequent English versions by pointing out that 9 on purely philological grounds 9 the Greek Doric




It is to be observed that Theocritus generally t~ote in the modern Doric 9 sometimes indeed he used the Ionic; the Doric dialect tms of two sorts 9 the old and the ne1rr; . the old sounded harsh and rough 9 b'Ut" the ~ much s'citer and smoother? this 9 as Mro Pope justly observes 9 in the time of Theocritus had its beauty and proprietys was used in part of Greece 9 and frequent in the mouths of the greatest personso [ppoXXXi=xxxii]


This distinction is crucial;

by 1767 9 it was possible 9 perhaps even

orthodox to read Theocritus as a stylist in the image of Virgilo This

~Preromantic 0 '

vogue for a refined Theocritus was made the

more possible by Creech 0 s frequent attempts at limiting the variety of stylistic nvoices" that the Doric fosteredo two quite distinct



He especially produced

the naturalistic for informal

conversation and the more "poetic' 0 for the songss \vhich correspond to By mid=century 9 the rougher dimension is baxely traceableo

0 older 0


In reviewing Fawkes 0 s trans=

lations The Critical Review found Theocritus not only writing in an 0

exquisitely sweet and harmonious 0 style but reflecting in it a beauty

and order that had actually existed:


He lived in the most fertile

country in the world 9 and under the most serene skyo

The sweetness

of the climate naturally furnished him descriptions from real lifeo 02 This passionate realism can only be noticeable if free of human figureso


See PPo140=42o


Critical Reviews 24 (March 7 9 1767) 9 Po 17 o






shepherds of the Coan landscape all too

obviously labour as well as create poems 9 but 9 as such 9 they are less ideal or harmoniouso

Fontenelle had thinned out the acceptable bucolic

poetry by emphasising that rrthe Pastoral life is the most idle of all otherso u

Consequently 9 uno Ploughmen 9 Reapers 9 Vine dressers or

Huntsmen can by any means be so properly introducud in Eclogues 9 as Shepherdsu (po 283)o uempty notionu in goldg




considered the Golden Age an

that did not prevent him painting Theocritusrrs Sicily

UThe poet described what he saw and feltg

and had no need

to have recourse to those artificial assemblages of pleasing objects 9 1 which are not to be found in nature 0 o These upleasing objects 0 must 9 it would


include shepherds as nlmv 11 as Battus or Comataso

Some of this desire to efface the human figure from the landscape can be traced to Creech 0 s


Shepherds or goatherds frequently

For example 9 Battus addresses his absent master as a urude 9 artless swain° and a 'clownu (po 26)o Bucaeus as


Nilon hails

labouring Reaper 9 Wretch& 0 (po 58) when just simple

uBucaeusu sufficed in 1£yll lOa

Even more strident is this intrusion

into some of the Hesiodic passagesg a'L~ov O.A.o c.wv~a.c; cpd)yc; 1. v ~o J..LC:C.O.J..Lppt. vo v v?Cvov o xa.A.O.p.a.c; uxupov 't"c:A.86c:t. 't"ll!J.OOOc: J..LUA!.O't"O.o 2 [llo48=49]


Ye Clowns that winnow never sleep at noon For then the Chaff is loose 9 and quickly goneo [po 60] Battus 0 s relationship to Aegon and Milon°s to his formalised by such




invocations which reflect Creech 0 s

recognition of convention and his expected readershipo


An Essay on the Genius and Writings of Pope (London 9 1756 9 1782) 9 2 vols 9 I: 3-4o


See also IQ,Ylliums 9 ppo 27=28o

0 \rfuen you thresh the corn 9 shun sleep at midday 9 for it is then that the ear parts easiest from the stalko 0


Pre romantic emotional real:iS!:l reacts against this mi11.iaturizing \....-

The countryman blends

but is still recognizably an offshoot of ito

into the landscape because his 1rmrk and its effects on Nature do not isolate and differentiate himo

Fontenelle (as translated by Hotteux)

uas puzzled by Theocritus 0 s decision to represent his rustic figures as individuals rather than types of rural lot-J=life: But I donrrt know how Theocritus having sometimes raisrrd his shepherds in so pleasing a manner above their native Genius~ could let them so very often fall to it again : I \\fonder he did not perceive rrtwas fit that a certain gross Clownishness~ which is always very unbecoming 9 should be omittedo [po278] This glaring gaucherie of indecorous and uneven portrayal is censored because it does not conform to a required level of abstractiono


through the wrong end of a telescope any figure loses individuality and This critical position

can fulfil. any role the observer expectso

finds difficulty in providing the emotional flexibility and variety of perspective needed in a reading of Idyll lOo

In view of the

concluding dominance of Milon°s singing and its prevailing ethos 9 Fontenelle distrusts its lack of


beauty11 :

I do not so well like this conclusiono


I must needs own that

For I would not be

a pleasing and soft Idea to another that is low and without




This desire for a seamless succession of pleasurable images needs to gloss over the example of Theocritus: If those who are resolved to find no faults in the tell us that Theocritus had a mind to draw Nature just such as it is 9 I hope that 9 according to those principles, we shall have some ~yllia of Porters or Watermen discoursing together of their particular Concerns: \ihich will be every whit as good as some Idyllia of Shepherds speaking of nothing but their Goats or their Cowso [ppo 284=8~ Ancients~

Theocritus 0 s rustics become as 11:-eal 11 in the comparison 9 and consequently as



as London porterso

The contradiction between Creech's determination to ground the

107 Idylls in the Golden Age and the unalterable details of the Doric original where such idealism is at best threadbare is more apparent in theory than in practiceo

Fontenelle may distrust such disconti=

nuities of mood and style bat Creech 0 s translation exploits them 9 1:Jithout ever denying that Lacon or Battus are nobly simple creatureso That he sa1:'J such idealism as inherent in the Doric is evident from his foret-.rord~


To His Honoured Friend Arthur Charlet AN? Fellotv of Trinit;y

College in Oxono 0 '

He claims there that reading the Idylls reminds him

of occasions when °publick Cares 0 have allowed them to retreat and they have retir 0 d to a Grove~ where Quiet spreads all around 9 and a springing verdure 9 and Checquer 0 d variety to raise the Thoughts and recreate the-Fancy; whilst soft breezes murmur 1 d thro the Trees 9 which 9 like our Affections 9 serv 0 d only to intermix 9 but never to shatter or disturbo Theocritus and Virgil by comparison are 'disturbers of mankind' in that they offer no hope for emulation by setting their pastorals in the Golden Ageo

To this end 9 Theocrit·ean pastoral is read in the light

of other 9 less disjunctive works such as the various Odes to Solitude or Horace 1 s Epode 2o

The contradictions have disappearedo

remains is a therapy for the public man:


ooo it smooths all the

natural Asperities of Humor and Passion 9 and spreads an obligeing tenderness thro the whole Man° (po 3)o

Even the Billingsgate disputes

of Idylls 4 and 5 must be seen as essentially resolvableo This results in a lyrical Doric and a considerably diminished dramatic element in the


as a wholeo

When Allan Ramsay adopted

the Theocritean manner in the 1720s 9 it is significant that he also resurrected the dramatic possibilities of the Dorico



In Ramsay's

See the variety of characteristic styles in The Gentle Shepherd 9 especially as between the assumed dialect of Sir William Worthy and Symon 1 s broader mode in Act III 9 scene 4 9 . Works 9 2g 248=52o

108 casz 9 hm-Jever 9 this did not mean a sacrifice of tenderness or unitya Ramsay defends the Scots Doric on hro counts: a fluent


firstly, it is 9 despite

and secondly; it helps

provide a direct impression of Midlothian lifea

The nationalistic

connotations of the style are analogous to the vvlived 11 speech of Coan Doric amidst Alexandrian imperialisma

Ramsay is quite clear about

such a rejection of received standards of good stylea

In the 1!Preface 11

to his 1721 volume of poetry 9 he is out to anticipate the objections of the learned: Such Pedants as confine Learning to the critical Understanding of the dead Languages 9 while they are ignorant of the Beauties of their Mother Tongue, do not view me with a friendly Eye: But I~m even with them 9 when I tell them to their Faces 9 without Blushing 9 that I understand Horace but faintly in the Original 9 and yet can feast on his beautiful Thoughts dressgd in British; aoo [1~ xviii] This unorthodoxy 9 however 9 is to make the Doric more not less gliquid and sonorous 9 and much fuller than the Englisho 9 (po xix)o Ramsay~s

pastoral muse is frequently


pathetick" and elegiaco

Indeed 9 This

is a characteristic noticed by the anonymous contributor of "On Mro Ramsay~ 9

s Poetical lrJorks" that also prefaces the 1721 volumeo

Ramsayg s

pathetick Rhyme 9 (90 9 1: xxiv) is most noticeable 9 especially in his

"Richy and Sandy 9 A Pastoral on the Death of Joseph Addison, Esqo 11 o Far from rescuing the dissonances and ironies of the elegies of lQyll 1 or 6 9 this new Doric is a precursor of the Preromantic pastoral: So smoothly flow thy nat vral rural Strains 9 So sweetly too 9 you~ve made the mournful Swains His Death lament 9 what mortal can forbear Shedding like us upon his Tomb a Tearo [llo 96=99 9 1: xxv) This is a Golden Age that is not constructed out of the classical literary traditions but from the recent Scottish pasto

In The Gentle Shepherd 9

the tender scenes of estrangement and reconciliation are described in the dedication


To the Countess of Eglintoun 9 with the following

Pastoral 11 as clothed in an 'ancient Garbu (135) but not of Attic cut =

rather The G<=J.rb our Muses \•!ore in former Yearsj

As in a Glass reflected 9 here behold HovJ smiling Goodness look 0 d in Days of Old [llo 136= 38 ~



Even Ramsayus attempt at embodying some of the provincial cadences analogous to Sicilian resulted in an endorsement 9 ultimately 9 of an idealism also found in Rapinus theory and created in Creech 0 s trans= lationo


This simplified reading of Theocritus surviveso

AoJo Boyle 9 in

a recent translation of the Eclogues 9 performs the common task of damning the Greek precedent to praise its Virgilian


The differences between Theocritean and Virgilian pastoral are~ however 9 considerableo The bucolic idylls have nothing approaching the moral passion of the Eclogueso There is no antithesis between city and country 9 between urban and rural values; there is no moral outrage at a degenerate present 9 no contrast between a corrupt contemporary society and a prelapsarian golden age ooo Theocritus 0 poetry is more descriptive than analytical 9 presentational rather than exploratoryo 2 That this position has been so tenaciously upheld and so pervasively repeated is 9 to a great extent 9 the result not only of Theocritus 9 s earliest critical reception but that of Virgil 0 s pastorals tooo


full explanation of the simplification of the pastoral genre must include the various readings of the Eclogues at this time and the critical principles involvedo


Compare the claims made by Ramsay in his VVPreface to The Ever Green" (1724): 0 Their Poetr~ is the Product of their own Country 9 not pilfered and spoiled in the Transportation from abroad: Their Images are native 9 and their Landskips domestick; copied from those Fields and Meadows we every Day behold 0 (4~ 236)o


The Eclogues of Virgil 9 translated by AoJo Boyle (Melbourne 9 1976) 9 Po 7o


Dryden°s Translation of Virgil 0 s Eclogues Dryden°s Works of Virgil


Translated into English Verse vias

published by Jacob Tonson in 1697o with one hundred



sculptures 0 [engravings]

volume is significanto

in a 9

The author himself is in no doubt of what he

to the Reader11 9 i t is hoped that 9 if 1

folic 9 adorr.ed

the mere appearance of the

was attempting besides paying homage to Virgilo




In the rupostscript

judged in after=ages 1


the work

be no dishonour to my native country 9 whose language and poetry

would be more esteemed abroad 9 if they were better understoodo 1 patriotic responsibility to the language is taken to lie



in the choice

of words 9 and harmony of numbers 9 tll'hich were wanting 9 especially the last, in all our poets 9 even in those who 9 being endued with genius 9 yet have not cultivated their mother=tongue with sufficient care; or 9 relying on the beauty of their thoughts 9 have judged the ornament of words 9 and sweetness of sound 9 unnecessaryo 1


This interest in the

form and cast of the language illustrates a concomitant desire, by example 9 to help English measure up to the stylistic and cultural standards of antiquityo

This portentous edition was revised for a

second printing in 1698 and then it appeared in three volumes octavo in 1709o

Numerous further editions followed, which testify to at

least a contemporary acclaim for his successo


The full significance of just what Dryden was attempting in 1697 and to what cultural norms he referred is adequately acknowledged only by taking in a series of his statements on such topicso


Virgilian pastorals are so very much an expression of particular


Essa~ 9


The Works had reached its fifth edition by 172lo

2: 24lo

lll perspectives on Virgil and translation in general that it is inevitable that such non=pastoral concepts should affect the mainstream of the Au~~sta.~



It has been suggested that Dryden in the eighties and nineties turned increasingly to translation in


to both revalue the

., classical past and also 9 at one remove 9 create an English heroic poema Translation 9 however 9 was no gesture of failureo many of his contemporaries 9 translation



For Dryden 9 as for

a critical activity 9 where

the demonstration of a certain modification of the original


main reason for undertaking the exercise in the first placea


A lifeless

and pedantic adherence to Virgil 0 s very words 9 whilst more accurate locally 9 did not satisfy in more crucial areas 9 such as rendering the overall structure of the work and charting accurately its poetic qualities a

Dryden°s translation was 9 therefore 9 a self=conscious

attempt not only to re=interpret Virgil but also to provide a model for the transmission of Augustan Roman valueso

As such 9 the dividing=

line between translation and open imitation is faint indeedo 2


See Edward Pechter 9 D~den°s Classical Theory of Literature (Cambridge 9 1975) 9 ppo 157=59; HoTo Str.redenberg 9 1ro 9 11 Dryden° s Obsessive Concern with the Heroic" 9 Essays in English Literature of the Classical Period Presented to Dougald MacMillan 9 edited by Daniel Wo Patterson-and Albrecht Bo Strauss 9 Studies in Philolog;y_ 9 extra series 9 4 (1967) 9 12=26; WoPo Ker 9 Form and Style in Poetr;y_ (London 9 1928) 9 ppo 103-4; Reuben Brower 9 11 Dryden°s Epic Manner and Virgil 11 9 PMLAn 55 (1940) 9 119=38; and Mary Thale 9 "Dryden°s Unwritten Epi~Papers on Language and Literature, S (1969) 9 423=33o


The tradition of free translation was no recent developmento Cicerovs description of his translations from Aeschinas and Demosthenes had stressed the necessity for interpretation 9 De optima genere oratorum 9 translated by HoMo Hubbell 9 Loeb Classical Library (London 9 1959) 9 ppo 364=65 9 and Horace 0 s rule: 0 nec verba verbum curabis reddere fidus interpres ooo 0 was enthusiastically greeted throughout the century 9 Ars Poetica 9 translated by Ho Rushton Fairclough (London 9 1961) 9 Loeb Classical Library 9 ppo 460=6lo For an account of such influence 9 see TaRo Steiner 9 English Translation Theory 9 1650=1800 (Amsterdam 9 1975) 9 Approaches to Translation Studies Noo 2 9 ppo 7=g 9 27=28 9 147 nne 2-5o

112 Dryden first m·ites on the art of translation in his HPreface to 1 Ovidrs Epistles 9 Translated by Several Handsn (1680) 9 where he defines three separate modes of translation:



literalism best

exemplified by Ben Jonson°s version of Horace 0 s Ars Poetica 9 a phrase 9 or translation




latitude 0 t-fhere the VJOrds are not to be so

strictly follm,Jed as the sense of the original


and that too is admitted

to be amplified 0 9 and finally imitation itself 0 9 where the translator (if nolJJ he has not lost that name) assumes the liberty not only to vary from the words and sense 9 but to forsake them both as he sees occasion: ( 1: 237)



Dryden rejects both the extremes of the first and third

varieties for the paraphrase 9 and 9 in addressing himself to this 9 he in effect declares an interest in problems of style rather than of the parallels that may be drawn from thematic similarities 9 which is more the province of the imitationo


Inexorably linked to this call for

a limited freedom from the text translated 9 is his awareness that he is working in a debased medium 9 where English 9 tainted with



barbarity 9 or the narrowness of modern tongues 0 cannot hope to rival Latin °(a most severe and compendious language) 0 (1: 238)o


stretches the capacities of English to the utmost and 9 by analogy presents a stylistic goalo

Although Ovid 0 s particular turn of thought

and phrase are to be principally honoured 9 the implication is that the translation is a work not 9 as in the imitation 9 of applying the original text's premisses to modern life 9 but a stylistic examination of the verbal medium itselfo


The tradition of the imitation is discussed at ppo 429=31o On the specific differences between translation and imitation 9 see Howard Do Weinbrot 9 The Formal Strain : Studies in Augustan Imitation and Satire (Chicago 9 1969) 9 PPo 15~17 9 20=21 9 32~33o Earlier authorities for free translations 9 especially Denham and Cowley 9 are reprinted in Steiner 9 ppo 63=67o Chapman is quoted ppo 8=12o

This mode of translation 'bras favoured consistently by Dryd.en 9


and uas strongly endorsed by the popular Essay on Translated Verse (1684) by the F.arl of Roscommon:


is cited seYeral times

in Dryden°s later prefaces 9 so obviously it 1r1as read 11ith approvaL

ldl::at is uppermost in Roscommon's list of priorities is



need to

avoid obscenities or provincialisms and so to provide an English version fit to rival the grace of the originalo

There is a definite

patriotic desire to appropriate the translated texts by anglicizing themo

This lies behind his opening praise for the Earl of Mulgrave: For who have long 1 d~ or who have labour 0 d more To search the Treasures of the Roman store 9 Or dig in Grecian Mines for purer Oar? The noblest Fruits 9 Transplanted 9 in our Isle With early Hope and fragrant Blossoms smile [llo 11=15] 3

This literary mercantilism has its trading rivals as well 9 namely the French whose


courtly 9 florid 0 diction 'Of softer sound 1

cannot hope to rival


The comprehensive English Energy 0

(52) o This

vivid fire 9 however 9 must not overstep the mark for Immodest words admit of no defence 9 For want of Decency is want of Senseo Wnat mod 0 rate Fop would rake the ~ or Stews 9 \:Jho a1nong Troops of faultless Nymphs may chuse? [llo 113-16]

Dryden took Virgil for a stylistic example very early in his careero In his "Preface" to Annus Mirabilis (1667) 9 he appreciates his 1 ooo the Art of clothing and adorning[a] thoughtooo 0 elocution 1 : in apt 9 significant and sounding words 0 (I: 15)o Similarly 9 Dryden admires Virgil's diction above Homer's in his ·A Parallel of Poetr~ and Painting (1695) 9 even if he grants Homer superiority in invention or design ( 2: 148) o However 9 this desire to emulate Virgil led Dryden to the realization that it would always be impossible to match his model 9 hence the injunction in the 11 Dedication' 1 to the Aeneis to 0 lay by Virgil ooo when you take up 1 my Version as he felt his powers were insufficient to 'copy his Harmonious Numbers ooo [or] imitate his Noble Flights' (2:. 233)o It could be 9 on the other hand 9 that Dryden wanted the freedom to replace Virgil a. little as there is no parallel Latin text to his translationo Certainly 9 Dryden could emphasise the more liberal tendency of this mean between literalism and imitation; see his demand for 1 elbow-room to express [Ovid 1 s] elegancies' (2: 9)o See 1: 237 9 239 9 251=52 9 257=589 263o Critical Essays of the Seventeenth Centur~ 9 edited by JoEoSpingarn 9 3 vols (Oxford 9 1908) 9 2: 297-309 (po 297 o

The Ufaultless Nymphsu float free of any demeaning particularity 9 especially the familiarity of the should be no fe::ir of gradual


Park or Stews 0 o


As such 9 there

at least of the signified

The language may decay but 9 as there is every effort to


allou the material to refer to literary conventions such as pure nymphs or artless


rather than particular historical conditions 9 there

is a constant movement in Roscommon°s dictates for translation towards the abstract and enduringo

In translating a text 9 it seems advisable

to remove it from its historical


Truth still is ~; Truth is Divinely bright; No cloudy Doubts obscure her Native light: coo He only proves he Understands a Text 9 Whose Exposition leaves it unperplex 0 do [llo 0

193~94 9 199=200]

Truth 0 being so perspicacious 9 any local interference is indeed perplexingo As Roscommon 1 s Essay

was so influential 9 it does help to place

two schools of translation in perspectiveo

The first errs on the side

of a pedantic accuracy 9 the second on the side of a modernizing freedomo Dryden consistently from 1680 to 1700 allies himself with a mean between the hro and especially from 1684 omva.rd.s with a corresponding concern for enriching the capacities of English style by contact Ancient modelso



On the other hand 9 he also clearly marked off his

translations from those liberal theories that shaded off into imitation 9 a tradition that took in Chapman 9 Cowley and Denhamo

Later in his

"Preface to Ovid's Epistles 11 9 he 9 even if conditionally 9 questions the propriety of attempting such an autonomous version of Virgil or Ovid who are


Pindar as

regular intelligible authors 0 o Cowley was correct in imitating 9

So wild and ungovernable a poet cannot be translated literally; 0 o

Cowley could improve on Pindar by regularizing the original 9 yet there seemed little hope of that in the case of Virgil 9 an act which would have seemed much too



To state it fairly 9 imitation of

ll5 an author is the most advarJ.tageous uay for a translator to sh01.v


but the greatest •vrong which can be done to the memory and reputation of the deada



any tactic that


the expense of




stands reso11JteJ y ?-8-3inst

affect the transmission of classical values at presumptiono

\;/hat is distinctive about Dryden 1 s theory of translation is his attention to purely formal difficultieso original is vsacred and

inviolable 0 ~


the sense of the

the struggle to find a verbal

equivalent necessitates a certain liberty so that the does not dim in translation (1 : 242)o an exercise of the



native lustre 0

This liberty is 9 in effect 9

a pitting of the expressive capacities

of the translator 0 s medium against the compendious Latino is even more of a mismatch in the case of Virgilo Sylvae 11 (1685) 9 Dryden fears that the


In the

This contest 11

Preface to

inimitable grace 0 of Virgil 0 s

diction °is never to be copied 9 and since it cannot 9 he will appear but lame in the best translation°o

The formal properties of his verse 9

highlight 'the poverty of our language and the hastiness of [his] performance 0 (1: 258)o

Completely absent is that sense of Anglo-

Saxon hubris that motivated pessimistic in the extremeo Poeticum" (1693) and of





Indeed 9 Dryden°s view is

In both his "Dedication of Examen

A Discourse concerning the Original and Progress

it is clear that he felt posterity might be cheated

of the full force of his translations because the language was in a state of decayo



The remedy lay in the institution of an Academy to

Dryden was not alone in sensing thiso From the Restoration 9 an English Academy had often been proposed to regularize the languageo See Dryden°s desire for an Academy 0 Indowvd with large Privileges by the present King 1 as early as 1664 (l:-5) and his involvement with a Royal Society committee for that purpose; BoSo Monroe 9 (Continued on poll6)


oversee linguistic


For after all 9 our language is both copious 9 significa11t 9 and majestical 9 and might be reduced into a more harmonious soundo But for 1:1ant of public encourae;P.ml'mt, in this Iron Age 9 t-Ie are so far from making any progress in the improvement of our tongue 9 that in a fe1r1 years ue shall speak and 1:1rite as barbarously as our neighbourso[2: 12] Even when confronted 1rrith the prospect of using some of that unharmonious energy to render the sternness of Juvenal 9 the translator is confronted with the inadequacy of the English language 9 possessing 'no English prosodia 9 not so much as a tolerable dictionary 9 or a grammar; so that our language is in a manner barbarous; and what government will encourage any one 9 or more 9 who are capable of refining it 9 I know notov


the outlook is for ua declination of the language 0 (2: llO)o It might be argued that this is a dedicator 0 s self=effacement 9 but the incidence of such humility with the recognition on Dryden°s part of the special difficulties associated with translating Virgil in particular make it much more probable that this gesture signalled an important motive for undertaking such a large tasko

Virgil 9 it was hoped 9 might

influence English letters for the better 9 not by providing epic actions or themes 9 but by adding that temper native energy and fireo


and order of elocution that might

Although the Epic was the centrepiece

of Drydenvs memorial to Virgil 9 it is the characteristically Virgilian styles enjoyable in Eclogue 9 Georgie as well as Epic that most claim:

(1 = Continued) "An English Academy11 9 Modern Philology 9 8 (1910) 9 107=16; Oliver Fo Emerson 9 both "John Dryden and a British Academy11 9 Proceedings of the British Academy 9 10 (1921) 9 45=58 9 and "Dryden and the English Academy" 9 Modern Language Review 9 20 (1925) 9 189=90; and George McFadden 9 "Dryden and the Numbers of his Native Tongue'i 9 Essays and Studies in Language and Literature (Pittsburgh 9 1964) 9 ~7=109o Swift t-Jas to echo this call in 1712 9 in 11 A Proposal for Correcting 9 Improving and Ascertaining the English Tongueo In a Letter to Robert 9 Earl of Oxford11 9 in A Proposal for Correcting the ENGLISH TONGUE 9 Polite Conversation etco 9 edited by Herbert Davis and Louis Landa 9 4: 1=21 (8=9 especially) (Oxford 9 1957) of Prose Writings (Oxford 9 1939=68) 13 volso







It is obvious that the subjects in the Aeneid are

by no means more exemplary than the improved manner of rendering theme In dedicating his translation to the Earl of Mulgrave 9 Dryden recognises 1

the strength of the opening couplet of his ~or


Upon Poetry11 (1682) ~

Things in which Mankind does most excell 9 I Natureas chief Master=

piece is vJri ting \Jell; o oo u (l=2)o


a little Platonism added 9


Dryden endorses this uith respect to the heroic poem which 9 in the 10

Dedication of the kneis 10 9 is hailed as the (2~

soul of man is capable to perform ooo 0

u greatest


>vork which the

Dryden°s translation=

work is a stylistic and formal exercise 9 a metatext in relation to its original 9 in that the translated text the source texto


read through a knowledge of

Since Dryden was 9 to a large degree 9 freed from the

exigencies of having to publicize either the narrative or theme 9 greater emphasis was placed on the task of transferring the of the author rather than his every wordo

This involved specifically

coining a certain style of English Virgiliano in the "Dedication of the Aeneis":



He confesses as much

I have endeavoured to make Virgil

speak such English as he would himself have spoken 9 if he had been born in England 9 and in this present age 0 (2: 228)o

It is precisely the

attraction of this task that lies behind the decision not only to attempt an Epic translation but specifically to experience the rigours of finding an English equivalent for the supreme craftsmanship of Virgilo Dryden°s Virgil was therefore significant in several associated wayso

Primarily 9 Dryden \"1as anxious that Virgil 0 s poetry \·Jould be


In the "Dedication11 9 Dryden rejects

our old Teuton monosyllables 0 as suitable ornamentation for poetryo However 9 the remedy whichis importing a classical elegance from the source text is a licence to be used 0 very sparingly; for if too many foreign words are poured in upon us 9 it looks as if they were designed not to assist the natives 9 but to conquer them 0 (2: 234=35)o Compare Horace 9 Ars Poetica 9 46=62o


Spingarn 9 2: 286o


118 the kicd not to get lost in translationo

This determination was


in the direction of attempting to reproduce the judgement and propriety

of the dictio VirKiliana 9

in rendering the source exactlyn



accepting this duty 9 Dryden was also bolstering the unstable linguistic capacities of the language and helping it sustain flights of the very highest craftsmanshipo 11

The English Virgilian would be no transparent

plain11 style 9 however 9 for from the very earliest 1r.rritings of his

career 9 Dryden had venerated a Virgil who was a master of Art rather than Natureo

In his

to Annus Mirabilis : An Account of the


ensuing Poem" (1667) 9 the claim that the poem is Virgilian lies not in its powers of narrative 7 but its elocution 9 a freedom


to confess as

well the labour as the force of his imagination° (1: l6)o

In providing

his age 1r.rith a Virgil displaying English manners and speech 9 Dryden was also attempting something else: so prevalent in most M.odern

to absent himself from the barbarism

poetic practice by recourse to a higher

authority 9 higher because not limited by the accidents of history that assail the translatoro

In his ode "To Sir Godfrey Kneller" (1694),

both poet and painter are depicted captive to an Iron Zeitgeist which fails to nourish native talent, and significantly makes the creation of an epic poem impossible: That yet thou hast not reach 0 d their high Degree Seems only wanting to this Age 9 not thee: Thy Genius bounded by the Times like mine, Drudges on petty Draughts 9 nor dare design A more Exalted Work 9 and more Divineo For what a Song 9 or senceless Opera Is to the Living Labour of a Play; Or 9 what a Play to Virgil 0 s Work wou 0 d be, 1 Such is a single Piece to.Historyo [llo 145= 53]


Poems, 2: 858=63 (862)o In the same poem 9 Dryden uses the Fine Art parallel to distinguish between Homer and Virgilo Homer 0 s 0 0 0 0 is the Nobler part for resembling Raphael who colour d best 0 o Virgil 0 s 0 Art 0 is confirmed by the similarity to 0 Titian°s Painting 0 , and its power of colouring (61=65)o

119 This elegiac perspective seeks some illumination fTom Virgil 1 s historical imagination and the hope of founding a new city 9 a civitas verbi 9 built of like-minded companions::

of that number vmuld be Congreveo



his 1:To my Daar Friend Hro Congreve 9 On His COMEDY 9 call 0 d The Double= Dealern (1694) 9 Dryden greets a young talent beset by a flaccid 0

But no1.

/FoT !2!!!, the Second reigns

Dryden looks back to the Restoration 1r1riters 9 as a


Gyant Race 9 before the Flood 0 (5) 1iJhose virtues Nere

strength and boldness 9 unqualified by the circumspection visited on the present age of wit by regularity and


skill 0 (12)o

He creates

the persona of a vmrld=1iJeary elder statesman bo'I'Jing out of the public eye: Already I am worn with Cares and Age; And just abandoning th 1 Ungrateful Stage: Unprofitably kept at Heav 1 ns expence 9 2 I live a Rent=charge on his Providence: [llo 66-69] Translation takes on an enhanced significance given this context 9 and helps ensure a freedom from the destined to ske.tcho


petty Draughts' that the writer seemed

Having lost his official posts and turned his

back on the stage 9 despairing of support for the epic he



write 9 Dryden sought a rapprochement with an age from which he felt estranged both in matters of religion and sensibilityo More immediately 9 Tonson intended Dryden°s Virgil to replace the much=reprinted translation by John Ogilby (1649)a 3

Ogilby 1 s name has


Poems 9 2: 852=54 (853)o


Dryden even prophesies Congreve 0 s Laureateship: coo Thou shalt-be seen 9 (Tho 1 with some short Parenthesis between) High-on a Throne of Wit; and seated there 9 Not mine (that 0 s little) but thy Lawrel wear (51=54)a


For a fuller discussion 9 see John Barnard 9 11 Dryden 9 Tonson and Subscriptions for the 1697 Virgil 11 9 Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 9 57 (1963) 9 129~5lo

120 been notoriously remembered for posterity in several 'I?JOrkso r~verses


In the

on Virgi!_" 9 prefixed to the 1697 edition 9 Dryden v s

version is praised for its freedom from the


1ewd Rhymes of groveling

This is a theme that runs throughout the praise 9 for 9



presllflptuous Quill 0 is a convenient scapegoat "l

to contrast with the new versiono~

Dryden himself had lamented

in 1685 that Latinless readers would be ill=served by depending on O.gilbyo What English readers unacquainted with Greek or Latin will believe me or any other man 9 when we commend those authors 9 and confess we derive all that is pardonable in us from their fountains 9 if they take those to be the same poets 9 whom our Ogilbies have translated? But I dare assure them 9 that a good poet is no more like himself in a dull translation 9 than his carcass would be to his living bodyo [1: 253] If Ogilby 1 s Virgil is the mere superficies of the

Eclog~es 9


Dryden°s eventual version would supply the substantial 9 living essence of the poems 9 not adhering doggedly to its literal appearance but capturing the spirit of the originalo

Indeed 9 Ogilby 0 s dullness

recommended him to Pope as a Dunce of a most prepossessing confidenceo In the 1728 Dunciad


Ogilby looms large on Theobald 0 s shelves as one

No doubt this vast expanse of misplaced endeavour would have fitted into the category in which

by sculpture made for ever known 9 / The (I 9 119=20) page admires new beauties 9 not its own 9 °ia reference to the arresting 0

engravings of Ogilby 0 s original editiono

Pope 0 s note to line 121

supports this inference 9 commenting on his 'sending into the world so many large Volumes&

His translations of Homer and Virgil 9 done to

the life 9 and with such excellent sculpturesg and (what added great


Dryden: The Critical Heritage 9 edited by James and Helen Kinsley (London 9 1971) 9 po 220o

121 grace to his


a very good Letterov i..he


he printed them all on special l


Paper 9 a."ld i:n

Obviously 9 Ogilby 0 s text had not stood up to

of time 9 especially in the call fer


added elegance tht3.t

Has deemed Virgilian in spirito Dryden vs translation had its detractors as t·rello

Matthec·J Prior

read his translations of Eclogues 4 and 9 9 published in the 1684 without much relisho

Miscellan~ 9

Translators 0 ~

and finds 0


In his


A Satyr on the Iviodern

(1685) 9 he objects to their liberal rendering of Virgil

]!yes 0 an eminent member of their °Club 0 9 the one thought

most fit /To violate the Mantuan Prophet 0 s wit 0 (54)o

obviously found Dryden emulouso



In the nDedication to PRINCE

POSTERITY11 9 from A Tale of a Tub (1704) 9 Dryden°s folio edition is numbered amongst those works that he thought were written for the perpetuation of the translator 0 s name rather than the translatedo 3 Swift returns to this theme during the battle between the Ancients and Moderns in Sto Jamesvs Libraryo compleatly fitted to his Bodyv confronts a Dryden in armour too big for him: Head ooo

°For 9 the Helmet was nine times too large for the

And the voice was suited to the Visage 9 sounding weak

and remoteo

Dryden in a long Harangue soothed up the good Antient 9

called him Father 9 and by a long deduction of Genealogies 9 made it plainly appear 9 that they were nearly relatedo 0 it is the main premise of the work to denyo


Such a relationship

Dryden 9 by at times


Prior 9 Poetical Works 9 1 : 20o


Dryden°s work appears 0 lately printed in a large Folio 9 well bound 9 and if diligent-search were made 9 for ought I know 9 is yet to be seenv o A Tale of a Tub 2 With Other Early 1:Jorks 9 1696=1707 9 edited by Herbert Davis (Oxford 9 1939) 9 vol 1 of Prose Writings 9 po 22o


A Tale of a Tub 9 po 157o


departing fxom a literal translation of



Swift 9 to interpose an impertinently personal readingo howeve:t· 9 that the objection t,;as the





, ___ +- .... ,...,,..,, .LCCO




to Prior and It is


than to

so createdo Virgilian Lyricism and Allego!Y

Virgil 0 s Eclogues t1l'ere the major influence on Augustan definitions of the pastoral formo

Not only did they supply a catalogue of pastoral

themes and commonplaces but also a formulaic stock of words and meta= phors in which to render themo

CoEo Ward 0 s account of Dryden°s

schooling details how Virgil was an integral part of a scholar 0 s general classical education and how 9 by translation or imitation exercises 9 not only meaning but also the sound 9 placement and generic suitability of the words used had formed a taste by which Virgil was . d o1 t o b e enJoye

Critical and interpretative agreement as to the

exact conventions at work in the Eclogues is not as clear as might have been expectedo

Indeed 9 two alternative emphases were possibleo

One was indirectly the result of the exegetical traditions that regarded the allegorical as a level of interpretation common to both divine secular textso


Commentators such as Servius in his In Virgilii

Bucolica et Georgica Commentarii inevitably regarded Virgilian pastoral as autobiographical narrativeo 1

Seen in this light 9 Eclogue

maintains a precise correspondence between Virgil himself and Tityruso

Servius added such suggestions as that Galatea was Mantua and Amaryllis Romeo


Correspondingly 9 the Daphnis of Eclogue 5 is Julius Caesar


See especially Charles Eo Ward 9 The Life of John Dryden (Chapel Hill 9 NoCo 9 1961) 9 ppo 10=12 9 and Eric Rothstein 9 Restoration and Eighteenth=Century Poetry 1660~1780 (London 9 1981) 9 ppo 84=98o


Servii Grammatici Commentarii 9 edited lo 29 (9)o


and the dedicatee of Eclog?e 8 is

Aug~stus 9

an identificaticn hlhich

brings in its train a host of related correspondences only tangentially significant t.o the poem as .... _0"'1._.,_,...._"::1., ~






thP.re is some

relevance in the association with the Illyrian campaign of 35 BoCoo This reading necessarily reduces the Eclogues 0 lyricism and replaces it with definite and discrete signifiedso objective ~ovos


The other Virgil is a more

a lvriter of carefully crafted


of life into an all=embracing image of ordero

absorbing the

Rural dispossession

and Augustan campaigns in Illyria enter the poems only to be exorcised either by transcendence or assuagemento

This version evokes the gentle

elegies produced in Arcadia as its representative image and earned the Eclogues the complimentary description from Horace of 'molle atque The point of Horace's judgement is its distinction between the lyric and the epic concerns of war and pp.blic affairso

Bruno Snell sums up this position in his examination

of the creation of Arcadia:


Virgil needed a new home for his herdsmen 9

a land far distant from the sordid realities of the present ooo he 2 needed a far-away land overlaid with the golden haze of unreality 0 o It is with the desire to accommodate both these

Virgils" that the


readings of this time were most interestedo The Renaissance pastoral was most excused by reference to its conceptual frameworko

Rustics may sing of religious abuses but

fundamentally the countrymen were singers or aristocrats in disguiseo The 1'low 11 concerns of the real shepherd were never those of a pastoral shepherdo

Alexander Barclay 9 in the "Prologe" to his

considered the pastoral a dialogue





Bet\tene Shepherds 9 as it 1r1ere but

The Discovery of the Mind 9 translated by ToGo Rosenmeyer 1953)9 Po 2B2o


124 a fable 9 /To

~'!rite of matters both true and profitable 0 (45=46)o1

Decorum 9 the due observance of


high11 and


lotll1 11 9 tvas still to be

observed: It vJere not filling a heard or man rurall To speake in termes gay and rhetoricallo So teacheth Horace in arte of poetry 9 That vriters namely their reason should apply Nete speeche approping to every personageo [llo 83c87]

This 0Nete speeche 0 is open to a latitude that renders ambiguous the dividing=line in allegory between the object and its descriptive terms for 9 although Barclay 0 s shepherds will speak in the correct 0homely language not passing their degree 0 their topic of speech will be 0courtly misery' (130=3l)o multivalent figureo

The shepherd is 9 in such theories 9 a

Thomas Puttenham 0s The Arte of English Poesie

(1589) finds such homeliness a mere of the poetry:


vaile 0 to mystify the 'voice 0

he claims that the pastoral was devised

not of purpose to counterfait or represent the rusticall manner of loves and communication 9 but under the vaile of homely persons and in rude speeches to insinuate and glaunce at greater matters 9 and such as perchance had not bene-safe to have beene disclosed in any other sort 9 ooo2 It follows 9 therefore 9 that the style of a pastoral will be accordingly 0

rude 0 and


homely 0 but capable of heightening due to the moral gravity

of its argumento content a

This paradox empties the


rustic 0 and 'homely 0 of

Therefore 9 although Drayton was confident that


The subject

of Pastorals 9 as the language of it 9 ought to be poor 9 silly and of the coarsest Woofe in appearance 0 9 the very next sentence casts great doubt: 0

Nevertheless 9 the most High 9 and most Noble Matters of the World may

be shaddowed in them 9 and for certain sometimes areo 03

If decorum is


Eclogues 9 ppo 1=4o


Elizabeth Critical Essays 9 2 : 40o


IVTo the Reader of His Pastorals11 9 Poems by Michael Drayton? Esquire (London 9 1619) 9 po 432o

125 to be


then it is only acceptable if d.ue

Virgil provides at the opening of



4 (see below)o

is given as Allegory

both 8anctions a release from a strict observance of decorum and


in its place 9 calls another decorum into beingo

Eclogge 4 provided a p=ecedent for a wider range of both symbolic matter and style:

usicelides Musae 2 paulo maiora canamuso / non omnis

arbusta iuvent humilesque myricae;u (1=2)o


Eclogues 1 and 9 set a

precedent as well for pastoral comment on matters of public concerno Sidney thought


1 representative of the pastoral kind as a whole

and attempted a defence on its merits: Is the poor pipe disdained 9 which somtime out of Meliboeus 0 mouth can show the misery of people under hard Lords or ravening soldiers? And again 9 by Tityrus 9 what blessedness is derived 2 to them that b$ lo1:rest from the goodness of them that sit highest; sometimes 9 under the pretty tales of wolves and sheep 9 can include the whole considera= tions of 1f.TI'ong doing and patience; sometimes show that contention for trifles can get but a trifling victory; 2 The Renaissance tradition of satiric allegory incorporates an auto= biographical narrative but is frequently a more public form than the poem

a clefo

Both kinds of allegory share the desire to limit or

determine their possible readings 2 and 9 in so doing 9 they dilute the self~conscious

artistry that clothes the signifiedo

Style becomes

a mere carrier of discourse not discourse itselfo Although the allegorical tradition in pastoral composition and criticism is noticeable in the early seventeenth century 9 as the century progresses 9 the lyrical evocation of nostalgia and love mingles with it and finally alters its appearance out of all recognitiono

However 9 as


Sicilian Muses 9 let us sing a somewhat grander straino Not all do the orchards please and the humble tamariskso I f our song is of the woodland 9 then let the woodland be suitable for a consulo 0


An Apology for Poetr~ 2 po ll6o



late as 1675 9 Ecl1.crard Philips claimed that






the ''Preface to ':'heatr·:.JE

Eclo~ 9

Poetar-~ 11

pretends only the familiar

discourse of shepherds about their loves or such like concernments 9 yet under that umbrage treats oft tiffies of higher rnatters 9 thcught convenient to be spoken of rather mysteriously and obscurely than " p l am . t erms e e e 01 m

There is little doubt that Phi:ips finds the

mystery and obscurity unnecessary 9 but his comment does suggest the survival of the pastoral allegory well into the time of the French neo=classical insistence on the Golden Agee


of shepherds appears as a faint reminder of the



familiar discoursev

coursest Woofe 0

(Drayton) or vrude speeches 0 (Puttenham) on which the allegorical form seemed to depende In the last chapter 9 evidence of how Theocritus was read in the

years 1680 to 1730 suggested an unease about the mimetic foundations for the ~tion

~ylls 0

style and forme

Touches of disconcerting particulari=

jostled with artful abstractione

Sicily loomed large yet only

appeared through a nostalgic filter redolent of an unselfconscious and Allegorical readings of Virgil avoid such

uncorrupted culturee

ambiguity by reducing the representation of country life to mere form or mere signifiero

Truth exists elsewhere;

Tityrus can only testify

to the existence of Virgil and the Child of Eclogue 4 to Jesus Christ or Pollioo This simple allegory where there is a limited parallel between the figure and its referent


a convenient means of interpreting the role

of the singers in the Eclogues and also accounting for Virgil 0 s drudging in a ''low" forme

John Caryll 0 s translation of Eclogue l which appeared

in the Miscellany Poems of 1684 has in its introduction a full account


Spingarn 9 2


127 of Virgil's oupposad status at the composition of the



Reader may be pleased to observe 9 that Virgfb 9 under the Name of Tityrua 9 perac:nstc::: himself 9


sRved by th
Caesar 9 from the general Calamity of his Mantuan Neighbours; Those less tmfort'!lllate Hantuans are


Q 000


personatedv by

Meliboeus and 9 following Serviusus identification 9 Amaryllis suggests Rome and Galatea Mantuao

It is logical 9 therefore 9 that the signifi=

canes of the poem is not seen to be as generally satirical as Sidney 0 s remarks aboveo

Caryll sees the poem as possessing little or no

symbolic value save that of portraying a scene from Virgilus own life in that


The drift of this Eclogue 9 is to celebrate the Munificence

of Augustus towards Virgil 9 whom he makes his tutelar God 9 and the better to hit this off 9 he brings in Melibeus ooo 0 (po 323)o Eclogue becomes 9 in Caryll 0 s analysis 9 a panegyric;


Meliboeus 0 s

mournful song constructs an emotional backdrop to Tityrus 0 s thankful= ness and does not comment upon ito

There are problems with this

interpretation which require some ingenuity to resolveo one surrounds the suitability of an aged °Candidior or VFortunate Senex 0 (51)

The major


(28) Caryll

to represent the young Virgilo

is not deterred by this anomaly and finds Virgil portraying Tityrus 0 s 0

Exemption from the common Calamity of his Country=men° by the

of a


recovering his liberty ooo 0




And because Slaves did not

commonly use to be infranchist 9 till Age had made them useless for Labour 9 to follow the Trope 9 he makes himself an old Man.


(po 324)o

Any further explanation as to why a young poet should be adequately represented by an old slave is not forthcomingo Addison 9 when he came to write his headnote to Dryden°s trans= lation 9 is content merely to identify Tityrus with Virgil and Meliboeus vrith


his Mantuan neighbours 0 (2 : 873) 9 but Joseph Trapp in his Virgil

128 (1731)~

although assenting? actively questions the further identifi=

cations of Rome or Mantua 9 pointing out that Rome is mentioned by name

redundant 9 therefore 9 a mistaking the literal for the allegoricalo On the other hand? if the Eclogue is controlled by a tight allegorical formg Amaryllis and Galatea appear beside the point altogethero

Trapp 1 s

explanation of their presence in the poem reveals a surprising nervous= ness about the allegorical reading 9 for he finds the mistresses 0 s names 0

to be taken literally 9 as beautifully specifying the Circumstance of


and adding a Poetical Grace to the Narration 9 by the Intermixture

of Love Affairs with it 0 (po 2)o

This desire to accommodate the

lyrical and the allegorical does not last longo

In the next paragraph 9

Trapp busies himself with advancing the proposition that Galatea could embody Virgil 0 s sympathies for


Brutusvs Party 0 and Amaryllis stand

In changing mistresses 9 Tityrus could represent

Virgil 0 s changing political allegianceo

As this might brand him a

turncoat 9 Trapp sketches in his own realistic appraisal of Virgil 0 s position 9 an explanation heavily committed to a reading which sees Virgil writing autobiographically:


For what had a private Person to

do in that Case 9 but submit to the Conqueror?

Especially since it was

plain that the Common=wealth was destroy 0 d 9 and the lost ooo 0 o

Libert~ of~

Trapp is so confident of this interpretation that he

concludes his introduction to the poem with the definitive claim that his explanation 'will clear the whole Matter;

though no Commentator

takes notice of it 0 (po 3)o There is a similar treatment of Eclogue 9: Lycidas and Noeriso


The Works of observations

the encounter between

Noeris complains of his hard usage at the hands

and critical

129 of a centurion :in receipt of his


patrimony by


imperial gifto

Addison identifies Moeris as Virgil 0 s bailiff and the unnamed centurion as



This Pastoral therefore is fillud

[Virgilus] hard Usageu



Trapp is consistent in his consi=

deration of the lyrical aspects of the poemo

After a review of

Virgilus life (or of relevant uFacts 0 as he terms it) 9 he tries to account for the songs of Menalcas quoted by both Lycidas and Moeriso These form


an ingenious Tissue of Poetical Fragments neatly inserted 9

and inter1rJOven

The Whole is very beautiful:

But the Subject 9

and the Disposition of the Scene are particularly agreeable 0 (po 79)o It seems possible by 1731 to allow an allegorical and lyrical inter= pretation to co=existo When reading both Eclogues 1 and 9 9 therefore 9 there is an habitual procedure~

to identify in order to interpret and only then to find in

the lyrical lines a superadded beautyo



5 9 although

superficially an elegy to Daphnis 9 becomes a requiem for Julius Caesar9 Eclogue 6 is 9 in Addison 9 s words 9 °design°d as a Complement


the Epicurean 9 who instructed Virgil and Varus in the Principles of that Philosophy 9 (2: 894)

and Eclogue 10 is a rural love complaint

but more particularly an elaborate compliment to Virgil's patron: Gallus a


In each case 9 the Eclogue is principally an occasional form

1rrith some additives or allusions to more confessional modeso The most famous example of an allegorical reading concerns the reception of Eclogue 4 9 the sublime compliment to Polliovs consulship


See the arguments for and against in Vergil : Eclogues 9 edited by Robert Coleman (Cambridge 9 1977) 9 ppo 173-74 9 and HoJ o Rose 9 The Eclogues of Vergil (Berkeley 9 1942) 9 ppo 124ffo 9 130ffo ~


pauca meo Gallo 9 sed quae legat ipsa ILycoris 9 / carmina sunt dicenda: neget quis carmina Gallo? 0 (I must sing a few lines for my Gallus 9 yet such as Lycoris herself may reado Who could refuse verses to Gallus?') (2= 3) o 0


130 or~

in the inpcsed Christian version from the

the heathen prophecy of the coming of Christo is firmly in this

Renais~~ce on~~dss

Addison°s introduction


The Poet celebrates the Birth=day of Saloninuss the son of Pollio 9 born in the Cons~lship of his Father 9 after the ta~ing of Salonae 9 a city in Dalmatiao Many of the Verses are translated from one of the Sibils 9 who prophesie of our Saviour 0 s Birtho [2~ 887] Trapp is more decisive in his description 9 calling the Eclogue of the most remarkable Pieces of Heathen Antiquity;



inasmuch as it

contains a manifest and illustrious Prophesy of our Blessed Saviour 9 Accordingly 9 he dismisses the counter=claim that it is an elaborate panegyric to Pollio and concludes that it has the


Air of an Evangelical

and seems to be translated from Isaiah 0 (po 39)o content to accept Servius 0 s identification 9


Prophes~ 9

lif.hereas Addison is

Trapp renders the


as an act of innocent devotiono In each of these instances 9 the full significance of Virgil 0 s

work is


By pursuing

in the pursuit of a unifying plato

an analysis in autobiographical terms 9 comprehensiveness is sacrificed to interpretative clarity and the acceptability of a


low 04 formo


taste for the allegorical eclogue 9 however 9 could develop in one of two wayso

Firstly 9 as is revealed in the uncollected comments of

Sidney and his contemporaries 9 the Renaissance defended the form for its ethical perspectives 9 where the


simple 0 country setting testified

against the luxurious corruptibility of the court or cityo

The roots

of this tradition lie in the memory of bergerie lyrics or the pasteurella of the





However 9 in the Restoration version 9 there is an (3~


Thilo=Hagen 9 4ol



The most recent account is in Helen Cooper 9 Pastoral into Renaissance (Ipswich 9 1977) 9 ppo 50ffo



131 L~creased

interest in revealing the symbolism as a branch of auto=

biographical narrative 9 either snatches of song from a Mantuan child= directly~


This desire to identify the singers in the Eclogues



dramatiz.at:ion of Vire;ilDB own

hood or: more

removes the opportunity for a 11rider symbolic range 9 for as seen as the identification is complete 9 the resonance of the image is dulledo There is one exception to this normo


4 had long been

available for eulogies to specific political figureso

In November 9

1702 9 the anonymous The Golden Age· plundered Drydenns translation for a Tory polemic in praise of Queen Anneo

The opening lines allude

directly to Virgil: Sicilian Muse 9 thy Voice and Subject raise 9 All are not pleas 0 d with Shrubs and ~ylvan Lays 9 Or if we Shrubs and Sylvan Lays prepare 9 1 Let vern be such as suit a Consul 0 s Earo [llo 1=4] From this basis 9 the poem unfolds a series of careful identificationso Anne is the famous progeny of Britain 9 arrived to spread justice as the Saturnian times roll around again: 0 Goddess 9 Genius of this Favourite Isle 9 On thy own Work 7 this Revolution 9 smile 9

[llo 12=13]

There must 9 however 9 be a certain tinkering with sources in order to achieve an apt image of a Golden Age Britaino

Virgilvs merchants did

not need to venture forth on the sea because all goods were to hando pauca tamen suberunt priscae vestigia fraudis 9 quae temptare Thetim ratibus 9 quae cingere muris oppida 9 quae iubeant telluri infindere Sulcos ooo hinc ubi iam firmata virum te fecerit aetas 9 cedet et ipse mari vector 9 nee nautica pinus 2 mutabit merces; omnis feret omnia telluso [llo 31=33 9 37=39]

New Haven 9 2o

VHowever some few traces of primeval sin shall lurk behind 9 to entice men to essay the sea in ships 9 to gird towns with walls 7 and to cut the earth with furrows oooo Next 9 when you have taken on the strength of maturity 7 even the trader shall leave the sea 9 and the ships of pine no more trade; every land shall bear all fruitso v

132 In the Golden Age of 1702 such vestigial sin is


Fearless of loss 9 and confident of Gain 9 The Merchant shall in Safety Plough the Main; ~he lah 0 ~ing Hind shall cleave the Country Soil 9 And Plenty rise and Court the Farmer 0 s Toil [llo 95=98] In less than three mcnth.s 0 time Hilliam lrJalsh had proviO.ed a lrJhig

anst'ler in his The Golden Age Restor2.9; (1703) o


If Queen Anne could

only just stand comparison 1r1ith the divine boy of VirgilO s inspiration 9 then Walsh 0 s set of correspondences push the analogy in a mock=heroic directiono

Pollio 0 s consulship becomes Dashvmod 0 s mayoralty (18=19)

Wi I~ i ~ IVl Bromley ( 10) o A certain

and Virgil 0 s Apollo becomes 1!Jalsh 0 s

satiric edge is fostered by this however:


Lions walk unhurt 9 I And Halifax

meet civilly at Court 0 (29=30)


The lambs shall with the

which illustrates an acknowledgement that the earlier compliments are hyperbolico

This poem was in its turn ansliJered by an


Golden Age Revers 0 d one month later but by then the Virgilian element ' 2 was all but exhaustedo This public element in of pastoral allegoryo


4 aided a narrower interpretation

Dryden was to apply its prophetic optimism to

specific historical interests both in the epigraph to Astraea Redux. (1660) and in the concluding sections of Absalom and Achitophel (168l)o 3 This enhanced role for the poem threatened to lift it out of the pastoral categoryo

Servius had only admitted seven of the ten eclogues as


Poems on Affairs of State 9 6



Poems on Affairs of State 9 6



The epigraph to Astraea Redux (1 : 16=24) reads: 0 Iam Redit et Virgo 9 Redeunt Saturnia Regnao Virgilo 0 =line 6 of Eclogue 4 ( 0 Now the Virgin [ioeo Justice] returns 9 the reign of Saturn is come round againo 0 ) The relevant-lines of Absalom ooo (1 : 215~243) also present the Restoration in Virgilian terms: Henceforth a Series of new time began 9 The mighty Years in long Procession ran: Once more the Godlike David was Restor 0 d 9 And willing Nations knew their Lawfull Lordo [llo 1028=3l]o

133 bucolic poatry 9 excluding 4 9 6 and 9o greater tolerance by allowing both

However 9 Rapin demonstrated


thio i.Jelcomc i.s a little diluted by of [email protected]



10 and Eclogue 4 9 even if

text taken from the opening


Prima Syracosio dignata est ludere versu nostra nee erubuit Silvas habitare Thaliao Cum canerem reges et proelia~ Cynthius aurem vellit et admonuit~ upastorem~ Tityre 9 pin _uis pascare oportet ovis 9 deductum dicere carmenou 2 nunc ego ooo ooo agrestem tenui meditabor harundine Musamo [llo 1=6 9 8] Songs of kings and battles suggest the epic and Rapin is most concerned that a sharp distinction is drawn behreen the rustic and the heroic 9 the two sorts of Imitation of Aristotle and Horaceo the


In the comparison 9

high 1' and l'Ul01rJ 11 are polarized to the pastoral's detrimento


form is not to attempt a lofty subject but keep to its proper sphere: uRustick Affairs:

such as are mean and humble in themselves 1 (ppol9=25)o 3

This association of the poem and its described sphere of narrative action attempts to establish a mimetic relationship of the most direct ordero HArcadia" 9 on the other hand 9 both is and is not a topographical referenceo

In Rapinus reading of Virgil 9 it. is an expression of the


Thilo=Hagen 9 3: 2=3o


uMy Muse first deigned to sport in Sicilian strain 9 and did not blush to dwell in the woodso When I came to sing of kings and battles 9 the Cynthian touched my ear and warned me: "A shepherd 9 Tityrus 9 should feed sheep that are fat 9 but sing a lay finely woveno 11 o oo now will I woo the rustic Muse on a slender reedo v


This parallel between the style and the caste of life described was most influentially expressed by Thomas Hobbes in his Answer (1650) to Davenant 1 s "Preface to Gondibert 11 o Pastoral was imagined as a direct expression of the countrysideo In its narrative form 9 it was plain Pastoral 9 and in its dramatic mode 9 it had to be Pastoral Comedyo The verse was expected to partake something of the people described 9 namely a uplainness 9 and though dull 9 yet a nutritive faculty in rurall people 9 that endures a comparison with the Earth they labouro 1 (Spingarn 9 2 : 55)o

Golden Age and as such the manners of its inhabitants are impeccableo hThat is needed is an unstained shepherd 9 one fit to have his being

in which

every man follow 0 d that [the shepherd 0 s] employment 0

(ppo 33~34)o

These rustic


of literary not ethical originso

are heavily encoded by conventions Consequently 9 the allegorical mode

of the Eclogues is not only heavily qualified but also rendered incapable of its enlarged sense of enforcing social justiceo Fontenelle also establishes an ideal, unhistorical matrixo shepherds are



without any controul by Superior Power, being in a manner

the Kings of their own Flocks 0 o

This blessed state could not continue

due to the rise and consequent attraction of the city:


ooo the Pastoral

Life being grown the Lot of the most wretched sort of People 9 [it] no longer inspir 0 d any delightful thought 0 (po 276)o

Given the already

felicitous advantages of this life, it is remarkable that Fontenelle should then consider the pastoral voices of the Pollio too high for a pastoral poemo

Mimetic criteria are still apparento

He too quotes

the opening of Eclogue 6, proof that shepherds could not pretend to be To reinforce this requirement, allegory

interested in kings or warso

too is excluded from the pastoral, the only greater sin being the expression of impious thoughtso


Both Rapin and Fontanelle, for their own reasons, arrive at the conclusion that the subject of pastoral verse is defined within the orbit of a shepherdvs affairs


a countryman who is lodged nostalgically

in an irrecoverable past, not the victim of contemporary privation and confiscation of property, but his noble antecedent who owned his own flocks and who was never obliged to visit the Cityo


As such, this

0 Allegorical Eclogues o o o are not. very easie o o o Now 9 though in the main our Mantuan has pretty well kept the Allegory 9 °tis too ridiculous to find ooo Controversie ooo handled Ecloguewiseo Yet I had rather see a Shepherd represent one of theseA than have him act the Epicurean 9 and say impious things 0 (ppo 207=88)o

135 Golden Age shepherd does not need to be transformed by an allegorical context but fulfills his certainty tlished on



symbolic status in the lack of historical

in this light 9 Tityrus and Gallus appear

already transformed in their very conceptiono required by French


The limitation thus

that the decora due to the

depiction of "lowrv figures be enforced literally 9 seems unnecessaryo It is surely an unnecessary requirement that nobility of sentiment and expression be foreign to the pastoral if there is the basic insurance against rusticity provided by primeval aristocratic vKings of their


Flocksvo Q!yden and Chetwood on the Pastoral

Fontenellevs passionate apology for the pastoral involved the absorption of the shepherd=figures into the landscapeo

This lyricism

was resisted forcibly from several sources 9 none more direct than Knightly Chetwood in his 11Life of Virgil 11 and preface to Dryden us translation of the Eclogues 9 vwith a short Defence of Virgil against some of the Reflections of Monsieur Fontanellev (1697)o had contributed a






8 for Drydenus first

Miscellany (1684) and was an associate with the Earl of Roscommon in two projects:

an eventually unpublished


of the Earl and an

edition of Roscommonvs translation into French of Dro Sherlockus Treatise of Passive Obedience choice for the role of sponsoro



He was a particularly apt

His early involvement in the

The nLifeVI and the 11 Defence 11 were both unsignedo They were originally ascribed to William Walsho Sir Walter Scott and George Saintsbury in their edition of the Works (Edinburgh 9 1882) 9 18 vols 9 13: 292~316 9 328= 44) were the first to note Edmond Malonevs claim that they were both by Chetwood (see Critical and Miscellaneous Prose Works of John Dryden (1800) 9 3: 549)o Malone-had discovered a letter from Dryden to Tonson 9 dated December 9 1697 9 which describes his waiting for Chetwood to correct his vpreface 9 which He writes me word is printed very falsev (Letters 9 Letter 50 9 po 98)o

136 fo~ndation

of the Society of Antiquaries had led to his encouragement

of Roscommon in his influential translation of Horaceus Ars Poetica and the equally seminal (1684)o


of the Essav on Translated Verse

Chetwood had also just gained the post of Chaplain to the

English forces sent into Holland under I1arlborough (1689) and been created Doctor of Divinity at



In choosing Chetwood 9

Drydenus efforts had gained an influential and respectable imprimaturo The remarkable point about Fontenelleus position on Virgilus Eclogues is that it is hardly condemnatory at allo

It is specifically

hesitant in its appreciation of Eclogue 4 9 ho1rrever 9 and thereby Virgil 0 s pretensions to such an elevation of toneg vfuen Virgil desir 0 d to give a pompous Description of the imaginary Return of the Golden Age 9 which he promises to the Uorld at the Birth of Pollio 0 s Son~ he should not have excited the Pastoral Muses to leave their natural Strain and raise their Voices to a pitch which they can never reach; his Business was to have left them 9 and have address 0 d himself to some otherso [ppo 285-86] This is in direct opposition to Rapin°s reverence for Virgil 0 s example 9 who 9 as he


useth no Numbers but Heroick 0 9 could sanction such a treat= -

ment of country life for his successors (po 63)o


It is imperative to

remark that Rapin could also still develop a sophisticated conceptual periphrasiso

When applauding both Theocritus and Virgil for their


admirable and excellent 0 example 9 he distinguishes them from those


others 0 who prove



and to be pittiedg

for they being

enfeebled by the meanness of their subject 9 either creep 9 or fall The triumph of both Virgil and 9 surprisingly given Rapin°s preferences 9 Theocritus 9 lies in their talent for formal= istic virtuosity 9 where an advised and qualified heroism is cut free of


However 9 this 0 Heroick Measure 0 should be sounding as in-Epicks 0 (po 63)o


not so strong and

137 its demeaning referento ~~d

Fonter:elle praises the idea of a ruxal life

its creation of a pleasing ambience which thereby must ignore the

claims of Eclogues_ 4 and 6o

It is specifically the ex~el.lence of both

these poems that Chetwood wishes to


and so offers the reader

a Virgil as master craftsrnan 9 working to conquer unpropitious material and so delighting in his display of arto Huch of the power of Chetwood 0 s defence stems from the enlisting of


authority as a stick to beat

moderns become







made rich by their industry 9 [who]

ungratefully deride the good old gentleman who left them the estate 0a 1 There gradually unfolds in the Preface a distaste for Hodern

pastoral not on the grounds that its practitioners are not

up to the mark but because it is based on an unnecessarily vulnerable foundation that cannot be repaired except by a change in the reader 0 s perceptual experience: One of the ancients has observed truly 9 but satirically enough 9 that 9 1 Hankind is the measure of everything 0 o And thus 9 by a gradual improvement of this mistake 9 we came to make our own age and country the rule and standard of others coco We figure the ~~cient countrymen like our o~m 9 leading a painful life in poverty and contempt 9 without wit 9 or courage 9 or educationo [13: 329] The classical poets could faithfully render an unspoiled countrysideo To attempt pastoral compositions on new models would be to base a pastoral myth on too manifest a lieo

This respect for Virgil extends

to defending Eclogues 4 and 6 in particularo

Fontenelle had found the

song of the tipsy and lewd Silenus to be out of character with the other Eclogueso

Chetwood defends its pastoral character by resurrecting

the allegorical apology of Servius who



would have discovered that 9

Scott=Saintsbury (Edinburgh 9 1882)9 , 13: 329o

138 lli"der the allegory of this drunkenness of Silenus? the refinement and exaltation of men°s minds by philosophy was intended 0 Eclo~e



4 9 on the other hand 9 is given a less grandiose oriein; one

not immediately suggested by the texto coherence by considering it the


The poem is given a pastoral

discourse of a shepherd comforting

himself 9 in a declining age 9 that a better was ensuing 0 (13: 337)o Chetwood 9 when confronted by the corporeal Silenus 9 suppresses such 11

low 11 particulars and removes it from his influence by allegorizing

his song but ignoring its singera

However 9 where the



have offered itself up to an allegorical Christian interpretation 9 he spurns the invitation and personalizes the songo

This inevitably

restrains the exalted rhetoric to align it with the other bucolic settings 9 and thereby restores the more philosophical Eclogues to the pastoral canono

This weightier pastoral form is then more suitable

to pit against the love=lyrics that constitute Fontenelle 0 s norma Chetwood is directly opposed to such airy sentiments: take pastorals and love=verses for the same thingo


He seems to

Has human nature

no other passion? 0 (13: 338)o ~fuat

is needed 9 therefore 9 is a positive suggestion as to what a

pastoral poem iso

Chetwood 0 s formulae are based largely on Rapin°s

Golden Age assumptionso

The shepherd is to exude an vair of piety 0

(13: 335) consonant with his nessv (13: 337)a of the poetryo


ancient innocence and unpractised plain=

A more pressing dilemma is over the formal qualities Although pleading for vsome ordonnancev (13: 337) in

the composition 9 Chetwood does not relinquish a hope for a vchoice diversity of subjectsov as well (13: 337) 9 a mixture he leaves to the poet able to show the correct measure of artistic


judgement and con=

trivance' in which Virgil excels Theocritus (13: 337)a

Just as Chetwood

finds the erotic pastoral too limited in its diversity of subject 9 he

139 also refuses to find an alternative in poems a


allegorical reading of the

This is apparent in his concern to stress the surface

incidents of the poetryo

Indeed 9 the 1:Jhole concept of a



is absent from his account of and introduction to Dryden°s translationo For


the treatment of

Eclo~ 6~

his one mention of

is most directly concerned with praising a style that is clear and elegant' (13: 339)o



natural 9

Indeed 9 his polemic against Fontenelle

is apt to push his ideal pastoral quite away from the Golden Age of leisurely


But the persons brought in by Mro Fontenelle are shepherds in masquerade 9 and handle their sheep= hook as awkwardly as they do their oaten reedo They saunter about with their chers moutons; but they relate as little to the business in hand 9 as the painter 1 s dog 9 or a Dutch ship 9 does to the history designedo [13: 339] There is a difficulty in this that Chetwood ignores too easilyo claiming that a return to the poetry

a clef


of Maret or Mantuan is

undesirable 9 he offers two opposed factors in any pastoral representation:



sheep=hook 0 and the

seem 9 relate more to the


oaten reed 1 9 both of which 9 it would

business in hand 1 than the nominal shepherds

of most Renaissance pastoralo 1


The self=indulgence of including the

painter 1 s dog 1 in the picture is as redundant to the


ordonnancev as

the unnecessarily detailed account of a ship 1 s nationality in a harbour= sceneo

Too much unmotivated detail is an extravaganceo



business 0

of the form 9 by contrast 9 should derive from a more substantial relation behJeen the shepherd and his \tork 9 a concern itself quite unnecessary if there were not a certain nervousness about the Golden Age motif 9 and its obvious fictivenesso Chetwood 0 s "Preface" answers Fontenelle 0 s wayso


theories in two

Firstly 9 it claims for the pastoral genre a significance and

scope much wider than that expected from the lyrical forms 9 and 9 in so

doing 9 presupposes some

unify~~g frame~crk

emotions of the poeto

Secondly 9 the

other than the overheard


presumption that ne'l!J

nRRtoral mvths mav be found is invalidated on the authoritv of






Virgil 0 s far=ranging Consequently 9






variations are to be foundo

rejects both allegory



It is


ill=mapped path but it eventually leads to Virgil 0 s actual practice rather than any theoretical synthesise Dryden°s preface to his own translation '"To The Right Honourable Hugh Lord Clifford 9 Baron of Chudleigh11 (1697) displays the pragmatic approach of the practitioner rather than the theoristo

He is 9

however 9 at pains to vindicate both the advisability of following the example of Theocritus and Virgil and 9 on the other hand 9 the judgement needed in the translator to draw back from a literal transcription 9 and so a similar forbearance on the part of a modern This even=handedness is clearly demonstrated in his


contradictory view of those who would depart from classical precedento Although the


spring of Virgil 0 may justly shame the


filth and

ordures of the Goths and Vandals 0 by comparison and 'our miserable age 0 not hope to measure up to the past excellencies of classical patronage 9 Fontenelle is found to be


the living glory of the French 0

and Spenser 0 s diction in The Shepheardes Calendar approved for its northern dialect 0 9 the nearest one could hope to reach in making 1 the Doric of Theocritus over to a later age 0 s tasteo Such flexi= 0

bility is not the aimless negligence of an occasional preface 9 but very much a feature of Dryden 9 s conception of imitation throughout his critical work 9 best exemplified by the dialectical structure of


Selected Criticism 9 po 282o

14:L his Of Drau1atic Even



Poesy~ An Essay (l668)o 1

the rusticity of pastoral subjects does cause some Dryden displays a desire that the nonatural 01 be seen

as something more substantial than a rhetorical


and it

is in the preface that he debates this in relation to Virgilo In common with Chetwood Dryden finds the Eclogues a triumph of



tiherein [Virgil] has raised himself above that humble

style in 1rrhich pastoral delights? and which ooo is proper to the education and converse of shepherds 0 (Po 280) 0 a triumph in that he had chosen liJhen and when not to be pastorale

Dryden sees the

poet of the Georgics and the Aeneis testing himself for a longer flight in his Eclogueso

The metaphor is no casual oneo


ans1r1er as to t·Jhat the poet is supposed to be in flight from is given in the first of Dryden's prefatory remarks on Virgil: He could not forbear to try his wings 9 though his pinions were not hardened to main= tain a long laborious flighto Yet sometimes they bore him to a pitch as lofty as ever he was able to reach afterwardso But when he 1r1as admonished by his subject to descend 9 he came down gently circling in the air 9 and singing to the groundo [po 280] 1

His subject' is defined by its oppositeso

Firstly 9 it has not the

elevation or freedom suggested by a bird 0 s flight and 9 secondly 9 this freedom is qualified to some degree by an



that must oblige the lyrical grace to descend and remember its


Even Crites~ Dryden°s spokesman for the Ancients 9 includes a significant qualification of his admiration for classical exampleo Their Modern successors were forced not to 0 build upon their foundations 9 but by their models 0 (1: 36)o For more general comment 9 see John Mo Aden 9 "Dryden and the Imagination: The First Phase" 9 PMLA 9 74 (1959) 9 28=40 9 and John Co Sherwood 9 "Precept and Prutice in Dryden's Criticism11 9 Journal of English and Germanic Philolog~ 9 68 (1969) 9 432=40o

142 dependence on more material foundationsa



4 9 6 and

8 as his texts 9 Dryden is pleased to find this denial of mimetic duty ~·!here

Cheh.rood found it rP.rrrehensible in Fontenellea

Noting that in

Eclogy.e 8 9 Virgil had made his crherdsmen some1.nrhat too learned for their professioncr Chetwood as


country buskinsa

meadows a

Dryden uses an image similar to that four.d in

Defence 01 :

pompous verses;

the Silenus;



is a kind of rusticity in all those

somei•Jhat of a holiday shepherd strutting in his The like may be observed 9 both in the Pollio 9 and

trJhere the similitudes are dratm from the \voods and

They seem to me to represent our poet betwixt a farmer 9 and_a This safe distance from both a literal rustic

and the masquerading allegorical or otherwise 9 of the genteel visitor is a norm safeguarded and guaranteed by the plain style 9 that reassuring and disarming rhetorical expression of what to \vhat is natural but rendered as "nature'' o


in fact 9 an opinion as For this to be


it must be argued that some verisimilitude is an essential component 9 that the shepherd must be neither too defined by his setting nor totally defeat the expectations of the reader who clearly expects the pastoral to be so definedo

By 1750 when Samuel Johnson tried to define the

genre in what he felt was its decline 9 Virgilvs works testified to little of the awe that Chetwood and Dryden experienced:

crrf we search

the writings of Virgil 9 for the true definition of a pastoral 9 it will be found "a poem in which any action or passion is represented by its effects on a country life11 • 01 This is a particularly rational extension of the hint supplied almost a century earlier 9 with quite an opposite understanding by Rapino


Glossing the claim that a pastoral poem

The Rambler 9 Nco 37 (July 24 9 1750) 9 Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson 9 9 volso 9 3: 201 (edited by tvoJ o Bate and Albrecht Bo Strauss)o

imitated 0 the Action of a Sheaperd 9 or of one taken under that Character 0 (po 19) he takes as his reference Virgil makes in the Eclo~

10 9 this prominent

example~ Gallus~



the most explicit


to a contemporary figureo

military leader and elegiac poet

is introduced to the lyrical artifices of Arcadia to sing of unhappy love to its inhabitantso

His nearest generic precursor is Thyrsis

from 1£yll 1 9 but whereas the Theocritean semi=deity blends his notes with each detail of the sympathetic landscape 9 Gallus eventually resists such assimilation and will not be so consoledo


He remains

outside the pastoral enclosure even in the very heart of ito example is a strange choice of Rapin 9 so into the category of those who could be


Gallus would naturally fit 9

taken under 2 the character

of a shepherd 9 but even this is to stretch a reading of



to its limits for there is no internal evidence that Virgil presents Gallus as a countryman at allo perfunctory sheep=hook;

There is no sign of even the most

in the terms of the poem 9 he remains

stubbornly "real 11 9 quite apart from the Arcadian shepherds he addresses a a


Johnson's remarks imply that a pastoral should treat

country life 0 as a central representative elemento

In Eclogue

10 9 Gallus is as much a stranger to rural activity as the


that attempt to console him 9 an idea echoed by Rapin in the next sentence after his preliminary definition of the pastoral:



Gallus 9 tho not really a Shephard 9 for he was a man of great quality in


ooo belongs to Pastoral 9 because he is represented like a

Shepheardv (po 19)o


What principally picks out Eclogue 10 as a

For a fuller account of the pastoral conventions in Eclogue 10 9 see Robert Coleman 9 "Vergilvs Pastoral Modes11 9 Ancient Pastoral: "Ramus" Essa s on Greek andRoman Pastoral Poetr 9 edited by AoJo Boyle Melbourne 9 1975 9 ppo vrt is 9 however 9 striking that Vergil should have closed his bucolic collection with what seems an explicit rejection of the doctrine of Arcadian consolationv (po 6?)o

pastoral therefore is the representations the placing of a shepherd 0 s 1:1eeds onto


rather than the landscape and characterso


formalism in 1659 was seminal enough to be perpetuated with hardly a change in wording by Chetwood: imitation~


As all sorts of poetry consist in

pastoral is the imitation of a Shepherd, considered under

that character 0 (13: 329) 9 and by Pope:


A Pastoral is an imitation

of the action of a shepherd 9 or one considered under that character 0 o Considerations of a



country life 0 are by no means central to the

formalist pastoral 9 either allegorical or lyricalo It is therefore striking that both Dryden and Chetwood should occupy themselves to the extent they do in appealing to mimetic criteria when hinting a dislike of Virgil 0 s practiceo

ChehJOod 0 s

desire to see a pastoral shepherd 0 s portrayal including a relation to his worlc also implicitly uncovers a further wish to see the pastoral conform to a decorum based on its nominal subject=mattero


admired the younger Virgilvs exuberance in his Eclogues 9 yet found him also departing from his subject-matter or 9 in other words 9 not conforming to the pastoral genreo this position:


the former part of it being the complaint and despair

o:f a forsaken lover: a lost affectiono

His comments on Eclogue 8 illustrate

the latter 9 a charm of an enchantress, to renew But the complaint perhaps contains some topics

which are above the condition of his persons;

and our author seems

to have made his herdsmen some1r1hat too learned for their profession a In his earlier "Preface to Sylvae'' (1685)



Dryden had considered

Virgil's shepherds 'too well read in the philosophy of Epicurus and of Plato 0 (1: 265) 9 a reference to Eclogues 4 and 6o


In Eclogue 8 9

Selected Criticism 9 po 28lo For Epicurean statements 9 see 6o27 9 31=40 9 and for Platonic references 9 see 4o36 9 6ol4o


the indecorum of the shepherd

is hard.er to traceo

'~voices 11


complaint at Nysa's neglect of him is a clear allusion to Idylls 3 and Bnd

both comic and pathetico


figure is considered

Virgil keeps these traits for Damon (32=35)

and yet also grants him knouledge of a poeticism such as "''ater (28)




a precious Alexandrianism such as the repetition at line 50 9

and a blasphemous yoking of the pastoral world tvith



ooo sit

Tityrus Orpheus 9 /Orpheus in silvis 9 inter delphinas Arion° (55~)o Dryden°s 01~ translation (2: 901-5) Orpheus/Arion and


emphasises this breach between


Hoarse Tity 0 rus strive with Orpheus in the Woods: And challenge fam 1 d Arion on the Floodso Or oh~ let Nature cease; and Chaos reign~ [llo 76-78] As these lines are part of a catalogue of impossibilities that result from Nysa 0 s unnatural behaviour - the adynaton so characteristic of classical pastoral = the extra insurance that Dryden provides to insulate the pastoral subject-matter from any flights of glorification is remarkableo These faults apart 9 Dryden shares Chetwood 0 s approval of the pastoral nature of the Eclogueso

Virgil 0 s standing as a major

classical model could be called as witness to defend his actual practice against any accusations of improprietyo

For Dryden 9 the

thorny problem of how the pastoral genre could contain quite contra= dietary impulses:

the homely detail of rural life which was a legacy

of the allegorical signifiers of the Renaissance with the more abstract and idealized locale suggested by Arcadia 9 was solved by reference to the actual practice of Virgilo



poet betwixt a farmer: 9 and a

courtier' appeared to possess the correct amalgam of polite rusticity


ooo let Tityrus be an Orpheus - an Orpheus in the woods 9 an Arion among the dolphinso 0

that could serve as an example for all subsequent maintains majesty in the midst of plainness;



he shines 9 but glares not;

pastoral descriptions an iconic 0'presence 09 that offered his formal variety as a transparent rendering of the subject of the




verse is everyvJhere sounding the very thing in your ears 9 whose sense it bears;

yet the numbers are perpetually varied;


(1: 255)a

most positive remarks concern the form and style 9 the actual

Dryden°s 11

clothing 11

of the shepherd 9 and the nearest he arrives at disagreement is when he turns to questions of the equivalence between that shepherd and lifea In matters of decorum Virgil 0 s plain majesty formed a stylistic mean

that did adequate justice to two potentially divergent perspectives on the countryman as the noble savage or as an allegorical symbolo It is remarkable 9 given the popularity of Dryden°s Virgil 9 how quickly the classical pastoral shepherd becomes a man of sentiment 9 much nearer to the Theocritean than the more august Virgilian normo Thomas Tickell during his Guardian series on pastoral poetry (1713) 9 praised Theocritus above Virgil 9 notwithstanding his occasional



ness and clownishness 0 9 for possessing 0 a soul more softly and tenderly inclined 0 to the pastorale naturally to sublimityo


Virgil 0 s genius 9 by contrast 9 led him Theocritus may be the more talented

pastoralist but Virgil the greater poeto

The culmination of this

distrust of the sublime pastoral appears in Thomas Purney 0 s A Full Enguiry into the True Nature of Pastoral (17l7)o

Although Virgil

is linked with Theocritus in Purney 0 s roll=call of acceptable models 9


The Guardian 9



147 his inclusion is never anything more



Spenser and Ambrose Philips supply many examples


Theocritus 9 but Virgil nonea

Purney justifies this neglect by emph<.J.sis;'llg the g;mple ;'llsph·B.tions

of the pastoral? which even leads him to question Spenser 0 s use of allegory as being [the Pastoral]



not consistent vrith the simplicity of that Poem

(po 50) o

One of the few places where Virgil is

mentioned exposes Purney 0 s desire for an unadorned simplicityo


introductory paragraph to chapter 7 of Part 3 finds Virgil 0 s art redundant: SIMILIES in Pastoral must be managed 11rith an exceeding deal of Care 9 or they will be faultyo As a Poet may range Nature for Comparisons; this gives a Pastoral=Writer a very easy opportunity of introducing rural Thoughtso VIRGIL therefore 9 and those Swains who have 11~itten Pastorals more by Art and Imitation than Genius? generally heap three or four SIMILIES together for the same thing; and t'IThich is of no Ivloment; nor \118.Ilted any Comparisono [po 54] Although Virgil is not directly corrected here 9 there are some clear party lines drawn upo 0

By implication 9 the Eclogues do not sufficiently

range Nature 0 and therefore cannot give rise to truly


rural Thoughts 0 o

This identification of Nature with the rustic is founded on the principle of direct transcription in Arto

Those objects normally found by

experiencing the country life deserve to stand forth boldly for what they are: of


a portion of the Sublime 9 untrammelled by the obfuscation Just as Longinus finds this gift of representing thoughts

rather than images the hallmark of genius 9 tinction to the pastorale


Furney applies this dis=

The result is to admit a pastoral of

sentiment rather than sculptural calm 9 based on a particularly partial opinion as to what constitutes a country life: There are also another kind of Similies~ which being heapt in the same manner 9 seem to be

design~ d by VIRGIL 9 and those uho have taken their Thoughts from him 9 rather to fill up Space t-Jith something Pastoral 9 than to be the natural Talk of Shepherdsa For Swains are not suppos 0 d to ret~~d their Storys by m~ny or long BIMTT.TRS; their Talk comes from the Heart 9 Unornamental; but Similies 9 in Pastoral 9 are for Ornamento [po 55]

Furney here unites the pathetic

the realistic to form an unholy


yet persuasive alliance against the Ornamental and therefore insincerea Far from


sounding the very thing in your ears 0 in Dryden°s version 9

Virgil is seen as the poor relation of Theocritus 9 one who cannot keep his eye close to the objecta

The corollary to this is that

the affairs of the heart and ornamentation are mutually exclusive in pastoral poetry 9 and that the 'Emblematical 0 9 0


Allegorical 0 and

Refined 0 modes (ppa 49=52) are unsuitable for the avowed object of

the form:

the presentation of the


natural talk of shepherds 0 and

the reification of its projection of urban sensibilitya 11

Even Pope 0 s

Discqurs~ Concerning_Pastora_l Poetry (1717) qualifies its otherwise 00

concerted praise for Virgila as 0


Both Theocritus and Virgil are recognized

the only indisputed authors of Pastoral 0 and yet some of Virgil 0 s -1

subjects are not pastoral in themselves 9 but only seem to be such 0 a

Indeed 9 although Virgil exceeds Theocritus in judgement 9 regularity and brevity 9 there are two significant areas where Virgil is found wanting in the comparison:



simplicity and propriety of style;

the first of which perhaps was the fault of his age 9 and the last of his language 0 (1: 30) 9 a conclusion different in emphasis but not in substance from Furney's ow.na

Gradually 9 the more elevated Eclogues

were considered unpastorala

Charles Gildon in his The Complete Art

of Poetry (1718) examines the Pollio in terms reminiscent of Fontenelle when he claims that the poem



1: 29=30a


loses so much of the Pastoral kind 9 as it

gains of JVIajesty and Force 0 a



VirgiP s pastorals were compared


himself had suggested that if the Modern kind


they are by

As the desire for

sentiment and Gonatural 00 shepherd talk gre11r 9 the neo=classic ansuer tres to remove the Eclogues from


by refusing



name of pastorals altogethero So tainted was the pastoral form by what it avat·redly described 9 the humble concerns of rural life9 that later pastoralists forsook many of the Virgilian themes and even the attempt to imitate the rusticity of what was taken to be the Theocritean Dorico

By 1708 and the

election of Joseph Trapp to the first Chair of Poetry at Oxford 9 pastoral poetry is regarded as a vvlo"t

humble kind 0 9 an example of the

as it dealt 1rrith country matters 9 the


common concerns

Eclogues 4 and 6 are allowed 9 on the other hand 9

as they demonstrate a


certain Sublimity 9 agreeable enough to Pastorals;

a Sublimity that arises from Philosophy and Religion 9 not from the Tumults of War 9 the Pomps of a Court 9 or the Refinements of the City 0 (po 175) o

This sublimity is as sharply distinguished from the Epic

as country life is from the Court or City and takes its force and point from the poet 0 s art aloneo

This is evident in a roll-call of

pastoral qualities heavily reminiscent of both Rapin and Fontenelle 9 wherein the best pastorals are


sweet 9 easy and flowing 9 and simple


"Of the Manner 9 Rules 9 and Art of Composing Epigrams 9 Pastorals 9 Odes 9 etco 11 9 Complete Art of Poetr;y (London 9 1718) 9 po l60o The style was not 9 on the other hand to be 0 low and base 0 o One insurance against that 1rras to avoid turning 0 Strephon and~ into Tom and Bess 9 which that ingenious Son of the great Beno Johns~did 9 imagining by that to make it more on a level=with his Cotswold Shepherds 9 but far from those of Arcadia and Sicil~o 0 He also distrusted Allegory and illustrated his via media by recourse to copious illustration from Ambrose Philips~Pastoralso


The Prose Works of Alexa Pope 9 °newly collected and edited by 0 Norman Ault (Oxford 9 1936) 9 po l06o


Lectures on Poetry read in the Schools of Natuxal Philosophy at Oxford ooo Translated from the Latin by William Bowyer and William Clarke (London 9 l742) 9 po 87o

150 beyond all others 9 o mirrored






simplicity 91 is not such that it

the Characters of poor ignorant shepherds 9 and the Thoughts

of modern Rm:;tics 1 Cpa 1?4L

Indeed the human figUre in Trapp 9 s

version is hurriedly passed overo country ones 9


The subjects of pastoral are

and the Thoughts never contrary to those that are bred

there 0 (po 180) 9 yet at the same time they are not to be expressed in a style that is redolent of such


ooo it seems too forced a Prosopop®ia to affix to them any Character of Politeness 9 or to introduce them as Men of Wealth and Education~ These Things are contradictory to Truth 9 and therefore leave no Room for Fictiono The very Foundation 9 then 9 of Pastorals 9 as they are accomodated to the present Times 9 seems wholly taken awayo [po 186] No wonder then that Virgil 9 s politer versions of rusticity were both influential for Arcadian pastoralists and lyricists 9 and yet distrusted by those who required a 'simplicity 9 to match what was taken to be a real countryman 9 s wants and careso

It is no great distance from the

therapy that Steele derived from Virgil 9 compared to whom there was 9

no one writing in so divine 9 so harmonious 9 nor so equal a Strain 9

which leaves the Mind compos 1 d 9 and soften 9 d into an agreeable Melancholy 9 the Temper in which 9 of all others 9 I chuse to close the Dayvo




agreeable Melancholy 1 is as distinct from the moral

fervour expected by Sidney as it is from the heroics of Dryden°s Golden Age 9 and owes little to classical precedento Dryden°s own reading of Virgil 0 s pastoral antithetical to this vespertinal pathoso


was directly

In even the most obvious

example of a 'pathetick 0 Eclogue 9 Dryden°s translation is no pastoral of sentimento

In Addison's introductory rubric to Eclogue 2 9 the

reader is led to expect tenderness and lyrical simplicity:




The Spectator 9 edited by Donald Fo Bond (Oxford 9 1965) 9 5 vols 9 4 : 325 (514 9 October 20 9 1712)o

151 Commentators can by no means agree on the Person of


hat are

all of opinion that some Beautiful Youth is meant by him 9 to t-Jhom Virg.i.l


makes Lova;

e..nd Si.rn:plicity=

\·Jay of Courtship is tJholly Past oral u ( 2 ~ 877) o




past oral u passion 9

h01r1ever 9 has not such soothing balm in Dryden us versiono

l'J'.aen scanning

the landscape for passionate similes 9 Virgilus Corydon is economical but plaintive


at mecum raucis~ tua dum vestigia lustro 9 sole sub ardenti resonant arbusta cicadiso

[llo 12=13]


Corydon like the love=sick Bucaeus and the lovers of Latin elegy has been driven to a life


2 sine ratione 9 nullo consilio 1 o


Corydon has a heroic passion 9 on the other hand 9 one noble in its intensityo

Unqualified by pathos or rustic timidity 9 the shepherd

is blessed with some epic gestures: While in the Scorching Sun I trace in vain Thy flying footsteps o 1 re the burning Plaino The creaking Locusts with my Voice conspire 9 They fry'd vnth Heat 9 and I with fierce Desiree [llo 11=14] 3 In this manifestation his passion is as fierce as the burning sun 9 an

emphasis not quite consistent with its source texto is in strong opposition to the preceding four lines;

There 9 'at mecum' Corydon is alone

excluded from the natural behaviour of cattle seeking shade 9 green lizards hiding in the undergrowth and reapers seeking noontide refreshmente

This coupled with the insistent Vsole sub ardentiv forms an

attempt to emphasise Corydon°s solitariness not the ferocity of his feelingso

In 1697 9 even the neutral description of the close of day

is given the grace and power of a simile:


VBut as I scan your footprints 9 the copses under the ragiqgSun ring with the shrill cicada's voice along with mineo 1


The full text can be found at 2: 877=80o

:::..52 aratra iugo referunt suspensa iuvenci~ 1 et sol crescentis decedens duplicat umbras~ coo [lla 66=67]


See from afar the Fields no longer smoke~ The sweating Steers unharnessnd from the Yoke~ Bring 9 as in Triumph~ back the crooked Plougho

[llo 95=97]

This freedom 1rith the accepted sense of tha source is in the interests of capturing the grandeur of Virgil 1 s 1.-Jhole poetic undertaking 9 a career culminating in the Aeneido

Consequently 9 the negligible subject=matter

must be overcome by Art in a constant attempt to fly free of rustic concernsa


lo1:1n 9

Indeedg the difference beb-Jeen the Virgil and

Dryden's version was an essential ingredient in the latter 1 s successa This has sometimes led to a residual distrust of Drydenus reading of Virgil on the grounds that it is not faithful enough to an meaning a



This has lasted well 9 for as late as 1962 9 JoMo Cohen, in

his British Council


English Translators and Translations 9

is lukewarm in his admiration for this re-modelling 9 for although Dryden naturalized Virgil


in a translation that frequently attained nobility 1 9

there was a surrender of elegance for 'it sometimes lapsed into the vulgarity of what was 9 compared with the eighteenth century 9 an 2 insensitive age 1 o and Swifto

In this Cohen is merely repeating Prior

It is ironic to note 9 therefore, that both Chetwood and

Dryden believed that the 1697 Virgil sought to realize the Eclogues not in their particular expression but in their essentials, recording a representative image that would approximate to a Virgilian Englisho Consequently, the


Virgil 11 created by commentary and myth was as much

called to witness as the barebones of the Latin texto To some extent, the alterations to the Latin during translation were forced on Drydeno

Therefore 9 not all of the modifications are


See 9 the bullocks drag home by the yoke the hanging plough 9 and the setting sun doubles the gathering shadowsa 1


"Writers and their \1/ork" 9 noo 142 (London, 1962) 9 Po 2lo


::L.53 do·~,m

to a desire to :::-edefineo

The copiousness of Virgil 0 s language 9

its reference to many alternative conventions 9 stretch the capacities of English to render themo from several alternativeso

The translator is often forced to sP.ler-t 1

Eost pervasive 9 though 9 is the strong

Hellenistic influence on the form Virgil usedo His choice of the stressed quantitative hexameter for the more strongly,~Latin language imposed on the normal stress pronunciation an artificial scheme of scansion according to long and short syllables 9 creating the potential at every point for either coincidence or conflict of these





forced on the reader the impression that Virgil was deliberately and obviously modifying the Idylls or much of the Greek legacyo One significant advantage that Virgil 0 s language enjoyed was its power to modulate from'high11 to'!Low 1 registerso

As Latin had no literary

dialects 9 the transition from the pastoral 0 s more figurative passages For example 9

to its more particular references could be dramatico

in an effort to reproduce something of the effect of Theocritus 0 s Doric Virgil can put into the mouths of his herdsmen colloquial and archaic forms and idioms redolent of rural dialectso

These colloquial=

isms are confined to conversation or in those parts of the formal songs that concern practical husbandryo

It is hardly a coincidence that

colloquialism is prominent in all the three parodies of the Eclogues cited in Donatus's Vita (l74=77Y and Servius (on 5o36)o




See the praise heaped on Dryden°s attempt by the anonymous contributor of commendatory verses to the Virgil 9 remarking how he could 1 in fetter 1 d Rhyme inclose Which without loss can scarce be told 9 / in Prose' (Critical Heritage 9 po 218)o Dryden himself often remarked on the difficulties 9 see PPo 115~19 and the ··passage ·at Essays 9 l : 256~57o


can be found in WoFo Jackson Knight 9 ~A.;;,c~c~en;;;t,;;,u~al~~S~~~~..;::;;:;~V~e.;;.r~i;;;l (Oxford 9 1939) and LoPo Wilkinson 9 Cambridge 9 l963)o


Tiberius Claudius Donatus 9 Interpretationes Vergilianae 9 edited by Jacob Brumner (Stuttgart 9 1969) 9 3 vols 9 3: lOa


Thilo=Hagen 9 3: 58o

The clearest

154 assessmBnt of the Eclogues as suggest another viewpointo


molle atque facetum 0 vJOuld seem to

In context 9 these remarks refer to style

rather than matter and are meant to that of epico


a register far removed from

The texture of Virgil 0 s pastoral verse may be ironic

at certain junctures but this is not a consistent traito


combination of Latin rusticity with Greek colour 9 produced by the frequency of Greek proper names complete with Greek case forms 9 is the linguistic counterpart of the blend of Greek myth and Latin reality that is the distinctive characteristic of the Eclogueso If Horace's phrase does not sufficiently describe the full impact of the poems 9 then it does point to one of their inspirations 9 the personal poetry of Catullus or the Hellenistic epigrammatistso


affinities between the Greek pastoral and the elegiac treatment of erotic themes are quite noticeable in Eclogues 2 9 8 and lOo


Eclogue 2, Corydon 1 s lament 9 there is a blend of several Theocritean lovers = the comic serenader of Idyll 3 9 the alienated reaper of fdyll 10 and 9 most noticeably 9 the pathetic Polyphemus of Idyll llo


of these figures, given a context that is more sympathetic 9 could come from the Roman eleg.iac tradi tiona


Damon and Alphesiboeus from

Eclogue 8 present a contami..natio of motifs taken from the first h.ro Idyllso

Damon 1 s goatherd 9 jilted by Nysa 9 contemplates suicideo

This mood is broken by the girl in Alphesiboeus 1 s song 9 a sister of Simaetha from 1Qyll 2 9 whose remedy for the faithlessness of her lover: the carmina of magic, is part of an optimistic


to the

earlier insistence on love's painso friend and fellow=poet: Cornelius Gallus 9 is represented as languishing


This has been pointed out in both Georg Luck 9 The Latin Love Elegy (London 9 1959) 9 ppo 52-54 9 and RoOoAoMo Lyne 9 The Latin Love Poets: From Catullus to Horace (Oxford 9 1980) 9 ppo 297 9 30lo

:55 in Arcadyo in


The opening scene recalls the setting of Daphnis 0 s death

1 9 although Gallus 0 s address to the Arcadians stands out as

quite originalo

It is so through the mixture of non=pastoral motifs

from elegy 11rith more bracing Theocritean allusiona


In each of these

adaptatior..s of the Greek pOV)tOfl.o<; there is a careful engrafting of an elegiac cutting onto a more orthodox pastoral shoota Because 9 taken sirnply 9 this lyrical passivity is a quality that is new to pastoral 9 the Eclogues have frequently been represented as lyrical and passionate onlya point of viewa

There are two main objections to this

Firstly 9 at the same time as he substituted the

idyllic Arcadia for the more localized Sicily 9 Virgil was at pains to introduce into it identifiable contemporary figures either as the singers of love=laments such as Gallus in Eclogue 10 or 9 alternatively 9 as reminders of a less introspective public lifea

Gallus 9 himself 9

is not stricken low by love in Eclogue 6 9 but is the object of a panegyric sung by the choir of Phoebus (64=66)a Eclogues 3 9 4 and 8


Pollio enters

and both Varius and Cinna keep their identities

as leading poets in Eclogue 9 (34=36)a

To miss these references is

to lose the works 0 overall complexitya

Johnsonus comment on Eclogue

6 is very much to the point here:

after conceding that it


rises to

the dignity of philosophic sentiment and heroic poetryu he concludes that since uthe compliment paid to Gallus fixes the transaction to his own time 9 the fiction of Silenus seems injudicious 9 o 3


variety of subject and style is a contradiction of the principal


See especially the passages at l0a44=49 9 53=54 9 with Coleman °s commentary in his edition of the Eclogues 9 ppa 286= 90o


At 3a88-89 9 4 passim 9 8a6a


Works 9 2 : 419 (edited by WaJo Bate 9 John Mo Bullitt and LoFa Powell (New Haven 9 l963)o

156 asslli~ption

that because the


descriptions are of lowly people

its style must reflect certain social assumptions about their simplicity and lack of social grace;

if this otherwise seamless illusion is

shattered by the intrusion of too much homely detail or philosophical speculation then the fictive process involved in appropriating Arcadia or Sicily is exposedo Secondly 9 the lyrical songs that compose much of the individual Eclogues are frequently framed by sections where a narrator 9 audience or judge insulate the lyric moment from the readero

Even in Eclogue

2 9 Corydonus love=plaint at the loss of Alexisus affections 9 the intensity of the passion is attenuated in the poem as a whole by two factorso 39

Primarily the song is an imitation of two J3ylls:

in which a slighted lover pours forth his unchecked emotion in which the Cyclops Polyphemus bewails the cruelty

of Galateao

This self=conscious re=casting of Greek bucolic material

does not totally sacrifice its lyricism but does place it vulnerable to a critical eyeo

Idyll 11 provides not only the topos of the

Passionate Shepherd but also much of the pathetic and wry comedy associated with himo

Even though the Virgilian Corydon is no monster 9

there are residual echoes of Polyphemusus gaucherie, most noticeably in the naive boasts of lines 20 to 26 and 36 to 39 9 the jejeune commendations of lines 43.JWand 52 and the clumsy analogy of lines 63 to 65o

As this is also reinforced by the retention of the helpless

goatherdvs self=absorbed meandering of Idyll 3 9 there is much to suggest that the frequent allusions to earlier bucolic material serve to detract from the nobility of the passiono Indeed 9

this framing device is given obvious prominence by the

scene=setting of the opening lines:

157 pastor Corydon ardebat Alexim~ delicias domini~ nec 9 quid speraret~ habebata tan tum inter densas ~ umbrosa cacumina 9 fagos adsidue veniebat 9 ibi haec incondita solus 1 montibus et silvis studio iactabat inania [llo 1=5]


Corydonvs ardent expressiveness is not granted the immediacy of a direct address to the reader 9 an intimacy enjoyed by the plain style of this In line 4 9

opening a




indicates that the

performance was a repeated one so therefore the full force of is unlikely to suggest an unpremeditated songo the word by




Servius had glossed

implying that this artlessness had more to do

with uncultivated rusticity and disjointedness than noble simplicitya This same silvas




low mimetic uq approach is also supported by montibus et inani o Corydonvs only audience is not the amenable woods

of the more usual pastoral landscape but the more rugged climes of Eclogue lOa

This ironic potential is not transmitted in any of the

translations of the Augustan periodo Drydenvs 1684


Nahum Tatevs translation in

may stand as a representative example:

A Hopeless Flame did Corydon destroy 9 The lov 1 d Alexis was his Master's Joyo No respite from his Grief the Shepherd knew 9 But daily vralk vd ~1here shady Beeches gre11<1~ \f:here stretcht on Earth 9 alone he thus complains 9 And in these accents tells the Groves his painso [po 331] Here the groves are free of rocks and are sympathetico

Banished is

the reserve encouraged by Virgil's original techniqueso

Richard Haitland 9

the fourth Earl of Lauderdale 1 s 9 Corydon is even able to be


studious 0 o 3

Eclogue 2 9 which appears so unguardedly "pathetick" 9 is streamlined by


vcorydon 9 the shepherd 7 was on fire for the fair Alexis 7 his master 0 s delight 9 and knew no hopeo His one consolation was to go daily among the thick beeches with their shady tops 9 and there alone in fruitless passion fling these rough verses to the hills and woodsov


The Works of Virgil (London 9 1737) 9 5 vols 9 l


this form of critical attentiono closely sepo.r·o.tt:


Dryden 9 by identifying Corydon

Virgil himself 9 is similarly unable to distinguish their


until the anti-clima.--:: of the poemvs conclusiono

His first lines are at least neutral: Young Corydon 9 thuunhappy shepherd swain 9 The fair Alexis lov 0 d 9 but lov~d in vain; And underneath the beechen shade 9 alone? 11. Thus to the \voods and mountains made his moano fAll =14] Irony and the Golden Age are difficult to reconcileo

At the very

least 9 the Arcadians would be seen as untutored and so unqualified to stand as an example for the present age if the Corydons of the Eclogues were too clearly exposedo

The full account of Drydenvs influence on

subsequent readings of Virgil 9 or the lack of it, can only be adequately illustrated? however, by a larger sampleo

To this end as great a

variety as possible of Virgilian pastoral needs analysingo


1 and 9 are chosen because they both place lyrical sentiments against a backdrop of contemporary political upheavalo case for pastoral nsimplicity";

Eclogue 4 is a test-

its elevated theme and grand passages

divide theorists as to its pastoral statuso

Finally, the influence of

the Idylls and their transformation by Virgil is examined vii th special reference to Eclogues 3 and 5o Eclogues 1 and 9 Both poems lend themselves to an autobiographical interpretation as has already been suggestedo

Eclogue 9 was read as a companion-piece

to Eclogue 1 9 a poem which Dryden, Caryll and Trapp all mwiipulated into a form amenable to the events (as known) of Virgil 0 s own lifeo Eclogue 9 is approached in the same Spirito

Addison felt the need to

acquaint the reader of Dryden°s translation with a dramatis personae: \fuen Virgil by the Favour of Augustus had recover 0 d his Patrimony near Mantua 9 and went in hope to take possession, he was in danger to be slain by Arius

159 the Centurion 9 to tcJhom those Lands 1r1ere assign' d by the Emperour in reward of his Service against Brutus and Cassiuso This Pastoral therefore is fill 1 d with complaints of his hard Usage; and the persons intrcduc 0 d are the B8.yliff of Viroril~ Maeris 9 and his Friend ~ycidaso [2: 906] Trapp 0 s interpretation is similaro

Those elements of the work which

do not immediately conduce to this design 9 he accounts for by labelling them


an ingenious Tissue of Poetical Fragments neatly inserted 9 and

interwoven' (po 79)o furthero

Interpretation 9 it would seem 9 could go no

lf.hat is more, Servius had endorsed this view and so granted

it a scholarly authority, at the expense, perhaps, of some of the finer points and more truly Virgilian touches of the poem 1 s internal evidenceo


There is much doubt as to just how specific the geographical and historical references actually are and so how reliable this autobiographical approach iso

Gordon Williams has recently stressed how

needlessly ambiguous Virgil was if wTitL!g autobiographicallyo

Firstly 9

unlike Eclogue 4 9 there is no clear mention of a date in the poemso 'This is important because the relevance of Pollio 1 s consulship to the deciphering of Eclogue 4 is indispensableo

Therefore, it may be assumed

that Virgil would have been more explicit if precise historical informa= tion were essentialo 12

Secondly 9 with special reference to Eclogue 1,

Williams has little confidence in the tradition that the landscape of the poem is Mantuano

On the contrary, if anywhere, it suggests the

transfigured Sicily of the


'Since he wished to use the land=

confiscations as the backcloth to the poem, he had to set it in Italyo But he has simply transferred the whole apparatus of bucolic poetry to Italy, and the landscape that results is Sicily=in=Italy ooo 1 in both Eclogues, the names are Greek or of Greek origino


Tradition and Originality in Roman




(Oxford 9 1968) 9 po 308o

160 this col:Lision between the Hellenistic and the Roman 9 precise analogues do not alone explain 9 much less interpret 9 the poems (po 309) o l;filJiA!1113u


Line on these poems is a caveat to the allegory=hunters

and suggests an alternative to the dominant interpretation of the years 1680 to 1730 not so as to arraign Dryden or Trapp for critical blindness but to illustrate what their readings of the poems omitted and thus what model of Virgilian pastoral they formed for themselves and their readerso In Eclogue 1 9 for example 9 there are several details that serve no

obvious political purposeo Fortunate senex


Prominent among these is Meliboeusns Its positioning and dramatic particularity

lend it an emphasis quite out of keeping tV"ith a purely allegorical purpose (46=58)o

The same could surely be said of Tityrusns magna=

nimity of his closing speech: dispossessed Meliboeus (?9=83)o

the offer of hospitality towards the

In Eclogue 9 9 there are similar

instances such as Moerisns pessimistic exasperation at the ness of poetry to change events (11=13)



the songs of Menalcas


46=50) and the sudden hint of mortality in the encounter with Bianor 0 s tomb (51=60) o

This has led several modern commentators to develop a

pluralist model for interpretation or at least a synthesis of two conflicting possibilities, the most famous being Er\V'in Panofsky 0s appreciation of the closing lines of Eclogue 1:

0In Virgilns ideal

Arcady human suffering and superhumanly perfect surroundings create a dissonanceo

This dissonance 9 once felt 9 had to be resolved 9 and

it was resolved in that vespertinal mixture of sadness and tranquility which is perhaps Virgil 0s most personal contribution to poetry ooo 01 This has led to a range of interpretations just as unified as the


Meaning in the Visual Arts York9 1955)9 Po 300o

Papers in and on Art



16::'_ autobiographically allegorical ones 9 to the extent that Friedrich Klingner can claim that the conclusion of the poem is uhere uthe the


of polarities in tension 9 changes into

a centred 9 relaxed 9 static unityuo


The two extremes of allegorical

polemic and lyrical calm have each attracted their on the poemso



There is much to suggest that 9 despite the varied

kinds of pastoral found in the Eclogues 9 these alternatives are more opposed in the commentaries on individual poems than in the organization of the collection itselfo


Throughout the

ated with values that are under threat:


Arcady is associ=

simplicity 9 contentment with

little 9 delight in oneus surroundings and the beliefs that have sprung from this pleasure 9 and finally a tradition of friendly hospitality devoted to both poetry and peaceo

Within each individual poem the

demonstration or praise of these sentiments is more lyrical than in Theocritus 9 yet taken as a whole 9 the Eclogues are more consistently satirical about contemporary events as wello

Urban life is often

a destroyer or opponent of the pastoral ideologyo

In Eclogue 2 the

urban Alexis despises Corydonus rustic goodness of heart (28-36 9 60-62) o3

Alphe.siboeus casts charms to call Daphnis home from town

in Eclo~ 8 (68 9 passim)~ Eclogue 9 provides the reader with a city that is the goal of Moeris 0 s distasteful journey to find his absentee landlord 9 and 9 finally 9 the ingrata urbs of Eclogue 1 preys on farmers in time of peace and has them at its mercy in waro

This satiric


"Virgil v s First Eclogue" 9 RBmische Geisteswelt 9 4th edition (Munich 9 1961) 9 ppo 325=26o


See the account by JoBo van Sickle 9 "The unity of the Eclogues: Arcadian Forest 9 Theocritan trees 11 9 Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 9 98 (1967) 9 491=508o


A sentiment not unrecognised by Drydeno See lines 35 to 36 of Eclogue 2: 0 0 leave the noisie town 9 0 come and see / Our Country Cotts 9 and live content 9 with me~ ooo 0 (2 : 8?8)o


perspective on:y gradually takes shape but is at the very centre of the Golden Age myth 9 for walled cities? like heroic wars 9 are a symptom of priscae veoL:i.gia fraudis (1:-o

This hostility to the



the logical counterpart to the idealism of most pastoral descriptiono

In Eclogues 1 and 9 this bifocal perspective is at its clearesta (a) Eclogue l In miniature 9 the subject of the opening poem in Virgil 0 s bucolic

series expresses the tensions that are characteristic of the Eclogues as a 11Jholea roadside a

Meliboeus encounters Tityrus 9 piping contentedly by the The two men °s fortune.s are dramatically opposedo


has had his land confiscated through political manoeuvring in far=off Rome but Tityrus 9 by taking the bold initiative of accosting and winning the favour of an influential patron there? has saved his patrimony a

Tityrus has cause for thankful celebration and indulges

in a humble panegyric on the iuvenis (often identified as Octavian) whose chance intercession has prolonged his stay in Arcadiao


on the other hand, is a victim of the impersonal forces of politics and circumstance and expresses this in a melancholic 9 even elegiac, voice which stands in bold contrast to Tityrus 0 s complaisanceo in a



to the piece, Tityrus offers Meliboeus food and

shelter = for just one night, and directs his guest to the idyllic peace of their immediate surroundings of which both singers have been unawareo As Paul Alpers has argued, the principal watershed for any reading lies in the importance given to characterizationa


If Tityrus stands

in dramatic contrast to Meliboeus 9 then that involves a set of further assumptions a


Both characters must be seen to contend with one another?

The Singer of the "Eclogues" : A Study of Virgilian Pastoral (Berkeley 9 Califo 9 1979) 9 PPo 68 ffo





victory of the reader 0 s sympathyo ran.d


gains Meliboeus the Pyrrhic

Alternatively 9 if the

a l;yric ~ the!!. this self=satisf-3ction i




considered a component

of the poem 0 s overall effect 9 culminating in the conciliatory gesture that marks the close of the poemo

Either interpretation cannot hide

the fact that the stylistic tenor of the piece is never consistent; indeed the very variation of styles and traditions alerts the reader to identifying and thus placing the


in a



The reader is constantly informed of the fictiveness of the poem he is readingo This is apparent in the opening lines of the poem:

the scene=

setting of Meliboeus 0 s opening speech: Tityre 9 tu patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi silvestrem tenui musam meditaris avena: nos patriae finis et dulcia linguimus arva; nos patriam fugimus: tu 9 Tityre 9 lentus in umbra 1 formosam resonare doces Amaryllida silvasa [lla 1=5] The Loeb translation of HaRe Fairclough renders 2

country 0 o

There is 9



nos patriam 0 as



nothing definite about the referenceo

Meliboeus feels the attraction of security and continuity 9 but of where is unresolvedo

The fagi of the first line and the reference to the

hills of line 83 Ude montibus 1 ) both suggest that the Mantuan details of the poem are as direct a reference to the Mantua of Virgil 0 s child= hood as Gallus 0 s Arcadia of Eclogue 10 is to its geographical namesakeo Neither beeches nor hills are indigenous to the Mantuan plain and to help this effect of disorientation 9 Virgil 9 s naming emphasises the


0 You 9 Tityrus 9 at ease beneath the spreading 9 sheltering beech 9 tune woodland musings on a delicate reedo We are exiles but you 9 Tityrus 9 stretched in the shade 9 teach the woods to resound with "fair Amaryllis 11 o v


Virgil 9 translated by Ho Rushton Fairclough (Cambridge 9 Masso 9 revised edition 9 1934=35) 9 2 vols 9 1 : 3o

Tityrus is plucked out of Idylls 3 and 7 9 Meliboeus

Greek elemento


rcwv! u(~he

is derived from!J.e7u::;b a:u'17wv and Amaryllis means


has care of the cattle 0 )


sparkling one 0 from the Greek

personification of Tesonare doces caps thiso




Be the landscape Hantua

or Arcadia 9 it 1:1ill in any case be transformed by pastoral songo Running counter to this is the powerful particularity of the references to the 0tenui avena 09 and the political unit of the country that Ivieliboeus is leaving at Ppatriae finis 0

Avena in its literal sense


would mean °oaten straw 0 or


stalkq and coupled with tenui which Servius

claimed expressed the humilitas of the genre 9


a generic usage but also a very humble realismo nobem (19) 9


peculium (32)


could not only indicate 9




(70) and the non=pastoral suggestions of libertas (27) 9

servitium (40)


(53) break up this abstract

grandeur and reminds the reader of the "real" conditions and limitations that life 9 untransfigured by the pastoral imagination 9 brings to bear on the herdsman or shepherdo This at times dramatic alternation between the more idealized land= scapes with primarily Hellenistic allusions and the strident immediacy of Latin political or technical vocabulary is usually initiated by Meliboeus 9 who constantly reverts from the fervour of his desires to the despair of his immediate prospectso

The contrast between the two

companions is best exemplified by the exchange of views on Tityrus 0 s absence in Rome: Tito:

quamvis multa meis exiret victima saepis 9 pinguis et ingratae premeretur caseus urbi 9 non umquam gravis aere domum mihi dextra redibato


Mirabar 9 quid maesta deos 9 Amarylli 9 vocares 9 Cui pendere sua patereris in arbore poma:

Tityrus hinc aberato ipsae te 9 Tityre? pinus 9 1 ipsi te fontes 9 ipsa haec arbusta vocabanto [llo 33=39] Tityrus uses his surroundings and moulds it to make money in the cityo

It is invariably from his lips that the technical phrases of

the urban vrorld enter the poemo

Meliboeus 9 in contrast 9 surveys

Nature as a spectacle 9 untransforned except by imaginationo


poma (any Qstone= or seed=fruitG) hung on their native trees in Ti tyrus 0 s absence; Nature was whole and undisturbed; :indee d 9 I.!Jeliboeus indulges himself in the bucolic commonplace of the pathetic fallacy to express absencea

Even at the close of the poem 9 that lyrical equi-

poise of Klingner and Panofsky 9 there are discordant details: Hie tamen hanc mecum poteras requiescere noctem fronde super viridi: sunt nobis mitia poma 9 castaneae molles et pressi copia lactis; et iam summa procul villarum culmina fumant 2 maioresque cadunt altis de montibus umbraeo [lla 79=83] In normal usage 9 the imperfect poteras implies an unreal condition:

Gyou could have 9 had you wished 0 a3 care is taken to express ambivalencea

Like many details in the Eclogues 9 villarum 9 a prosaic detail at the

best of times 9 suggests a more substantial dwelling than the tuguria (68) that Meliboeus inhabitedo

Even at the close of the poem the reader is

reminded of the disparities in fortune enjoyed by both meno


0 Tita: Though many victims left my stalls 9 and many cheeses pressed for the thankless town 9 never were my hands weighed down with moneyo Mela: I used to wonder 9 Amaryllis 9 why so sadly you called on the gods and for whom you allowed the apples to remain on their native treesa Tityrus was absente The very pines 9 Tityrus 9 the very springs 9 the very orchards were here calling for you~ 0


0 However this night you could have rested here with me on the green leavesa We have ripe apples 9 soft roasted chestnuts and plenty of pressed cheesesa Already the rooftops in the distance are smoking and lofty hills let fall their lengthening shadeo 0


The invitation could be apologetica Precedents for this can be found in Horace 9 Satires 2olol6 or Ovid 9 Metamorphoses lo679o Eclogues 2 9 6 9 9 and 10 all conclude with nightfallo The form of this invitation is perhaps an allusion to Polyphemus 0 s offer to Galatea in Idyll llo44o

166 Eclog~e

1 is therefore a carefully calculated alloy of prosaic or

realistic details amongst idealized contextso im~gine

Meliboeus 0 s power to

a world different from the one he will have to tread in exile

brings not solace 9 but paino

Tityrus supplies the pragmatism that

resists such fruitless yearnings and uhich involves the crystalline decisiveness of boundaries, frontiers and the judicial faculty in general a

Both protagonists may be said to contrast with one another

and yet, due to their common concern and topics for conversation, they are yoked by the all-embracing processes of politics and Roman influenceo The mere whim of the iuvenis has transformed their relation to one another, not any further distinction of humour or typeo The Renaissance legacy of searching..for a historical analogue to Meliboeus 0 s plight is clearly represented in Ogilby 0 s translationo Prefixed to the translation is the motto: Sad Meliboeus banished declares Those miseries attend on civill Wars, But happy Tityrus 9 the safe defence 1 People enjoy, under a setled Princeo Sidney 0 s reading of Eclogue 1 is very near to this a royalist nuanceo


and is here given

The confiscations of 41-40 BoCa here parallel the

appropriation of Royalist land by the Protectorateo 3

This identification

1 ..

The Works of Virgil (London, 1654), po la


See Po 16o


Here, too, a victorious army rewarded its prominent members by land on easy terms.. From 1649-: 53 the republican government produced over £7 million from confiscated lands and fines on Royalistso The estates of all substantial Royalists were sequestrated, that is, taken over by county committees, which collected rents and fines and then assigned leaseso For a fuller account, see Christopher Hill, The Century of Revolution, 1603-1714 (London 9 1961) 9 ppa 113-14, 125-28} and JoPo Cooper "Social and Economic Policies under the Commom'l'ealth11 9 ppo 140=42 9 and David Underdown, "Settlement in the Counties 1653-1658" 9 ppo 168-82~ both essays from The Interre urn : The est for Settlement 1646=1660 9 edited by G.. E .. Aylmer London, 1972 o The lasting effect of this appropriation of land has been recently questioned by Joan Thirsk 9 "The Restoration land settlement", Journal of Modern History (1954), 315-24, 326, and (Continued on pol67)

is helpzd by the choice of asequestrations 0 to translate the phrase 0

1 undique totis /usque adeo turbatur agris 0 o

noted; the

tr:=m!<:l a tors

As has already been

later in the century could also read Virgil 0 s

allegorically but restrict its terms of reference to Virgil 0 s


m-m lifeo poetryo

This pre=empts any attempt to modernize the themes of the In place of Ogilby 0 s appropriation of the source text for

contemporary political comment 9 Dryden 9 as read by Addison 9 represses this ntextualizing" of the vJOrko 0


Instance 0 of Virgil 0 s gratitude?

Therefore 9 Eclogue 1 becomes an 0

where he sets out his own Good

Fortune in the person of Tityrus 9 and the Calamities of his Mantuan Neighbours in the Character of Meliboeus 0 (2: 873)o

Recent readings

of Dryden 1 s later work have stressed the neutrality of his translationsa 3 The Protestant revolution of 1688 had left the author of such virulent anti~Whig

satires as

The Medal

patronage and a laureateshipo

(1682) both without influential In turning to translation 9 Dryden was

effectively turning to his reverence for certain eternal values for

(3 continued) HoJ o Habakkuk 9 "Landmm.ers a..'ld the Civil ll/ar 11 9 Economic History Review 9 2nd series 9 18 (1965) 9 130=31 9 143-44 9 147-48o Ogilby 9 in 1654 9 however 9 would have noted only a tremendous upheaval in what had been a time=honoured a..'ld coherent communitya For the Roman confiscations 9 see Mo Winterbottom 9 "Virgil and the Confiscations11 9 Greece and Rome 9 2nd series 9 23 (1976) 9 55=599 and Lawrence Keppie 9 11 Vergil 9 the Confiscations 9 and Caesar 0 s Tenth Legion 11 9 The Classical Quarterly 9 NoSe 31 (1981) 9 367=70o lo


ooo such unrest is there all over the lando 1


I here use the distinctions found in Roland Barthes 7 "From Work to Text" 9 Image =Music ~ Text 9 Essays selected and translated by Stephen Heath (London 9 1977) 9 ppo 155~64o A 0 work 1 may exist in a Newtonian sense 9 °a fragment of substance 9 occupying a part of the space of books (in a library for example) 9 the Text is a methodological field oao 9 the one is displayed 9 the other demon= strated 0 (156=57)o


See especially 9 William Myers 9 Dryden (London 9 1973) 9 ppo 150=69o

168 inspiration~

those not tarnished by temporal disturbanceso

would speak standard


t;ero ctu.bbornl:l Roman::



but his patrons and exemplary protagonists

is in the interests of discovering 1!Jhat

values t·Jere inscribed in the form rather than in the topics for poetry that Dryden should be read in his later yearso

Eclo~ l~

as indeed

Eclogue 9 9 contains no lubricious material 9 the kind of libertine expansiveness with which he associates the pastoral in his translation of


3 or


A Pastoral Dialogue beb.rixt Thyrsis and Iris 1' from

Amphitryon (l690)o

On the contrary 9 both poems portray a lack of

possession with a carefully elegiac graceo A glance 9 hot'ITever 9 at the "Dedication to the Aeneis 11 establishes the fact that Dryden appreciated both the moral qualities of Aeneas and the political acumen of his author 9 who 9 cherishing 'republican principles 0 (2 : 170) 9 had to obey passively under a monarchical systemo The identification with Dryden himself becomes clear even if implicito In acknowledging the advantages of Augustus 0 s rule 9 °he concluded it to be the interest of his country to be so governed;

to infuse an

awful respect into the people towards such a prince;

by that respect

to confirm their obedience to him, and by that obedience to make them happyo

1 This t-Jas the moral of his divine poemo 0 (2 : 171-72) Eclo,gues

l and 9 are so near to this sentiment in the resigned grief of Meliboeus or the battle-weariness of both Moeris and Lycidas that there is an added significance to the autobiographical allegory that Addison felt


RoDo Williams points out in his 11 Changing Attitudes to Virgil 11 9 Virgil 9 edited by DoRo Dudley (London, 1969) 9 Studies in Latin Literature and its Influence Noo 5 9 ppo 119-38 9 that both Dryden and Virgil were 'deeply interested in the processes and problems of political order, and the nature of true authorityo Many pages of the dedication are taken up with a defence of the moral virtues of Aeneas against those critics who had detracted from them' (pol25)o In the Dedication to the Examen Poeticum (1693) 9 Dryden denigrates the Homeric hero in favour of Aeneas, despising that 0 race of men who can never enjoy quiet in themselves, till they have taken it from all the world'o In contrast appear the 0 lovers of peace, or at least of more moderate heroism' (2: l3-l4)o

169 Dryden had


the identification of Virgil 0 s otvn predicament

with Dryden°s increasingly pacifist stanceo

v!hat appears to be a step

bc::.ck from the frB_y in the retirement both from the stage and the tvriting of contemporary satire for the relative neutrality of lation is a return to it in Attic garbo


l-f11at has often been passed

over as redundant rhetoric in his dedication


To the Right Honourable

Hugh Lord Clifford 9 Baron of Chudleigh 11 which is prefixed to the "Pastorals" is indeed the construction of a ;persona that is more fully elaborated in the poems themselveso

Thomas 9 Lord Clifford 9 Hugh's

father 9 had been Dryden°s patron and had relinquished the Treasureship because of the 1673 Test Act and his continued support for the more absolutist and so endorse do




Catholic 19 policies that Charles II sporadically

He was that Pollio 9 or that Varus 9 who introduced me

to Augustus;' claimed Dryden in 1697 9 an influence that 'ripened the fruits of poetry in a cold climate;

and gave me tofherewithal to subsist

at least 9 in the long winter which succeededo 1

The new Lord Clifford

ensures not only continued sustenance for Dryden but also for his father 0 s valueso


The very first sentences of the 9'D.edicatiorl' emphasise

this fact cogently: I have found it not more difficult to translate Virgil 9 than to find such patrons as I desire for my trans= lationo For though England is not wanting in a learned nobility 9 yet such are my unhappy circumstances 9 that


Two months later 9 Dryden was to dedicate his propaganda play Amboyna (1673) to him 9 a performance designed to sustain patriotism during the Third Dutch Waro The Prologue to the play begins: As needy Gallants in the Scriv 9 ners hands 9 Court the rich Knave that gripes their Mortgag'd Lands 9 The first fat Buck of all the Season 9 s sent And Keeper takes no Fee in Complement: (l : l50)o In the Epilogue (l : 152) 9 the Dutch °Common=wealth 9 is seen to have 1 set 0 em free 9 / Onely from Honour and Civility' (ll=l2)o It is unlikely 9 therefore 9 that the dedicating of the translations of the Eclogues to Clifford's son was anything other than a political gestureo


Selected Criticism 9 po 283o

170 they have confined. me to a nar:roti choiceo To the greater part 9 I have not the honour to be knovm; and to some of them I cannot show at present 9 by any public act 9 that grateful respect which I shall e'!er bear :in my heart o [po 279] It appears Dryden had as much in common \·Jith Heliboeus as \·Jith Tityruso

In Dryclen°s


1 9 the contrasts exploited in the Virgilian

text are emphasised by several additionso

Private otium yields to

universal discordia 9 private libertas to universal servitiumo


is a vulnerable luxury 9 beset by the exigencies of economic and political survivalo

Meliboeus announces his exile by opining that he will

the wide World in Banishment ooo rome' (3)o



\ilhilst Tityrus observes

the general unrest 9 Dryden°s imagination supplies details:


while the

raging Sword and wasteful Fire / Destroy the wretched Neighbourhood around 0 (14-15) and Meliboeus 1 s renunciation of his means that



tuneful Pipe 0

No more [his] Song shall please the Rural Crue 0


showing a worldly wisdom more conducive to the assumptions of writer or reader than to consistency of charactero

The passage that is most

indicative of the transformation that Dryden undertakes is that of Meliboeus 0 s description of exile (67-72)o

Forgotten are the self-

ironies and humilities of the Virgil who provides him with a humble cottage and turf=clad roof 9 a kingdom composed of a few ears of corn and the unhappiness at the prevalence of strifeo


Dryden' alternative

could have stepped out of the pages of his experiments in Heroic drama: 0~ must the wretched Exiles ever mourn 9 Nor after length of rowl 0 ing Years return? Are we condemn°d by Fates lhLjust Decree 9 No more our Houses and our Homes to see? Or shall we mount again the Rural Throne 9 And rule the Country Kingdoms 9 once our own& Did we for these Barbarians plant and sow 9 Good Heav 0 n 9 what dire Effects from Civil Discord flow& 2 [llo 91=99]


Tuguri (68) was used to denote a temporary shelter or crude hut such as slaves occupied 9 several degrees lower than Dryden°s uhouses u ( 94) o


Poems 9 2 : 876o

JvJeliboeus 1 s othenlise pathetic acceptance of his lot is giver.. epic scope and a tragic grandeur 9 sacrificing the interest in Tityrus 0 s chc:u-acte:r cv·hich might have been possibJ 8 to portray in a more subdued key but never in these sounding lineso

~fua t

is gained 9 hat-uever 9 is

a viet'i of i-leliboeusa s vehemence and emotional invo:vement uhich is surely there in the Latin alliteration in line 68 or the frequent homodynes (impius9 haec of lines 70 and 7lo


culta) 't'Thich reinforce the metrical rhythms

Lf:hat would have hindered Dryden°s broad sweep

would have been an attempt to render faithfully the technical or prosaic details such as tuguri (68) reinforced by aliquot (69) or novalia ( 70) o

This energy is also not checked by the elegiac

conclusion to the poemo

lihereas Virgil had left the reader with

the "pleasance ru of shado't'JS falling from the mountain=top 9 Dryden inverts the last couple of lines to sound a much more optimistic note:

°For see yon sunny Hill the Shade extends; / And curling Smoke 1 from Cottages ascends 0 (117=1B)o In so doing 9 he is intent in communicating the Golden Age shepherd "aristocrats11 9 rulers of their own flocks 9 unconstrained by superior powero

Such hubris can even

transform the louring shadows to mere breaks in a bright sunseto Such a dramatic contrast between these two readings points to the adoption of two alternative pastoral mythso by the Meliboean complaint (46=58):

One could be characterized

an idealized appreciation of the

landscape motivated by the prospect of losing ito

The other is

selected from the indignant Meliboeus 1 s outburst (64=78) portraying an epic manner 9 undegenerate and negligent of the demeaning particulars of labouro


There is no hint of the hill being 0 sunny 0 in Virgilo Dryden 11 borrowedn these two lines from John CarylPs translation for the 1684 Miscellanyo


The contrast consistento

~-Ji th

Lauderdale as version is bo·ch instructive and

In the ''Preface" to the translation 9 there is praise



and Unaffected 0 pastoral styleo

Hhat 9 in effect? this encourages is a HRetirement 11 poemo evident in Tityrus 0 s opening speech 9 where line 6 of

Retirement some kind God bestow 0 d 0 (8)o

This is


Meliboee 7 deus nobis haec otia fecit 02 is rendered as




This soft

For Tityrus in the source

text 9 the struggle still continues but it can be born in familiar surroundings;

in the


has procured rest and contento calamo coo agresti

the intervention of the iuvenis Furthermore~

the careful choice of

(10) 3 is represented by the conventional



Tityrus 0 s woodland muse becomes soft and tender 9 associ= ated quite explicitly with the tradition of contemplative retiremento As he has not been a town=dweller on anything other than a market=day 9 this wording involves a decisive re=moulding of the terms of the poemo If Meliboeus is merely bemoaning his exile from some

however near the terms may seem in the

locus amoenus

fortunate senex




then the immediacy of his plight is mitigated and his lyrical evocations of his past life mere gesturingo It is indicative of this ''passionate" Eclogue that Lauderdale excises the uncertainty inherent in Tityrus 0 s closing offer of hospitality: With me this Night a homely Lodging take 9 A leafy Carpet for your Bed I'll make; New Cheese and Chestnuts are our Country Fare 9 With mellow Apples for your welcome Chearo








a god created this peace for us

173 See from those Shepherds Cots the Smoke arise? The length 0 ning Shades of younder Hill descries The Night~s approach 9 as light forsakes the Skieso [1 Here iR that vespertinal balance identified by Panofskyo become


Shepherds Cots 0 and 9 in so



Lauderdale defines the

The same could be said of °Country Fare' or

dwellings for uso 0



hornely Lodging 0 in that the adjectives provide us with spectators 0


Country dvJellers should not be a1r1are 9 through lack of

contrast 9 that their dt11ellings are


homely 0 o

In each case 9 the change

has come about by embellishment not an inability to come to terms with the original complexityo (b) Eclogue 9 The translations of Eclogue 9 confront problems also associated This is in part due to the shared subject=mattero

1rrith the first o

Lycidas meets Moeris on his way to town and is told how 9 contrary to common belief 9 the songs of Menalcas had not saved the confiscation of their propertyo

Indeed 9 Moeris is doubtful about the potency of

Art to affect life and alter historyo

This leads to both the way=

farers trying to remember Menalcas 0 s songso comes only in snatches; presence is wantingo demonstrates how and styleo


What they can recall

the inspiration of Menalcas 0 s example and Although reminiscent of Idyll 7 9 the analogy


9 differs from the Greek in its conclusion

The encounter between Lycidas and Simichidas leads to a

virtuoso display of song 9 a prelude to the description of the harvest= feast at the Id3ll 9 s conclusiono

Here the meeting leads to the

exchange of sad news and wistful memories celebrated unsuccessfully by fragments from the paste

There is only the pious hope that

Menalcas will return to sustain inspirationo


Absent is the sustained

There is much that is meant to recall Idyll 7 9 namely the presence of Lycidas 9 the encounter on a journey and numerous echoes in detail 9 for example 9 at lines 1 9 32=36 9 42 9 59=61 9 64o

174 energy of llljeliboeus' s indignation and Tityrus 0 s self=satisfactiono As in


1 9 however 9 the stern reality of the possession of land

signalled by the prosaic 9 even legal vocabulary is often juxtaposed uith the abstracted and idealistic passages 1:1here Art has allo\'Jed riia..D to soar free of more basic matterso

The result could serve not only

to render the lyricism more vulnerable and tender but also 9 if not alternatively 9 to place it in perspective by suggesting its merely relative validityo As is the case with most classical pastoral 9 the landscape seems to be identifiable and yet on closer inspection it fades into abstractiono The explicit mention of Mantua (28) seems to allow an autobiographical VIII

reading a

Certainly this was already accepted by Quintillian ( a6a46)

and assumed by Donatus and Serviusa



The mention of colles (7) and

fagos (9) is inconsistent with the Mantuan terrain 9 and 9 most signifi= cantly 9 the interpretation of Aequor (57) (from aequus) should suggest the presence of the seao


I f strictly interpreted as personal allegory 9

then the land=locked Mantuan landscape must be sacrificed 9 or rescued only by the most ingenious sophistryo 3 would not have accommodated easily eithero is a potential


A particularized Roman landscape

Greek names as Lycidas and Moeris very

The most striking aspect of the landscape is that it pastoral


What is also evident is that this

abstraction is studded with references to particular locations and also more prosaic surroundingso

This is illustrated by the opening lines:


It has been suggested that this water is from Lake Garda or the Sicilian sea of Theocritus (Virgil : The Eclogues and Georgics 9 translated by RoDo Williams (New York 9 1979) 9 po l28)o Both Williams and Coleman (po 270) take issue with Serviusvs claim that stratum ooo aequor refers to a flat plain: spatium campi (9o57? 3: ll7)o


The sense of Vsea=water 0 is perhaps strengthened by the obvious Theocritean source: ~yll 2o 38o

175 ;~as

Quo te 9



an 9 quo via ducit 9 in urbem?

Moeris 0 Lycida 9 vivi pervenimus 9 advena nostri (,.,,,n,4







d.i~;;et~·;h;c ·;~;v;~~~~;et;~.;~;;:;;;te ~~~l~~io This is by no means an Arcadian opening o




[llol=4J 1

l? it is the

secure herdsman who speaks first a.7ld locates the poem somewhere bebJeen country and towno

Moerisus answer has connotations of contempt and

disturbance 9 both emotional and physicalo

The unArcadian realism of

advena 9 possessor 9 and migrate coloni sets a pattern only temporarily transformed by the Menalcan fragments which supply a glimmering light amidst more pervasive gloomo

Indeed 9 the most pleasant evocation of

Arcadia is immediately follm11ed by a Theocritean allusion that dispels

quis canaret Nymphas? quis humum florentibus herbis spangeret aut viridi fontis induceret umbra? vel quae sublegi tacitus tibi carmina nuper 9 cum te ad delicias ferres 9 Amaryllida~ nostras? ~tyre 9 dum redeo (brevis est via) pesce capellas 9 et potum paste.s age 9 Tityre ~ et inter agendum 2 occusare capo (cornu ferit ille) cavetoo 9 [llo 19~25] The consolations of Art in soothing grief are represented by a clear allusion to the first lines of





however 9

indicates the debased inspiration of the present on the one hand and on the


by interpolating a Theocritean passage 9 the literary critic

can compliment himself in noting a most prosaic aspect of an earlier


~o: Where are you walking to 9 Moeris? To town 9 where the path leads? Moeo: 0 9 Lycidas~ that we should have lived to see the day - an evil never dreamed of ~ when an invader 9 owner of our little farm 9 could say: 11 This is mine; off with you 9 old ploughmen~"q


u Who would hymn the Nymphs? Who 1t10uld strew the ground t11i th flowers and herbs~ or curtain the springs with green shade? Or those songs I craftily caught thee singing the other day 9 when you were travel= ling to our darling Amaryllis? 11 Tityrus 9 till I return - the way is short = feed my goats; and then drive them 9 Tityrus 9 to water 9 and whilst you are doing that 9 careful not to get in the goat 9 s way ~ he butts with that horn of hiso 110


176 traditiono

Hot-Jever ~ as Putnam among others has pointed out 9 this


allusion is not chosen simply for contrast of a stylistic natureo~ The most trouble that Menalcas could expect in his serenading of Amaryllis 1.·JOuld be to return to find Tityrus exasperated at a familiar bucolic


the goat 0 s hornso

'rhis simplicity contrasts 1rJith the

interrupted rhythm of life outside the songo As 1rrith Eclogue 1 9 the translator has bJo central issues to considero

Firstly 9 there is the problem posed by the obvious lack

of awareness and discipline of the herdsmen \·Jhich is instantly dismissed 1..,rhen they come to singe characterization a

This in its turn demands some flexible

Secondly 9 Lycidas and Moeris are placed outside

Arcadia both spatially and temporallyo

In Menalcas's absence 9 that

vivid communion with their surroundings hymned by him has deserted them botho

It must be suggested 9 therefore 9 that Arcadia is only a memory

recaptured in Menalcas 1 s songso

Once again 9 Lauderdale's translation

offers a clear contrast to Dryden 1 s handlingo the desire in French


Heavily influenced by

to find a locus amoenus whenever

pastoral song is attempted 9 Lauderdale softens Virgil 0 s more chiaroscuro effectso

His Moeris is not so wounded by the confiscation as Virgil 0 so

Indeed the bitter 9 rather precipitate delivery of his first speech becomes orderly and cultivated in Lauderdale's translation: Tis much we have escap 0 d thus far alive; This Day I thought not 9 Shepherd 9 to survive: When I shou 1 d hear a Stranger say; This Ground 9 And all these fertile Fields by me are own 1 d: Be gone 9 you Rascals 9 from this pleasant Farm; 2 Discons'late we depart 9 for fear of Harmo [llo 3=8] 1


Virgil's Pastoral Art : Studies in the Eclogues (Princeton 9 NoJo 9 1970) 9 · ppo 307=8; see also 1:Jilliam Berg 9 Early Virgil (London 9 1974) 9 po 135: 1 ooo the atmosphere of dark foreboding is quickly dispelled with a quotation from Menalcas 1 poetry 9 through which Virgil shows how thoughts can be led away from the brutality of real events into a peaceful 9 idyllic worldo 1


Eclogue 9 is found at Works 9 lg 27=29o

177 In Virgil tb.e:re is no mention of the fertile fields or the pleasant

ambience of the smallholdingo

The only detail is conveyed by the

di;uinutivo form: agelli 7 which helps express a sense of personal losso This is only one of the several modifications that Lauderdale includes in his translationo

In Virgil? there is great disparity behreen

Lycidas and Ivioeris 9 conveyed as much by rhythm as their topics for . 1 conversat J.Ono Eclo~

The homogeneity of the poem 9 as is the case with

1 9 is frequently threatenedo

To some extent 9 this is due

to the amoebaea.n structure which allows alternative characteristics of


or perspective a loose enough frameworko


frequently blunts the edges of these differences until Lycidas and Moeris are both Arcadianso

This is \vhy when there is some lyric

opportunity 9 it is emphasised: Lyco

Who of the Nymphs wou 1 d then bright Songs have made 9 The fruitful Soil with fragrant Flow 1 rs have spread 9 Or shelter Fountains with a leafy Shade? Compose such Songs as late from thee I took 9 When on our Amaryllis thou didst look 9 And with her Beauty charm 1 d 9 cast down thy Hook 9

The triplets allow the moments to lingero


Carefully censored is the

suggestion that Lycidas stole the songs from Menalcas which is implicit in the Verb SUblegi (VI caught by stealth 1 ) (21) Which iS Of COlloquial

usage a The amoebaeanstructure is further splintered by the explicit quoting of Menalcas by both Lycidas and Moeriso

In order to achieve

as seamless an appearance as possible Lauderdale has both companions report Menalcas on his own behalf 9 and thereby removes mention of Tityrus 9 a detail that would have summoned up a parallel with Eclogue l


For a fuller account 9 see Charles Segal's distinction between the enthusiastic Lycidas and the more sombre and stolid Moeriso I.ITamen cantabitisJ!: Arcades ~ Exile and Arcadia in Eclogues One and Nine" 9 Arion 9 noo 2 (1965) 9 244ffo

178 Tbis modification obliges several other changeso memory~

If both JvJoeris and Lycidas are quoting Menalcas from

then the passionate and Arcadian details thus introduced are

a function only of that memory and novJ not directly present either in the lives of the singers or through their waning

creative talentso

Lycidas 0 s claim at lines 32 to 36 that he is a poet is undercut by an accompanying modesty 9 that 9 v!hen compared with Varius or Cinna 9 he but cackles as a goose among melodious st·JanSo

Lauderdale ll-JOuld fill the

present tense of his lyric with the songs inspired by Menalcas not Menalcas 0 s songs themselvesa

In so doing 9 he suggests that inspiration

has not departed ,.Jith Henalcas but that it still exists even if generated by his examplea

The analogy with the current debate between the It is not 9 however 9 Virgiliana

Ancients and Jl1oderns is unmistakablea

This choice forces Lauderdale to modify several details 9 the most prominent being his omission in Hoeris 0 s penultimate speech 9 of the intense regret felt at loss of memory: Omnia fert aetas 9 animum quoque; saepe ego longos cantando puerum memini me condere soles: nunc oblita mihi tot carmina: vox quoque Noerim iam fugit ipsa; lupi Noerim videre priores 1 sed tamen ista satis referet tibi saepe Nenalcasa [lla 51-55] Lauderdale's version is significantly silent about Menalcas and also does not try to reproduce the abruptness of Virgil 0 s disconnected syntax 9 namely the expressive pauses at the bucolic diaeresis in lines 51 9 53 9 and after the third=foot trochee in 54 which divide the passage into stark unconnected phrasesa


besides the quoque of line 53 9

there are no grammatical connections in the source texta

Lauderdale 0 s

Hoeris seems positively sociable by comparison:


Time robs us of all 9 even our memory; I would often when a boy lay the long summer days to rest with a songa Now I have forgotten them alla Even my voice now fails me 9 Moeris; wolves have seen me firsta Still Menalcas will repeat them for you when you likea 1 0

1..79 ~Tis Time brings all things forth 9 ue all decay; I when a Boy consum'd a Summers Day In singing; but my Voice 9 alas& is gone; Ivly Voice and tuneful Notes fled 1rJith my Song 9 As if P d seen a lrJoolf; but yet you can 9 If you 0 re requir 0 d 9 repeat them o 0 er againo [llo



This sober cheerfulness is even more evident if the preceding t\-JO lines are quoted t-Jhich share the


decay/Day 0



Graft Pears for Daphnis;

After=Ages may/ Be glad to crop 9 and bless the joyful day 0 (llo 69=70)o As these are the last lines of a Menalcan fragment 9 then it is fair to suppose that Lauderdale is compromising the despair expressed by Ivloeris by including a formal continuity between the optimistic praise of Caesar and the follo1rring intimations of mortalityo

This continuity is helped

by a textual interpretation not now shared by editors of the Eclogueso One of the Codices Palatinus (P 2 )

(4th-5th century) includes the

praise of Caesar in Moeris 1 s speech on mortalityo texts then


The two other

to translators 9 namely the Codex Mediceus (5th century)

1 ( M ) and another Codex Palatinus (P )

give the praise of Caesar to the

consistently more optimistic Lycidas to which the elegiac lines on the loss of one 9 s faculties given to Moeris stand in stark contrasto distribution of P



is accepted by Ogilby 9 Dryden and Trapp so it is

not a characteristic of Lauderdale 0 s translation aloneo

However 9 the

effect of this choice of text is to blend the characters of Moeris and Lycidas and thus mitigate the sharp alternation of mood found in the rest of the poemo Lauderdale 0 s interpretation appears more tendentious if it is remembered that Ogilby viewed Eclogue 9 as a political allegoryo


Ogilby 9 s version is neither as regular as this nor as acquiescent: Age all things wasts; the minde too; I a boy lrli th song have often tir u d the summers sun 9 Now all those straines are lost 9 and my voyce gone; (po 36) The sense of animum (51) also suggests that there is a weakness in the will or desire to singo

180 His


to the poem


Best Princes Peace affect 9 and more delight Their Subjects to preserve 9 than their Ov!Il right; But those l:Jho follot'J \.tJar no pol:Jer can al~Te 9 Svmrds make oppression just 9 and madness LavJo [po 34] Lauderdalevs depoliticization of the Eclogue is 9 seen in this light 9 all the more remarkableo Dryden°s version for the 1684 Miscellanr and the much the same poemo Eclog~



are very

It has only occasionally the epic bravura of

Furthermore 9 as suggested in the headnote 9 an autobio=

graphical interpretation led him to emphasise the darker elements introduced by Moeris 9 who as Virgil 9 s bailiff cuts a less exalted figure than Tityrus/Virgil of Eclogue lo

The grand gesture of Lycidas

when he hears of the threat to Menalcas 0 s life, is when seen in context, less direct than most of Meliboeus 0 s bravado: Now The Who The

Heaven defend& could barbarous rage induce Brutal son of Mars, t 9 insult the sacred Muse& then shou 0 d sing the Nymphs, or who rehearse 1 waters gliding in a smoother Verse& [llo 23=26]

Lycidas tries the heroic voice and then a smoother cadence, casting doubt as to which would be the more valid and direct a reflection of his own charactero

Indeed 9 Dryden 9 s translation is mindful of the

various nvoices 11 heard in the poemo not adapt himo

Even the


Lycidas a.l'ld Moeris quote Menalcas,

grim captain° is given a conversational

delivery: When the grim Captain in a surly tone Cries out 9 pack up ye Rascals and be goneo Kick 0 d out, we set the best face on°t we cou 0 d, [llc 6=8] The result of this is that the lyricism of Menalcas 0 s songs is obvious and differentiated from the nrealityn of the road to tov!Ilo


fragments provide Dryden the opportunity for a license he does not


The full text of Dryden's translation can be found in Poems, 2: 906-9o

often indulge elsewhereo

The lyrical invitation to Ga:atea that

Moeris remembers (39=43) is introduced in a most tentative


UTis what I have been conning in my mind: Nor are they Verses of a Vulgar kindo Come Galatea 9 come~ the Seas forsake 9 1fJhat pleasures can the Tides 1rri th their hoarse murmurs make? See on the Shore inhabits purple spring; tlhere Nightingales their Love=sick ditty sing; See Meads with purling Streams 9 with Flowurs the ground 9 The Grottoes cool 9 with shady Poplars crovm 1 d 9 And creeping Vines on Arbours weavud aroundo Come then and leave the Wavesu tumultuous roar 9 Let the wild surges vainly beat the shoreo [llo 49=59] tifhat is enhanced by this self=conscious performance is the disparity between the iron time and the golden lineso


aware of the

untidy join between the song of Caesarvs stellification and the evidence of Moerisus failing memory 9 does not attempt to conceal ito The spell once cast is easily broken 9 if not by the decay of the body 9 then by the forces of waro

The invitation to Galatea in Virgil had

no equivalent for several details:

the 'hoarse murmursu

of the literal translation of purpureum by



the poeticism


singing love-songs 9 'purlingv streams and the 'tumultuous roarv of the 1r1aveso

This has two effects:

Firstly 9 through the phonic and

descriptive additions 9 Dryden accentuates the visual delights painted by Menalcaso

In the original 9 the tone is more imploring through the

repetition of hie (40=4l)o

Secondly 9 the poem=within-the-poem is

longer and more finished than Virgil 1 so

Hence the return to prosaic

affairs is more sudden and the effort to fabricate this descriptive opulence more manifesto That Dryden is consistently highlighting the effort of composition is most evident when he translates the anti=climactic concluding couplet spoken by Moeriso

Lycidas has asked his companion to bide awhile by

Bianorus tomb and to swap songs with himo in a conversational and easy manner:

Moeris declines the offer

uDesine plura 9 puer 9 et quod nunc

::.82 instat agamus; / carmina tum melius 9 cum vanerit ipse 9 canemus 0 (66=67)o Dryden ascribes a most unpastoral sentiment to


Cease to request me 9 let us mind our v.ray9 Another Song requires another daya ~f.aen good Henalcas comes~ if he rejoyce? And find a friend at Court~ I~le find a voicea [llo 92=95] It is the influence of the


friend at Court 0 not the divinity of

Menalcas 0 s talent alone that sanctions the persistence of the shady bo1rrers 1rJhere nymphs disport themsel veso


Just as in Tityrus 0 s


the slender reed needs powerful sponsorsa Dryden°s predilection for the heroic gesture adds a defiance to Menalcas or the two herdsmen of Eclogue 9 that inevitably foregrounds the satiric contrasts between city bureaucracy and rustic powerlessness and beh1een those in place and those out o

His recent translations of

Juvenal and Persius (1693) had not been afraid to dilute some of the close=packed contemporary details of the source=texts in order to universali5e their


Rome 1 and their agea 3

Attempts~ however~ to make

Juvenal 'express the Customs and Manners of our Native Country 9 rather than of Rome 0 were ill=conceived for are not to be confounded:



the Manners of Nations and Ages 9

shou v d either make them

or leave


The real enemy is the redundant perpetuation of classical


which obscures the drawing

Analogy 9 betwixt their Customes and ours 0 (Poems 9 2: 670)o



4 If~ as


Let 0 s cut it short 9 lad and attend to businesso Our songs we will perform better 9 when the master himself is comeo 1


The Virgil suggests a different emphasis 9 where Moeris rather pain= fully has to turn to the matter in hand and perhaps renounce song altogether a


Dryden is clear on this in his "Argument of the First Satyr" of Juvenalo He admits to having 1 omitted most of the Proper Names 9 because I thought they wou'd not much edifie the Reader 1 o This has led to the omission of a 1 borrow 1 d Learning of Marginal Notes and Illustrations 0 (Poems 2: 67l)o


For further examples 9 see Michael Wilding 9 "Dryden and Satire 11 9 Writers and their Background : John Dryden 9 edited by Earl Miner (London 9 1972) 9 ppo 21 = 2Bo



Ogilby had done 9 Virgilus Hork had been given too native a feel 9 then the power of the pastoral muse to point to universal faults applicable to every metropolis would be lessenedo

As William Frost has noted 9

the Heroic and the Satiric 1,-1ere rarely divorced from one another either as powerful opposites or complementary modes in Drydenus tr~!slationso



In the 11 Discourse Concerning Satire preceding the 1693 translations 9 satire is honoured as a fully=fledged branch of epic poetryo



less localized models such as the Eclogues Dryden felt freer to widen their terms of reference 9 to supply an heroic flavour to the satire implicit in Virgil's original worko

The "English Virgilian" style

was enough to indicate current abuses without straying into a literal obviousnesso

When Dryden 1 s Moeris points out that

ooo Songs and Rhimes Prevail 9 as much in these hard iron times 9 As would a plump or trembling Fowl~ that rise Against an Eagle sousing from the Skieso [llo 15-18] he is reflecting, temporarily 9 his translator 1 s situation as wello Latin runs


ooo sed carmina tantum

Martia 9 quantum


I nostra valent, Lycida 9 tela inter

I Chaonias dicunt aquila veniente columbas 0 (ll=l3)o 3

The tela ooo Martia refer less to times of war ( 0 these hard iron times 0 ) and the Chaonias ooo columbas are any specifically those from Chaoniao



plump of trembling Fowl 0 not

Dryden 1 s hands are not as free


Dryden and The Art of Translation (New Haven~ 1955)~ ppo 6?=68o


Satire is regarded there as a 1 species 1 of heroic poetry (2: 108) 9 and the most suitable form: 1 the verse of ten syllables, which we call the English heroic 0 (2: 106)o


But Lycidas 9 such songs avail as much when amidst the weapons of war as~ they say 9 the doves of Chaonia 1r1hen an eagle comeso 1


tela inter Martia is emphatically isolated by rhythmic pauses on either sideo Chaonia is a district of Epirus in north=west Greece and was the site of an ancient oracle (at Dodona) whose patrons were Zeus and Dioneo Dodona declined with the rise of Delphi and was eventually sacked by the Aetolians in 219 BoCoo Its vulnerability to the eagle of the Roman army is thematically congruent with the sentiments of the poem as a wholeo




more famous pastoral poetry such as Ec:ogue

There the

Christianizing of the sentiments expressed had already emptied the poem of Gorr:c of its obviom:; capacity to refer to contemporary eventso However 9 as Walsh and others v.Jere to show 9 it could still be enlisted for either mock=heroic satire or heroic optimismo

The real test for

Drydenvs Virgil was its suitability as pastoral poetry 9 a decorum demanding a proximity to the education of a shepherd as \vell as a courtiero Eclogue 4 Concluding Absalom and Achitophel (1681) 9 Dryden had conceived the lasting value of Charles 1 s restoration to the throne as another instance of Virgilvs inspired prophecy: Henceforth a Series of new time began 9 The mighty Years in long Procession ran: Once more the Godlike David was Restorvd 9 1 And willing Nations kne1r1 their Lawfull.Lordo [llo 1028=31] By 1700 the Sybilline prophecy is all but considered useless for an accurate description of the ageo

In the "Secular Masque 11 from The

Pilgrim Momus sums up Drydenvs sense of the futility that had accompanied most of the radical changes of the closing century: All 9 all 9 of a piece throughout; Thy Chase had a Beast in View: · Thy Wars brought nothing about; Thy lovers were all untrueo VTis well an Old Age is out 9 2 And time to begin a Newo [llo 92-97] The God of carping mockery is given the last word in this


This disillusionment or 9 at best 9 resignation 9 stands in stark contrast to the optimistic colouring Eclogue 4 usually projects in imitation or allusiono

Earl Miner has noted the probability that


The full text is found at Poems 9 l

215- 43o


The full text is found at Poems 9 4



185 Dryden °s translation of the Pollio 1:1as a panegyric on the futu:re birth of Princess 9 later Queen 9 Anne~s first child not a covert satireo the child was stillbo:rn on ApT'il the poem altered drasticallyo stripped of none of its

30~ 1684~



the immediate context for

It first appeared in the 1684 l\1iscellany 9


characteristics 9 such as the

greater focus on the mother and the omission of the first half of 6~



redit et

Virgo~ =

a Virgilian reference to the Goddess

Astraea or Justice 9 but grossly inappropriate when applied to an expectant mothero

The original gesture behind the translation 9 however 9

was not just a gracious compliment to a possible future monarch but also an acknowledgement that the birth might provide a regular Stuart succession which would 9 after


death 9 promote a national unity

acceptable to the moderate men of both partiesa


This political motive

did not pass unnoticed by the editors of the Poems on Affairs of State ooo to this Present Year 1703 9 for amidst the Tory and Whig versions mentioned on page 132 they printed Drydenus Pollio as wello

Not only

did the Golden Age myth exploited by Virgil in Eclogue 4 recur in Dryden 1 s work but it frequently appeared to reinforce an ecumenical political position 9 stressing the need for conciliation and tolerance in the face of anarchy and self-seeking ambitiono




(1960), 2o

Messianic Eclogue 11 9 Review of English Studies, noSo 11 299=302o

Dryden°s fear of faction in 1684 is noticeableo In 1683 9 the longdelayed staging of The Duke of Guise 9 written in collaboration with Lee 9 was finally allowed by Tory sheriffs in Londono The Vindication of the play is a manifesto of Tory interests 9 designed to 9 discover the original and root of the practices and principles 0 of his political opponents 9 (Scott=Saintsbury 9 7: 15l)o In the Dedication to his translation of Maimbourg 0 s History of the League (1684) 9 Dryden warns the King that 0 pardon°s are grown dangerous to your safety 9 and consequently to the welfare of your loyal subjects 0 (S~S 9 17: 83)o The Tory victory at Charles 0 s last Parliament (1681) had led him to believe he could do without consulting the Commons whose insistence on presenting Exclusion Bills for debate had been consistent and well=plannedo Such Tory oligarchy was 9 however 9 financed by French money 9 and the Rye House Plot (1683) and the Popish Plot (1678) suggested that constitutional monarchy was not as secure as was believed at courto

186 Eclo~e

4 suggests this political readingo

Indeed 9 one of the

difficulties that surrounds the poem is its non=pastoral detailso The first three lines (quoted pol25) not only from the


arbusta ooo humilesque myricae 0 (2) but also the

(1) of Theocrituso

Sicelides Musae

announce the 1r10rk 0 s dP-:partnre

that of the public uorldo

A higher decorum is appealed to 9

Servius found it an honourable exception

in the pastoral canon from the humble style expected of rustic . t"J.Ono 1 d escrJ.p

Furthermore 9 the canonical taste of the period 9 from

Ogilby to Trapp delighted in a poem that was a pagan prophecy of the coming of Christo to assimilateo

In either case 9 the rustic references seem hard

Ogilby 1 s Argument to the poem suggests a standard

form in antiquity: Here Sibill is appli 0 de to Pollio 0 s son 9 Her Prophesies his Gnethliacon 9 But Christs birth he by happie error singso The Prince of Poets crowns the King of Kingso [po 14] The genethliacon (birthday poem) such as Statius 0 s Silvae 2o7 celebrated the birth of new hope along with the birth of a new childo

What is

peculiar to Virgil 0 s version is the political colouring of the prophecy and the specific date that the Golden Age might gradually return: teque adeo decus hoc aevi 9 te consule 9 inibit 9 2 Pollio, et incipient magni procedere menses; [llo 11-12] This would indicate the start of Pollio 0 s office in 40 BaCa 9 and also fit the circumstances surrounding his consulship 9 namely his leading role in the negotiations that sealed the peace of the Treaty of Brundisium between Antony and Octaviano This does not quite explain why Virgil should have been interested in framing his genethliacon in approximately the same locality 9 amongst


And it will be in your consulship 9 Pollio 9 yes yours 9 that this glorious age will commence 9 and the mighty months begin their marcho v 0

the humble briars and taEarisks 9 as the other Eclogueso is not hard to findo

One ansvrer

In addressing Co Asinius Pollio 9 Virgil is also

hailing his p8.tron 8nd fellm•! poeL

associated 1:rith the rustic muse: est rustica 9 Musam 0 (84)a



Tn EcJ no-ne



Poll in i::;


Pollio al'llat nostram 9 quamvis

Pollio 0 s patronage is both a political and

a bucolic detail 9 a creation of literary mood as well as historical comment a

Pollio 0 s forthcoming consulship is the only political or

historical reference in the poem 9 so it is more likely that the pastoral details are not excrescences but rather essential ingredients by which the plea for peace during the coming months is rendered persuasive and vitalo What is more 9 on closer inspection 9 the welcoming of the Golden Age becomes less unified and coherento apocalyptic ideas flow effortlessly the Etruscan doctrine of Saecula 9 ludi saeculares; 1


A rhapsodic panorama of


the main body of the poem:

ages 1 9 which was the basis of Rome 0 s

the astronomical concept of the rnagnus annus 9 the

great year 1 9 stemming from Pythagorean and Stoic thought;

the image

of the virgin Astraea whose return to the earth presages a new age of justice and a new race of golden men sent down from heaven 9 and perhaps in the successive regencies or Apollo and Saturn 9 some Orphic doctrine of world-ages 9 each with its president deityo are by no means mutually cornpatibleo

These varied sub-myths

Their serendipitous association

is an emotional 9 not a philosophical 9 oneo

Each of them has some close

links with the ideal world of pastoral as well as an elevated local heroism a

This is especially noticeable when Virgil depicts the gift

of inspiration:


'Pollio appreciates my Muse 9 homely though she be

188 Pan etiam, Arcadia mecum si iudice certet 9 Pan etiam Arcadia dicat se iudice victumo This mellifluous parallelism modulates smoothly into the more intimate lyricism of the closing tableau: EJOthero

the smiling nevJ=born child v;ith

To represent the 1:!hole poem in terms of its rhapsodic

prophecies is to simplify dangerously and to the detriment of the pastoral contento This suppression of the pastoral elements is not obvious in Ogilbyqs translationo

Indeed 9 the rhythmical regularity of the

opening lines and the contrived rhymes point to a

lower 11 9 less


elevated form: Sicilian Muses 9 sing me one note higher 9 All like not tamarisk? nor the humble brier: If Woods we sing 9 \-foods worthy Consuls be 9 Last times are come 9 Cumeaqs Prophesie 9 ooo [po 14] To render


silvae sint consule dignaeq as the positive qWoods worthy

Consuls beq is a partial reading 9 one that assumes no inherent dis= parity between bucolic and political valueso

Indeed9 the overall

effect is to frame the Sibylline prophecy in a simple form with the odd local heroic ingrediento

The portrayal of the Golden Age is

devoid of studied elegance and sub=Virgilian golden lineso

In its

place is a more homely image: The Goats themselves shall home full udders bear 9 Nor shall the herds the mighty Lyons fearo Flowers shall thy cradle sprout 9 the Serpent shall And the deceitfull herb of venome 9 fall; In each place Roses of Assyria growo ooo The fields shall mellow vmx with golden grain: The blushing Grape shall hang en thorns unset 9 And boystrous Oke 9 with dewy hony sweato [po 15] Ogilby provided 9 for nearly fifty years 9 a version of the Golden Age that was merely one note higher than the Theocritean Doric 9 not a


Even Pan 9 were he to contend with me and Arcady were judge 9 even Pan 9 with Arcady for judge 9 would admit defeato 1 0

melody played on a different instrument altogethero the opening two rhymes are manifestly contrivedo El..re



In this passage

Bear 0 and

words to accentuate and the enjambement after

clumsy and rustico

The last three




shall 0

shall 0 is

illustrate the view that

Ogilby could manipulate rhyme to good effecto Lauderdale 1 s translation betrays the influence of Ogilby but only as a memory 9 or some version to fall back onto if inspiration failso


What Lauderdale accomplishes is a hazy 9 less distinct (and faithful) translation a

Given his care in the opening line to transform his

more normally pathetic and lyrical bucolic setting into a sacred vision 9 he appropriates the poem by explaining what were felt to be more properly Christian details that Virgil 9 being a pagan 9 was unable to interpreto

This is obvious in two sections where 9 although the

alterations in each case are subtle 9 their overall effect is to limit the suggestiveness and heritage of the originalo

The first example

is the opening of the prophecy: Now a great Progeny from Heav 1 n descends 9 The sacred Babe is born 9 Mankind defends; From the old iron Age of Sin makes free 9 And gives again the golden one of libertyo

[llo 8=11]


Virgilvs lines are from a quite different tradition: iam nova progenies caelo demittitur altoo tu modo nascenti puero 9 quo ferrea primum desinet ac tote surget gens aurea mundo 9 cesta fave Lucina: ooo

[llo 7=10] 3

Such phrases as nova progenies and gens aurea are consistent with the Hesiodic tradition 9 where each new age is marked by a newly-created race of meno


Ogilby 9 as well as Lauderdale 9 renders progenies as the


Compare Ogilby 9 llo 31=40 and Lauderdale 9 llo 39=50o


The full text is found at Vv'orks 9 1





Pure Lucina 9 please smile on the birth of the child 9 under whom the iron brood shall first cease 9 and a golden race emerge throughout the world~v

190 neutral

~progeny 0


yet in the later translation 9 the idea cf a golden

generation is dropped and made to refer to Christ 9 the


sacred Babe 0 o

In his effort to claim the nova progenies as a Christian detail. the

reference is transformed from part of an invocation to Lucina to a clumsy restatement or clarification of the first line and a redundant and vague phrase to provide the rhyme in °Mankind defends 0 o Similarly 9 Lauderdale identifies the Iron Age as Man°s fallen statea


Iron° is

not granted a capitalized initial letter and the idea of Sin is intra= duced gratuitouslyo

This substitution does affect the main assumption

behind the re-appearance of the Golden Age: processo


that it will be a gradual

Indeed 9 the birth of this new order is to be a painful one 9

involving a second race of heroes at waro


To support the Christian

reading 9 Lauderdale provides a conflicting suggestion not found in Virgil to the effect that the new age will, by divine fiat



aneously replace Chaos: And now behold the unfix 0 d tott 0 ring World 9 Seas 9 Earth and Heav 0 n into Confusion hurl 0 d: [llo 61~62] These lines translate and pondere 0 (50) o


explain° the phrase


convesco nutantem

The strong vibration suggested by the use of nutare

could imply imminent collapse 9 3 but 9 given the context 9 this is extremely unlikely, for the verb can also be used to announce the advent of a god to his temple 9 whereupon the perturbation of the elements, although fearful to those living at that time 9 could not appear so in the context of a prophecy o

It must also be noted that the very next line suggests

that this disturbance is a joyous exultation: 'aspice ventura laetentur


ut omnia saedol 0 (52) o

Furthermore 9 convesco aoo pondere implies not


See lines 31 to 36 for Virgil 0 s accounto


See Aeneid 9 2o629o


Virgil uses nutare in this sense at Aeneid 9 3o90=92o



Look, how everything exults at the age that is at handX 0

:;_91 confusion or gidd.;ness but a massive globe 9 althougb. stiaying 9 main= taining its position despite thiso


The result of this Christian reading is the diminution of \·!hat pastoral references there are in the poem 9 as if the possibility of a less portentous treatment put the devotion of the \
between poet and nature in the poemo


This is evident in the

concluding passages which modulate into the final tableau of baby smiling at mothero

At times the details suggesting this identification

can be quiet and unemphasisedo

vfuen foreseeing a time when the Golden

Age will finally arrive 9 Virgil sees traders quitting the seas: cedet et ipse mari vector 9 nee nautica pinus mutabit merces; ooo [llo 38-39] 3 Nautica pinus is no decorative periphrasis but expresses economically how the pursuit of trade could despoil the land by deforestationo


passage demonstrates how carefully=chosen Virgil's words appear: non rastros patietur humus 9 non vinea falcem; 4 robustus quoque iam tauris iuga solvet arator; [llo 40=41]


fhis biased reading also leads Lauderdale to render lines 24 to 25 of his source in Biblical terms: Around thy Cradle fragrant Flow 0 rs shall spring 9 And the old Serpent lose his fatal Stingo No poisnous Juice the treach'rous Plant shall bear 9 But Myrrh and Frankincense be scattervd ev'rywhereo [llo29-32]o The original merely had serpens for 0 old Serpent' and Assyrium ooo amomum for 1 Myrrh and Frankincense 0 o


See Paul Alpers 9 "The Eclogue Tradition and the Nature of Pastoralism" 9 College English 9 34 (1972) 9 355ff o; Michael J oKo 0°Loughlin 9 11 0 1tfords Worthy of a Consul 1 : Pastoral a11d the Sense of History 11 9 in Literar Studies : Essa sin Memor of Francis Ao Drumm 9 edited by John Ho Dorenkamp Worcester 9 Masso 9 1973 9 pol46 9 and William Berg 9 Early Virgil (London 9 1974) 9 PPo 166=67o


ooo even the trader will no longer set sail 9 or the ship of pine exchange commodities; every land shall bear all fruitso 1 The ornate periphrasis: nautica pinus 9 emphasises the unnatural character of sea=travelo In Horace 9 Satires lo4o 25=32 9 he who mutat merces in foreign climes proves an example of those who 'aut ob avaritiam aut misera ambitione laborat 0 o




The earth shall not feel the harrow 9 nor the vine the pruninghook; the sturdy ploughman 9 too 9 shall be able to release his oxen from the yokeo 1

192 Mar..~s

interference uith the spontaneous beauties of Nature is not only

suggested by the harshness of rastros 9 falcem and iuga but also the use of

"IJfl_ti eh1r

whe:re the earth is personified and is thus transformed into

a vulnerable 9 long=suffering thing 9 enduring the rape of tillageo


this context 9 the ploug:b_man is distinguished from the object of his work as being robust and hardo

Come the Golden Age 9 the pastoral

Arcadia of leisure and obedience to Natu.reus bounds will come to passo Seen in this light 9 the pastoral nature of


4 is unmistakeableo

It is not even necessary to plead this reading from the one obvious bucolic reference in the concluding movement of the poem at lines 58 to 59 9 where the poet-figure claims greater inspiration than even Pan with Arcady for judgeo Given the considerable debate over the pastoral nature of Eclogue

4 already discussed 9 1 it is significant how carefully Lauderdale excises these homely details from his versiono

This procedure

commences with the rendering of the opening lines: The Pastoral Muse takes now a nobler Flight 9 All don't in humble Country Cotts delight; If Sylvan Shades we praise in Rustick Strain 9 Ought not those Shades to fit a Consulus Reign? [llo 1=4] The distinction between the Sicelides Musae of the original and the upastoral Muse' points to the real heart of the mattero

Virgil is

conscious merely of providing an alternative to the Theocritean model 9 not of departing completely from pastoral forms and attitudeso Lauderdale hardens this distinction and the poemus uncanonical nature further by choosing unobler Flightu for paulo maiorao

The Latin 9 as

Gotoff points out 9 confirms the pastoral perspective not only through its primary meaning (matters somewhat greater) but also by the fact that paulo with a comparative is a colloquial usageo


See ppo 129=30o


"On the Fourth Eclogue of Virgil 11 9 Philologus 9



The connotations

(1967) 9 67o

193 provided by poem:


nobler flight 0 supply a quite different


on the

that Virgil here chooses to fly clear of the demeaning contami=

nation of rustic affairs end treat subjectso


nobler 0 and therefore unpastoral

This reading is given a social dimension by °Country Cotts 0

for arbusta and humilesque myricae (2)o

This superior language

apparently sanctioned by the poem 0 s opening makes great play of for= saking such humble inhabitantso

Therefore the more intimate details

of the Golden Age description are droppedo description of the Golden Age might well be

The density of Virgil 0 s but it is at


least significant that what is transmitted by Lauderdale is an Eclogue with reduced pastoral contento



the earth that feels its

rape by cultivation loses such sensitivity as does the Stu~JJploughman: The Ground unharrow 0 d lies 9 unprun 1 d the And Bullocks rest unyok 1 d by able Hindso


[llo 51=52]

Lauderdale 1 s translation takes Virgil 1 s opening lines in a literal spirit and suggests the bucolic persona of an ambitious poet not the humility of Virgil 1 s lines

53 to 54o

o mihi tum longae maneat pers ultima vitae 9 1 Spiritus et 9 quantum sat erit tua dicere facta: 0 that such length were added to my Days 9 Songs worthy of thy glorious Deeds to raiseo And render me Immortal as thy Praiseo

[llo 65=67]

The spirit of the Pollio as that of Isaiah would not permit such prideo There is therefore a concerted effort on Lauderdale 1 s part to christianize the


a central roleo

and so implicitly deny its pastoral details

This has in its turn two major effectso


it ignores the obvious political references to Pollio 0 s consulship and secondly creates a stylistically unified poem where the 'Country Cotts 0 9 1

able Hinds 0 or



Race Divine 1 (59) of Heroes are placed in a similar

0 that there may still remain for me the last days of a long with inspiration enough to recount your deeds~' 0


194 pars:Pectiveo

This is the easiness and plainness that renders the

Virgilian pastoral


natural 0 in Lauderdale 0 s formulaic phraseo


had fonrrd the inr.llH=don of Paulo in the first line good for it uas allol'red to depart from


a critical judgement that proved

authoritative for those 1111ho defined the pastoral as a

lovJer11 kind 9


incapable of describing the country and its inhabitants in anything other than decorously appropriate fashiono


Lauderdale departs from

bucolic in its Theocritean sense by providing an elevated version~


poetic 10

a testament to virtuoso craftsmanshipo

Dryden°s translation is a significant contrast to Lauderdale 0 so vlliat the earlier version demonstrates is its commitment to an idealist Christian readingo

The renewal of the Golden Age and the return of

Justice is by divine not temporal sanctiono

Miner 0 s thesis is

persuasive in its historical accuracy concerning the immediate context in 1684o

The 1697 publication was introduced by a headnote that

refuses to commit the poem to either a Christian or secular reading: 0

The Poet celebrates the Birth=day of Saloninus 9 the Son of Pollio 9

born in the Consulship of his Father 9 after the taking of City in Dalmatiao



Many of the Verses are translated from one of the

Sybils 9 who prophesies of our Saviour 0 s Birth 0 (2: 887)o


Dryden had

distrusted both the unpastoral sentiments and form of Eclogue 4o 3 Here Addison does not introduce the poem as a divine prophecy but rather as a birthday=poem that alludes to and appropriates inspired material a

The possible political implications of the translation are

highlighted by a partial rendering of Servius 0 s account of the poem 9


Thilo=Hagen 9 4ol (3: 44)o


The full text of the poem can be found at 2: 887='. 89o


See PPo 144=45o

195 l

\..rho had mentioned.


sons 9 both Saloninus and Asinius Ga:.luso-


commemorative nature of Saloninus 0 s naming might \tell have commended itself to

for the victory at Salonae had ensured a temporary


stability in the eastern empire 9 a vital foundation for the pax Augustao


Dryden°s poem is not only a prophecy of a Golden Age but of a As such 9 he is not afraid to lose some of the

Golden Age of peaceo

more pastoral details but for quite different motives from Lauderdaleo Dryden's prophetic countryside is a hunting=ground for witty anthropo= morphisms 9 where the new age is introduced as more worthy a consul 0 s care than mere


evident from the

lowly Shrubs and Trees 1 (2) would provideo 0

strutting Duggs 0 (25) of the goats 9 the

grapes blushing on every thorn (34) and the rendering of

This is 1


cluster 0 d 0 pratis

aries 1 (43) 3 as the mock=heroic 'luxurious Father of the Fold 0 (52) who


Beneath his pompous Fleece shall proudly sweat:




the profusion of the transformed landscape inspires Dryden to imitate the lush mellifluousness of the Latin with embellishments of his owno This is especially noticeable when faced with roscida mella 1 (30);




durae quercus sudabunt

The knotted Oaks shall show 0 rs of Honey weep 9 /

And through the matted Grass the liquid Gold shall creep 0 (35-36)o This Pollio is given a hubris quite foreign to a more normal pastoral poem 9 and also an energy which is brought to a crescendo at the conclusion 9 foregoing the tenderness of baby and mother but gaining in dignity and grandeur by the occasional alexandrine or fourteener:


Virgil 0 s veneration for Augustus 0 s peace=keeping is best demons= trated-by Aeneid 6o 792=95o


'The ram in the meadows oao 0


ooo the sturdy oak shall ooze streams of honeyo 1

l96 See to their Base restor 0 Q9 Earth 9 Seas 9 an~ Air 9 And joyful Ages from behind 9 in cro1r1ding Ranks appear o oo Begin 9 auspicious Boy 9 to cast about Thy Infant Eyes 9 and with a smile 9 thy Mother single out; Thy Mother vJell deserves that short delight 9 The nauseous Qualms of ten long Honths and Travail to requiteo Then smile; the frmming Infants Doom is read 9 No Gcd shall crmm the Board 9 nor Goddess bless the Becla [lla 62=639 72=77] What Dryden does catch is the incantatory rhythms of lines 60 to 63 11li th its high proportion of homodynes and the repetition of puer 1 in lines 60 and 62a


incipe 9 parve

This 9 however 9 is more properly indicative

of an intimate9 almost lyric 9 mood 9 not the power and elevation of Drydena


The scope that Eclogue 4 assumes in Dryden 1 s hands is nearer to his epic mood in the Aene.id than the other Ecloguesa

Such a Golden Age

reflects the ancient heroic order of spontaneous and honourable heroism 9 nearer to the model found in Turnus or outlined in Numanus 1 s defiance to the more vvcivilised 11 Trojans in Book 9a


The one ingredient that

characterizes this return to such primitivism is the peace that will accompany ita 1

This restoration will not be immediately peaceful for

of old fraud some footsteps shall remain' (37);

however 9 the desire

for peace 1,o1hen fearful of James IPs succession in 1684 v!as just as fervent in 1697 anticipating the Peace of Ryswicko

Either by design

or good fortune 9 Eclogue 4 9 'tJith its optimistic celebration of forth= coming peace 9 its recognition that the birth of this hope is due to good political management and its distrust of the mercantile adventurism that had fuelled the war 9 exactly parallels the Whig pacifism that guided


hand during the concluding stages of the Nine Years


Williams in his edition Catullus 6lo 216 ffa(p.l09).


Lines 833 to . 38 emphasise the heroism of the husbandmen: \'Je plow 9 and till in Arms; our Oxen feel Instead of Goads 9 the Spur 9 and pointed Steel: Th 1 inverted Lance makes Furrows in the Plain; [lla 833=35Jo

believes it is an imitation of

197 Uar (l688=97L


Dryden °s distrust of Uilliam 0 s court and the nel-l

order it endorsed was 9 on the other hand 9 enough to prevent more than a token praise for William's role in the peacemakingo

In the 1697

"Alexander 0 s Feast; or the Pmver of Husique o An Ode 9 In Honour of Sto Cecilia's Day 11 9 uhat appears as an uncomplicated celebratory ode addressed to \1filliam and Mary in the guise of Alexander and Thais 9 introduces some reservations in stanzas


and 5 9 especially as concerns

I'Jilliam 1 s bellicose tendencies: Soothvd with the Sound the King grew vain; Fought all his Battails o 0 er again; And thrice He routed all his Foes: and thrice He slew the slaino The Master [Ti.motheus] sa\oJ the Madness rise; His glo1rring Cheeks 9 his ardent Eyes; And while He Heavvn and Earth defyvd 9 2 Chang'd his hand 9 and check 1 d his Prideo [llo 66=72] The Artistvs role is to soothe savage breasts and turn them to a pleasure Consequently 9 Dryden/

that might ensure the perpetuation of the Artso

Timotheus must define war as VToil and Troublev (99) and Honour but an empty Bubbleo Never ending, still beginning, Fighting still, and still destroying 9


[llo 100=2]

Given a different context, Dryden could suggest the threat of conflict from a different directiono



Mr Granville, on his Excellent

Tragedy 9 call 0 d Heroick Love'(l698), there is much comment on the decay


In retrospect 9 the Peace of Rys\vick appears dubious and troubledo One of the major enticements for W:J.lliam to make a peace was the opportunity to ensure Anne's succession through French recognition of hfilliam 1 s claim to the throne 9 an insura.-rJ.ce Dryden hoped might be produced in l684o For a fuller explanation, see Henri and Barbara van der Zee 9 William and Mar~ (London 9 1973) 9 ppo 406 9 425=26 9 430=32; The Rise of Great Britain and Russia? 1688=1725 9 edited by JoSo Bromley 9 The New Cambridge Modern History, Vola 6 (Cambridge 9 1971) 9 ppo 381=85 9 and GoCo Gibbs 9 "The Revolution in Foreign Policy11 9 in Britain After the Glorious Revolution, 1689=1714 9 edited by Geoffrey Holmes (London 9 1969) 9 ppo 64=69o Ironically 9 this same peaceful act ensured the impossibility of Jamesvs returno

198 of English theatre during the ninetieso


Hm-jever 9


s choice of

Granville is given a political t"trlist when he compares himself to ian Ancient Chief 0 (7) and the dedicatee to the young prince to yields the


Honours of the Field 0 (8)o



This seems acceptable enough

to court tastes until it is remembered that Granville was the schoolboy Prince of Uales 9 Hho 9 nm11 grown to pretensions to the crovmo


is the rose in the Jacobite

Therefore 9 the association of young prince

and aged monarch 9 seen one v1ay as t'lfilliam and James II 9 could 9 given this detail, more properly be regarded as Granville and William himself: Young Princes Obstinate to win the Prize 9 Tho 1 Yearly beaten 9 Yearly yet they rise: Old Nonarchs though successful 9 still in Doubt 9 Catch at a Peace; and wisely turn Devouto [llo 11=14] This passive 9 and tacit 9 resistance to the new order had 9 in the years spent on translating Virgil (1695=97)9 manifested itself in a desire for prudence in foreign policy that would lead to peaceo

The Peace at

Ryswick signed by William in September of 1697 obscures the antagonistic posture of Dryden°s Virgil 9 published in the same year, and revised as early as September 9 1696, when William was still the Heroic victor from his success in taking Namur a year earliero


In more specifically aesthetic terms 9 Dryden°s Pollio shows an

understated appreciation of the political content of both Virgil 0 s and Ogilby 0 s versionso

In the more orthodox Christian readings of Lauderdale

and Trapp each rural detail is part of the chorus of praiseo


imposed coherence of mood and theme conflates the several distinct accents assumed by Virgilo


The Pollio 9 alone out of the ten Eclogues 9

The country opposition had frequently voiced the ideology that the army was a foreign-dominated 11 trade 11 with an interest in prolonging the war for its own advantage 9 similarly the conduct of the war at sea which had almost enabled James to returno See JoRo Jones 9 Country and Court : England 2 1658=1714 9 The New History of England 9 volo 5 (London 9 1978) 9 ppo 280=B5o

l99 dispenses 'l·rith the


o:f amoebaa:m pastoraL

This does

not necessarily 9 however 9 ensure a more contained and tightly=organized As already noted 9 the representation of this Golden

expressive unito Age is 9 at


a motley aggregation of discrete 9 expressive gestureso

The utterance of the Fates is culled from Catullus for Peleus and Thetiso

an epithalamion

The climactic pastoral vision (38=39) is a

hybrid from Hesiod 0 s Works and Natura lol66o



(236=37) and Lucretius 0 s De Rerum

These multiple sources do not 9 of themselves 9 ensure

heterogeneous terms of referencea

It is still possible to synthesize

similar prophetic sentiments into a unified mooda

What it does expose

is the coercive Christian appropriation of a Golden Age rooted in several traditions quite apart from the Hebraico

Dryden°s occasional

amused and detached hyperboles are not sacrilege but very much a central component of a poem nearer in inspiration to the graciously executed conceits of Alexandrine panegyric than devotional prophecyo The most obvious test=case occurs in the concluding passage of the Golden Age description: hinc 9 ubi iam firmata virum te fecerit aetas 9 cedet et ipse mari vector, nee nmttica pi~us mutabit merces: omnis feret omnia tellusa non rastros patietur humus 9 non vinea falcem; robustus quoque iam tauris iuga solvet aratoro nee varies discet mentiri lana colores 9 ipse sed in pratis aries iam suave rubenti murice 9 iam croceo mutabit vellera lute; 2 sponte sua sandyx pascentis vestiet agnosa [lla 37=45]


Then 9 when the strength that comes with years has made you a man 9 even the trader will no longer set sail 9 or the ship of pine exchange commodities; every land shall bear all fruitsa The earth shall not feel the harrow 9 nor the vine the pruning=hook; the sturdy ploughman 9 too 9 shall be able to release his oxen from the yokeo Wool will no longer learn to feign varied hues 9 but of himself the ram in the meadows will change his fleece 9 now to sweetly blushing purple 9 now to a saffron yellow; on its own will scarlet clothe the grazing lambsa 1 1


200 ~he

veTy extTavagance of these instances is both

a display of playful wito

and joyful 9

Sublimity is here 9 if not deflated 9 then

domesticated and given a more anticipating devotional





To the reader

or non=:pastoral grar;.diloquence 9 such

a contrast might appear a lack of

Uilliams 9 for



calls these lines ~fantastic and somet"Jhat tasteless 9 lacking judgement~o Page is more forthright 9 declaring that


is only a step from the 2

sublime to the ridiculous and Virgil has here decidedly taken it~o

Alpers does not condone this stylistic flexibility at all 9 distrusting the sudden infusion of the exotic with vocabulary such as murice 9 or sand~ or the whimsy produced by the phrase sponte suao 3 reason is worth quoting in full:



In holding that this contrast is

problematic in Eclogue 4 9 he states that it


Because the shifts of voice and mode here are 9 uniquely in the Eclogues 9 separate from the fiction of shepherds singing within their own human community and with a defined relation to nature and the greater world of affairso The shifts of voice in the last fifteen lines of Eclogue 4 show ooo Virgilus intention to make the poem a pastorale But whereas in other poems such shifts occur in response to other voices (of nature and men) 9 everything here occurs by means of the speaker~ s m-m col!!.'!lands 9 assert ions 9 v.rishes 9 and claimso (po 188) \"Jhat Alpers and 7 by implication 9 both Page and Vlilliams feel is most worrying is the lack of a consistent ttvoice" corresponding to such a coherence in their experience of speakers in the real worldo If 9 on the other hand 9 the Pollio is indeed the VGnethliaconv

identified by Ogilby and Dryden and designed to praise not to describe


Gordon Vlilliams 9 Tradition and Originality in Roman Poetr;r (Oxford 9 1968) 9 ppo 279=B0o


ToEo Page (edo) 9 Po Vergili Mdronis [email protected] (London 9 1891) 9 po70o


The Singer of the


Eclogues" 9 Po 185o


20l consistently or express 1:Jith unvaried emotional commitment 9 then such objections are largely meto

The main unifying factor is the exernplari=

ness of Pollio himself and what he represents not the Golden Age rhetoric aloneo

It is a drastic curtailment of the possible readings

of pastoral poetry to claim that it is aluays to explore lyric possi= bilities and not the public modes 9 where rhetorical display inevitably invites a flexible judgement as 1.r1ell as a modicum of detachment o From this perspective 9 the


luxurious Father of the Fold 0 and his

Fleece 1 9 the bleating lamb 0




under !yrian Robes 0 (54=55) and the

strutting Duggs 0 (25) of goats are all details more 9 not less 9 in

line 1:Jith the sentiments of the original and 9 therefore 9 demonstrate an urbanity often denied the pastoral formo to translate Virgil (co


By the time Trapp came

9 the apparent epic scope of Eclo~ 4

needed a great deal of accommodatingo

One of the few possibilities

was to conclude that its sublimity \vas the result of a private act of witness to Christian truth 9 not the more public and political motiveso Glossing the opening lines 9 he holds the non=controversial view that the subject is


sublime 1 9 'more sublime than the Poet imagin°d 1 o

Consequently 9 the 'Thoughts and Diction' must appear so too 9 even if 1

this forces the poem 'far beyond the ordinary Strain of Pastoral 1 o Conscious 9 perhaps 9 of the strong epic current to his argument 9 he then changes course abruptly: Yet that here is nothing contrary to the Nature of Pastoral 9 tho' Much above the ordinary Strain of it, and therefore that Virgil is unjustly accus 0 d of Impropriety for being so sublime in a Poem call 0 d Bucolical 9 I have elsewhere shewn : and shall not now repeat ito (po 40)

The 'proof' is to be found in the Praelectiones Poeticae quoted aboveo


See Po 149o


202 There Trapp found it possible to 1.o1rite a Pastoral Sublime as t·;ell as a more elevated varietyo

In order to drive the point



provides a prosaic explanation of lines 2 to 4 9 bending the lines quite conveniently into pastoral


All delight not in the common lm1T Strain of Pastorale lie can tlrite even upon high Subjects in a Pastoral way~ And if we do so; let it be in such a manner 9 that oux Thoughts and Style may equal the Dignity of our Subject; Uhich is the Birth of a Consul us Sono [po40] The stylistic register as well as the range of acceptable pastoral subjects is consequently much extendedo

If it is that obvious from

the text 9 however 9 then Trapp weakens his case by also quoting the opening lines as an excuse for its nepic" gestureso Trapp 0 s translation is an attempt to excuse a pastoral sublimityo It accomplishes this by claiming that Virgil was una\1Tare of the inspired nature of his subject=matter and his borrowing from the Sibylline bookso Therefore Virgil can both be pastoral and devotional 9 the one a conscious structure 9 the other an unconscious inspirationo

As with

the Lauderdale version 9 the Christian appropriation of the poem creates problems when classifying the poemo

Ogilby and Dryden find the Pollio

primarily a political text where the elevated subject-matter was not from a country life or its people but from urban affairs and a specific historical evento

The Christian Pollio introduces an abstract frame

of reference imposed on a text that will not completely sustain ito Arguing the divinity of the poem makes it far harder to maintain it in the bucolic canon and 9 if imposed on the actual wording of Virgil 9 falsifies its clear emphasis on both delicacy of sentiment and political rhetorico


It is not hard to trace clear allusions to Theocritus in most of the Eclogues but they are most frequent in h.ro in


3 and 5o

Hhere difficulties arise it is primarily because the precise nature and status of the references to the Idylls is in doubt and so the degree to tcrhich Virgil accepted Theocritus as his model is Ui1proveno Hhat is obvious 9 be the allusions affectionate or parodic in purpose 9 is that the


conscious \oJayo

recast some of the Idyllic material in a self=

In Eclogue 3 9 the amoebaean contest between f.Ienalcas

and Damoetas begins with a paraphrase of the opening of 1iYll acrimonious exchange between Battus and Corydono




Its form~ a

conversation leading to a singing=match - recalls Comatas and Lacon in Ieyll 5o


Hm'll'ever 9 there is also much to suggest that Virgil 1r1as

re=working Theocritean pastoral in a more wholesale fashion than in just two exampleso

Both Damoetas 9 in l4yll 6 9 and Menalcas in 14Jll

8 are Daphnis 0 s singing=partners 9 and the Daphnis=myth is further commemorated by the echoes of the cup promised to Thyrsis in Idyll l found in the two cups offered as a stake by both the shepherds in Eclogue 3o Daphnis and the elegiac tradition associated with the name lie behind the two hymns of Eclogue 5o 3

These clear allusions to

Theocritus and the Hellenistic elegiac pastoral bring the original to mind only to alter its emphases and styleo described as being Theocritean


Eclogue 3 has been

in places ooo little more than a pastiche of

reminiscences~ 4

and yet these memories do not so much


See Coleman°s comments at l=2no9 l00noo


Coleman 9 25no 9 62no 9 64no 9 69no 9 89noo


The fullest account of the Daphnis cult is found at Berg 9 ppol21=3lo


Boyle9 Po 59o


excite homage as provide a convenient bench=mark by which to measure Even those lines that allude to the

the transformation of the formo

1£,vll_g are significantly self=conscious about the ''borrmvingn o ~yll

opening lines of Virgil suggest


4 and yet the Latin version

emphasises the element of boasting and abuse 9 perhaps to signal the use of Theocri tus 0 s "l01:J" voice o

This racy colloquialism ceases

abruptly with the appearance of Palaemon who is to act as judgeo Berg would have this third shepherd a seer 9 a symbol of 'the voice of literary tradition ooo the representative of the bucolic genre itself 9 presiding over the attempt of two new pastoral poets to match their songs with the song of natureo 0


Whatever the status of this

adjudicator 9 Palaemon°s first speech gives a new direction to the poem and ushers in a highly poetic and literary styleo

This trans=

formation is even more sudden than in l4yll 5g MEN:

Numquam hodie effugies; veniam 9 quocumque vocarisooo efficiam 9 posthac ne quemquam voce lacessaso


Quin age 9 si quid habes; nee quemquam fugio: ooo


Dicite 9 quandoquidem in molli consedimus herbao et nunc omnis ager 9 nunc omnis perturit arbos 9 nunc frondent silvae? nunc formosissimus annuso incipe 9 Damoeta;· tu deinde sequere 9 Menalcag alternis dicetis; amant alterna Camenaeo


Ab Iove principium 9 Musae: Iuvos omnia plena; ille colit terras 9 illi mea carmina curaeo [llo 49 9 51=539

in me mora non erit ulla 9


The disparity between the shepherds and shepherds-as=poets is glaringly


MEN: You shall never 9 never ignore me& lf.herever you call me 9 I 11dll meet you o o o I trill see to it that from now on you challenge nobody to singo DAMg Now 9 now 9 come 9 if you have any song; I 0 m not the one to delayo No umpire do I reject ooo PAL: Sing on 9 now that we are seated on the soft grasso Even now every field 9 every tree is in bud; now the woods are green 9 and the year at its fairesto Begin 9 Damoetas; then you 9 Menalcas 9 must responde You shall sing in turns; alternate song is loved by the Museso DAM: I begin 9 Muses 9 with Jove; everything is filled with Joveo He makes the earth fruitful and pays heed to my songso 0 1



obvious and contrivedo

The vivid


redolent of


are replaced by the elegance of Palaemon °s opening lvords and Damoetas 0 s opening couplet quartered by two repetitions in the Alexandrian ~



ille ooo

transition is clumsyo


Hm..rever 9 this is not to say that the


The discontinuity of Theccrituscs


contests provides a dramatic interest in the confrontation which indirectly exploits the formal opportunity to represent different areas of experience and perspectiveo

In the Idylls this can provide a

certain comic badinage and the framework of each poem is so composed of elegant artifice extending from rustic foundations that the total effect is rarely unironico

For example 9 Comatas and Lacon in 13Yll

5 can indulge in the most primitive and racy dialogue and yet still claim the aid of Daphnis or Apollo respectively in the composition of 1 their songso Far from the partsong mellowing into a concerted chorus~ the poem rejects such unityo

Morson awards victory to Comatas who

crows with triumph and then concludes the proceedings by threatening to geld a particularly potent goat of his flocko

Similarly 9 fdyll 10

has no homogeneity of design where anxieties are resolved or balancedo In Eclogue


however 9 such humour is greatly reducedo

contest is more elevated and crafted than in


Idylls and does not dissolve into renewed argumento

The singing

if not


of the

This conscious

modification of the Theocritean model is further pointed by the conclusion of the poemo

Unlike in 1£yll 5 9 Palaemon suspends judge=

ment and calms the competitive tension that is thus allowed greater scope between Comatas and Lacono

Virgil ends the poem with Palaemonvs

accents which serve to universalize the themes of the contest and suggest that it may have had a symbolic pertinence not merely a


See llo 1=19 compared with llo 80=84o

206 dramatic circumstantialityg PALA.EEON Non nostrum inter vos tantas componere litesg et vitula tu dignis et hie = et quisquis amores aut metuet dulcis aut experietur amarosa 1 claudite iam rivos 9 puerig sat prata biberunto [lla 108=11] There is little here to suggest that tantas ccmponere other than a straightfonrard description; ironico

lites is anything

in Idyll 5 it

Given the enhanced function of Palaemon as

have been



his parting

instructions about irrigation take on a metaphorical centrality 9 implying that the stream of pastoral poetry has flo111ed for long enougho This more sophisticated interpretation is reminiscent of the conclusion to Eclogue 10

(??) and Catullus

lusimus sat is ooa 0 (231=32)a




claudite ostia virginas;


That the metaphorical reading v1as

dominant in medieval theory is evident from Servius 0 s gloss: cantare desinite 9 satiati enim audiendo sumus 1 o3



Whilst Palaemon°s

advice could mark a return to the workaday world much as Comatas 0 s concern for his goats did 9 the full significance of Virgil 0 s version is quite differento

In Idyll

5 the shepherds return to the realistic

contingencies that usually beset them and leave behind the poetic interlude that has constituted the central focus of the poemo the Virgil this restatement of a realistic foreground is only

In nominal~

where the poem's conclusion is at one with the metaphorical stance of the whole poemo

Comatas and Lacon are both shepherds who can sing;

Menalcas and Damoetas are not as dramatically distinct and so allow the poem to be always about poetry not individual charactera


It is

0 PAL: It is not up to me to adjudicate so high a competition between youo You merit the heifer 9 and he also = and tnrhoever fears the sweets or tastes the bitters of lovea Close the rills now lads; the meadows have drunk enougho 0


'Close the door now 9 virgins;

that 0 s enough of idle songo 0


Thilo~Hagen 9


See DoEoiVo Wormell 9 "The Originality of the Eclogues" in Dudley 9 Po 25o

3alll (3: 44)o

207 to this eLd that Pollio 9 Bavius Eclogue 3 (84=9l)o


ara all



Pollio is mentioned less for his political

career than his literary patronage of Gallus 9 Horace 9 even Virgil himself~

1 (84) o


DAivJ:: Pollio amat nostram 9 quamvis est rust ica ~ IfJusam ~ ooo1

Bavius and I-:iaevius seem to have been proverbial for inept

poetry and tvere also criticized by the young Horace in ~ode lOo Virgil is here interested in them solely as non adit 9 amat tua


mulgeat hircos 0 (90~9l)o 3 mythical figureso and abrupt' 1


Maevi 9






Qui Bavium

atque idem iurtgat vulpes et

For all that 9 they are historical not

Coleman may feel that this


intrusion is clumsy

but as he earlier points out 9 this could be an attempt

to relate the pastoral conventions more closely to contemporary

real l.•t.J.es I o4

l.rlhereas Theocritus is frequently realistic in his

diction and discontinuous form 9 Virgil tries to accommodate realistic details to an Arcadian settingo

This is true of not only Eclogues

1 and 9 where the whole frame of the poem is determined by historical events but even in those Eclogues such as 8 where the realistic detail is limited to only a few lineso 5

Although the clash between these

two orders of reference is striking 9 it is arguable whether they are unassimilable 9 for references to Pollio 9 for example 9 merely extend themes already initiated by mention of the Cumaean Sibyl or Astraea in Eclogue 4 or by the self=consciousness of a singing=contest itself in Eclogue 3o

What is quite evident is that the ironic humour at the


'Pollio appreciates my Muse 9 as homely as she iso 1


For instance 9 see the reference to olentem Mevium (2)o


1 Let he who does not hate Bavius love your songs 9 Maevius; so let him yoke foxes and milk he-goats as well~ 1


Eclogues 9 po 129o


Especially 8o 6-13o


208 disparity between orders of experience in Theccritus gives place to a more consistent cohesion in the Eclogues t-Jhere even realistic :ref~rcnces

prove to refleGt the preoccupations of the poetic material

and do not challenge the integrity of Arcadia at alla

This concern

to create a unified plot for the pastoral poem can be observed uhen the single cup promised as a prize to Thyrsis in 1gyll 1 is compared to the ttvo cups offered as a stake in Eclogue 3a complete with scenes from the non=pastoral


The goatherd 1 s cup can only square t.vi th

the rest of the poem by the most ingenious interpretative efforto scenes on the two cups in Eclogue



though less elaborate and pictur=

esque? have a symbolic significance that links them with the opening dedications (60=62) and even the closing riddles in the contest (104-7)o


This attempt at a unity is a distinctive quality and signals a growing self=consciousness about not only the Arcadian setting but also the figures that



Eclogue 3 afforded Virgil the opportunity to depict a less pathetic landscape than in Eclogue 1 and in a less sublime turn of phrase than in Eclogue 4o lator~


translation a

There are several problems for the trans-

as what signifies rusticity may well be lost in


these "shepherds" can perform extempore

highly involved songs whilst still busying themselves with the mundane tasks of husbandryo

The rusticity of the Theocritean allusions is

implicitly negated by the retention of Greek names and inflectionso Consequently~

the roughness is conventional and so within the canon

of acceptably literate writing; as in Idylls


In Eclogue


it is never a threatening provinciality

5 or lOa 5~

the hymns to Daphnia are perpetuations of Idyll 1

The fullest account can be found at Putnam 9 ppa 124=26 9 128~ 133=34a


1iJith a liberal helping of ingredients from Idyll 7 o

This idealism

is by no means as rough-hewn as in Theocrituso 8llnsiom::; to

Th~ocr:i tus

are conspicuously


he admired but had decided to do otheri:JiSeo image of art stresses its fragilityo of venue for the


enough to suggest

By contrast 9 Eclogue 5°s

This is insistent in the choice

the protected environment of a cave as opposed

to the incertas umbras outside



Iienalcas 0 s poetic pipe is

consequently not rustic or even homely but fragile 9 a fragili cicuta


From this perspective 9 the discords of Eclogue 3 seem anarchic 9

even naturalistic 9 for Eclogue 5 demonstrates few of the amoebaean characteristics of 3o

Mopsus and !!Ienalcas meet 9 the one a skilled

piper 9 the other a trained singer 9 and both provide songs of praise 9 commemorating Daphnis 0 s death and eventual transcendenceo

The songs

are complementary and each singer praises his companion and donates to him an object with personal associationso

Virgil 1 s Daphnis


apart from Eclogue 3 not only in content but also in style 9 for the frequent patterning of lines is self-consciously willed - not an attempt to enact a competition 9 but to create something disinterestedly beautiful with which to commemorate Daphnis 0 s deatho

Free of expediency 9

the singing display can take in details from the landscape and blend them into a carefully selected image of pastoral Nature 9 an offering in art for the departed Daphniso

The dialogue between the singers

is constantly punctuated by references to the natural beauty that surrounds themo

LJ. Eclogue 3 it was only with the arrival of

Palaemon that the natural surroundings were noticed at allo Eclogue 5 9 they are spectacular; consedimus ulmos? 0 (3) or






hie corylis mixtas inter

ooo aspice 9 ut antrum/ silvestris

raris sparsit labrusca racenis 0 (6-7)o lo



This visual power is matched

MEN: ooo why don°t we seat ourselves amongst these elms 9 blended with hazelso ooo ~: See 9 how the wild vine with its stray bunches has overrun the caveo 0

2l0 by similar interludes at line 17 and line 31 9 where the golden


1r1ord=order imitates the enfolding and encompassing quality of the Wature 11 exPressed in the poemo


Ho1:1ever9 as is customary in the

Eclogues 9 this descriptive force is rarely direct and unmediatedo In line 3 9 the


to sit and sing in the cool shade is heavily

reminiscent of similar preambles in Theocrituso


Nature seems untamed

in lines 6 to 7 yet the 1:crord order suggests the interhJining of the

This impression

vines and the latent homogeneity of pastoral natureo is reinforced by the mention of a


wild vine 0 (labrusca) clustering

around the cave=mouth 9 a characteristic of Calypso 0 s cave in the Qgysse~ 9


the prototype of all classical loci amoenio

This comple=

mentarity is best exemplified in line 31 9 a detail taken from Mopsus 0 s elegy for


Daphnis et Armenias curru subiungere tigris instituit 9 Daphnis thiasos inducere Bacchi et foliis lentes intexere mollibus hastaso

[llo 29=31J 3

The line describes the Bacchic thyrsus 9 which consisted of a fennel staff crmmed by a bunch of ivy and in Hellenistic times by a pinecone with ivy and vine leaves curled around the stem (foliis ooo mollibus)o lentas


The interest in the line is drawn to the hastas 9 which literally means



supple or languid spears 0 o

As Coleman demonstrates 9 the description has the force of a metaphor 9 where the otherwise stiff military symbol oxymoronically is granted the quality of the pastoral decorationo

In such a


does the line


See l£yll lo 21 or 5o 31=33o




011 Daphnis taught men to yoke Armenian tigers beneath the car 9 to encourage Bacchic dances and to entwine tough spears with soft leaveso 110


5o 68=69o


211 encapsv.::..ate Da:ph..nis 0 s influence uho as t:1e lover of peace has thz p0111er to convert the 1:Jeapons of


to symbols of peaceo

The very

wornR are as mingled as the qualities they denoteo This complex patterning is most obvious in the many rustic analogies vrhich fill the


the r:2ost pervasive and dominant beir.g

the identification of the Sicilian cult=hero Daphnis l•Jith Julius As it is principally only through these analogies that the

Caesar a

pastoral landscape is mentioned at all 9 then it is evident ho1:r question= able the status of such description iso

Such details seem al\-Jays to

be serving some other end than to impress the reader by their calming influenceo

What seem like particularized details frequently have

associations that deflect attention from their visual appearanceo The implicit significance of I"lenalcas 0 s introduction to Nopsus 0 s elegy on Daphnis is crucial: Lenta salix quantum pallenti cedit olivae 9 puniceis humilis quantum saliunca rosetis 9 1 iudicio nostro tantum tibi cedit Amyntaso [llo 16=18] Not only do these details suggest a life led in close conjunction with the countryside but they demonstrate a difference behJeen two artists and their respective arts:

Amyntas 0 s Lenta salix and humilis ooo

saliunca compared \vith the precious olive and the rich 7 red blooms of the rose-beds associated with Mopsuso

Maintaining the focus on art 9

Menalcas 0 s testimonial for the forthcoming elegy advertises it as overreaching the normal pastoral strain suggested by humilis or lentaa

In its place will be a special decoration and rhetorico comments that



Bending osier and lowly viburnum are no match in

character or value for the glimmering 9 festive 9 practical olive or the brightly decorative roseo


Colour triumphs over shapeo 0 (ppol70=7l)o

0 As much as the slim willow yields to the pale olive 9 as far as the lowly Celtic reed yields to crimson rosebeds 9 so far 9 in my opinion 9 does Amyntas yield to youo 0

212 To some


this is a comment prepared for in the amoebaean

structure of the poem 9 for Menalcas acclaims Mopsusus contribution 9 re=introduces the more normal pastoral note of rustic analogies and thereby emphasises the unaccustomed power of the preceding


Tale tuum carmen nobis 9 divina poeta~ quale sopor fessis in gramine~ quale per aestum 1 dulcis aquae saliente sitim restinguere rivoo [llo 45=47] Mopsus is no longer the countryman with a care of sheep or goats9 indeed 9 no direct mention of such pastoral pursuits is made throughout the poemo

Instead 9 he is the divine poeta 9 inspired by and lending

supra=pastoral excitement to the Daphnis=figure he is describingo A similar frame surrounds the other contribution: of Daphniso

an apotheosis

A certain Stimichon is recorded by Mopus as praising

Menalcas before the hymn and after the religiosity that grips the poem during this performance 9 Mopsus expresses his agitated appreciation in terms that have little to do with the more conventional bucolic position:


lentus in

umbra 1 ~

nam neque me tantum venientis sibilus Austri nee percussa iuvant fluctu tam litora 9 nee quae 2 saxosas inter decurrunt flumina valliso [llo 82=84] The terms used to depict Mopsus 0 s mood that results from the performance are redolent of that awesome and lively joy that seized the woods and the rest of the countryside recorded in the apotheosis (58-59)o


stands as quite distinct from the elegiac wistfulness of Mopsus 0 s lament heard earlier 9 and so provides an alternative mood and styleo This bipartite division of labour is further emphasised by the gifts exchanged at the poem 0 s conclusion 9 a conclusion unqualified by any


Your song 9 heavenly bard 9 is to me like sleep on the grass is to the weary 9 as in summer 0 s heat the quenching of thirst in a dancing brook of sweet watero 0


°For no such charm for me has the rustle of the rising South 9 or the beach hit by surf 9 or streams tumbling down in rocky glenso 0


213 ~esture

touards a return to uork or realityo

ivJ:opsus receives for his

elegy a fragili o oo cicuta 9 a frail 9 single pipe 9 on 1;1hich Menalcas had composed Eclogues 2 and 3o

I1enalcas is presented c'!l'i th a 1redum


formosum paribus modis o oo aereu (a ugoodly crook 9 1:1ith even knots and Colemanus note on these gifts suggests that it is through the concluding mention of such an object that the reader is brought uback to the vJOrkad.ay 1tJOrld of the herdsmeno sum up the ludus and seria of Arcadyou (po 17l)o t1tJO factorso

The hJO gifts

This reading neglects

Firstly 9 when Virgil has suggested this in other Eclogues 9

the reader has been reminded of the singers as shepherds 9


in that they

are called away from their songs to attend to more pressing and less leisurely activityo

Secondly 9 to claim that the crook is a functional

object alone or even primarily so is to ignore the care taken in the poem to express its form as distinct from its useo

The full text

illustrates this forcibly: At tu sume pedum 9 quod 9 me cum saepe rogaret 9 non tulit Antigenes (et erat tum dignus amari) 9 2 formosum paribus nodis atque aere 9 Nenalcao [llo 88=90] The crook has little of the numinous significance Theocritus plainly attributes to Lycidasus staff in amongst poetso


7 (129)

That the reader is obliged to


a token of friendship m~ke

such a comparison

is intimated by the otherwise gratuitous appearance of Antigenes 9 the name of the host of the harvest celebration towards which S imichidas is journeyingo

In the Virgilian version what is stressed is the

deliberation of such a transformation:



crook ceases to be

merely literal and instead assumes a ritualistic 9 even aesthetic


For example 9 see the details at 3o 94=101 9 8o 105=9 9 9o 60=67~ lOo 75=77o


MOP: But please 9 Henalcas 9 accept this crook 9 which even Antigenes failed to win 9 as often as he begged it of me ~ and he was worth my love then = a good crook 9 with even knots and a ring of bronzeo 0 1

214 significanceo

Given this development 9 therefore 9 the award of a

fragili ooo cicuta to Mopsus and the decorated crook to Menalcas may be indicative of the songs themselveso a tenacious bucolic



elegy brings to mind

that of Daphnis 9 the Sicilian shepherd=

poet and the inventor of pastoral musico

The mythic inhabitants of

the countryside draw together to mourn his death as do the elements themselves 9 for the very ground itself is left barreno Virgil 0 s lament is little different from the Theocritean precedent in ~yll

However 9 there are significant omissionso


Mopsus sings of

a Daphnis already dead and so the verse is more plaintive and lyrical 9 culminating in the significantly literary epitaph inscribed on his tombo Gone too are all traces of the erotic background to his suffering and the Theocritean detail of his hostility to Venuso

Rosenmeyer dwells

in his account on the attention paid to the Vtranquilizing and enveloping settin~

powers of [the] silvan fontibus umbras?


(po 121) 9 and takes as his text Vinducite

(40) (vcurtain the springs with shade ooov)o

Although this is a command original to Virgil 9 it is hardly a represent= ative image for the dirge as a wholeo locus amoenus; sulcis 9


It by no means conjures up a

on the contrary 9 vgrandia saepe quibus mendavimus hordea

infelix lolium et steriies

nascQ~tur avenae;v (36~37)o 1

As a complement to these emblems of loss and futility 9 Menalcas 0 s pastoral voice is celebratory 9 not only at Daphnis 0 s deification 9 but also at the fact that Dap~~is



pastoral connotationso


ooo amat bonus otia Daphnis 0 (61) (voce kindly a diction that has as many socio-political as Both songs use bucolic references to image

public concerns and it is frequently difficult to claim that a pastoral detail is either literal or conventional;

it is simpler to say that it

is botho


VQften in the furrows where we cast the big barley-grains 9 luckless darnel springs up and sterile oat-strawso 1

2l5 There are strong suggestions that the Eclogue could be allegorical and indicate by Daphnis 0 s death the assassination of Julius Caesar in --








never direct but it does

.Oovo o

seem probable that the pattern of details surrounding Daphnis's passing matches those mu:r-dero


but traditional circumstances of


Four months after there appeared in the northern skies a

comet widely believed to portend his deificationo

This could be the

Caesaris astrum that Daphnis contemplates as a sign of rural prosperity Even if this parallel is refuted 9 there is still little doubt that the pastoral concerns of Eclogue 5 do not exclude the \rider 9 political perspectives that Servius in particular found thereo


That the pastoral might embrace public concerns is a

position foreign to the theorists of the genre t·Jho attempt to homo= genize the varied voices in the Eclogueso

Eclogue 5 demonstrates how

frequently Virgil found that political and dramatic concerns could be embodied in an occasionally precise rural settingo perspective 9 evident in most of the


This bifocal

is no aberration but

a major condition of Virgil 0 s own °fragile reed 0 o

The desire in

criticism to simplify the form and divorce pastoral from historical interests is pervasiveo

Even Coleman can conclude his comments on

Eclogue 5 with a tacit denial of much of his preceding argument: In short there are no adequate grounds for seeing the poem as a detailed allegoryo Indeed its distinctive quality is that while clearly alluding to contemporary history and revealing unequivocally the poet 0 s political sympathies 9 it preserves throughout its pastoral integrityo [po 174] 0

Detailed allegory 0 or not 9 Coleman seems tentative in proposing that

pastorals could maintain their



integrity 0 and still involve


A fuller account of the evidence for the identification can be found at Servius 9 Thilo=Hagen 9 5o 20 (3: 56=57)o


Thilo=Hagen 9 5o 10 9 11 9 20 9 34 9 48; (3: 55=56 9 58=59)o


allusions to


contampcrary histo:z-y 0 c:r 'political sympathies 0 o


the pastoral form in this vietv is purely Arcadiano Both Eclugues 3 and 5 consciously amend them in



to Theo0ritean themes but self=

with a new canon of taste 9 one prone

to turn all the discontinuities of rea:ity into material for songo This is not to say 9 ho'lfJever 9 that both poems are escapisto says that



Hhen Snell

Virgil has ceased to see anything but what is important to

tenderness and uarmth and delicacy of feeling 0 9


the diversity

of style and the frequently unresolved "public' 1 references of both poems are conveniently forgotteno

It must be remembered that the

collection concludes with Gallusvs obstinate longing to become an Arcadian and yet his passion drives his imagination to roam amongst icy wastes and wildernesses 9 those same deserts trod by the Roman military forceso

For Dryden 9 this spiritual exile had a political

force and 9 in his translations of


3 and 5 9 both the rustic

dissension of Damoetas and Menalcas and its alternative:

the mutual

support of Menalcas and Jvlopsus are both aspects of a heroic rustic imageo

Ogilby had suggested the application of this veneration for

Virgil and the consequent aggrandizement of the countryside to political matterso

His Argument to Eclogue 3 stresses the necessity of a centre

that can hold 9 an effective


These S1.-1ains present 9 h01r1 vertue and the arts Still emulation breed in men of partso But grave Palaemon doth their passions calme 9 Both praising 9 yet to neither gives the Palmeo [po 8] The need for a ugrave Palaemon 1 to bring peace to contentious partsv




men of

given the unpropitious historical context for a Royalist

Snell 9 Po 288o Compare Alpers 9 PPo 197 ffo

217 perspective 9 is s·w.scep-~ible to a po:::.itical interp:retationo especially the case in Eclogue 5o and context are markedly


This is

References to Virgil 0 s otm practice


Since I\ings as common Fathers cherish all 9 Subjects like chi1d.ren shollld lament their fall; But learned men of grief should have more sense 9 tJhen violent death seizes a ~acious Princeo [po 17] Daphnis becomes Charles I and 9 follovJing the logic of the Virgil 9 the example of his martyrdom is a consolation as well as a cause of griefo


If Dryden°s own translations show little obvious evidence of this partnership 9 then it does not necessarily follow that he was oblivious of their contemporary relevanceo

The need to provide a reliable

English Virgil and a regard for the stylistic refinements of the style \vere considerations that obliged such political comment as there is in the 1697 Virgil to be more closely integratedo Eclogue 3 is gently


The Argument to

Damoetas and Menalcas indulge in °some

smart strokes of Country Railery 1 o 1

after a full hearing of both

Decision of so weighty a



declares himself unfit for the and leaves the Victory

Addison 9 and by implication 9 Dryden 9 seem more aware


With the fall of the Rump (1653) 9 the Protectorate was formedo However 9 both the Barebones Parliament and the Instrument of Government (1653) sought to exclude Roman Catholics and declared Royalistso The First Parliament called on the authority of the Instrument (1654) was dissolved after five months due to conten= tions between Cromwell and the leader of the Republican party 9 Sir Henry Vaneo For want of a strong ruler 9 the Royalists emphasised the anarchy of the situationo Ogilby 9 himself 9 had lost a modest living as deputy-master of the revels in Ireland on the outbreak of war in 1641 9 and had only recently turned his hand to other work~ tutoring and translating in Cambridgeo See Po Hardacre 9 The Royalists during the Puritan Revolution (The Hague~ 1956) 9 PPo 86=105; J oPo Cooper~ 11 Social and Economic Policies under the Commomvealth" (ppo 139=42) and Ivan Roots~ 11 CromlrJell 0 s Ordinances ~ The Early Legislation of the Protectoraten (ppo 143-58) 9 both in The Interre urn ~ The uest for Settlement9 1646=1660 9 edited by GoEo Aylmer London 9 1972 o


Eclogue 5 had appeared in a miscellaneous series of translations by Ogilby as early as 1649 9 the year of Charles I 0 s executiono


The full text can be found at Poems 9 2 : 880= 87o

218 of the particularized context of Virgil:s :0clop,ue 5o l'1opsus 9 uti-10 very expert Shepherds at a Song 1 a





• t s or b ot•n



Dryden 9 indeed 9 is a1:1are of especially in

perform alternately in

performance for Daphnis 9 uwho is supposud by the best

Criticks to represent Julius as th e





It is 9 ho1!Jever 9 a mixed mode 9

• an d an an ~l ~ eg~e


A ~po

t'neos~s • 0 ol

Firstly 9 he is more alive 9

3 9 to the suggestion of the Latin 9 that a

11 lat·JH

subject=matter is granted the dramatic and expansive gesturing of more '~ublic


and formal genreso

The emphasis is firmly on the Art that

can rise above both the chosen model (Theocritean Doric) and the unpropitious rustic figures of pastoral songo

This further involves

a recognition of the mixed mode of Virgil 0 s pastorals 9 especially in these more amoebaean exampleso The distinctiveness of these conclusions is particularly evident considering the most recent translations Dryden could have consultedo The 1684 Miscellanist for Eclogue 3 was Thomas Creech and for Eclogue 5 9 Richard Duke 9 and Lauderdale 0 s pastorals were also doubtless availableo


None of these versions cultivates the interest in variety of characteri= zation of Dryden 1 s 9 detailso


consequently their less lyrical cadences and

Conscious of the rustica Musa mentioned by Damoetas (84)


Creech 9 for example 9 interprets this as a value-judgement and not merely as a taxonomic labelo

In the Argument to his translation 9

he carefully ignores Palaernonus praise for the rustic Muse (108): f·1enalcas and Dametas upbraid each other with their faults "" o Palernon corning that way by chance 9 is chosen Judge; he hears them pipe 9 but cannot determine the Controversie ooo [po 341] This is not accidental as Palaemon 1 s closing words 9 whilst praising the songs 9 are diluted by two interpretative changeso

Firstly 9 Creech


The full text can be found at Poerns 9 2 : 889- 94o


See CoEo VJard 9 The Life of John Dryden (Chapel Hill 9 NoCo 9 1961) 9 po 273o

219 emphasises the youthf:1:ness of the singers and possibly their lack of maturity and secondly 9 introduces 9 with no hint from Virgil 9 a reference to the v.rork that Palaemon has uai ting for him t•Jhich 1:1orks against a symbolic reading both of his role in the poem and of the last PALg


I cannot judge 1:1hicl~. Youth does most excel 9 For you deserve the Steer 9 and. he as uello Rest equal happy both; and all that prove A bitter 9 or else fear a pleasing love~ But my t·.rork calls 9 let 0 s break the Meeting off 9 Boys shut your streams 9 the Fields have drunk enougho [po349]

The pueri of the last line of Eclogue 3 need not indicate iuvenes but could be a colloquial rendering such as


lads 0 o

The mention of


Youth 0

has no equivalent in Virgil eithero This perspective is a consequence of Creech 9 s frequently resorting to his version of "simple" pastoral translation 9 one degree away from doggereL

In order to prepare the way for this decorous accommodation


of style to status of speaker 9 he anglicizes several detailso means that Menalcas plucks for his ignisg instead of ten golden apples Damoetas



o 9 er the Green° (po346);

of a heifer found at line 779 King's command 0 (po 347);

Amyntas,ten pears (po346)

mala decem 19 71);

Galatea leads

there is no mention of the sacrifice

Pollio is taken to be writing


at the

and 9 lastly 9 instead of the shepherds 0 palms

pressing the teats at milking-time (99) Creech provides a Milk-maid This modification does have one clear advantage:

it allows

Creech to indulge in a native colloquialism equivalent to Virgilqs Latino If such


voices were immediately annexed to Arcadia 9 then the

confusion over the idealized status of the term might be counterproductiveo Thus Menalcas and Damoetas can take on a rustic 9 even MEN:

clo~mish 9

Did not I see 9 not I 9 you pilfering Sot 9 When you lay close 9 and snapt rich Damon°s Goat? His Spoch=Dog barkt 9 I cry 0 d 9 the Robber 9 see 9 Guard well your Flock 9 you skulkt behind a Treeo



220 You pipe 1i-Jith him~ thou never hadst a Pipe 9 joyn °d with \llax 9 and fitted to the lip 9 But under Hedges to the long=ear 0 d Rout 9 Wert 1rJont 9 dull Fool 9 to toot a schreeching Note~ [ppo342=43]


However 9 Virgil 0 s demotic dialect did not include a reference to the coarse audience 9 °the long=ear 0 d Rout 0 9 who are attracted by Menalcas 0 s pipingo

Creech 0 s version is so committed to a contemporary English

setting that opportunities to develop a more detached appreciation of Virgil 0 s artifice are limitedo

This is especially noticeable at the

point where Menalcas and Damoetas describe their cupso his as a rare and precious stake;

Menalcas offers

Damoetas answers him with a skilful

deflation 9 claiming to possess such cups at home (35=47)o

The contrast

is effective only if Menalcas 0 s description is reminiscent of the Goat= herd 0 s in


1 9 lines 27 to 56 and imitates its loving reverenceo


ooo pocula ponam fagina 9 caelatum divini opus Alcimedontis; lenta quibus torno facili superaddita vitis 2 diffusos hedera vestit pallente corymboso [llo 36-39] With the introduction of this ecphrasis 9 much as was attempted in Idyll 1 9 the poetic quality of the lines and thus the sheer artifice of the Indeed 9 line 39 is a variant form of the

object is emphasisedo line

and places the



pliant vine' and



spreading clusters 0 in a balanced

A possibly exotic and time=honoured Greek influence

is suggested by the polysyllabic cadence of Alcimedontos and also the use of the Greek loan=word torno from tornos ( 0 with a chisel 0 )e

It is

noteworthy 9 granting this 9 that Creech should not attempt to transmit such obviously


cadences at this point:

But yet I 0 ll lay what you must grant as good 9 (Since you will lose) two Cups of Beechen wood 9 Alcimedon made them 9 'tis a work Divine 9


See PPo 64=65o


I will wager two beechen cups 9 the carving is the work of the inspired Alcimedono On these a creeping vine 9 laid on by the engraver's skill 9 is entwined with spreading clusters of pale ivyo 1 0

221 And round the brim ripe Grapes a.11d Ivy tuine; So curiously he hits the various Shapes~ And t-.rith pale Ivy cloaths the blushing Grapes; It doth my Eyes 9 ar.d all my Friends delight 9 Pm sure your Nouth must lrJa.ter at the sightg [po 344] This passage suggests none of the symbolic grandeur of the original; indeed 9 by d1rrelling so much on its physical appearance and adding hm lines of


Creech secularizes the objectso

Virgil dispels

some of the magic uhen the reader is reminded of the unlearned shepherd t11'ho is speaking the lines and l·Jho forgets the name of one of the inlaid figures at lines 40-4lo

In the 1684 version there is no spell in the

Furthermore 9 t..rhen Damoetas replies 9 Virgil has him

first placeo

imitate and complement Menalcas's boast by repeating the name of the craftsman and his artefactg pocula fecit 09 (44) 01 rusticity:




Et nobis idem Alcimedon duo

Creech takes this as a cue for


Alcimedon too made me two Beechen Pots 9 ° (po 344)o


is any hint at their ritualistic functiono To pass from the idiomatic simplicities of Creech 0 s version to the careful neutrality of Lauderdale 0 s third Pastoral is to discover an alternative style and consequently a different conception of the genreo Creech is successful in suggesting the rough=hewn power of rustic speech but not so much in representing the dramatic change of style begun by Palaemon and the contesto

Lauderdale is as consistent as Creech as

regards his level of style 9 for he chooses throughout a plain unadorned mediumo

Unfortunately 9 the ruggedness of the opening exchanges is

forsaken as is its opposite:

the highly reverential artificeo

In its

place Lauderdale finds a passion that is near neighbour to Eclogue 2 or 1£Yll 11 rather than the Virgilo

Henalcas boasts of his influence tvi th Damoetas 0 s master vs Neaera 9



The process starts early in the poemo


I also have a couple of cups 9 made for me by this same Alcimedonooo 0


he is made to d-vJell on the jealousy this will causeg o

semper~ avis~

pecusg ipse Neaeram

ferat illao veretur 9 ° (3=4)o




I dum fovet ac 9 ne me sibi prae=


Unhappy Flock~ that never can be blest 9 l!Jhilst he Neaera harbours in his Breast~ Burns Hith a restless Fire of Jealousie~ And fears more favours are bestow 0 d on meo

[llo 3=6J


This heightened passion is not suggested by the humorous [1flyting 01 of Virgil 0 s shepherds = a craftsman=like objectivity l·rhich exists intensi= fied in the song=contesto

Palaemon 1 s introduction 9 in Lauderdale 0 s

account 9 leads the reader to expect a duet rather than a contest: Damaetas then 9 I 1 d have you first begin 9 And you Henalcas. foll01.v ev 1 ry Strain; Alternate each your moving-Lines reherse 9 The gentle Jvluses love alternate Verseo The


gentle Jvluses' manifest themselves in a series of soothing gestures

tm·Jards the rustic that Virgil originally appreciated in Theocrituso Thus 9 in terms reminiscent of the Restoration love=lyric 9 Galatea becomes Damoetas 1 s apples 9 but


wanton Jade 1 (87)


Menalcas sends not ten golden Damoetas lingers lovingly in

Ten Golden Pippins' (95)o


recounting the progress of his love for Galatea: clasp 0 d in each other 1 s Arms 9

How oft have we

I Made the Grove resound fair Galatea 0 s

Charms' (97-98) and yet this is over this soft eroticismo3



for Virgil draws a veil

However 9 the most obvious manipulation of

the Eclogues occurs in Palaemon 1 s summing=up and judgement where Lauderdale enervates and localizes his comments: I don 1 t pretend this difference to decide You both deserve the Calf you can't divide 9 Though each alike to other fairly prove 9


0 Poor sheep vfuile your master cuddles Neaera and 9 always unlucky~ worries that she prefers me to himo 0


The full text is found at Vlorks 9 1


0 0 quotiens et quae nobis Galatea locuta esto 0 (72) ( 0 vlhat words 9 and how often 9 has Galatea spoken to me~)o




You both have felt the Pangs c..nd Sueets of Love~ 0 Tis high time no1.'' 9 ye Stains 9 your Strife to cease 9 The fated Meads desire to be at peaceo [llo 150= 55] There are some crucial omissions here 9 the most striking being no reference to


componere lites 0 and the universalizing comment

opening out the references of the contest to everyone 0 s experience of loveo

Uhat the reader is left with is a "difference 0 not a contest 9

an interruption in a desired peaceo As a development in the critical reception of the Eclogues 9 Lauderdale 0 s interpretation of the poem is particularly significant for two principal reasonso

Firstly 9 in common 1r1i th most attempts to

render the poems anew 9 the stylistic levels are conflatedo


Lauderdale 0 s case 9 this pushes the amoebaean quality of the pastoral tm-Jards the lyric and away from dramao

A consistent perspective is

established which 9 in its turn 9 provides a filter and a coercive norm by which the singers and their songs are to be judged and appreciatedo It could be argued that translation=work 9 to a lesser or greater degree 9 necessarily involves principles of selectiono

What is remarkable

about not only Lauderdale's work but most of the lyrical pastoralists is how prone they are to fabricate evidence in their own defenceo Secondly 9 post-Virgilian Arcadias lose the repeated allusions to Theocritus 9 and even though Virgil is self=consciously remoulding Greek material 9 this supplies a perspective on the Eclogues which claims them as unequivocal 9 highly-wrought artefacts and as victories over rustic materialo

To some extent 9 the inw.ediacy of the intractable material

of contemporary references 9 historical or otherwise 9 is destined to be lost en route to Lauderdale 0 s Britaino is already transfigured by timei

The mention of Gallus 9 therefore 9

his position in the Arcadia of Eclogue

10 is more acceptable and less anomalous than it would be to Virgilis contemporarieso

For Gallus 9 read Haevius or Pollioo

Even if these


qualifications are granted 9

the salf=consciousness


The hrists and turns

Lauderdale 1 s Virgil is a mode of appropriationo



most fQccinating about the


are smoothed out and an


urbane 1.rJorldly t·Jisdom is visited on both singers until their distinct= iveness is drastically reducedo Eclo~e

3 is streamlined not so much by the censoring of recalci=

trant details but in adding some further phrases t-Jhich alter and assimilate them 9 providing a context in \·rhich their rusticity is attenuated and their realistic touches deniedo

This is particularly

difficult at the transition to the Palaemon passageso

In the Virgil

his appearance is a chance occurrence 9 suggesting spontaneity and a contact uith another


uncreated" order of existence which impinges on

the more fictional and expressive world of the emotionso


Palaemon is very much a part of the lyrical moment 9 not only there on cue but not even having to make his


Don't fly me now 9 I'll meet you where you will 9 And-let the next Man judge of either's Skillo Here stands Palaemon ready to decide 9 1 1 11 make a Tryal lest thou shou 1 dst derideo [llo 70=73] It is not surprising that those ingredients that su.ggest artifice are

selected by Lauderdale to provide the flavour of the wholeo


racy derision of Damoetas 1 s piping included a reference to his Vmurdering a sorry tune on a scrannel stra111 1 o

Here 9 the sound of

the Latin is particularly imitative of this lack of art: in triviis 9 indocte 9 solebas


ooo non tu

I stridenti miserum stipula disperdere

In the Lauderdale 9 even this screeching is muted: 1

Some Ballad Tunes perhaps thou might 1 st compose 9

Verse far worse than Prose' (40=4l)o

I Or else some dismal

Eclogue 3 in these hands becomes

orderly and 9 for its pains 9 so unified in diction and metre that the power of the Virgilian contrasts passes constantly nominalo


and the shepherds are

225 This form of interpretation is mo:re predictable vrhere EclOQ-1e 5 is concernedo

There Virgil's artistry is less Theocritean and more

ai.i1el1atle to an

line uith the tender elegiacs of his Death of Her Grace Hary Dutchess of


Soue1.~. 9

a Pastoral_9 1680





distant relation of Eclogue 5 and Idyll 1 but minus the consolation of an apotheosiso


The same degree of grief that mixed Damon and

Thyrsis 1 s tears mingles the more pmv-erful sentiments of Mopsus and Ivlenalcaso

Even their singing-contest is staged in a private locality 9

chosen not for its mystic significance but because of its capacity to inspire a mood of gentle regreto

l1enalcas 0 s first suggestion 9 that

they seat themselves amongst mixed elms and hazel-trees (3) becomes a


Secret Shade 0 with Dukeo

(po 355) o

Mopsus 9 indeed 9 calls it a


lonely Copse 0

When they finally decide on the cave=mouth 9 garlanded with

vines 9 Duke finds it


silent 1 o

Each of these details are 9 at most 9

extensions of hints found in the text 9 but when both shepherds turn to praise each other's songs 9 then Duke constructs a reading that tends to harmonize and soften the disjunctive contrasts found in the originaL The introduction to Mopsus 0 s elegy conflates two distinct personae: that of the self-conscious performer who experiments with the grand style and that of the lyrical elegist who is portrayed as feeling sincerely the emotions out of which he writeso

One of the charac=

teristics of classical pastoral is the dramatic emphasis placed on the singer 0 s artfulness rather than his sincerityo

The dramatic

occasion for the contest between Menalcas and Ivlopsus is for them to display their talent at framing songs not primarily to emphasise


Published separatelyo Reprinted in Poems on Several Occasions (1717) 9 British Museum General Catalogue Noo 11626oeeol4o 9 ppo 74~76o

226 Daphnis 0 s divinityo

'rhis formalist enterprise is ostensib:;_y for

Eopsus to shot·J hc1.11 superior his skills are to those of Amyntas (8) o This divorce behieen the emotions of the singer and the song is not

hidden a'JJay but very clearly



Incipe 9 J:l1opse 9 prior 9 si quos aut Phyllidis ignis aut Alconis habes laudes aut iurgia Codrio . incipe; pascentis servabit Tityrus haedoso


TIRmo haec 9 in viridi nuper quae cortice fagi carmina descripsi et modulans alterna notavi 9 1 experiorg tu deinde iubeto ut certe.t Amyntaso [llo 10~15]

Duke 0 s preamble to the elegy fits the passionate complexion of the inserted song: MEN~

Begin 9 begin 9 whether the mournful flame Of dying Phillis 9 whether Alcon°s fame 9 Or Codru 0 s Brat11ls thy willing Muse provoke; Begin 9 young Tityrus will tend the Flocko


Yes 9 1°11 begin 9 and the sad Song repeat 9 That on the Beech 0 s Bark I lately writ 9 And set to st11eetest Notes; yes 9 Pll begin 9 And after that bid you Amyntas singo [po 356]

Menalcas 0 s enquiry in the source=text requires Mopsus to declare in which genre he will frame his song 9 either a love lyric to Phyllis 9 a panegyric on Alcon or satiric invective against Codruso

There is

little point in discovering contemporary equivaler..ts for these references or even to see them all as companions on the same fictional plane as the singerso

Even the allegorizing Servius took all three

characters as mythological and conventionalo


Mopsus is being asked

about what he will sing from an already formed repertoireo


is the reader left in any doubt about his pastoral duties thanks to


MEN: You go first 9 Mopsus: sing of your heart 0 s desire 9 Phyllis or praise Alcon or abuse Codruso Go on: let Tityrus watch the grazing kidso MOP: No 9 I 0 ll try out some verses which I recently carved on the green bark of a beecho Listen 9 then let Amyntas challenge me~ 0



Thilo=Hagen 9 5o 10 9 11 (3 : 551 Phyllis also appears at 3o76ff o 9 7o59 9 Codrus at 7o26o

227 I-lenalcas~s

reassurance that the flock uill be cared fer by Tityruso

Hopsus announces ho11 ne1,J these verses vrill be but also hm·J artful they ares 0modulans alterna notavi 0 (l4)o

By glimpsing

the efforts of

composition the reader is in little doubt that the spectacle will not be of Daphnis dying but of the necessary contrivances required by such an opportunityo Duke 0 s poem does not recognize such classical restrainto

Phyllis 0 s

name is unilaterally converted to a pathetic image and Mopsus agrees that his song will be not only sad but sweet which is approximately what is there in his original but in the blurring of the rendition a crucial but consistent alteration has taken placeo

Absent is the

practitioner 0 s details emphasising his pleasure in the poem 0 s con= struction 9 and in its place is an appeal for a passionate readingo Formation gives place to pathoso However 9 in the song itself 9 Duke wraps the grief of Nature in a swaddling of decorous formo

The potential of the heroic couplet

to lend a rhetorical resolution and achieved order to powerful feeling is not unrecognized: When the sad fate of Daphnis reach 0 d their Ears 9 The pitying Nymphs dissolv 0 d in pious Tearso Witness, you Hazels 9 for you heard their Cries; Witness, you Floods 9 S1:JOln \11ith their weeping Eyeso The mournful Mother (on his body cast) The sad remains of her cold Son embrac 0 d, And of th 0 unequal Tyranny they us'd, The cruel Gods and cruel Stars accus 0 do [po 357] This sepulchral lamenting, full of fluid images 9 is yet checked by the verbal and rhythmical patterningo sympathizeo


become sentient and

The Gods and stars are cruel but not indifferento


Virgilian Mopsus commences his lament with a melancholy that is altogether grimmer and less resolved: ''Exstinctum Nymphae crudeli funere Daphnim flebant (vas coryli testes et flumina Nymphis)


228 cum ccmplexa sui corpus miserabile nati 1 atqu.e deos atque astra vocat crud.elia matero 11 [llo 20=23] The shock of the first vord is intensified once the Theocritean model is remembered 1:1hich 1rJas a poetic record of Daphnis 1 s last momentso


also cuts through the tone of idiomatic familiarity 1.orith uhich Nenalcas announces their arrival in the cave and his abrupt but announcement of the songg

Qsed tu desine plura 9


frieno~y 0

(19)o 2

Although the spondaics of the opening are heavy 9 even funereal 9 the heavy pause after the first spondee in line 21 9 and strong alliteration in line 22 disturb the

line so


and lend a dramatic fervour to the

No such attempt is noticeable in Duke 0 s versiono

It is no

surprise to find Henalcas appreciating the Qsweet numbers of thy [Mopsus 1 s] mournful Verse; oooQ (po 359)o

In Virgil 9 the cruelty

of the Gods and the finality of death exclude sweetnesso Menalcas 1 s h3wn 9 on the other hand 9 displays a power that stands in marked contrasto

Duke adopts the sublime style of elevated plain=

ness to represent DaphnisQs position above this vale of tears: Daphnis now wondring at the glorious show 9 Through Heavens bright Pavement does triumphant go 9 And sees the moving Clouds 9 and the fixt Stars belo1:1g ooo ooo Hark~ the glad Mountains raise to Heaven their Voice~ Hark~ the hard Rocks in mystick tunes rejoyce~ Hark~ through the Thickets wondrous Songs resoundo [po 360] Duke paints an almost Baroque triumph for Daphnis 9 full of ecstatic energyo

Virgil 0 s kindly Daphnis had loved peace (61) whereas Duke's

figure is imperial: obey' (po 360) o


Daphnis a general Peace commands 9 and Nature does

Notwithstanding this grandiosity,


has Hopsus

perhaps rather tentatively praise the hymn in more timorous accents than Virgil:


Snuffed out by cruel death 9 Daphnis was mourned by the nymphs = you streams and hazels l~ew their grief = while 9 clasping her son 1 s pitiable corpse 9 his mother reproached both the gods and the cruel starso v 0

229 Not tl1e soft I'Jhispers of the So:.::thern Hind So much delight my Ear~ or charm my Hind9 Not sounding shores beat by the murmuring tide? Nor Rivers that through stony Valleys glideo [po 362] 'I'here is little that is soft or t'!Thispering about Nopsus in the original ~.5,!£

uho likens the hymn to a beach ::!..ashed by the su.rf and streams

tumbling do1rm rockso

V!ith this modification 9 Duke Tisks being contTa=

dictory 9 for there is a sharp difference in hot-J the two songs are received in the Eclogue;

here Mopsus remembers Menalcas 0 s praise

rather than the song he has just heardo Lauderdale 0 s fifth Pastoral is similarly preoccupied with the soft and gentle passions and at some pains to mitigate the signs of con= structiono the


This is obvious from the first speecho

Menalcas praises

harmonious Verse 0 and 'moving poetry 0 that he is about to hear

from Mopsus 9 \vho also hopes his lines will be


pleasing 0 (po l4)o


The most obvious change is observed in his rendering of Menalcas 0 s apotheosis of Daphniso

Lauderdale 0 s Daphnis becomes less a sign of

wonder and grandeur and more the inaugurator of joy and harmony: Daphnis with wonder viewing Jove 0 s high seat Saw Clouds and starry Orbs beneath his Feeto Pan fills the SwaL~s and Dryads with the Sight 9 The Woods with Joy 9 the Country with Delight ooo Kind Daphnis loves a rural cool Retreat; The rugged Hills cast out loud Sounds of Joy 9 That with their rocky Tops just kiss the Sky; The humble Shrubs echo to them again 9 And cry Menalcas 9 he 0 s the God of Meno [po 16] The otium that Daphnis appreciates in Virgil is here localized and becomes a way to describe a locus amoenus 9 a


rural cool Retreat 0 o

Once again the frenzy of the _a~l~a~c~r~i~s~o~o~o-v~o~l~u~p~t~a~s (58) is diluted Mopsus endorses this quieter mood: What shall I give thee for thy grateful Song 9 Soft as the murm 0 ring South wind 9 as his Blowing strong 9 Pleasant as \n/aves that play upon the Shore 9 Or a swift Rill 9 the Pebbles gliding o 0 ero [po 17]


The full text is found at Works 9 1





Obviously 9 the system of contrasts that Virgi:::.. exploits in the is forsaken in the interests of a more homogeneous



where the

pathetic falle:a.t:y .r·r:::I:Jl'esents c::. feeling :md sensitive nature not so much an artful display of poetic talento

It is clear from o~m

Dryden°s 1 ~refac~ 1 to

the Pastorals that


brand of rusticity 9 although inevitably more polished than the


dialect' of Theocritus due to the felicities of the Latin

language 9 was still considered to be an attempt at imitating a positive alternative for the literate and cultivatedo

Creech's rustics are a

spectacle of pleasurable simplicity retaining few of their provincial characteristics untarnished by a gentle ironyo

There is no note of

this apology in the 11Preface't as Dryden us conception of Virgil 1 s own career includes a


non=Roman heritage:

They seem to me [the Pollio and the Silenus] to represent our poet betwixt a farmer~ and a courtier 9 v1hen he left Mantua for Rome 9 and dressed himself in his best habit to appear before his patron 9 somewhat too fine for the place from whence he came 9 and yet retaining part of its simplicityo If this is true of Eclogues 4 and 6 9 then the more bucolic poems must necessarily exhibit their "lown origins even more 9 not as in Duke or Lauderdale 9 as regrettable vestiges of the Theocritean Doric 9 but as a major ingredient in their compositiono

Indeed 9 the real danger is

to sin against decorum and describe country people as their profession° as in Eclogue 8o Virgil learnt from



too learned for

As an example of the


just decorum'

'both of the subject 9 and the


Dryden cites lines 40 to 41 of Eclogue 3 9 wherein Menalcas is made to forget the name of one of the embossed figures on his bowl:



remembers only the name of Conon 9 and forgets the other on set purpose (whether he means Anaximander or Eudoxus I dispute not)


but he '~"'as

certainly forgotten to show his country Svlain was no great scholar' (po 28l)o

This ignorance does not invite as much indulgence from a


learned reader as it did in other

tL~anslations 9

for there is an imp::..icit

recognition here that a degree of local verisimilitude is desirable in ar-dez:- to exploH it:=:


the satisfactions of the


Indeed 9 it is necessary to stress the Nantuan connection as it is one of the virtues of Virgil s bucolic •.vriting that it utransplanted Q

pastoral into his ovm. country;

and brought it there to bear as happily

as the cherry trees vrhich Lucullus brought from Pontusu (po 282)o


shepherds 9 therefore 9 of Eclogues 3 and 5 are Hantuan and 9 as such 9 are projections of the residual 1gsimplicity1·1 that underlies the selfadvertisement necessary to 1rrin a patrono This is the context in which the 11ArgumeniP to Eclogue 3 is to be understood and 9 without which 9 it could either be considered an Addisonian


alone or a complicit piece of mock=heroic irony

at the shepherds 1 expense from Dryden as \·Tello

Creech v s



belonged to a careful regularity of cadence 9 expressing an awkvJardness in the very form itselfo skilled poetso

Drydenus shepherds 9 on the contrary 9 are

An early example of the


smart strokes of Country

Railery 1 occurs when Damoetas is striving to embarrass his companion on the subject of his blasphemous sexual DAM:


Good 1r10rds 9 young Catamite 9 at least to Men: We know who did your Business 9 how 9 and wheno And in what Chappel too you plaid your prize; And what the Goats observ 1 d with leering Eyes: The Nymphs were kind 9 and laught 9 and there your safety lieso [llo 10-14]

The Latin supplies several hints that Dryden takes up and vivifies: Parcius ista viris tamen obicienda mementoo novimus et qui te 9 transversa tuentibus hircis 9 1 et quo (sed faciles Nymphae risere) sacelloo [llo 7-9] As Coleman points out 9 the implied emphasis of the insult in the opening


U1;Jatch what you say, \·Jhen you 1 re accusing men~ (as the he=goats looked askance) in the shrine nymphs all laughedo 1


I know what you did but the merry

232 line is not to contrast viris \·Jith boys but uith passive homosexualso


Dryden manages to retain this association by inserting the reference to Catu.."rritc 3...'1d keeps the


Alexano..rine in lines 12 to 14o either rloolcing askance 0 or

rP.ti r.ence by the couplet plus rhyming

Although transversa tuentibus means

cpeeping'~ Dryden~s

uleeringu intensifies

the feeling of unhealthy libidinousness that is certainly there in the original 9 though not literally so 9 the joke being that the act was too strong for even the goats but not it would seem for the easy=going nymphs of the shrineo

Dryden here 9 by not reproducing the original

in a literal way 9 represents it more adeptlyo What is striking about Dryden°s



is his power of allowing

the early rusticity its head 9 perhaps even intensifying it 9 and yet effecting the transition from this mood to one of grander seriousnesso The answer to the problem of retaining a dramatic unity is not to sub= tract from either atmosphere its excesses for this attenuates the energy which feeds the whole poemo of Menalcas 0 s stake:

Crucial to this bridging is the description

the beechen cups of divine Alcimedono

The insult

and counter=insult must cease for a short interlude whilst this object takes descriptive shapeo


divine 0

The opportunity to introduce this

"higher 11 note is accepted gradually by Dryden: The lids are ivy; grapes in clusters lurk Beneath the carving of the curious worko Two figures on the sides embossed appear = Conon 9 and what's his name who made the sphere 9 And showed the seasons of the sliding year 9 Instructed in his trade the labouring swain 9 And when to reap 9 and when to sow the grain? [llo 58=64]


The same accuracy of mood 9 if not of literal sense 9 is shown at lines 34 to 37o MEN: Thou sing with him 9 thou Booby; never Pipe \1/as so prof an °d to touch that blubber 0 d Lip: Dunce at the best; in Streets but scarce allow 0 d To tickle 9 on thy Straw 9 the stupid Crowdo Compare its source at 3o 25=27o

233 It is interesting that Dryden does not limit '.:he range of significance in this description by including at this point the sentence that its pristine qna.lity



follows next in Virgilo

detail vras included immediately before the set-piece• of them yet the lip is laid 0 (57)o



To neither

This means that !Vienalcas 0 s speech

does not conclude -vrith a potentially anti=climactic and functional referenceo This is consistent with Damoetas 0 s counsel to Palaemon to judge acutely 'For


tis a business of a high debate 0 (80)o

Palaemon 1 s

mediation is of a different order from the give=and=take of the singers: Sing then; the Shade affords a proper place; The Trees are cloath 1 d with Leaves~ the Fields with Grass; The Blossoms blow; the Birds on bushes sing; And Nature has accomplish 0 d all the Spring ooo Each in his turn your tuneful numbers bring; By turns the tuneful !'1uses love to singo [llo 81=84 9 87=88] Lauderdale's


moving lines 1 and


gentle Muses 0 have become

This is a significant and suitable changeo


tuneful 0 o

The contest gives little

occasion for even the gentlest of melancholies;

indeed 9 the seasonal

re=birth of Nature (formosissimus annus) is also a resurrection of potent energy not elegiac reflectiono

This does not




single idiom of heroic heightening 9 but a binary association of the erotic with the unadorned plainness of the untutoredo

The erotic

has nothing of the despair of unrequited love and its painso can boast that Amyntas offers him love Damoetas addresses Galatea as (103)





and sits upon my knee 1 (101)


the dear Mistress of my Love-sick Mind 0

and then dwells on the physical contact when they meet:



lovely Maid lay panting in my arms; / And all she said and did was full of Charms' (111- 12)o

These details do not occur in Virgilo

Juxtaposed to these erotic suggestions 9 Dryden endeavours to suggest the simplified concerns of the singerso idiomatic touches:

Hence 9 there are

Menalcas describes his ten golden apples presented

to Amynta.s as


Ten rudely i!ildir.gs' (:::..07) t1hereas Da":loetas can a

From Rivers drive the Kids 9 and sling your Hook;


em in the shallat..r Brook' (150= .5l)o

be sonorous and DAN~

I Anon Pll l·Jash

Hm·Jever 9 this simplicity can


The Hightly 1:Jo:f is baneful to the Fold 9 Storms to the 1:Jheat 9 to Budds the bitter Cold; But from my frmming Fair 9 more Ills I find 9 Than from the \.r·Jolves 9 and Storms 9 and \1/inter l-Jindo [llo 124= 27]

To characterize Virgil 1 s Eclogue as following one turn of phrase would be to narrow the range of interesto

By allying the erotic=lyrical

to rustic dialect 9 Dryden has the reader appreciate both the artifice implicit in 'tuneful' numbers and the obtrusive circumstances of a shepherd 0 s lifeo as

v 17 lyrical 11

h1illiam Myers has described the translation as being 1

as the best of Dryden °s songs 1 o

This vie\,! should be

qualified more than by Myers 1 s own hesitation 9 suggested by the speech= marks on



Although there are changes to the original

Eclogue and they in the direction of erotic explicitness 9 this cannot stand for the whole poem 9 especially the crucial opening exchange which exposes the lyricism = where it occurs in the song=contest as a constructed displacement of conflict over much more material and basic matterso This

lower 11 9 more realistic 9 frame for the




the reader how pressing proprietorial claims are for both singerso The opening lines are clear in introducing this: Shepherd


those ragged Sheep?

'em me to keep' (1~2)o





Aegon v s they are 9 he gave

Although Menalcas may be triumphant here 9

it is not long before he himself is forced to make a similar admission: 3


John Dryden 9 po 160o


Ragged 0 is an addition 9 a gesture towards the idiomatic cuium pecus (1) o


Compare the uncomplicated and relatively gentle cadences of 3o32-34o


235 You knou too uall :::: feed my Father~s Flockg \Vhat can I wager from the common Stock? A Stepdame too I have 9 a cursed she 9 1.rJho rules my Hen=peck 1 d Sire~ and orders me o [llo 46=49] Furthermore 9 singing is the only talent that either shepherd can exploit to better such a positiono

Defending himself from a charge of theft 9

Damoetas equates art and life in an unexpected



honest l'1an

may freely take his m·m; / The Goat lvas mine 9 by singing fairly \von c (29=30)o

Debts are directly incurred from singing=contestsa

Therefore 9

to claim that Dryden°s Eclogue 3 ignores or mitigates these connections in the interests of "lyricismu is misleadingo Eclogue 3 invites a roughness of style and diction 9 but Eclogue 5 moves from the elegiac to the panegyrical 9 framed by the mutual admiration of the singerso

I f 9 as Addison described them 9 both Hopsus

and Menalcas are 'expert shepherds at a song 1 9 some of this expertise should be obviouso actual performanceo

Some 9 however 9 have been disappointed with Dryden's A reading that anticipates Arcadian calm 9 all

passion spent 9 will be more satisfied with Duke or Lauderdaleo


Myers 9 for example 9 finds the translation of Eclogue 5 a particularly apt exampJ.e of


the unpleasant clash between idyllic values and manners

on the one hand 9 and Dryden's diction on the other 0 (po l60)o

In this

case 9 the "normal" Arcadian mode is not disturbed by a u1ow 11 realism but by the heroic energy Dryden found irresistible in both songso This choice of diction and metre is to some extent determined by the heroic couplet 9 but the translation shows signs of formal heightening over and above its obvious metrical weighto

There is a parallelism

between each of the speeches 9 Mopsus answering Henalcas 9 a formal symmetry perhaps suggested by Menalcas 0 s claim in the opening lines that his voice could match Mopsus's


tuneful Reed 1 (2)o


melodiousness is a quality noted by I'Ienalcas in introducing f..'lopsus 0 s song~

236 Such as the Or the pale Such is his Compar'd to

Shrub to tl"_e tall Olive shmvs 9 Sallm,- to the blushing Rose; Voice 9 if I can judge aright 9 1 thine 9 in sueetness and. in heighta [llo 21=24]

This combination of a high ivith a nonetheless pleasant speech register is borne out by the dranatic content ( tl'le death of Daphnis ru:d the subsequent desperation of his funeral) plus the formal check on the floodgates of griefo

This assuagerr.ent of grief is best exesplified

by the closing lines of the


Come 9 Shepherds 9 come 9 and stroH i·Ji th Leaves the Plain; Such Funeral Rites your Daphnis did ordaino \rJith Cypress Boughs the Crystal Fountains hide 9 And softly let the running Haters glide; [llo 59=62] This


conclusion changes the order of the Latin and lends

it a plangent grace only suggested in the original: foliis 9 inducite fontibus umbras 9 Daphnis) 9 ooo 0 (40-4l)o



uspargite humum

pastores (mandat fieri sibi talia

This is not the prevailing note of the elegy;

indeed Dryden is anxious to portray this concluding calm as an attitude which has been achieved after a highly dramatic opening to the song 9 full of gestures firmly in the heroic not the acknowledged pastoral idiom: At length the rumour reach'd his Hother 2 s Ears The \vretched Parent 9 with a pious haste 9 Came running 9 and his lifeless Limbs embrac'd. She sigh u d 9 she sob v d 9 and 9 furious vlith despair 7 She rent her Garments 9 and she tore her Hair: Accusing all the Gods and every Staro [llo 30-35] This amplification misrepresents the brevity of the human detail in this chorus of mourning but is in effect only an extension of the emotive references of the Virgilo slight contradictiona

This does involve the translation in a

Menalcas's languorous appreciation of the

performance is retained 9 indeed 9 embellished 9 whilst Dryden still


The full text can be found at Poems 9 2 : 889= 94o


'Cover the turf with leaves 9 shepherds 9 and shade the springs = Daphnis calls for rites like theseo 1

237 recognizes the vigour of his


0 Heavenly Poet~ such thy Verse appears 9 So sweet 9 so charming to my ravish 0 d ~ars 9 ooo As to tl1e





He finds a Crystal Stream to quench his thirsta [llo 69=709


The poet c s heroic divinity and pmver to ravish has also to act as a healthful balm to the


feavorish Traveller 0


hence the St·Jeetness 9

charm and the translucence of the °Crystal Stream 0 a

Given Dryden°s

obvious inclination tmrJards an heroic heightening of the pastoral 9 Menalcas 0 s apotheosis is more amenable to this declamatory vein and forms more of a parallel rather than an antithesis to the elegya It is significant that this power is not sustained in those sections that lie outside the artifice of songo in the erotic details that take its placea crook on Henalcas ( 0 The Handle Brass;

This is most evident

Hopsus confers the sheep=

the Knobs in equal range 0 (138))

with a bravado quite absent from Virgil 0 s ritualistic conclusion: Antigenes 9 with Kisses 9 often try 0 d To beg this Present in his Beauty 0 s Pride; When Youth and Love are hard to be deny 0 do

[llo 139-41]

This same complement to the grand gestures of the songs is suggested in Dryden°s version of the possible themes enumerated by Menalcas for Mopsus 0 s opening song: Begin you first; if either Alcon's Praise 9 Or dying Phillis have inspir 1 d your Lays: If her you mourn 9 or Cedrus you commend 9 Begin ooo [llo 13=16] The innuendo of


dying 0 9 even if helped by the elegiac note of mourning 9

is given its full sexual association i f the original is consulted \._rhere Phyllis is Mopsus 0 s ignis (lO)o

The free love enjoyed by the shepherds

and shepherdesses is thus distinguished from their heroic imaginations when Daphnis is commemorated in verseo Eclogues 3 and 5 both demonstrate the resources of the amoebaean pastoral 9 its dichotomies and varieties at the same time as its pleasing


~n E~ue

5 9 the variety is a method by \..rhj_ch bo";:;h

grief and its consolation may be highlighted and given dramatic immediacyo shephP.rns perform their songs9

at least one auditoro


Duke~ s

there is ahJays

and Lauderdale 1 s hands the poem is

more evenly lyrical 9 an evocation of stingless death and appropriate rejoicingo Eclo~

The competitiveness of both Damoetas and Menalcas of

3 is similarly softenedo

Creech implies that this country

controversy touches no ravJ nerve or empty pocketo

The loss of Daphnis

for Duke 0 s Mopsus and Menalcas is an opportunity for songo

The virtues

of Dryden°s version 9 however prone to a declamatory hubris not often found in the original Eclogues 9 lie in its determination to represent the contention of Eclogue 3 and both the loss and transcendence of Eclogue 5 in vivid termso

Indeed 9 his Eclogue 5 9 a near relative to

9 in its lament for the loss of a leader 9 is more an ancestor of some of the racier Doric touches of l£yll 1 than Virgil 0 s Daphniso


translator 0 s decision frequently forgoes the finer graces of the Virgilian Latin 9 its golden lines and softer cadences 9 but 9 in return 9 demonstrates the self-conscious artifice that impels the dialogues or contest so

By 1731 9 and from Trapp 0 s scholarly perspective 9 Eclogue

5 inspired a rather condescending judgemento

This pastoral is



and most elegant 1 (po 47) and consequently 9 the more elevated and rhapsodic passages are etiolated to follow this stylistic patterno It is necessary 9 therefore 9 for Trapp to suppress some of the attributes



Indeed 9 the only hint of such prominence

is found in the note to lines 48 to 49 9 a comment on umbras 0:





A Funeral Ceremony to their Great !J!en 9 and Heroes 0 (po 50)o

Similarly 9 Eclogue 3 is described as containing


an elegant Trial of

Skill in Musick and Poetry ooo 1 (po 23) 9 quite far from the



Strokes of Country Railery 0 appreciated by Addison in reference to

239 The l697 version must be seen as distinct from not only the more Augustan forms of Trapp but also its more Arcadian comp~nion

translationso Conclusion

In 1726 9 Samuel Johnson 9 1:rhilst probably at Stourbridge Sc!lool 9 turned his hand to several translation exercises 9 hro of which were from the


songs from

the opening speeches of Eclogue l and both the

Eclo~ 5o 2

As both sets of verses were not formally

published 9 3 it might suggest their traditional rather than personal emphase so

As their transmission seems dubious 9 little firm evidence

is suggested by the choice of extractso

However 9 even in this small

compass 9 they exemplify the melodiousness expected of the Virgilian pastoral 9 with little of the discomforting jerks of style or actually present in the Eclogueso with ruefull murmurs flow woe ooo 1 (3-4)o

For Daphnis



voice 11

The limpid streams

I And all the withering woods confess their

vsympathising 1 cattle


to graze the vtasteful herbv or roam the

hang their heads 1 and refuse 1

verdant meads 0 (9=10)o

InGtead of the joyous panic of Menalcas 1 s account of Daphnis 1 s translation to a higher plane 9 Johnson places a poetically decorous



Trappvs version avoids any dramatic colouringo A glaring example is his version of the sexual vmrd-play of 3ol0=ll: 0 Twas then belike; when Me they saw for Spight 9 I Bark Mycon°s Trees 9 and cut his tender Vines 0 (po 25)o In his notes 9 Trapp compensates for his literal 9 piecemeal accuracy~ 0 Vero 12 ooo These Ironical Repartees ooo are exceeding sharp and satyrical 0 (pe 25)o 3=25~27 is rendered without the colloquial vigour as well: 0 Vero 30 ooo The extraordinary satyrical Smartness of These Lines 9 ooo is known almost to a Proverb; and we need say no more of it 1 (po 26)o Trapp 0 s translation is at lines 30 to 33o


See Samuel Johnson~ The Com JoDo Fleeman Harmondsworth 9


The lines were transmitted by James Ross 1 s transcript and found in the Johnson Birthplace Museum 9 Lichfield (Pastoral 1) and the Hornby Library 9 Liverpool (Pastoral 5)o The fullest MSSo are at Yaleo

edited by



Pleasure in ev cry Nymph and She:p:C.e:-d reigns 9

flies the joyous Plains 0 (36=37)o


And banish u d Sorrm·J

The even temper of Johnson°s

translation 9 albeit \·JOrk of the left hand 9 points foruard to the Arcadian and highly selective pastorals of the mid=centuryo This desire for the nndidactic and non=allegorical :pastora::;_ emphasises or constructs a unity of emotional associations free from Eclogues l and 9 were

the disordering contradictions of realismo

therefore autobiographical rather than universal political commento Eclogue 4 became Christian revelation rather than political homage 9 and in both Eclogues 3 and 5 the discontinuities of voice and style melted into more easily digestible portionso The one exception to this consensus lies in Dryden°s worko


does not immediately commit his translations to contrived clumsiness in line with its bucolic setting 9 for there is evidence to suggest that he

acutely aware of the inadequacies of the English language


in rendering a Virgilian turn of phraseo 1

~refac& 1 to

Towards the end of the

the Pastorals 9 he graciously attempts to exculpate Virgil

from the inadequacies of his translation:


Be pleased therefore to

accept the rudiments of Virgil 0 s poetry 9 coarsely translated I confess 9 but cll'hich yet retains some beauties of the author, which neither the barbarity of our language, nor my unskilfulness could so much sullyv This diminutio may well be part of a dedicator 0 s role in addressing a patron, but it forms part of a more insistent distrust of contemporary culture as a whole,


where, using Virgil as his touch=

stone, the values of Williamite England were placed in an unflattering perspective a This habit of allowing historical parallels to be dratm. up along= side his own age Dryden had frequently exploited 9 notably in


See ppo ll0=22o



It is clear from his 17Decl.ication to the Aeneis' that this uas no different 1;Jhere the 1697 Virgil bras concernedo defending VirgiluE moral


the Aeneid,



sketches a heavily

tendentious revieu of its historical context and thereby highlights his





Virgil uas 1:1riting 1 1::hen the old form of goverr...ment

and a new one just established by Octavius



effect by force of arms 9 but seemingly by the consent of the Roman In this unrest 1r1hich had preceded the institution

people 1 o

of this new regime 9 the the



former civil t-Jars betwixt Narius and Sylla 1 9

Sylla 9 in the cause of


liberty and reformationu

with having taken the estates and lives of his enemies 9 those who brought him into power 1





is charged

to gratify

The likelihood that

Octavius could bring to mind not only Charles II in 1660 but William in 1688=89 1r1ould not have been lost on the 1697 reader o On the one hand 9 Octavius is the strong 1


at the helm 9 wielding a necessary

despotic power 1 quite appropriate considering the

Caesar 1 s 1 abilitieso


first and second

Julius Caesar as well as Charles I had been

murdered by his o1rm peopleo

However 9 in reference to the identifi=

cation of Virgil with Dryden in 1697 9 the references to Octavius are less complimentaryo

Indeed 9 Dryden takes upon himself the mantle of

Cato 9 whispering to Augustus about the dangers of arbitrary power and then forming himself upon the principles of Montaigne 9


that an honest

man ought to be contented with that form of government 9 and with those fundamental constitutions of it 9 which he received from his ancestors 9 This conservatism

and under which himself was born lo

This is one of the themes of the 1 ~edicatiorl throughouto See Essa~ 9 2~ 168-69 9 where Dryden elaborates on his fear of strife and its ensuing intoleranceo Sylla 9 who 1 had nothing but liberty and reformation in his mouth 1 is frequently Cromwell in Roman garb 9 especially for Dryden when he describes how he 1 sacrificed the lives 9 and took the estates 9 of all his enemies 9 to gratify those who brought him into power 1 o Given the context of 1697 9 it could (more imperfectly) be taken by Williamite supporters to mean James IIo The whole tenor of the passage 9 however 9 is otherwiseo The consequent strife of Senate versus Commons 1 comes of altering fundamental la\vs and constitutions o oo 1 1

242 is all the more evident uhen it is remembered tl1a"i: Aeneas undergoes a period of exile before returning to regain po1:1er 9 his mm dominion left in trust during his voyagingo The choice of Hugh 9 Lord Clifford as dedicatee of the Pastorals is sinilarly determined by specifically religious and political Lest this choice be taken at face value 9 Dryden

considerations a

spells out his reasons in

the 1 ~refac& 1 and~

in so doing 9 is able to Commencing with wl1.at seems

articulate a passively obedient stancea

like a formulaic gesture of intimate companionship: to 111hom I dedicate; put this part of


My lord 9 I knovJ

and could not have been induced by any motive to


or any


into unlearned hands



Clifford's learning is very much a part of a wider qualification for eminence~



Courage 9 probity and humanityu 111hich


are inherent in

This continuity of virtue has two principal analogues: the survival of a Catholic family 9 the


ancient house of Cumberland 9

from 111hence you are descended 1 9 and the proven survival of embattled virtue: Your forefathers have asserted the party which they chose till death 9 ~~d died for its defence in the fields of battleo You have besides the fresh rememberance of your noble father 9 from vlhom you never can degenerateG ~ Nee imbellem 9 feroces 1 progenerant aquilae columbamo It being almost morally impossible for you to be other than you are by kind~ I need neither praise nor incite your virtueo You are acquainted with the Roman history~ and knm·J Hithout my information that patronage and clientship always descended from the fathers to the sons; and that the same plebeian houses~ had recourse to the same patrician line 9 which had formerly pro= tected them 9 and followed their principles and fortunes to the lasto So that I am your Lordshipus by descent 9 and part of your inheritanceo [ppo 282~83] Dryden does not need to even mention Jacobite Catholicism 9 as he deftly


From Horace 9 dove 1 )o

~ 9 IVo

4o 31=2 ( 1 nor do fierce eagles beget a timid

establisfl.es references


Clifford 1 s ir:heri tance as c.:i'l allusion to

matters of belief and embattled rectitudeo


This covert defiance \"-'as

pursued in his choice of patron for both the Georgics and Aeneidn


Earl of Chesterfield 9 not a noted patron of the Arts 9 had been chosen as dedicatee for the Georgicso relevance of this gestureo


Charles Eo !Jard has explained the Chesterfield had 9 by his first and third

marriages 9 associated himself with the Ormond and Halifax families 9 both sympathetic to Dryden's beliefs and arto

Furthermore 9 although

an early supporter of \Jilliam 9 Chesterfield had been a Non=Juror 9 refusing to take an oath of allegiance and supremacy to William in The choice of Mulgrave 9 no1tJ Marquis of Normanby 9 for the Aeneid is of a more secular cast 9 commemorating a long association of patron and poeto

Hmvever 9 it should be remembered that the choice must have

revived memories of Mulgrave 1 s original attempts to pave the way for Charles II 1 s patronage of Dryden's proposed epic (1673-74)9 and consequently recognize the value of a more tolerant ageo The vexed question of whom to choose as a sufficiently representative figurehead for the enterprize is further illuminated by referring to Dryden 1 s correspondence at the


In the same letter in which he

solicits Chesterfield's patronage 9 he offers a particularly direct religious and political excuse:


I have hinder 1 d it thus long in hopes

of his return 9 for whom 9 and for my Conscience I have suffered 9 that I might have layd my Authour at his feet: time for


But now finding that Gods

our miseries is not yet 9 I have been advis'd to make

three severall Dedications 9 of the Eclogues 9 the Georgics 9 and the Eneiso 1 3

This Jacobite fervour builds a myth of the Georgics and fits


For further evidence of Dryden's passive obedience 9 see ppo 247=48o


~9 Po 280o


Letters 9 Noo 41 (Febo 17 9 1696/7) 9 ppo 85-86o




hopes of paace and expressions of rural content and industry

to Chesterfield 0 s ovm political position? as being


suitable to the

retir 0 d life which you have chosen 9 and to your studies of This a.."'lalogy 1:ras not lost on Chesterfieldo


In his

anst-.rer by return (Febo 18) 9 he graciously accepts and? by the t-Iay 9 mentions that novJ

0 It

looks as i f you vrere tired vrith the Court 9 and t·rould

think of a Hermitage or of a country Gentleman 9 vJho being in no

post vJhere by he may merit such a favour 9 must value it the more 9


This contemporary context for the Virgil may not have been a motivating factor in his attempting the translation initially 9 but certainly 9 by the final stages of preparation for Jacob Tonson 9 the parallels were more prominent and pressingo a letter dated September


Finally 9 in

to his sons 9 Dryden offers some insight

into the role Tonson played in the final appearance of the work 9 by noting that 9 although


he has missd of his design in the Dedication:

though He had prepard the Book for it 0 9 it was otherwise with the 0

sculptures 0 9 many of which had been re=used from Ogilby 0 s 1654 trans=

lation and his 1658 Latin editiono been dravm


There every figure of Aeneas had

like Ko William 9 with a hookd Nose 1 (Letter 47 9 ppo 93=94)o

Therefore 9 the imposing cross-section of Court and country life represented in Tonson 1 s subscription-lists and the understated compliment of the graphics formed no part of Dryden°s ovm designo


The one concession that he had wrung out of his publisher was a free hand in choosing his dedicateeso The 1697 Virgil 9 therefore 9 celebrated a disenfranchised heroism in Dryden°s



The effect Dryden°s bucolic images had on the

vrriting of original pastoral poetry 9 although a more faithful trans-


See also his determination to 'keep in my just resentments against that degenerate Order 0 of government (po 93)o


scription of the occasicnally grand Virgilian gestures in the Eclogues than the lyrical bJilight \vorlds of most Arcadias of the age 9 sinned perhaps too much against another strand of neo=classic Horatian decorumo


Dryden °s m-m obsession 1:1i th the heroic idiom has ~

been adequately analysed


Its frequent deployment in the

Eclogues as ivell as the Georgics and Aeneid point to one significant reason for attempting the


the assumption of an epic poet 0 s role

to demonstrate the survival of principles and a poetic standard 9 a series of time=honoured codes and conventions to contrast with debased contemporary equivalentso

This submerged satire needs the image of

the noble shepherd and actively discourages the pathos of the senti= mental man of feelingo


See Jo McGo Bottkol 9 11 Dryden°s Latin Scholarship" 9 Modern Philolog;y 9 40 (1953) 9 241= 55; Ro Brm..rer 9 11 Dryden 1 s Epic Manner and Virgiln, PMLA 9 55 (1940) 9 113-38; AoBo Parsons 9 "The English Heroic Play" ,Modern Language Review 9 33 (1938) 9 9; HoTo Swedenberg, Jro 9 "Dryden's Obsessive Concern with the Heroic" 9 Studies in Philology, eoso 4 (1967) 9 12~26; Hary Thale 9 "Dryden °s Um1ri tten Epic" 9 Papers on Language and Literature 9 5 (1969),.423=33o

CHAPTER 3 The Taste For Simplicity and its Effect on Pastoral Frederick Keener has claimed that vrritten in Englisho

They are the




Pope 0 s are the last real pastorals




to which the poet could

seriously hope reality might attach itself coo uherein Renaissance myth and convention may not seem patently unnaturalo 0


Published in 1709 9

Pope 0 s attempts at a bucolic idiom have been often read as anachronistic diplorna=pieces calculated to impress his literary advisers in the Kit=Kat Clubo

Having successfully gained their imprimatur 9 so this critical

line runs 9 he felt free to progress to other 9 more exacting 9 worko


Pope 9 himself 9 seems to testify to this conclusion when he looks back from 1734 and finds that the decorous productions of his youth were little more than an excursion in Fancyvs mazeo 3

This excursion 9 however 9

proved at the time to be something of a cause 9 a critical battleground fought in the name of critical principles particularly significant for the survival of the whole genreo

Pope 9 himself 9 confessed to Spence

later in life that there was scarcely a work was more laboured 0 than in the pastoralso



in which the versification

In examining the terms of


An Essay On Pope 9 Frederick Mo Keener (New York 9 1974) 9 Po 19o


For example 9 see Georgia Melchiori 9 "Pope in Arcady11 9 :§!!glish Miscellan~ 9 14 (1963) ppo 84=85 9 where the Pastorals are found to be like 0 rococo vignettes enclosed in gilt scrollwork 0 ; Robert Kilburn Root 9 The Poetical Career of Alexander Pope (Gloucester 9 Masso 9 1962) 9 ppo 51=53: 0 These poems have the quality of exquisite music and an unmistakable competence in literary craftsmanship = but little more' Cpo 52); Pat Rogers 9 An Introduction to Pope (London 9 1975) 9 .po 20: 0 They were a diploma piece 9 setting out their author 0 s credentials to the cultivated worldo 0


Pope hopes then that it will be known °That not in Fancy 0 s Maze he wander 0 d long I But stooped to Truth~ and moraliz 0 d his song 0 (Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot 9 llo 340=41; ~ 9 4 : 120)o


Joseph Spence 9 ·Observations 2 Anecdotes 2 And Characters of Books and Men 2 collected from conversation 9 edited by James Mo Osborn (Oxford 9 196b) 9 2 vols 9 1: 175 (April 5=7 9 1744)o

the Pope= Ambrose Philips controversy over pastoral



becomes clear that Keenerc s elegy for the t!real17 pastoral and its Renaissance heritage is mi8:placec'l and that the mimetic foundation for the form had already crumbled 9 but that in its place there flourished alternative lyrical

depoliticized and formally unifieda


Although the pastoral form is frequently said to be both escapist and


the very quiescence of the form has its own significance

within wider terms of


a context that inevitably calls into

question the apparent literary traditions that underpin such semiosis 9 the process whereby a happy rural life and its inhabitants are mani= festly constructed and a nostalgic political ideology endorsedo


political context is best approached with reference to the taste for 11

simplicity19 in the periodo

It has already been noted that trans-

lations of both Theocritus and Virgil presented an image of the pastoral genre as both significantly simplified and stylistically consistento This formal streamlining presupposes a corresponding simplification of the shepherd and his landscape;

indeed 9 in some respects 9 this

results in pastoral subjects 9 once the dramatic antagonists of l2Ylls 10 or 4 or Eclogues l and 3 9 becoming an expression of forme Wnilst it can be of no surprise to find rusticity and the refer= ential function of pastoral metaphor heavily qualified 9 there are degrees of abstractiono

There is a clear difference between the

shepherds of Theocritus and those of Popeo of the ,!gylls constructs a virtuous alit yo

Conversely 9 the


The Doric ruggedness

simplicity 11 out of its prov;nci=

simplicity" of Pope cs Pastorals is of a


highly cultivated order 9 where his shepherd=voices obey the conventional necessities of lyric unity and so do not disturb the literary landscapeo However much the


simplicity" of the one denies the


of the

other 9 the interpretative strategies that are needed to decipher them

beth are obliged to regard all pastoral shepherds as textual and unmimetica i6 6till

The shift from one trope to the


on the other hand 9

Rignificant and is not exempt from historical changea


growing concern that the pastoral be more lyrical cannot be explained by purely literary reasonsa

It inevitably suggests something about

the sensitivity surrounding rural characterization in generalo l MoHo Abrams has asserted that the


in poetic individualism

fostered by the expressive poetic tastes of Romanticism had its roots in the endorsement of the lyric as a norma


He locates the first

steps in this movement as taken at this time 9 especially in the serious consideration granted to the

it is the Eldest kind of


greater Ode 0 o Edward Young wrote in his


so it is more Spirituous 9 and more

remote from Prose than any other 0 and that enthusiasm 1;1as its Even in 1704 John Dennis had grouped together 1Epick 0 and .

with the


greater Lyrick poetry 1 as




soul 0 o3

Tragick 0




The model for noting the shift from one tropological and inter= pretative strategy to another I have taken from Jonathan Culler~ 11 Literary History 9 Allegory 9 and Semiology11 9 New Literary Histor;r 9 7 (1976) 9 p~ 283 ffoo However 9 see Culler 0 s reservations in The Pursuit of Signs:Semiotics 2 Literature 2 Deconstruction (London~ 1981)9 po 64o


The Mirror And The L : Romantic Theor and the Critical Tradition (New York 9 1953)~ especially ppo See also Ernest Lee Tuveson~ The Ima ination as a Means of Grace: Locke and the Aesthetics of Romanticism New York 2 19 0 2 especially ppa l32=39o

3o 1'0cean 2 An ~ 9 occasion 1 d by His Majesty 0 s late Royal Encouragement of the Sea~Serviceo To which is prefix 0 d An~ to the King: And a Discourse on Ode 11 9 po l8o 4o

The Critical Works of John Dennis 2 edited by Edward Niles Hooker (Baltimore 9 1943) 2 2 vols 2 l : 338a Joseph Trapp could also find the shorter forms of poetry acceptable 2 even the epigram: Lectures ·on Poetry Read in the Schools of Natural Philosothy At Oxford 2 translated by William Bowyer and William ClarkeLondon 2 1742) 2 pal57o He goes on to claim that 1 Little Things have their Beauty 0 2 and sometimes not a little Beautya Tho 1 they are small in Bulk 9 yet they are great in Value; and not only Wit and Ingenuity are requir 1 d in the Composition of them 2 but true Reason 2 and solid Judgment 1 (po l6l)o

249 explains the consequences of such a new=found respectability as a challenge to mimetic theories of art as a


and such an endorsement

of the poetvs supposed inner feelings is at odds with received notions of literary tradition and the social role of literary arto In the chapters so far one of the underlying conclusions is that

the mimetic apology for pastoral art is especially vulnerable once the taste for allegory waneso

The mode by which the rustic shepherds

might allude to urban reality is largely discreditedo

Pastoral can

no longer uncover courtly vice or express political aspirationso Consequently its standards of value are increasingly stylistic ones and the most persistent quality demanded when writing of simple country folk was simplicity itselfo

Defining this attribute however is

problematic 9 perhaps deliberately so 9 for neo=classical aesthetics depend upon a tacit 9 commonsense agreement on definitions which if rigorously analysed would be socially divisiveo of linguistic ecumenism that the term

It is in this spirit


was so freely used

and therefore so universally useful in defining something only truly traceable from particular exampleso

One instance which throws up

some interesting contrasts sheltering under the same terminology is that of Spenservs Shepheardes Calendar 9 the major pastoral site of VRenaissance myth and conventionv known to the periodo The Simplicity of the Shepheardes Calendar I

Joseph Spence records several opinions of Popevs on Spensero


first is a childhood memory that Waller 9 Spenser and Dryden were his favourite poets uin the order they are namedv


1 9

and the second places

Observations 9 1:19 (1728?)o The ranking of the poets is actually uncertain as Spence did invert the order in some editions; see ppo 19=20o

250 Spenser both as one of the poetical languageo






and as an authority for

Doubtless this is largely a reference to the

Faerie Queene? but that it might not be exclusively so is evident from the relatively full account of his pastoral Hork in Pope 0 s o1:m ~'A

Discourse on Pastoral Poetry" (1717? "loJritten 1704) o

Host of the

section dwells on the blemishes of the work? but the opening sentence is highly



Spenser 0 s Calendar? in Mro Qryden°s opinion?

is the most complete work of this kind which any Nation has produc 0 d ever since the time of Virgjlo 03

This 0complete work 0 is applauded

on account of its serious framework whereby the reader is granted



view of the great and little worlds 9 in their various changes and aspects 0o

This is a function of the allegory 1'1here the shepherds 0

0little 0 world figures wider macrocosmic affairs not so much the Elizabethan court or clerical corruption 9 but of human life in general compared to the


several Seasons 0 o

Pope 0 s praise is concentrated on structural as opposed to stylistic matterso

What is more to the point 9 Spenser 0 s scheme is given a neo=

Platonic justification in that it is supposed to address itself to the permanent 9 unhistorical patterns of life 9 not the temporal affairs of the Elizabethan courto

The occasional shocks that the studied

provinciality of "May"? "July" and "September" administer are con= sequently unnecessary? a formal immaturity often associated with the pastoral


of a poet's juveniliao

It is precisely this self=

conscious innovation in stanza=form and diction, ho\teVer 9 which 1'EoKo11 is most at pains to describeo



Observations 9 Drydeno


Observations~ 1~171

(1736)o (April

Spenser is 0the new Poete 0 ? a master

The others were Chaucer 9 Milton and 5=7~



of d.ecorum and his special la.11.guage and cadence support the belief uthat our Mother tonge 9 1:1hich truely of it self is both ful enough for prose and stately enough for verse 9 hath long time ben counted most bare and barrein of both 0 o

Indeed 9 the 1-1riting of pastoral in

cne 0 s youth followed the example of not only Theocritus and



the best and most auncient

but also


Poetes 0 ~

Mantuane ooo Petrarque ooo

Boccace ooo Marot 9 Sanazarus 9 and also divers other excellent both 1 Italian and French Poetes ooo u o

'EoKo 11 us roll=call locates most of


Spenser 0 s pastoral forebears as firmly within both the vernacular revolt against classical hegemony and also the satiric and allegorical traditions of the pastourelleo


Clearly the naturalization of the eclogue=form

was a commitment to a greater 9 although ultimately limited 9 degree of realismo

This had already flourished in the peasant=dialogues of

Alexander Barclay (co 1515) 9 and the overtly critical


eglogs 0 of

Barnabe Googe (1563) not to mention the translations of Mantuan by George Turberville (l567)o

Even if superficially independent creations 9

Barclay 0 s and Googe 0 s work is often heavily imitative of Mantuan°s satirical eclogues (1498) 9 especially numbers 6 9 7 and 8o classically-named shepherds:

Barclay 0 s

Coridon 9 Cornix 9 Cedrus and Minalcas are

at the same time English and debate the miseries and evils of court life 9 the neglect of poets by patrons and the respective merits of town and country lifeo 3

In Spenser 9 there is the moral concern of Mantuan

"To the most excellent and learned ooo 9 Mayster Gabriell Harvey Poetical Works 9 ppo 417~18o

II 0



This tradition is best approached via Helen Cooper 9 Pastoral: Medieval into Renaissance (Ips~~ch 9 1977) 9 ppo 59=7lo Spenser 0 s involvement is dealt with at ppo 152ffoo


Barclay 0 s Eclogue 4 is a scarcely altered translation of Mantuan°s (actually Baptista Spagnuoli 0 s) Eclogue 5 and his Eclogue 5 is an imitation of Eclogue 6o The first three are each an adaptation of sections of£nius Sylvius 0 s Miseriae Curialiumo The first (Continued on Po2521



252 coupled Hith the native concerns of his English Tityrus:



To miss the ethical preoccupations of the collection as a whole 9 is often to elide the specific references to the culture from which it In riFe bruary11 9 "I'lay0 and



September; 1 9 Chaucer 9 s influence

is strongest 9 but in the main Spenser's Doric is his own creation= non=lyrical 9 dialectal and rougho

In nFebruaryll


for example 9 there

is a clear suggestion of the alliterative accentual verse of a century or more earlier t1hereas


July11 is


in the stolid fourteeners of

the 1550s and 1560so This rugged


simplicityn found its admirerso

In all of Dryden 9 s

references to Spenser 0 s pastoral idiom 9 it is the style that is most prominent a

In his'~dication to the Pastoral~ 1 (1697) 9 Spenser is

dubbed the Master of our


northern dialect 9 who has


so exactly

imitated the Doric of Theocritus 9 that his Love is a perfect image of that passion which had infused into both sexes 9 before it was corrupted with the knowledge of arts 9 and the ceremonies of what we call good manners 9 (po 282)o

This primitivistic simplicity of

character and prelapsarian instincts is thus exactly mirrored by a suitably artless roughness and lack of civilized cadence in the Dorice

This veneration for Spenser 0 s diction is repeated in his

''Preface"to Fables Ancient and Modern (1700) where he is hailed as

(3 continued)

complete edition was appended to John Cawood 0 s edition of Mantuan 9 s Ship of Fools (1570)o Besides Turberville 9 s translation 9 there had been a recent 9 and widely apochryphal compilation in 1656 9 translated by Thomas Harvey: The Bucolicks of Baptist Mantuan in ten eclogueso lo

Mantuan°s satire is most particularly noticeable in 11 0ctober 1 9 where Piers and Cuddie discuss poetic ambition and the moralpower of poetryo Not only is Mantuan 9 s Eclogue 5 represented 9 11 July 11 is partly but also .f$¥11 16 and Barclay 9 s Eclo~ 4o 11 11 based on Eclo~ 8 and September on Eclogue-9o Both are 9 morall 0 eclogueso Chaucer is Spenser 0 s Tityrus 9 the 0 God of Shepheards 9 9 whose praises he sang in 11June 1·1 and whose Sir Tho pas metre he adopted in "March'' o

253 one of the c great masters in our language oo o 0 t·Jho sa1r1 °much further into the beauties of our numbers than those 111ho immediately follo1...,ed 0 him (2: 247)0

In his collaboration vJith Sir William Soame in trans=

lating Boileau on Horace (1683) 9 there are also the follo111ing lines t"Jhich refer specifically to the


Spencer did next in Pastorals excel 9 And taught the Noble Art of hlriting 1:1ell~ To stricter Rules the Stanza did restrain, And found for Poetry a richer Veineo 1 This


richer Veine 0 is closely linked to the perspicuity of his



dialect 0 9 a simplicity of language demonstrating the Theocritean ideals of uncivilized freedom with little of the emasculating pathoso The contrast with Pope is strikingo Theocritus in °manners, thoughts, and

Pope finds Spenser kin to

characters 0 ~

but that he vas

vcertainly inferior in his Dialect 0 9 not because of artistic incompetence but because the object of his imitation is


entirely obsolete 9 or spoken

only by people of the lowest condition°o

The Doric of the Idylls had

its own °beauty and proprietyv on account of its currency Greece 0 and also its use by



in part of


many of the greatest persons 0

Dryden°s relish at a Golden Age libertinism is completely rejected here for a class=based censorship of "low" life and its idiomso

It is then

that Pope justifies this fastidiousness in terms that annex social assumptions to artistic ones:


As there is a difference between

simplicity and rusticity, so the expression of simple thoughts should be plain 9 but not clownisho

The addition he has made of a Calendar

to his Eclogues is very beautiful:

since by this, besides the general

moral of innocence and simplicity, which is common to other authors of pastoral 9 he has one peculiar to himself 0

(1: 32)o

This con=

currence of "simplicities" and the struggle to define the term


The Art of Poetry, written in French by The Sieur de Boileau (London 9 1683) 9 po So

satisfactorily creates several problems in interpretationo


there is the clear parallel behreen simplicity I plainness and rusticity I clcl~rnisl:">..ness

'lt!hich a,1i"'eRt:ly nvP.r1ayF: aesthetic and moral criteria as to

mimetic trutho moral 0 ~



get muddier when Pope gets to the



for here pastoral is deemed to advocate both innocence (perhaps

Dryden°s pr:Unitivism) as uell as this socio=aesthetic value of simplicityo Pope 9 alternatively 9 could define Spenserian simplicity 1rrith a quite different emphasise

In the heavily ironic Guardian 40 (April 27 9 1713)


Pope 0 s anonymous contribution to Tickell 0 s pastoral series 9 it proves to be a less enviable attributeo

In °praising 0 Ambrose Philips 0 s



Dialect 9 which alone might prove him the eldest born of Spencer 9 and our only true Arcadian°


Pope concludes that it might be as well if

pastoralists confined themselves to their own home dialecto


example quoted is the opening of Spenser 0 s HSe'Ptember11 9 1r1hich Pope believed was set in Wales


where 9 with all the Simplicity natural to

that Part of our Island 9 one Shepherd bids the other Good=morrow in l

an unusual and elegant Hanner 0 o

Pope naturally chooses a particularly

convincing but unrepresentative example to denigrate Philips 0 s collaquialism 9 for'EoKJ'in

the Eclogue admits that 9 even by

his'Uloss~ 1 to

Spenser 0 s Doric standard 9 °The Dialecte and phrase of speache in this Dialogue 9 seemeth somewhat to differ from the comen° (po455)o TIE ftlilforce of the irony behind naming Philips obvious;


our only true Arcadian° is thus

by claiming to base his diction and characters on a Doric

J4yllic model 9 he is truly opposed to the self-conscious highly=wrought artistry of Virgil and runs the danger of singularity 9 a travesty of the traditional esteem won by artful predecessorso


Prose \vorks 9 Po 104o

255 This sense of a canon of acceptable pastorals is crucial to a full comprehension of simplicity or



simplicity 0 s 11 rhetorical forceo

lost innocence


A return to a native

a :pastoral gestureo

Pope himself

is not above invoking Spenser 0 s ghost in his ot·m pastorals a 'Summer 17 ~ Alexis uses a Flute





VJhich Colin c s tuneful breath

and bequeath 0 d in Death;

Pipe ooo 0 (39=4l)o


He said;

I Inspir 0 d

Alexis 9 take this

Presumably Pope wants to keep a memory of Spenser 0 s

mellifluousness not his low subject=mattero

To Ambrose Philips 9 the

attraction of Spenser lies immediately in other areaso to his ovm Pastorals (1710)


he feared lest the

Subject 0 should make it so unappealingo Theocritus 9 Virgil and


Spenser so unreservedlyo


In the'Treface 1

innocency of the

His traditional models are

the only writers

1 true Nature of Pastoral Poems 0 o

\vi th his own age o



to have hit upon the

Pope had not accepted Theocritus or

It was perhaps Philips whose taste accorded

Henry Felton°s A Dissertation on Reading the

Classics (1713) gives Spenser the palm for pastoral poetry


even with

Theocritus 9 for I dare prefer him to Virgil 1 o 0

the Sweetness and Rusticity of the


Muse 1 is a considerable bonus

only recently imitated by his contemporaries 9 those who


have assembled

all the Beauties of Arcadian Poetry 9 and restored their Simplicity 9 Language 9 and Manners 9 to the Swains 1 (po 223)o

This appropriation

of Arcadia to a Spenserian model is the very opposite to Pope 0 s attempt in keeping this Virgilian ideal uncontaminated by the less ideal primi= tivisms of Philipso

Tnis exclusiveness was not echoed by Dryden who

in his 1Preface to Sylvae 1 (1685) treads a fine line between a veneration

and a distrust of the Doric pathos of the J4ylls 9 enjoying the parable sweetness' of its





clownishness 0 whilst forbearing to imitate

Poems 9 edited by MoGo Segar (Oxford 9 1937) 9 Po 3o

it in his


tz-anslations becau.se it could not succeed in Englisho

He also presumes that Virgil would have modelled his idiom on Theocritus 0 s if the


severity of the Roman language 1 had not

him that advantage 0 o



\ihat is most arresting about Dryden°s acceptance

of the Doric 0 s cclownishness 0 is the willingness to countenance the provincial and dialectal in the forma sweet


clo~mishness 0

He figures this marriage of

in terms that are as geographically precise and

particular as in Pope 0 s abhorrence that a Spenserian Eclogue could have been set in Wales:

the dialect seeming like


a fair shepherdess

in her country russet 9 talking in a Yorkshire tone; (1: 265=66)o


For the Arcadian pastoral to keep both its serious generic status and yet also refer directly to impoverished country life is an impossible dichotomy a a

It is for this reason that the choice behJeen Arcadia and

Modern British equivalent be it Purney 0 s Kent or Spenser 0 s Wales

is necessary for the survival of the classical pastoral 0 s theoretical foundation a The Renaissance mode of the pastoral took root in the fertile soil of a less mimetic climate than the Restoration or Augustan periodo


Rosamund Tuve has demonstrated 9 clarity to an earlier taste was not incompatible with a formal beauty which was part of an attempt to institute a sufficiently expressive ordero


The world of fact and

the world of art aided rather than tested each othero therefore 9 is no simple or obvious qualityo



"Simplicity" 9

pastorall rudenesse 0


The same phrase is repeated almost verbatim by Thomas Pope Blount 9 De Re Poetica (London 9 1694) 9 po ll2o


See "Imagery and Logic: Ramus and Metaphysical Poetics 11 9 Journal of the History of Ideas 9 3 (1942) 9 383=8~ Compare Wilbur Samuel Howell 0 s "Ramus and English Rhetoric 11 9 Quarterly Journal of Speech 9 37 (19~1) 9 301=2o Both argue that even Ramist theories believed strongly in the immediacy and warmth of the poetic argumento

257 that 1i£aKJ 1 emphasised and defended i:c the epistle to Gabriell Harvey \vas no hindrance to an allied of Decori.Wl everye


9 i..'>l




wisenesse v or a ill Reasons~

speach 9 and generally in al seemely simplycitie matter~

and framing his wordsv (po416)o

ridicules for its


u de111e


in matter 9 in

of handeling his

In the very eclogue that Pope

Spenser more than once alludes to the

subversive pastourelle traditions exemplified in Marot


where the rough

directness of Diggon Davie and his questioner Hobbinoll 9 implicitly exposes the clerical hypocrisies


and loose living of Popish prelates 0

It would trivialize the contrast to argue that Pope shunned

(po 452L

such weighty pastoral themes because of some incipient Catholicism and 9 thereby 9 a latent sympathy for late sixteenth-century priestso


contemporary of his favoured the allegorical pastoral 9 but dwelt on formal questions reinforcing a heavily selective simplicity of formo With John Hughes 0 s edition of Spenser 0 s Works (1715) became a branch of lyrico


the Calendar

His defence of the form took its stand on

ground really provided by Fontenelle 9 namely that the two ingredients necessary to Pastoral are


Love 9 and the Images of a Country life;

and to represent these 9 our Author had little more to do 9 than to examine his own Heart 9 and to copy the Scene about him 0 o passionate realism was perhaps not all it seemedo

Yet this

In comparing the

Faerie Queene with the Calendar 9 Hughes found the same difference as between a


Royal Palace and a little Country Seat 0 o


Hughes 0 s


Especially in the more 0 plaintive 0 eclogues: "November" and "December11 o He also contributed several translations of Marot 0 s French versions of Petrarch to A Theatre for Worldlings (1569) 9 his first published worko The Eclogue au Ro;y: (to which "December" is especially indebted) probably gave Spenser the idea of comparing the course of human life with the passing of the yearo Helen Cooper gives a full account in Pastoral 9 ppoll2=13 9 144 9 152=55o


Spenser: The Critical Heritage 9 edited by RoMo Cummings (London 9 1971) 9 Po 272o Hughes wavers between defending Spenser 0 s rusticity which makes 0 the Picture more natural 9 and consequently-more pleasing 0 (po 273) and then banishing contemporary rustics 9 °the meanest and poorest sort of People among us 0 altogether (po 274)o

258 0

simplicity 19 is not 9 it 1!JOuld


completely devoid of arto

The rhetoric of the " R.emarks on the Shepherd 0 s Calendaru frequently For he claims that Spenser


exRmp1P. ~

chose to follorJ Nature it self 9 and to paint

the life and Sentiments of Shepherds after a more simp:e and manner 0 (po 272) o



The Nature indicated and its representation are

value=terms as much as descriptive ones 9 for it was not open to every writer to illustrate Nature successfullyo lack of affectation are invoked to underpin the argument that Spenser was correct in refusing to imitate Amintao


the Italians 1 such as Tasso 0 s

Compared to such extravagant romantic fancy 9 Spenser 0 s

eclogues are simpler and attempt to portray a more typical shepherdo He draws a

Hughes himself notices the ambiguity in such termso familiar distinction between the passionate pastoral



the Representa=

tion of a Life of Retirement and 'Innocence 0 and the Golden Age pastoral where 1


Persons of Rank and Dignity honour 0 d this Employment 0 and

Shepherds were the Owners of their own Flocks 0 o

prime example of the


lie with Theocritus (po 273)o

Virgil of the lattero

Theocritus is the Spenser 9 s sympathies

Consequently 9 the satirical and

allegorical components of the Calendar are suppressed or 9 at most 9 do~Jilgraded

mainly for reasons of decorum and lyric unityo


political comment is sacrificed at the altar of a simplicity both of form ( 0 it may be doubted whether any thing of this kind shou 0 d be admitted to disturb the Tranquility and Pleasure which shou 0 d every where reign in Pastoral Poems 0 ) and a decorum based on a neatly laundered style for a toylike subject ( 0 nothing shou 0 d be introduc 0 d more than the light and pleasant Railleries or Contentions of Shepherds about their Flocks 9 their


or their Skill in piping and


The confusion covered by the one term:


Simplicity 11 ~

can be greato

For Dryden 9 Spenser 0 s simplicity lay in his linguistic vigour which mirrored an heroic freedom from the niceties of civilized lifeo Alternatively~

Pope 0 s simplicity is an


cleared of the contingent

and transitory by bearing no relation to a particular time or place but to an enduring literary traditiono

However 9 the most thriving defi=

nition of the term lies in what Hughes calls the


natural Innocence 9

[and] Simplicity ooo being a very good Contrast to the Vices and Luxury 9 and to that Degeneracy from [the] first Pattern° that can be found in the countryside at any time (ppo 274=75)o However much Pope may have theoretically resisted the stylistic rusticity of the ambiguityo


this position is still riddled with a certain

Not only did he recognise the authoritative example of

Spenser 9 but also chose to include his imitation of the ottiva rima: 11

The Alley11 9 in the Pope-Swift Miscellanies of 1727 (even though written

before 1709)o

In it 9 paradoxically 9 Pope is free to indulge an urban

realism heavily reminiscent of

The Dunciad

or S\oJift 's 11A Description

of A City Shower" (1710) And on the broken Pavement here and there 9 Doth many a stinking Sprat and Herring lie; A Brandy and Tobacco Shop is near 9 And Hens 9 and Dogs 9 and Hogs are feeding by· 2 And here a Sailor 0 s Jacket hangs to dry: Cllo1Cbl4)


Hughes 0 s position is best characterized by his support for Philips 0 s work~ especially for its 0 sprinkling of the rural Phrase 9 as it humours the Scene and Characters 0 o This is undertaken °with great Delicacy of Taste 9 in the very Spirit and Manner of Spenser' (po274)o This is a far cry from the Doric envisaged in architectural terms by Vitruvius in his The Ten Books On Architecture (97=94 BoCo): 0 The temples of Minerva 9 Mars 9 and Hercules 9 will be Doric 9 since the virile strength of these gods makes daintiness entirely inappropriate to their houses 0 (Book I 9 Chapter 2~ translated by Morris Hickey Morgan (New York 9 1914 9 reprinted 1960) 9 Po 15)o


The full text can be found at


6: 43=45o


Here is the


simplicity of unselected details thrust together

in a near anarchy of loose


a voice of satire not pastorale

This discomfort at the more physical details of Spenserus has lastedo claimed that

In one of the most recent studies of Spenser 0 s 0



it is

He is a pasto:ralist in the \'Jay of Theoc:ritus? conscious of

1 the early days of the world as innocent 9 serene and happy ooo 0 o This bucolic vein is? however 9 unsatisfactory: Spenser 0 s version of pastoral has little of the idyllic charm of Theocritean pastoral; the language is some= times deliberately crude 9 the metres often intentionally stumbling or banal 9 and the subject=matter often simple or tediouso Further 9 while it is ostensibly a collection of twelve pieces unified by the device of the twelve months and by the pastoral convention 9 it is in fact heterogeneous enough for the claim of unity to seem specious (po 33) 2 Indeed 9 CoSo Le\viS 9 from a definitive source 9 has regarded the Mantuan line of influence as something of an excrescence 9 following the example of


a literary impulse almost exactly like that of Juvenal expressing

itself through a medium originally devised for the purposes of refresh= This resistance to the realistic signifiers of Spenservs allegory is due more to a pastoral norm derived from the Romantics than the classical traditionso The Origins of Passionate Simplicity One of the main impulses behind the institution of simplicity as a criterion of literary worth was the need to earmark specifically poetic

subjects 9 for if pastoral poems were not clearly transforming


Peter Bayley 9 Edmund Spenser : Prince of Poets (London 9 1971) 9 po23o


Compare both AoCo Hamilton 9 "The Argument of The Shepheardes Calender 11 9 Journal of English Literary Histor:y: 9 23 (1956) 9 ppo 177ffo and RoAo Durr 9 11 Spenser 0 s Calender of Christian Time 11 9 Journal of English Literary Histor~ 9 24 (1957) 9 ppo 270ffoo


Oxford History of English Literature 9 volume 3 (1954) 9 po 13lo

261 rural subject=matters they invited :readings that defined them as nloHer 11 comic or satiric 1:10rko ~ylls

The problems of interpretation posed by the

and Eclogues of antiquity lay in two main areaso

Firstly 9 the

exact mimetic status of the shepherd tJas blurred by 1680o decla:re that

nEoKJ 1 could

eclogues were uGoteheards talesu and Spenser could affi:rm

that his purpose 1r1as uto teach the ruder shepheard how to feede his sheepeu

1 9

but such parallels were difficult to maintaino

After all 9

the principal reason why rural life was so acceptably significant lay in its connotations of ease and lack of ambition or pride:

in short 9

Both Theocritus and Virgil emphasise the disparity between a Cos or Arcadia imaginatively reconstructed and the sophisti= cated audience implied in the framework of the collections as a wholeo Spenser also demonstrates no desire to mitigate the rudeness of his subject=matter in order to announce its seriousnesso

Secondly 9 the

v?poetic 11 content of the pastoral had to obey certain Horatian and Aristotelian dicta on a selective decorum and unitary form as selected by several generations of French neo=Classicismo


The frailty of

bucolic terms of reference is clear from the assaults on its lack of urbanity during the Restorationo

When Flatman identifies the libertine

Rochester as a latter-day Daphnis 9 the identity is manifestly ironico 3


"The generall argument of the whole booke" 9 Poetical Works 9 po 419; "Glosse" to "December 11 9 po 467o


Both Ancient and Modern French criticism had stressed Horatian decorum and Aristotelian formo The principal texts are Boileau 9 s Art Poetioue (1674) and Traite du Sublime (1674) ~ Rapin us Reflexions sur la Poetique (1674) , Le Bossu vs Traite du Poeme epique (1675) 9 Saint=Evremond 0 s Essais (1684 fo) 9 Bouhours 0 s Maniere de bien penser (1687) 9 Dacier 1 s Preface sur les Satires d 0 Horace (1687) and his translation of Horace 0 s Poetics (1692)and Perrault 0 s Parallele des Anciens et des Modernes (lb8BJo English translations were quick to appear: Rapin (Rymer 9 1674) 9 Le Bossu (1695) 9 Saint=Evremond (1686) 9 Dacier (1692)o Some latitude in the English version may be noted in Soamesus (revo Dryden) Boileau: Art of Poetr~ (1680) and Pulteneyus Treatise on Loftiness and Elegance of Speech (1680) 9 Boileau 1 s 0 Langinus 1 o


The full text of "On the-Death of JC1y lord Rochester: Pastoral" (1680) is found in Rochester: The Critical Heritage 9 edited by David Farley=Hills (London 9 1972) 9 Po ll5o


One strain of interpretation would have the simpleton~

virtueo bucolic

therefore a rustic

his ersbvhile innocence protected by lack of opportunity not These t\vo problems 9 of unacceptable ambiguity and possible


forced those who t'.Tould attempt ne1rr pastoral t'.Triting

to adopt a defensive positiono ~~~s


One of the most trJidespread discoveries

the shepherd as a man of sentiment 9 if not nobly savage 9 then

passionately simple 9 inviting not


but indulgenceo

The critical principle that asserts that the poetic is ultimately measured by the heart rather than the head is often felt to have ori= ginally been formulated on the subjective criteria of 1:yrical Ballad.s11 (1800)o literary historiano


the 1 ~reface

This is frequently a convenient myth of the

In rejecting the neo=classic sense of "art" 9

Wordsworth tries to expose the fact that responses both to nature and to those living in an unmediated relation to it had been frequently manipulated by a specifically poetic language


from the real language of men in any situation°

differing materially 9

so much so that the

taste of men had become gradually perverted in that this language was received as a natural language not merely as a means of giving pleasure . "t Yo 1 and d J.gnJ.

Consequently 9 an Old Cumberland Beggar or a Leech=

gatherer could be serious poetic material merely because they induced worthwhile feelings not because they were socially respectableo is the notable advance of the 11Preface 11 o


The nobility of simple feelings 9

the primitivism of the inspired rather than the learned 9 are all catered for 9 hovJever 9 in the ITc:p«.


of the otherwise unknown

probably written in the first centuryo


Lone;inus 00 ~

It is this taste for the

sublime that is so incompatible with the Arcadian pastoral detachment of Pope 0 s Pastorals and yet so encouraging to the



of those of Philips or Purneyo


See \ifordsworth 0 s Literary Criticism 9 edited by Nowell Co Smith 9 reprinted with Preface 9 Introduction and Notes by Howard Mills (Bristol~ 1980)~ ppo 30=3lo

263 •:sublimen does not exactly render fnvo·vc; o

The earliest English

translations l1Tere entitled Of the Height of Eloquence (John Hall 9 1662) and Of the Loftiness or Elegancy of Speech (John Pulteney 9 1680)o t1Tas only

wi. th


the vogue of Boileau us translation of 1674 that his

translation 9 the


sublirne11 ~ became authoritativeo

As ToSo Dorsch

observes 9 the word does not quite carry the present associations of sublime~

that is 9 of an outstanding and unusual exaltation of conception

and styleo

VAs Longinus defines it 9 it signifies a certain distinction

and excellence of expression ooovo


references to exalted intellectualityo

Consequent commentary has added The major theoretical challenge

of the essay 9 however 9 lies in the use made of the term and where ''Longinus" locates its originso In the very first chapter 9 rhetoric and poetry are sharply distinguished 9 for the effect of elevated language upon an audience is felt to be not persuasion but transports> a f'renzy



places the poet in the foreground for this sublimity must be the echo '7,

of a great soul (capable of' sublime usimplicityv 9 7oi 9 ii~9i 9 ii)-" not so much great labouro

The individuality of the poet is thereby

a crucial factor in poetic excellenceo

Of the five sources of this

effect outlined in Chapter VIII; even those allowed to be primarily the consequence of


art" have a heavily "natural" bias to them 9 and

seem to be the consequence of a prior disposition of soulo 11

The two

natural 11 attributes 9 the power of forming great conceptions

and inspired and vehement passion


Classical Liter Criticism 9 translated with an Introduction by ToSo Dorsch Harmondst~orth 9 1965) 9 po 24o

c; " My copy=text of the treatise is that edited by See Russellus note on the term DoAo Russell (Oxford 9 1964)o at po 62o

8'}(01;(10 ~


3o uo/oc; ~s~a.~o~poauv~c; &~~x~~ao

264 axe the keystones of the three 1'artificial" or acquired qualities 9

rli dian

co.o&.a (, c;

and dignified and elevated

this sense 9 anti=artificeo is a contradiction in termso


composition° y

But an art of the spontanem;.s





subli.me 11

In view of this the value of art is in

restraining the passionate autonomy of what is basically an impulse or an instinctive reactiono

This has two consequences of special

significance for theorists of the Restoration and beyondo

Firstly 9

scrupulous technical correctness is relatively mediocre when compared with the unevenness of grand literary effects and 9 secondly 9 the single grace or happy touch is to be treasured (as the effects of genius) rather more than a greatness or perfection achieved through a whole structure:

The extent to which this offers an alternative to both Aristotle and Horace is easily gauged by observing how vividness of description could be a virtue in itself in the eighteenth centuryo

For example 9

Ambrose Philips told the patrons of his periodical The Free=Thinker 63 (Octa27 9 1718) that when a great poet conveys 0 just and lively Ideas 0 to his readers 9 °Words, in His Disposal 9 are Things: And 9 the Deception proves so strong 9 that the Reader forgets he is perusing a Piece of Writingoo


Homer proved a useful example of this power of

Joseph Spence in his Essay on Pope 0 s


landscapes 9 praises their quality of making



(1726) 9 in discussing his 0

everything present to us;

and agreeably deceive us into an Imagination 9 that we ooo actually See 9


The Free=Thinker (London 9 1722=23) 9 3 vols 9 2: 5lo


what we only Haar 0 o

This rapture cuts across most contemporary

theories of reading that emphasised the regular and regulated pleasures ':Jith their ovm



ARRical associations and implicit continuity 1.vith past

The emotional force of the Augustan Sublime creates an

experience that is only a1r1are of the present tense and hrhich does not require the series of gradually and rationally associated events 1.-rhich characterize Aristotelian formo

This simplicity of the passions

appeals to any one who is sensitive enough? and leaves out of account the literary and? therefore 9 learned codes \1l'ithin the traditional neo= classical canono It would be 1.11rong 9 on the other hand 9 to define the "Longinian11 Sublime solely by reference to its rhapsodic effectso


may well

have been an impressive authority for those who t'ITished to endorse a psychological grammar of literary response 9 but it would be so only through a partial readingo

In IIep i. Y1/fou <;; there is a clear split

between the sublime touch or "lucky hit" and the inventive skill plus proper order and disposition of material that only reveals itself graduallyo

Nonetheless there are other chapters where this distinction

is denied 9 the most obvious example being in IIo2 9 where sublime effects are seen to be dangerous unless balanced by 1Dlowledge 9 the curb as well as the spur of audacityo


Pope expressed this qualification in his

Essay on Criticism (1711): For Wit and Judgement often are at strife 9 Tho 0-m9ant each other 0 s Aid 9 like Man and Wifeo ;Tis more to guide than spur the Musesv Steed; Restrain his Fury 9 than provoke his Speed; The winged Courser 9 like a gen 1 rous Horse 9 Shows most true Mettle when you Check his Courseo [llo 81=87] 3


"An Essay on Pope 0 s .Qg,~y : In which some particular Beauties and Blemishes of that. ~'Jork are consider 0 d11 (London 9 1726) 9 po 66o

2o See Russell 0 s note at ppo 65=66 9 stressing the traditional basis of the metaphoro 3o The full text can be found at


1: 237=326o

266 This moderation of


Longinian 11 rapture is most evident later in the

Essay when he becomes an embodiment of such tempered passion: An ardent Judge. who Zealous in his Trust. Hith 1rJarmth gives Sentence 9 yet is always Just; 1rfuose own Example strengthens all his laws 9 And is himself that great Sublime he dral·JSo [llo 677=680] This is a neat refutation (in line with Chapter II of IIc;pt, Yt!Jo U<; ) the creed that the finds




Longinian n sublime is essentially artless 9 for Pope

Longinus 11 legislating by exampleo

That Pope 'lilas attracted by this 11LonginiarP position is borne out by the Scriblerian Peri Bathous (1728) 9 a comic inversion of the Sublime 9 which uses

'~onginus 1 s"

emphasis on the nobility of passion to condemn

a 1!low11 simplicity as represented by several Dunceso

It is not a case

of Pope distrusting the passions in poetic matters 9 rather that there is a clear difference between the "low11 and noble in the mattero


distinction is a part of Welsted 0 s reading of the treatise in his trans= lation of 1724 9 but as the stimulus of powerful and inspired emotion (VIILl)he places the


Pathetic 1 :


I understand by the Pathetic9 that

Rapture and that natural Vehemence which affects and moveso 1 considered an effect of Naturei one page later 9 Welsted 0 s


and must be born ~dth us 0 o



Sorrow 0 9 his substitution of the



that both Dryden and Pope considered this



Affliction ° 9

Pathetic 0 for the more

powerful original instils a potential contradictiono

and learnable effecto


is reminding the reader that the

sublime contains no "low" emotional ingredient such as °Fear 0 or

This is

It is obvious

Rapture 0 to be a premeditated

Dryden 9 even when pleading for a certain poetic

license from strict neo-classicism in the case of Heroic poetry 9 considers the sublime a rhetorical tropeo

In claiming that



267 is ooo the very height and life of Poetry 0 0



he concludes that

all reasonable men will conclude it necessary 9 that sublime subjects

mJe;ht to be adorned with the sublimest 9 and consequently often (1~

the most figurative expressions ooo 1 merely recasting the 1


Longinus 1' of Chapter

In this Dryden is

190)o XVII~


\'llhere it is stated that

by some quality innate in them 9 the rhetorical figures reinforce the

1 sublimeD o

They do this 9 however 9 by keeping out of the picture 9

allowing the beauty of the sublimity to shine a Pope 9 himself 9 allo1:1ed passion to be a primary motivating force in works of genius 9 but he too granted art or judgement a significant roleo (June 18 9 1712) 9 whilst granting that commonly the strongest Affections' controlled by




In Spectator 408

the greatest Genius 1 s have

he still maintained that they were

the Reins of Reason and the Guidance of Judgment 1 9

terms which betray a strong



Longinian 11 inspirationa

This strength of passion should be differentiated from lyric grace and its introspective intensities 9 for the


Sublime Genius 1 is of a

heroic stature apt to express itself in Pindarics or the Epic 9 not the smaller formso



recognised Genius and found it

the hall=mark of the grand style 9 3 not the song or ballada



The reason


~avu ouv~o~ov9 O~L ~uoeL ~Ws ou~~axeL ~e ~~ uljieL ~Q.. ax.f}~a~a i{UL ~al\.1.v clV~«.OU!l)..LU')(€L'tUL 13aU)..LUO~Ws u~




Prose Works 9 po 47a


This is especially the case with Boileau in his L'Art Po~tigue, where one of the most urgent rules is to break with traditional formulae where the particular instance warrants ita The asp1r1ng artist is to clear his 'esprit tremblant 1 of 1 scrupules' and 1 doutes ridicules' and learn 9 coo par quel transport heureux 9 Quelquefois dans sa course un esprit vigoureux Trap resserve per l 1 art 9 sort des regles prescrites 9 Et de 1 1 art m~me apprend a franchir leurs limiteso [4o 77=80] (Oeuvres Completes 9 edited by Charles~Ha Boudhors (Paris 9 1934=43) 7 vols 9 3:24:)

268 uhy Rap in chose not to endorse 'ILcnginus ~ s' w.1.d Quintilian ~ s emphasis on


the fear that the


as opposed to


in tandem ivith




celestial fire 0 of an °extraordinary Genius 0 would

be confused with the


empty flash 0 of an ignorant person°s imagination

heated perhaps by a debauch 9 poeto




the Dionysian °lucky hit 0 of the


Fundamentally 9 1..rith Rapin as with Pope and Dryden 9 Genius

flourishes consistently t·Iith an eye for formal beauty and its gradual effect a

The one exception to this rule in Pope 0 s case is Romero

the 'Prefacento his translation of the Iliad (1715) to a


wild Paradise 0 9 where the poet 1 s




the work is likened

amazing invention° is attributed

There is little doubt that the Homeric qualities are sublime ones for Pope confesses that a true Poetical Spirit is


no Nan of

of himself while he reads him 0 and

that so forceful is Homer 1 s imagination that the of himself 0 o



Reader is hurry 0 d out

Even so 9 the Iliad is not composed of a series of


sudden 9

short 9 and interrupted Flashes 1 as in the work of Lucan or Statius from whom he is dissociatedo

This fire of inspiration is at 1r1hi te~heat

throughout 9 over a longer stretch than could be supplied by a short . 2 1 yr~Co

This passionate simplicity which seems to militate against is therefore 9 according to this position 9 indeed artfulo


Pope can

explain the irregular beauties of Homer 9 even if he cannot supply rules for them 9 and even the "Longinian 11 rapture is guided by judgment as to when he shall indulge such a talent to move his readerso



clearly the opinion of Dryden 9 who in his Grounds of Criticism in Tragedyo

Prefixed to Troilus and Cressida (1679) 9 quotes "Longinus 0 s"


Reflections on Aristotle 1 s Treatise of Poesie 9 translated by Thomas Rymer (London 9 1674) 9 ppo 17 9 3o


Prose Works 9 ppo 224=25o

dictum that to tiTite genius 0 o


pathetically 0 can only be the product of a



However 9 the great feature of this talent is that it is not

totally innate, for unless he help himself by an acquired knot·rledge of the passions~ \iThat they are in their mm nature 9 and by cvhat springs they are -to be moved 9 he 1r1ill be subject either to ra:i.se them tJhere they ought not to be raised 9 or not to raise them by the just degrees of nature 9 or to amplify them beyond the natural bounds 9 or not to observe the crisis and turns of them 9 in their cooling and decay; all which errors proceed from want of judgment in the poet 9 and from being unskilled in the principles 1 of Moral Philosophyo [lg 220] There is here the victory of Horatian skill over furor poeticus and 9 implicitly 9 the vindication of tradition (and its recognition) over and above the instantaneous flash of powerful feelingso the passions 9 to Nrite 0




To provoke

is not the result of untutored

natural 0 simplicity at allo That this critical perspective on nLonginus 11 was not the only

prevalent one is really down to one very powerful influenceo

It is

not that Boileau 0 s translation and commentary on the treatise exalts


This debate between Art and Nature is by no means common only to this periodo The demand for works displaying an evspye~a stems from ancient rhetorico However 9 the reaction to this anti= traditional wart' was quite widespreado For example 9 see Sir William Temple 9 '·'Of Poetry" (1690h 9 Without the forces of wit 9 all poetry is flat and languishing; without the succours of judgment 9 'tis wild and extravaganto The true wit of poesy is that such contraries must meet to compose it: a genius 9 both penetrating and solid; ooo the frame or fabric of a true poem must have something both sublime and just 9 amazing and agreeableo 0 (Five Niscellaneous Essa;'i§_~ edited by SoHo Monk (Ann Arbor 9 Micho 9 1963) 9 po 1S0) 9 or Wentworth Dillon 9 Earl of Roscommon°s 9 dictum fromhis "Essay on Translated Verse 11 (1684): Beware what Spirit rages in your breast; For ten inspir 0 d ten thousand are Possesto Thus make the proper use of each Extream 9 And write 1rlith furu but correct with Phleamo [llo 298=301] Spingarn 9 2: 306o Even Shaftesbury 9 in (1710) recognises the pretence that might his Advice to an Author 9 accompany genius alone; see Characteristics of Men 9 Manners 2 and Qpinions 9 Times 9 edited by John Mo Robertson (Indianapolis 2 1964) 9 .2 vol.s., 9 1~ 151=52o

270 the


natura::.cG sublime at alla

In both his Traite du SublimeL-ou du

Merveilleux dans le Discours (1674) and his commentary Reflexions c~itiaues

sur auelaues passages du rheteur Longin (1694) 9 he makes

polemical use of

r 1Longinus 11

to correct the current idea? most notably

instanced by Perrault and others in their attack upon the Ancients? that the classical legacy t>Jas simply concerned l!Jith rules and the In thei'PrefaceBto his Traite 9 the


sublime 0 in the

tonginiarl.' sense is cut free of its association 1:vith the



high 11

(grandis) style of ancient oratory with its dignified cadences and periphrastic expressiono

Instead of a formal pattern 9 Boileau offered

a "sublime 11 with an element of the extraordinaryo It must be observ 0 d then that by the Sublime he [Longinus] does not mean what the Orators call the Sublime Stile 9 but something extraordinar~ and marvellous that strikes us in a Discourse and makes it elevate 9 ravish and transport uso The Sublime Stile requires always great Words 9 but the Sublime may be found in a Thought only 9 or in a Figure or Turn of Expressiono Instead of analysis 9 Boileau 0 s admiration;

Longinian" qualities exacted only


instead of rhetoric 9 he had recast the "sublime" as a

quality of soul 9 evading full definitiono

Indeed 9 a given passage

could be in the





high 11 style and yet not be


Such a statement

the sovereign arbiter of Nature from a single utterance formed the

light 9 contains nothing marvellous or surprising 9 especially when it is compared to the famous pronouncement in Genesis (quoted by MLonginus"): 1

God said Let there be Light 9 and there was Light 9

The contrast


See the discussion by Jules Brody 9 Boileau and Longinus (Geneva 9 1958)9 ppo ll3=17o


The Works of Monsro Boileau Despreaux 9 translated by John Ozell (London 9 1711) 2 vols 9 2 : 7o The fullest account of this variety of the Sublime is given in SoHo l"lonk 9 The Sublime : A Stud} of Critical Theories in XVIII=century England·(New York 9 1935 9 ppo 29=379 44=46o


betueen the grandeur and


of the thought anQ its utterly

simple expression creates a sublime effect 7



high; 1 style merely

neutralized ito The Traite and the Reflexions both sanction an idealized •;sublime'' ~ a quality free of all associations of the Academy and its concomitant inheritance~

classical precedento

Thanks to this


the more

neo=classical '1-onginus" was vulnerable to a more democratic spirit 9 stressing those passages that lent a spiritual colouring to the termo To some extent the p01:1er of '1.onginus 0 sn influence


strictly against

Gallic influence and 9 interpreted nationalistically 9 it could reinforce Anglo=Saxon prejudice and an ideology of patriotic libertyo the genius as a man of feeling


an attractive imageo

Hm·1ever 9

Sir Richard

Blackmore used it to excuse himself from Dennis 0 s criticisms of his first epic:

Prince Arthur (1696)o

In his 'PrefacEt 1 to King Arthur

(1697) 9 after presumptuously comparing himself with Homer 9 he represents himself as an unlearned genius with precedento



as authoritative

This desperately modest persona suited Ambrose Philips

in his "To A Friend Who Desired Me to Write on the Death of King William"

(1702)o The country scraper 9 111hen he wakes the Crowd 9 And makes the tortur 0 d cat=gut squeak aloud 9 Is often ravishvd and in transport lost; What more 9 my friend 9 can famVd Carelli boast 9 ~Jhen harmony herself from heav 0 n descends 9 And on the artist 0 s moving bow attends? Why then 9 in making verses 9 should I strain For wit 9 and of Apollo beg a vein? oooo Let me transgress by nature 9 nor by rule 9 An artless Idiot 9 not a studyvd foolo


They 9 the critics 9 are taken to have hinted that neither Homer nor Virgil 0 has shevm a more regular Conduct 0 than in Prince Arthur (po iii)o However 9 the occasional fault is expected of 0 writers of the first Rank 1 9 where 1 one or hm of their extraordinary and admirable Thoughts \-.rill Atone for all their Faults 1 o This is the face=saving 1 Apology 1 discovered in 'the famous Longinus 1 (po iv)o


A Withers 9 not a EhJmer 9 since I aim 1 At nothing less 9 in tv.riting 9 than a nameo [llo 35=42 9 45=48] In finding for himself such a voice Philips is eschewing the public mode

of elegy or odeo

He encourages GHalifax's Muse 0 to sing the late king 0 s

virtues 9 a task to uhich he feels himself unequaL than prophane his sacred herse

Therefore 9 °:rather

I \eli th languid praises and

unhallo~r:r 0


verse 0 (9=10) Philips chooses the lyric 9 °like some love=sick fopling rhyme 0



To blooming Phillis I a song compose 9

compare her to the




I And 9 for a rhyme 9

This unstudied simplicity is far

from the t:Longinian 11 sublime 9 but not so far from the city of



"patheti~ 1


It differs significantly in that the

model for such simple emotional display is taken from either songs or sonnets~

lower 11 formso


Adina Forsgren concludes in her work on John

Gay that although the notion of poetical kinds had died hard even with Modern


there were appeals against the classical gradation 9

to recognise with Fontenelle 9 a certain number of esp~ces nouvelles: 0

In that group 9 the "modern" French critic included ''Letters of Love

and Gallantry11 9 Tales 9 Operas and Songso


These genres were accepted

Poetical Works 9 po 86o The1reference for Withers above Rymer (~Shymer 9 ) clarifies the anticlassical line of attacko George Wither 9 often the butt of the Restoration Wits for his copiousness and choice of subject 9 often wrote in an indigenous 9 lyrical pastoral vein 9 aiding William Browne 0 s choice of Britannia 9 s Pastorals (1616)o In The Shepherd 9 s Hunting (1615) and Fidelia (1615) 2 a poetical lament from a for= saken maiden to her lover 9 he established the taste for a 19 pathetick" plangency a Later in life 9 he was to turn to devotional verse such as The Nature of Man (l636)o This SLT.ple emotional piety obviously recommended him to Philipso Thomas Rymer 9 on the other hand 9 appears as the unyielding neo=classicist 9 the translator of Rapin (1674) and a most literal=minded dramatic theorist as evidenced by Tragedies of the Last Age 9 considered and examined b;y the Practice of the Ancients and by the Common Sense of all Ages (1678) and A Short View of Tra~ (l692)o Pope 0 s comment on this unlearned Muse is best exemplified by his judgement on vJelsted in the 1728 Dunciad: °Flow i"lelsted 9 flow~ like thine inspirer 9 Beer 9 -Tho' stale 9 not ripe; tho 1 thin 9 yet never clear; So 9 sweetly mawkish 9 and so smoothly dull; Heady 9 not strong 9 and foaming tho 1 not fulla 9 (III: l63=66v TE2 5: 166=67)o

273 not because of authoritative classical

but because they


had been used vJith success by French poets 9 to \·Jhom Antiquity [had] 1'hese co modern u• forms invite the

nothing to set in

n1ower 11 classical forms such as pastoral and especially the Theocritean Doric 9 to combine \-Ji th them a

As 1rJill be discussed



passionate •~simplicity' is as much an ideology as a formal preferencea The attraction of Boileau 0 s commentary on

~ 1 Longinus 1 a

\..ras its

canonization of elements not catered for in the neo=classic standards he had himself declared in LuArt



Merveille and

beau desordre were as acceptable as regularity and reasona


'Longinus 0 sfl constant reminders about the necessary role of wide reading


and tradition were not half so remarkablea

What for Hall (1662) or

Pulteney (1680) had been a particular felicity of expression 9 had by the early eighteenth century 9 with Boileauus help 9 lost its rhetorical associations and become a description of a spiritual dispositiono


is only a small step to the conclusion that Genius is three parts passion and only one part learning (if at all)o

John Dennis could

actually take "Longinus 11 to task for stating that there are examples of the sublime which are independent of passiono

This uEnthusiastick

Passion' is the sole source of Sublimity and could be taken to be the vcharacteristical Mark of Poetry ooo and the more Passion there is 9 the better the Poetryvo


It is no coincidence 9 therefore 9 to find

that Boileauus appreciation of a bucolic style was derived from its rendition of the rural scene 9 cleared of human poverty and steering an exemplary path between platitude and pomposityo 3

As soon as


John Gay: Poet vof a lower Orderu (Stockholm 9 1964) 9 2 vols 9 1: 14o


Critical Works 9 1: 215-16o


LuArt Poetigue 9 2: 1=37o A fuller description is available in Nathan Edelman 9 "VArt Po~tique: 0 Longtemps Plaire 9 et Jamais ne Lasseru" in French Classicism : A~Critical Ivliscellany 9 edited by Jules Erody (Englewood Cliffs~ NoJo 9 1966) 9 ppo 209=12o

Compare 1: 359o

27h.· passion rather than tradition is taken to be the touchstone of literary worth 9 the


is clear for the ershvhile u1mo1er 11 or shorter forms such

J yric or :pastoral to take on a neN prominenceo


The endorsement and serious consideration of the Dlo1r1er 11 kinds 1.vas fostered in particular by the Spectator papers on the Ballad (Nay=June 9 1711)


These three issues (70 9 74 9 85) approached the ballads of

Chevy Chase and Two Children in the Wood in a serious spirit 9 granting them access to academic studyo


Addison was quite aware of the The epigraph to the opening paper

populist position he \>!as taking Upo

is taken from Horace Epistles ILlo 63: ( 0


Interdum vulgus rectum videt 0

At times the public see and judge aright 0 )o

This democratic sentiment

is entirely in line with Addison°s sentiments elsewhere in the Spectatoro

Just eight issues earlier (62 9 Hay 11


1711) 9 Addison had attempted a

provisional definition of lnfit 9 a subject to \
he argues 9 is inexorably annexed to trutho

One of his authorities for this is Bouhours 9 s La Maniere de bien penser dans les ouvrages de l'esprit 9 Dialogue I (1687)


where Eudoxe defends

the classical taste and its insistence on le bon sens against French and Spanish influences 9 depicted by Philarete


ce qui est fleuri 9

tout ce que brille 0 ) 3 and the other is Boileau 9 1r1ho particularly in his Preface to the 1701 edition of his Works 9


claimed that fine writing did


The Spectator, edited by DoFo Bond (Oxford 9 1965) 9 5 vols 9 1: 297=303; 1: 315=22; 1: 360=64o The ballads were also associated with a brand of rusticityo Bowzybeus 9 for example 9 sings both in Gay 0 s "Saturday" (91-108) from The Shepherd 0 s Week (1714)o See Bond 0 s note at 1: 298 nolo


True Wit lay in a 0 Resemblance and Congruity of Ideas 0 whereas False Wit was found in either a 0Resemblance and Congruity of Single Letters 9 or 0 Syllables 9 or- 0 Words 0 or 0 whole Sentences or Poems 9 cast into the Figures of ~ 9 ~ 9 or Altars ooo 0 (1: 265)a


Quoted by Addison in Spectator 253 (December 20 9 1711) 9 2: 483o


Works 9 2: 49o

275 not consist so much in discovering r..e1rJ concepts as in giving things that are knmvn an agreeable turno

This French neo=classicism was

concerned pri..rna:rily with the bon l!lot 7

AC!rH son enlarges vrhat uere

fundamentally stylistic distinctions into a conceptual 11

using this



as more than a formal descriptiono


In describing

natural t•/ay of V>Iri ting 0 9 he enlists the help of an unexceptionable



that beautiful Simplicity 9 which we so much admire in the

Compositions of the Ancients;

and which no Body deviates from 9 but

those \.rho VJ'ant Strength of Genius to make a Thought shine in its o1rm natural Beautiesoo


Addison thus allies

a well=judged simplicityo


genius 0 to the beauty of

The degree 9 ho1!Jever 9 to which he is prepared

to praise the judicial faculties involved is emphasised when the real enemy to simplicity hoves into view:


foreign Ornaments

Extravagancies of an irregular Fancy 0 o





majestick Simplicity

of Nature' which provides the yardstick for fine writing is not an exclusive property of the Academician 9 for he may be distracted by the acquired snares of artificialityo 11

Wit" 9 in paper 409 9 this


When Addison returns to affairs of

fine Taste in Writing' is acquired by reading 9

it is true 9 but its real roots lie in the sympathies of the readero Addison pleads for the critic who might put by a reliance on



Mechanical Rules which a Man of very little Taste may discourse upon° and instead would emphasise the


very Spirit and Soul of fine Writing 9

and shew us the several Sources of that Pleasure which rises in the Mind upon the Perusal of a noble Work 1 (3: 530)o

The direction in

which Addison°s aesthetics moved from 1711 to 1712 was towards "Longinian" vocabulary 1rlith its extension into areas of tasteo


order for this idea to gather sufficient authority 9 the taste for


Spectator 62 (May 11 9 1711) 9 1: 268o

276 epigrams 9 turns of wit and forced conceits is the paper tiger that opposes it;

there is no disguising the fact 9 however 9 that the Art

suggested by the more traditional gradation of the kinds is largely discredited at the expense of va natural simplicity of thought 1 which affects the mind of the readero by received Arts



tastev is not trammelled

or rhetorical distinctions 9 but is regulated by

aesthetic considerationso What is most striking about Addisonvs espousal of the



form is how clearly it resembles his pronouncements on °True Wit 0 o Once again °majestick Simplicity 0 is opposed to the Gothic taste for vEpigrammatical Turns and Points of

~Jit 0

(74 9 1: 316);

simplicity is emphasised as a public propertyo

only here this

The introduction of

paper 70 makes this clear: vJhen I travelled 9 I took a particular Delight in hearing the Songs and Fables that are come from Father to Son 9 and are most in vogue among the common People of the Countries through which I passed; for it is impossible that any thing should be universally tasted and approved by a Multitude 9 thou they are only the Rabble of a Nation 9 which hath not in it some peculiar Aptness to please and gratify the Mind of Mano Therein lies such natural simplicity;

such a consensus


as is mentioned here 'shows the essential and inherent perfection of simplicity of thought 0 (1: 297)o mined by its status as


The choice of Chevy Chase is deter-

the favourite Ballad of the common People of

England 0 and because the particular simplicity it displays 9 its vpaintings of Naturev appeal not only to the umost ordinary reader but also to the umost refinedv (1: 298)o is ·simplicity


The keynote of the papers

an emotional integrity which is none the less noble

and elevated for its plain delivery and unprepossessing contexte Cutting between passages from the Aeneid to comparable stanzas from the ballad 9 Addison daringly asserts that there is little to choose


behreen themo

those extracts from Chevy Chase seem to fit


quite adequately the of the bo.ll:ld style

~QLonginian c~ 0


In defending the simplicity

one may ,:!ell pardon in so old a Poet u9 he


hopes this lucidity will not prejudice anyone against the uGreatness of the Thought uo He then quotes the follct,!ing ste.nza l·Jhich illustrates the generosity of Earl Percy 9 lamenting over his


Then leaving Life Earl Pierc~ took The dead Nan by the Hand 9 And said Earl Douglas for thy Life bJould I had lost my Lando o oo v 0

That beautiful Line 0 Taking the dead Man by the Hand 0 9 will put the Reader in Hind of Aeneas 0 s Behaviour towards Lausus 9 In Noo 76 9 Addison even goes so far as to disagree with Sidney 0 s criticism of the ballad 0 s was



rude Stile 0 9 claiming that the language

majestick and the Numbers sonorousi ooo 0 (1: 316)o No doubt satisfied by the advances he had made in papers number

70 and 74 9 Addison next chooses a more controversial ballad to canonize> the

Two Children in the Wood.


a tale not of military heroism but of

pathos and tender filial sentimentso


The apologetic preamble to his

review of the ballad serves notice that some reader resistance is expected:


My Reader will think I am not serious 9 when I acquaint

him that the Piece I am going to speak of was the old Ballad of the Two Children in the Wood 9 which is one of the Darling Songs of the Common People 9 and has been the Delight of most Englishmen in some Part of their Age 9 o the allowance that the

The emphasis on sheer pleasure and delight plus 0

Darling 0 song might excite the enthusiasms of

childhood might have signified that the



Longinian'' sublime was not

Collected by Ambrose Philips in his A Collection of Old Ballads 9 with Introductions historical( critical 2 or humourous (London 9 1723=25) 3 vols 9 3rd edition 1727) 9 1~ 221=26o Gay imitated its opening lines in Air XII of The Be~gar 9 s ~era (1728) 9 edited by Peter Lewis (Edinburgh 9 1973 9 ppo =65o

lioueve:r ~ the same formulaic test of r;.atu:ral simplicity 9 that


the incidents should


grow out 0 of the subject 9 °and are such as are

the most proper to excite Pity 0 o is applied to both Chevy Chase and Tl·JO Childreno

t·Jhilst admitting that the language is


mean ° 9 Addison

seems to imply that that is indeed an aid to the reader 0 s appreciation that the


Thoughts 0 are 'natural 0 9 and 9 by


natu:ral 0 9 he signifies the

common emotional bond that all people 9 stripped of the acquirements of art 9 will recognise is a constant in human behaviouro

This theory of

reading relies on the transparency of the medium of expression



limpid style that implicitly signifies in its informal appearance associations of plain=dealing and sincerityo

This is essential for

the passionately simple style 9 a form that is closely allied in this series of papers with Addison's concept of the sublimeo

In order that

his apology for the serious consideration of the ballad=form be complete 9 he 9 in this instance 9 invokes mimetic criteria in its praise: The Song is a plain Simple Copy of Nature 9 destitute of all the Helps and Ornaments of Arto The Tale of it is a pretty Tragical Story 9 and pleases for no other Reason 9 but because it is a Copy of Natureo There is even a despicable Simplicity in the Verse; and yet 9 because the Sentiments appear genuine and unaffected 9 they are able to move the Mind of the most polite Reader with inward Meltings of Humanity and 1 Compassiono [1: 362] The sentiments must


appear 0 sincere 9 therefore the


most polite Reader 1

must find what he does not quite expect 9 a tenderly iconoclastic rudeness


This transparent plainness was the object of William Wagstaffe 1 s parody of Addison°s papers on the Ballad 9 in A Comment Upon the History of Tom Thumb (1711) 9 reprinted in Addison and Steele: The Critical Herita~e 9 edited by Edward Ao Bloom and Lillian Do Bloom (London 9 1980 9 ppo 232=47o Emboldened by the impression that the series was by Steele 9 Wagstaffe addresses some 1 Enter= prising Genius of late 1 who has recommended 0 some Pieces ooo for no other Reason but their unpolish 0 d Homeliness of Dress 0 o Wagstaffe concludes: 1 And if \.,e were to apply our selves 9 . instead of the Classicks 9 to.the Study of Ballads and other ingenious Composures of that Nature ooo it is impossible to say what Improvement might be made to 1rlit in general a (po 233) o

279 This defenceless ancl.

and the transparently contrived ballad.·-metreo

open temper needs a reciprocal gesture from the reader the possessor of the 11.onginian 11 vJill be magnanimous enough to i~ature

of Hidicule 9 and admire This yoking of










true Greatness of Soul and Genius 0 •

divest [himself] of the little Images in her Simplicity and Nakedness 0



Simplicity 0 and vulnerable sincerity is a

powerful combination and is usually expected of commentaries on the !:!Yrical



The Idiot Boy0 in particularo

That it should occur

at this juncture is indicative of one line of critical thought that 11

Longinian 11 influences could both highlight and producea On the other


Addison 1 s appropriation of sublime phrases must

be clearly distinguished from the original classical sourcea no likelihood of this disparity passing unnoticeda


There was



nsir Tremendous Longinus 11 of the Scriblerian Three Hours After Marriage (1717)


answered Spectator 70 and 74 in a letter to his old friend

Henry Cromwell (1712)o

That Dennis felt its position to be an important

one is demonstrated by its publication as an open letter in the Original Letters (1721)


under the title "To H===



Of Simplicity in

Poetical Compositions 9 in Remarks on the 70tho Spectator 11 o had obviously asked whether



had felt it to be a hoax or note

The reply was that it was too serious a mistake to be a jest and too innately comical to be in earnesto

Dennis goes out of his way to draw

up battle lines by taking some of Addison°s phrases piecemeal and replying to each in turnc

To some extent this is a deliberately

unsympathetic tactic 9 for 9 taken broadly 9 the papers on Ballads are part of a thoroughgoing attempt on Addison°s part to focus critical attention on the reader 0 s response and away from an academic fixation with virtuoso showmanship or craftsmanlike 9 yet cold 9 technique alonea The


Taste of polite Writing 0 (1: 245) that he had hoped to establish

280 among readers of the §Ractator in paper 58 (May 7 9 1711) was in effect As early as the

quite consistent with his purpose in 70 9 74 and 85o

Tatler (163 9 April25 9 1710) Addison had been dissatisfied with the Dtrue English reader 0 in the form of Ned Softly who proved



of relishing the great and masterly Strokes 0 of poetic expression by being distracted by the acquired taste for the of art that lack the



little Gothick Ornaments 0

facility for representing

its natural Beauty and Perfection°o


Simplicity in


What Dennis distrusts 9 however 9 is not this distaste for Meta= physical turns of wit 9 but the lack of social awareness that finds true simplicity the attribute of the


As early as his

common people 0 o

Preface to The Passion of Byblis (1692) 9 social 9 and therefore literary 9 decorum is a powerful influenceo 0

Sentiments 0 that are

0 SO


mostly engaged by the Ovidian

tender and yet so delicate 0 9 Dennis goes

further (in terms that remind one of Addison) to admire the effects created by 0Expressions so fit and withal so easie 1 :


there seems to

be something in the very sound of the Verse so soft and so pathetick 9 that a man who reads the Original 9 must have no sense of these Matters if he is not transported with it 0 (1: l)o



easie 9 verses are

obviously capable of touching the sublime styleo

Here Dennis seems

in accord with Addison°s view of the ballad=formo

Three paragraphs

later and a significant difference is obviouso

Whilst dwelling on

the faults of the Ovidian text 9 Dennis appears to require a consistency of character determined by her social station °as a Lady 9 a Virgin 9 and a Woman of Honour 0 o

There are passages where Byblis 0 s immodesty break

this rule: I know very well that a Woman of Honour 9 when once she is seiz 0 d by a great Passion 9 has more violent desires than


The Lucubrations of Isaac Bickerstaff 9 Esqo (London 9 1723) 9 4 vols 9 3: 232o

281 the most abandon°d Homan can have oooo But this is most certain 9 that a Woman of Honour can never break out into immodest Expressions 9 let her Passion be never so violento [1: 1] The social decorum erected into a moral category is heavily reminiscent of the strictures of a Rymer or Collier on dramatic representation 9 and involves a dimension of critical value of which Addison is aware but which he chooses to ignoreo Dennis 0 s


1 of the simple passions aroused by the

'iLonginian 11 sublime is coloured by prior assumptions about literary representation 9 the principal recognition being that there are emotions which are to be taken seriously and some that are note

Increasingly 9

it becomes clear that the n1ower 11 forms of emotion are congruent to 11

lot·Jerr 1 social castes where satire or comedy is expectedo

however inconsistencies in this critical positiono

There are

Dennis agrees

with Addison in his Remarks on Prince Arthur (1696) in banishing 9 Point and Conceit 9 and all that they call Wit 0 from true poetryo

In deni=

grating Blackmore 9 s bombast it is easy to claim that a Poet ought always to speak to the Heart 9 which effortlessly condemns its rigid and unrelenting epic stylizationo


For nothing but t-Jhat is siinple

and natural 9 9 Dennis claims at this point 9 °can go to the Heart; and


For Rymer 9 s comments 9 concerning decorum especially 9 see Spingarn 9 2: 194: !Tragedy cannot represent a woman without modesty as natural and essential to her 0 ; 2: 195: 0Poetical decency will not suffer death to be dealt-to each other by such persons whom the Laws of Duel allow not to enter the lists together 0 9 and 2: 223 9 where Rymer cannot stomach Iago: 0 He is no Blackamoor Souldier 9 so we may be sure he should be like other souldiers of our acquaintance; ooo 0 o Collier 0 s A Short View of the Immoralit~ and Profaneness of the English Stage (1698) is 9 in part 9 reprinted in Spin§a'rn 9 3: 253=9lo He too is worried about stage women °of Quality 0 talking 9 Smuttily 0 (3: 269)o In a more revealing moment he casts light on- the political complexion of his 11 decorum": 0 I hope the Poets don°t intend to revive the old Project of Levelling 9 and~ down the House of Peers 0 (3: 276)o Dennis 0 s own version of this narrower decorum seems only to apply to the actual words used 9 not necessarily the sentiments they were to articulateo See Critical Works 9 1: 423=24o

282 Nature (humanly speru{ing) can be Indeed~


by it self alone 0 (lg 127)o

one of the faults of Byblis 0 s passion

its tendency to lapse


into allegory and simile tcJhich 'could not be moving 9 because it could not be natural7

it being by no means the language of great grief 0 (lg 2)o

This seems if anything a clear vindication of the ballad=form if taken in isolationo All the same 9 Dannis 0 s regard for the


greatness 0 of the grief to

be expressed proved a powerful antidote to such generic slummingo both his Advancement and Reformation of Modern



(1701) and his

Grounds of Criticism in Poetri (1704) 9 he swerves away from the anti= rhetorical passages of "Longinus' and increasingly to those that condemn the "lower' passions which should be avoided in sublime writingo


brief 9 Dennis 0 s argument for a Hhigher 11 and admirable simplicity stems from a concentration on the Great Subjecto

In 1701 9 the Ancients were

praised above the Moderns for their access to such themes and only these could excite the great passions and thus produce (1: 214)o



pathetick 0 writing

Part of the grounds for criticism three years later involved

a more didactic approacho

Just as the best Grand Subjects were sacred

ones 9 the end of poetry similarly implied religious principles:



the End of Poetry be to instruct and reform the World 9 that is 9 to bring Mankind from Irregularity 9 Extravagance 9 and Confusion 9 to Rule and Order 9 how this should be done by a thing that is in itself irregular and extravagant 9 is difficult to be conceived ooo 0 (1: 335)o

The Great

Subject gave an Aristotelian coherence to lyric impulses and rescued them from the contamination of nlm,rer 11 kindso for some ultimately non=aesthetic goal:

Passion is always excited

instruction and thereby



Dennis is here drawing a crucial distinction between °ordinary 0 Passion °whose Cause is clearly comprehended by him who feels it 0 and 0Enthusiasm 0 the mainsprings of which are spontaneous and apparently unknown (1: 216)o

rvsimplicity' had come to signify a complex of unarticulated assumptions dictated by social and ethical criteria; the


for two divergent ideologieso

it had become The nsim:plicity"

of Che'I[Y Chase 9 to a large degree 9 t1as due to the absence of Gothic turns of

and art vihich did not derive closely from the subjecto


This homology 9 if excusable in the heroic tones of that ballad 9 proved less easily ratified by the softer hues of The Children in the Woodo Dennis~s


simplicity 11 was a possession of those who had learnt how to

render the greater objects of contemplation and emotion in a plain 9 respectful mannero

That this


simplicity 7 was basically an effect

of Art rather than Nature 9 however smoothly concealed 9 is clear from the letter to Cromwello To some extent 9 Addison°s past

was easy prey for Denniso


Referring to the Tatler 134 (Febol6 9 1709) 9 he exposes a class distinction that Addison had once upheld:


Has not he himself observed

in the 134th Tatler 9 that there are Exercises and Diversions which universally please the Rabble 9 which yet Men of Quality or Education 1

either despise or abhor? 0 o

Dennis even chooses the 'Country Fidler 0

with whom Philips had so modestly identified himself to press home this advantage:


I have known a Country Fidler who has been the Delight of

three Counties 9 tho 9 he could never play the Truth of one Tune; 0 (2: 29)o Addison°s lack of distinction between the Mind of Man 'as it is rude and untaught 0 and




tis cultivated and instructed 0 might have merely

been a failure of a faulty education 9 but Dennis extends the matter


Dennis misrepresents Addison°s main topic which is the remarkable relish the British lower and upper classes have for bloodsportso In writing against bear=baiting and prize=fighting 9 he extends the same sentiment to other entertainments 9 such as hunting or watching sanguinary Tragedies: 0 It will be said 9 That these are the Entertainments of common Peopleo It is true; but they are the Entertainments of no other common Peopleo Besides 9 I am afraid there is a Tincture of the same savage Spirit in the Diversions of those of higher Rank 9 and more refined Relish 0 (Lucubrations 9 3: 97)o

284 into another area of discourseo

The passage that upset Dennis so much

involved an anecdote of Boileau us concerning Moliere t":Tho was supposed to have read all his comedies to his ulittle oldu housekeepero


her reaction Moliere 1.-Jas supposed to revise his 1!1Jork and uthe Audience a:.t-Jays


Place 1 o

d the old \·Joman 9 and never failed to laugh in the same

This was an instance of the proposition that uHuman Nature

is the same in all reasonable Creatures 9 and whatever falls in with it 9 ~:Jill

meet trith Admirers among Readers of all Qualities and Conditionsu o

In response 9 Dennis calls on divine aid to uphold the differentials of


To distinguish between


what Human Nature is 9 and what

Human Nature should be' is the very first task of a poet on the Dennis modele

To blur this division is to deny the myth of the Fall:



Nature tvas Human Nature before the Fall 9 and 'tis Human Nature n0111 tis degenerated from that perfect Virtue and that unclouded knowledgeoooo 0

Tis the Business and Design of Education to endeavour to retrieve in

some measure the Loss that Human Nature has sustainud by the Fall 0 (2:30)o 11

Simplicity" therefore is an acquired quantityo

Dennis contrasts it

not only with a conceited redundancy of style ( 0Extravaganceu) or inaccurate self=indulgence ( 1 Affectation 1 ) but significantly with 'Imbecility':

'when a Man wants Force to come up to the Truth of

Nature' (2: 33)o

usimplicity" is an


Heroick 1 force consistent tvith

nobility and even 9 at times 9 'the most pompous Eloquence 1 o


Chase is found deficient in both qualities by refusing the advantages of sonority and epic phrasingo This watershed beh,reen two strikingly opposed definitions of poetic value inexorably involves two opposed ideologies not merely opinions as to taste or specifically artistic wortho

What Addison's self=conscious

devil 1 s advocacy had called into question was not only Horatian decorum but the very basis of mimetic arto

The ballad had always been an


v.nofficialn genre for the seventeenth=century because it portrayed


a life (and was therefore a reflection of that life) that was considered unartistic, nunofficial 11 o



it seriously and 9 worse 9 likening

i t to Virgil 0 s epic 9 Addison had implicitly claimed that stre.et=life or

country=fiddlers had concerns serious enough to cause emotions societyo



This was rather more implicit than expressed in that he had

concentrated on their representative 1!simplicity11 9 a state in comparison with which corrupt and compromised urban aims could be pleasingly contrastedo

Even if the reflection is in the image of civilized urban

desires, the very basis of the cultural caste=system is questionedo Stylistic Simplicity and the Portrayal of the Countryman A corollary to this desire to include a depiction of the unlettered in pastoral was the increasing vogue for a plainer 9 more forensic delivery of preconceived materialo

This materialistic linguistic

philosophy fostered a tendency to ask unsympathetic questions of the traditional poetic or fictional conventionso

It has already been noted

that there proved to be a massive problem confronting pastoral theory at this


a nervousness that if the pastoral Has not part of the

"lower" rank of expressively lyrical "kinds11 9 then it had to demonstrate that it was


to represent some mimetic trutho

Thanks to Ancient

example, this would involve some truth that could be embodied in rustic or bucolic clothing, when, it was believed, nobility drove sheep to milkingo

In lieu of an allegorical relation between the bucolic sign

and its more urban/courtly referent, there would presumably have to be a greater contiguity 9 and less conventionality 9 about such a relatione Modern

shepherds were distressingly penurious and so ureal11 as to be

awkwardly recalcitrant matter out of which to form universal statementso The crisis therefore for the form was that what had existed continuously

286 as poetic metaphor no1·J took on the status of a more importunate realityo What had once been convention now had to be descriptiono p
In this

the real alternative to the Golden Age pastoral is not the

upassionately simple 1 eclogues of Philips 9 Purney or Walsh 9 but descrip= tive poetry itselfo The desire for simplicity could also claim that its goals \;Jere to vie>1T Nature toJith redoubled vigouro

To streamline the linguistic medium

was to remove distracting associations from it and casualties included the traditional forms and vocabulary of literature 9 a continuity with the classical paste

Most of Dennis 1 s authority for claiming that the

mind was not a universal but changed by education rested on the power of knowledge to filter perceptual realityo the traditions of



nliterature 11 and

that that invokes [email protected]'exposed as too manifest

a fiction 9 then "writingr 1 becomes more the property of the reader 9 s taste than the craftsmanlike authorvs knowledgeo There are 9 therefore 9 certain antithetical groups of assumptions about the nature of the pastoral metaphoro ethical

Firstly 9 there is the

Golden Age school of thought where the rustic shepherd


for a primeval aristocrat 9 and its opposite 9 the contemporary 9 senti= mentalized figure 9 driven to poetry by deep primary feelingso there is the opposition between the


Secondly 9

poetic11 or conventional shepherd 9

carrying allusions to his literary forebears and the parodic equivalent who is deliberately cut free of the pastoral traditiono

These two sets

of oppositions rnay 9 indeed 9 occur in the same works 9 but they demonstrate one fundamental difference that became more marked as the eighteenth century wore on:

beh1een 9 on the one hand 9 the more classical 9 and

therefore ennobled 9 pastoral which refers to a transcendental ideal and 9 on the other 9 an emotional ideal arising from an urban hope for a re= generative alternativeo

Both these varieties of pastoral poetry

approp~iate ~•d

in turn mould a reader 0 s contact tiith a

removing it from serious mimetic considerationo shovm~


existence 9

As Helen Cooper has

even the portrayal of the actual care of sheep in medieval

bergerie conforms 9 along


the detailed lists of clothing 9 instrument ~

and diet 9 to a conventional realismo~ Part of the legacy of an empirical linguistic theory is that words can 9 by careful cultivation and pruning 9 achieve an equivalence to thingso


Although the most obvious influence was on prose=style 9 the

delicacy of both kinds of pastoral idealism as identified above is exposed by this inhospitable climate of opiniono

When a truly modern

reappraisal of the genre is next attempted 9 it is from the retirement motifs of Horace and Virgil with a cutting from the Georgics that fresh inspiration is found 9 not the lyrical or allegorical traditionso



Pastoral 9 po 47o


This was the aim of the Royal Society as described by Thomas Sprat in his History of the Royal Societl (1667) 9 Part II 9 Section 20 9 where he rejects the 0 amplifications 9 digressions 9 and swellings of style: to return back to the primitive purity 9 and shortness 9 when men deliver 0 d so many things 9 almost in an equal number of 1iJOrdso 0 This had nurtured a 0 close 9 naked 9 natural \•Jay of speaking; positive expressions; clear senses; a native easi= ness ooo 0 o This plainness is reified as 0 natural 0 and veasieuo Wits and scholars were to be distrusted and 0 Artizans 9 Cotmtrymen 9 and Merchants 0 were to provide the model for languageo (The Histor of the Ro al Societ of London for the Im rovin of Natural Knowledge London 9 1 7 9 poll3o This is the opinion of Defoe in his The Complete English Tradesman (1725=27) where in volume 1 9 Letter 3: 11 0f the Trading Stile 11 9 all 0 dark and ambiguous speakings 9 affected words 1 are to be rejected for a 0 plain and homely stile 0 where 0 species of 9 for-business 9 every 0 0 0 goods are to be given their trading names . (Selected Writings of Daniel Defoe 9 edited by James To Boulton (Cambridge 9 1965) 9 po 227 )o This 9 however 9 pertains more to an effective prose communication of factso It was given a wider significance by Locke ·who preferred a medium apt to lay ideas 0 before the view of others 0 o (Book III 9 . Chapter 2o2; An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 9 fifth edition (1706) 9 edited by John Wo Yolton (Letchworth 9 revo edo 1974) 2 vols 9 2: l2o) One of the innate imperfections of words was their lack of natural subservience to mattero The second weakness in Book III 9 Chapter 9o5 is where the ideas words stand for 0 have no certain connexion in nature 9 and no settled standard anywhere in nature existing 9 to rectify and adjust them by 0 (Essay 9 2: 77)o

288 attempting to describe the disintegration of the classical pastoral and its more


lyrical alternative 9 it is first necessary to confront

the ·;;cal.-",nesses and divisione within apologies for the form prior to the vogue for GBOrgic poetry from John Philipsu s £ydez:

(1708) on1.-Jardso

Simplification of style emphasised the materiality of the object described at the expense of the metaphorical means such as allegory or allusion which traditionally helped to transform ito

Part of the

metonymic vigour of the Doric or the ruggedness of the Shepheardes Calendar had hovrever appeared a regression into provincial obscurity rather than perspicuous


simplicity 11 o

The traditional sources of

realism failed a test of intelligibilityo perspective 9


The Doric 9 from the classical

too dialectal and was only fully assimilable to

Modern· tastes by dint of a smoother


simplicity 11 than that found

in its sourceso The pastoral 9 as represented either by the Idylls or the Eclogues 9 is a form that implies spoken or sung idiomso

Whilst it may be true

that this does not exclude the artificial 9 it certainly does include dramatic contrasts either through the amoebaean structure or in its clear demarcation between the

Art: of song and the ·Nature

of noon=

day heat and work or the Virgilian technique of inviting Gallus into Arcadiao 11

The "object" and its metaphor are not as distinct 9 for the

shepherd'' and his song have a formal nature which is far more instru=

mental than any direct reference to analogous


real 11 equivalentsa


is ultimately important is how the means of signification change 9 not so much how such change reflects or explores real agricultural labouring conditions directlyo

In short 9 it is not a matter of searching for a

reality uncovered during a doubtless elaborate cognitive process but of examining either the various


realistic 11 effects which aim to reify

pastoral signs or of describing the shifts in these r.;mimetic 11 strategies 9

one of the most obvious bein.g the substit:1tion of !:Nrittenn accents for Hspoken11 ones 9 or systems of lyrical unity for dramatic dis= ccntinuitie.sv

E'!en if the

'bllC~o1 ir.

is of


rather than


inspiration 9 hov;ever 9 a thoroughgoing challenge to its metaphorical foundatio:n 9 that a pastoral shepherd is not a real &'1epherd 9 Hill do much to banish its charm and its claims to mimetic trutha

In the face

of this greater appreciation of denotative language 9 the lyricization of the form is a convenient interim position 9 harmonizing the dramatic and accentual contrasts of classical pastoral (and thus reducing abrupt reminders of an impoverished rural existence) and so helping ensure 9 by requiring sympathetic readings 9 the survival of the shepherd as a credible poetic figureo ~ihat

is striking about pastoral theory at this time is its desire

to establish as wide a mimetic foundation for the form as possibleo For example 9 Rapin 9 s dictum:


It is the imitation of the Action of .

a Sheapard 9 or of one taken under that Character 1


weds Aristotelian

unity of purpose in its concentration on a shepherd 1 s life with a more liberal extension into areas of reader response:

What the reader


takes 9

as a shepherd or finds consonant with such an occupation determines the uaction 1 of the poetryo Daphnis as a shepherd


The reader might even

1 take 0

a Gallus or

because he is represented like a Sheapard 1 (pol9)o

Pope and Chetwood both followed this example 9 whilst Gildon in his



the Manner 9 Rules 9 and Art of Composing Epigrams 9 Pastorals, Odes 9 etco 11 from his Complete Art of Poetrx (1718) supplied a subtly different emphasis:

on the locality:


Poetry in all its Parts is an Imitation 9

lo The qualif±'cation is really necessary because the Eclogues did not seem to concern merely a shepherd's daily round: 1 Virgil 1 s Gallus 9 tho not really a Sheapard 9 for he was a man of great quality in ~ 9 ooo belongs to Pastoral 9 because he is represented like a Sheapard 1 (po 19)o


and Pastoral

is an Imitation of the Lives and Conversations of


Shepherds 9 or rather of rural Actions 0 (po 157)o

Thomas Furney 9

hC':!e'.rer, resists some of thil3 mimeti ~ fnnndation for bucolicso granting that the



Lives of Shepherds 0 are to the fore in a pastoral 9

he joins to the Fable 9 °CHARACTERS 9 SENTTic'IEl\TTS [Thoughts] and LANGUAGE 0 o These jointly do not so much testify to ideas as excite


our Pity 9 or

our Joy 0 or bothD (po51The shepherd 9 in this version 9 is not so much nobly savage as emotionally culturedo The origins of the pastoral show a similarly variegated weaveo For this problem there was one impeccable Ancient authority:


in his De Rerum Natura 9 1r1ho wedded the demands of art and nature for future ages by claiming that shepherds learned poetry by imitating the sounds of naturea were the product of therefore


Rapin accentuates Lucretius 0 s hint that the pastorals 0

that State of Innocence the Golden Age ooo 0 and are

the invention of the simplicity and innocence 0 of that timeo

Even if this epoch cannot be verified 9 the myth survives:


that the

Manners of the first Men were so plain and simple 9 that we may easily derive both the innocent imployment of Shepherds 9 and Pastorals from This combination of the exemplary ideal and the affective image of innocence is one which scarcely survives Creech 0 s translation of Lucretius (1682) which is heavily weighted towards the softer impressionso

Thomas Pope Blount 0 s De Re Poetica (1694)


although following Rapin in many particulars 9 significantly refuses his line on the pastoral's origino

In removing all mention of the

Golden Age 9 Blount can give fuller scope to the pathos of that wood= land environment and illustrate the lyrical impulses which would be open to his rustic contemporarieso

This he does by way of Creech 0 s

291 Lucretius 9 quoting hw sections



is seen to dictate a

The first is the hypothesis that rural song was

secondary Arto

Through all the 1I'loods they heard the charming Noise Of chirping Birds 9 and try~d to fTame their Voice 9 And imitateo Thus Birds instructed ~ 9 And taught them Son~ 9 before theiT Art begano The second claims that the inspiration for forming instruments came Thus is formed the

from the rushing of the wind through treesa 0

tuneful Reed 0 : And I!Thilst the tender Flocks 9 securel;y feed 9 The harmless Shepherd tun°d their Pi¥es to love 9 And Amaryllis sounds in every Grovea In 1697 9 however 9 Chetwood stressed the earliest shepherds 0

discipline in


obeying the unsophisticated dictates of nature 0 and

thereby enjoying


a vigorous health of body 9 with constant serenity

2 and freedom of mind 1 o

Pope 1 s conclusion appreciates the same Golden

Age facilities 9 where the need for a diversion during leisure time created song- but 9 crucially 9 not the lower love lyrics but tunes where


they took occasion to celebrate their own felicityo


hence a Poem was invented 9 and afterwards improv 0 d to a perfect image of tha t happy




Here 9 however 9 are no


shaddowings 1 of 'the

most High 9 and most Noble Matters 0 that Drayton and most other Renaissance pastoralists found

ch~acteristica 4

The Golden Age

out of the Best The Creech 2o

''Preface to the Pastorals" 9 Works of John Dryden 9 edited by Sir Walter Scott 9 revised by George Saintsbury (Edinburgh 9 1882=93) 18 vols 9 13: 328o


TE9 1: 24o


Works 9 edited by JoV,/o Hebel (Oxford 9 1931-33) 9 4 vols 9 2: 517o Compare Barclay 9 Eclogues 9 po l or Puttenham 9 Arte of English Poesie (1589) 9 Elizabethan Critical Essa~s 9 edited by GoGo Smith (Oxford 9 1904) 9 2 vols 9 2: 40o

292 pastoral has no relation 9 direct or otherwise 9 to rural life as it is lived 9 but to how it may be appreciated as a morally coercive exampleo Such high matters were not the shepherd 0 s concern nor would it havP. been decorous to suppose that they would beo

Gay 9 in a rare moment

of direct comment 9 finds Spenser 0 s pretensions as a satirist highly improbable given its mouthpiece 9 in his 11Proeme to the Courteous Reader 11 prefixed to The Shepherd 0 s Week (l714)o may be


Although Spenser

a bard of sweetest memorial 0 9 °Yet hath his Shepherds Boy at

some times raised his rustick Reed to Rhimes more rumbling than ruralo Diverse grave Points also hath he handled of Churchly Matter and Doubts in Religion daily arising 9 to great Clerks only appertainingo 01 This smacked of temporizing and producing a localized poetry unfit to influence posterity because of its evident indebtedness to one time and placeo

Rapin 1 s Golden Age is fixed too 9 but even so eludes the

unwelcome proximity of contemporary yardsticks by its almost mythical prehistorical natureo

In so doing 9 it can use ideas of a rural life

to image the moral structures of the lesser country gentry: For since tis a product of the Golden Age 9 it \'!ill show the most innocent manners of the most ancient Simplicity 9 how plain and honest 9 and how free from all varnish 9 and deceit 9 to more degenerate 9 and \·Jorse times: And certain°y for this tis commendable in its kind 9 since its design in drawing the image of a Country and Shepherd's life 9 is to teach Honesty 9 Candor 9 and Simplicity 9 which are the vertues of private men; as Epicks teach the highest Fortitude 9 and Prudence 9 and Conduct 9 which are the vertues of Generals and Kings (po 47)o Chetwood was to echo this belief in holding that pastoral poetry



represent that ancient innocence and unpracticed plainness 0 (13: 337)


John Gay: Poetry and Prose 9 edited by Vinton Ao Dearing 9 with the assistance of Charles Eo Beckwith (Oxford 9 1974) 9 2 vols 9 1: 9lo Gildon 9 in 1718 9 was adamant that 0The Poet does not lie under any necessity of making his Plot Allegorical 9 that is 9 to have some real Persons meant by those fictitious Names of the Shepherds introduc 1 d 0 (ppo 158~59)o

293 once the norm of past times and Pope 0 s pastorals uere each framed as 0

a perfect image of that happy time;

for the vi:rtue.R of a formAr (1: 24)o

which by giving us an esteem

might recommend them to the present 0


Even in a theory that is principally concerned to depict

the aworous affairs of prisingly retainedo




function is sur=

In his 11Preface' 9 to Poems (1692)


hfilliam hfalsh

states that the main design °ought to be the representing

the Life

of a Shepherd 9 not only by talking of Sheep and Fields 9 but by showing us the Truth 9 Sincerity 1

Life 0 o

and Innocence

that accompanies that sort of

What is common to all who follow Rapin °s


Golden Age'' line

is the need for a metaphorical relationship between °the image of a Country and Shepherd 1 s life 0 and the


vertues of private men° = an

allusion removed from all contamination from the present by the authority of its antiquityo

The age distrusted allegory on the

grounds that it was too obviously improbable and a loosely connected series of events;

hence 9 it also mitigated the pastoral 0 s direct

reference to contemporary affairs and aided a growing abstraction of its preferred 0


Each of Pope 1 s pastorals was to be a

perfect image 0 9 tacitly rebuking the present ageo

This heterocosmic

form is always an alternative apprehended by the intellect and 9 inexorably 9 it involves a reduction in the particulars of rural life to impress upon the reader 9 as in Walsh 0 s definition 9 that more transportable qualities such as truth or innocence exist as an alter= nativeo

Rural life is designed as an ever=receding horizon 9 a sign

that exists in no straightforward relation to both its constituent part so

The signified expressed by the signifier is frequently as

constructed as the image that calls it into beingo


Indeed 9 the true

Letters and Poems 9 Amorous and Gallant (London 9 1692) 9 Po viiio

294 refere::1t for the Golden Age pastoral is



and its

traditional locus is a canon of taste largely structured by neo= classical readings of ancient pastorale

However 9 there are contra=

dietary elements contained uithin the mythic system of signs that Rapin us representation of [)simplicity;; has to

pastoral provideso

connote honesty 9 its freedom from


all varnish 9 and deceitu and yet

in order to communicate these values trsimplicity 1 has to become a capitalized abstract quality;

there must be a design uhere the

mimesis of drawing 9 implying an uncomplicated transcription 9 is really far more complex than it suggests for it is the drawing of an °image 0 that is put to didactic useo ancient 0 variety;

This "Simplicityll is of the



that is 9 it is a possession of literary memory and

is therefore to be located in the realms of the image 9 open to the skilled literary practitioner rather more than the Everyman who simply 0 perceives and experienceso


Rapin°s argument has one further

twist as well 9 when he returns to the pastoral 0 s ideological functiono The endorsement of 0


Honesty 9 Candour 9 and Simplicity 0 does



most ancient 0 but 9 on the contrary 9 slips back to the present where

it helps praise and assert such moral values as the


natural 0 attribute

This delicate rhetorical balance would be upset by the conscious artifice of allegorical events which traditionally suggest a didactic purposeo This nartificial11 insulation between the sign of the Golden Age pastoral and contemporary events is particularly threatened by the 11

passionate11 simplicities that erect no such barrier between the

experience of reading the poetry and the emotions of its protagonistso JoEo Congleton calls this alternative to the


neo=classical 0 position 9

This title is more of a reference to the method lo

Rapin 1 s Ancient theory is 'essentially objective 0 9 whilst FonteBelle 'ignores the Ancients completely and develops his (Continued on po 295 )

295 and principles of Fontenelle ~ 1.-.rho placed the Natural light of Reason This is obvious from the last paragraph of

above the Ancientso

Pastorals" t'IThere he refuses to apologise for not completely Virgil and Theocritus:




vr have partly approvad 9 and partly censurvd

as i f they had been so121e living authors 9 tvhom I sa'ltJ every cl.ay?


and there lies the Sacrilege,


(ppo294=95)o This principle erects Modern

psychological and subjective standards to oppose the objective criteria of Rapino

To simplify the form and render it less obviously vvarnishedv

would be 9 therefore 9 to render the pastoral open to more truly rational questionso

If the pastoral were no virtuoso display of



values of cultural continuity 9 then it 1r1as liable to correction by mimetic criteriao

Without the ''truth'' of exemplary Golden Age virtues

as ballast 9 a more naturalistic criticism 1.<10uld find the pastoral form afloat amidst an uncongenial environment and might be apt to dismiss it as formalistic gesturingo There is 9 therefore 9 a great need for those writers who wish to keep Theocritean or Virgilian echoes alive to observe a clear dis= tinction between a "low" and a "high" simplicityo decorum demanded ito

To some extent

Golden Age shepherds were noble and needed

figurative homage 9 whereas the Sentimentalists needed tender cadenceso The rustic Doric 9 to Allan Ramsay 9 could signify the latter by the 1720s~

but to mainstream English opinion Ben Jonson's dictum that

Spenser vin affecting the ancients 9 writ no language' was far more

credible~ 1

Rapin as view of the Doric of Theocritus t·ras more mixedo

(1 continued) theory on premises that are subjective and psycho1ogical 1 o Theories of Pastoral Poetry in England 9 1684=1798 (Gainesville 9 Fla9 1952)~ Po 70o


"Explorata : or Discoveriesn llo 2237=38 9 in Ben Jonson : The Complete Poems 9 edited by George Parfitt (Harmondsworth 9 1975) 9 Po 428o

296 On the one hand 9 he finds its roughness better suited than Virgilrs accents to the pastoral form 9 yet


not condemn Virgilus bucolic

idiom at allo

Indeed 9 his final opinion 9 as stated in the Reflections

on the eclogue 9


that the

borrov!S Rapin us neutral as t•Jello but also



Languageq should be



pure 0 o


pure 0 to describe the correct pastoral medium

This 1'purity 1 may have much to do tJith standards of usage ~
assumptions concerning uho \:Jas


For the Doric had its beauty and propriety in the time of Theocritus9 it 'I!Jas used in part of Greece 9 and frequent in the mouths of many of the greatest persons9 whereas the old ~lish and country phrases of Spenser were either entirely obsolete 9 or spoken only by people of the basest conditiono As there is a difference betwixt simplicity and rusticity 9 so the expression of simple thoughts should be plain 9 but not clovmisho [1~


This desire to purify the language of the bucolic tribe is inextricably also a problem of the social acceptability of "literary" modes of writing 9 for Pope is adamant in keeping the watertight compartmento 11

"low'' but

who are 'clownish' and 9 by definition 9 rustico 11

literary11 a

He does so here by relating specifically

literary11 qualities to its alternative:

has been made 9 the




Once this distinction

simple 17 can signify the plain style or the more

laudable connotations of unvarnished guilelessness


a social ideal

not a reality in the countryo 11

Simplicity11 is a crucial word to use in this contexto

its copious umbrella many quite opposed concepts may sheltero

Under It is

especially of a certain rhetorical importance 9 a talismanic quality to underpin and reassure all manner of readero his terminology in practiceo


Pope is clearer in

\ihen objecting to Ambrose Philips 1 s

Reflections on Aristotle's Treatise of Poesie (1674) 9 translated by Thomas Rymer 9 Po l35o


Pastorals in the ironic Guardian (40)


he actually exemplifies the

excrescences of style to '''hich he objects 9 albeit UJ.J.der a cloak of

As Simplicity is the distinguishing Characteristick of Pastoral~ Virgil hath been thought guilty of too Courtly a Stile; his L~J.guage is perfectly pure 9 and he often forgets he is among Peasantso This sentiment is not only anti=peasant but 9 by extension 9 anti=pastoralo If peasants are the subject=matter of the form 9 why 9 it would seem 9

would the poet vitiate the canon of literary style by imitating them? Philips 0 s antiquated English is enough 9 but why 9 Pope pursues 9 not carry things to the extreme and imitate the rusticity of the original Doric


by the help of the old obsolete Roman language?: For Example 9 might he [Virgil] not have said instead of Q&; guoijum for ~; volt. for vult 9 etco as 1/Jell as our Modern h;th \•lellad;y;= for Alas 9 Whilome for of Old make mock for deride 9 -and witless Younglings for simple Lambs 9 etco by which Me;ans he hath attained as much of the Air of Theocritus 9 as Philips hath of Spencer.l ~


This is not 9 stylistically speaking 9 a recipe for either plainness or simplicity;

however 9 for Purney in particular 9 it could help depict

a lack of artifice and so the sentiments of an ideally sympathetic shepherd cultureo John Gay 1 s "Proeme" to his The Shepherd 1 s Week (1714) similarly defends the proprieties of literature by also writing ironically of the rustic dialecto

His position is really founded on the observation

that the modern Doric has only a conventional trutho direct rendering of country speecho

It cannot be a

In advertising his own Spenserian

pastorals 9 Gay warns the 'courteous Reader 1 that his shepherds utter


Prose Works 9 po 98o Rapin 9 however 9 favoured the Doric for pastorale Virgil 1 s 1 Tityrus beneath his shady Beech speaks as pure and good Latin as Augustus in his Palace 1 (po 35)a He goes no further in objecting to Virgilian precedento

298 phrases

a such

courtly Dame 0

as is neither spoken by the country (l~


nor the


The language is of textual value only as

it has no hi.oto:ry 9 being neither tho dialect of the past or presenL If the mimetic authority for a 11101.vn style is removed 9 then the key=

stone to affective theories of pastoral is 9 from the neo=classic perspective. 9 found to be i.nvalido

Gildon expands on this line of

attack in 1718 in an unconscious but equally revealing rnannero Although out to praise Ambrose Philips for avoiding the



Spenser 0 s 0 lapses in style 9 he in effect tars him with the same brush a

Spenser is found lacking in intelligibility a fault not

associated with the Greek Doric for that operated as a convention 0

familiar to all Greece 9 being us 0 d by their greatest Authors as

occasion required 0 a accents in that


Spenser 9 h011Jever 9 was far too radical in his

no Body before this extraordinary Poet ever writ

in any of our own Country Dialects 9 whether Western or Northern 9 etc-




As Philips claimed himself a son of Spenser 9

this seems like Job 0 s comforto It was a common reflex of the age to equate Nature with Simplicityo To some extent the bold 9


unpoeticn diction of the sublime proved an

attempt to carry over this reflection into poetry 9 the exemplified by a minimum of Arta


When Pope was inspired by Homer 0 s

Gardens of Alcinous to write Guardian l73 (Septo29 9 1713)9 the context could well have been the rhapsodic passages of Tickell:


There is certainly

something in the amiable Simplicity of unadorned Nature 9 that spreads over the Mind a more noble Sort of Tranquility 9 and a loftier Sensation of Pleasure 9 than can be raised from the nicer Scenes of Arta 0

Pope 0 s

translation 9 on the other hand 9 seems to be written with Sir William Temple 0 s Essay upon the Gardens of Epicurus (1690) in Each dropping Pear a following Pear supplies 9 On Apples Apples 9 Figs on Figs arise: coo


299 Here order'd Vines in equal Ranks appear With all th 1 United Labours of the Year 9 ooo Beds of all various Herbs 9 for ever green 9 In beauteous Order terminate the Sceneo



1"2-_,~o_ ~~-~·~

1'7_1A ~~-





Here is the ancient simplicity of garden design 9 simple because planned 9 free from conceits on the one hand and that regularity 1:1hich gro1:1s to a fault on the othero TvJo years later 9 Pope 9 in the 11 Prefacel 1 to his translation of the Iliad 9 welcomes Homer 0 s example in exalting the powers of inventiono When turning to the problems of translating the poetry and



the spirit of the original 0 9 Pope 9 though endorsing his admirable fire and energy 9 realises the necessity of observing the change in stylistic registers in the originalo

In addressing himself to this topic 9 he

reveals certain important distinctionso of


Firstly 9 the great secret

is to know when to be plain and when


poetical and figurative 1 o

This plainness is given a telling connotation in the very next sentence: 'vJhere [Homer 0 s] Diction is bold and lofty 9 let us raise ours as high as we can;

but where his is plain and humble 9 we ought not to be

deterr 1 d from imitating him by the fear of incurring the Censure of 2 a meer English Critick 1 o

Plainness is humble besides the exalted


Prose Works 9 po 145o The Temple passage to which Pope alludes is found in Sir William Temple 9 Upon The Gardens of Epicurus with other XVIItho Century Garden Essays 9 edited by Albert Forbes Sieveking (London 9 1908) 9 ppo 24=25: 0 The Garden of Alcinous ooo seems wholly poetical 9 and made at the pleasure of the painter; ooo Yet 9 as all the pieces of this transcendent genius are composed with excellent knovlledge 9 as tvell as fancy; so they seldom fail of instruction as well as delight 9 to all that read himo 1 Pope contrasts this contoured design to the 'Modern Practice of Gardening' where 1 Nature 1 is ignored 0 not.only in the various Tonsure of Greens into the most regular and formal Shapes 9 but even in monstrous Attempts beyond the reach of the Art itself: We run into Sculpture 9 and are yet better pleas 0 d to have our Trees in the most awkward figures of Men and Animals 9 than in the most regular of their ownov In his Epistle to Burlington (1731) 9 Pope was to return to this numinous ideal; see llo 47=70 (~ 9 3: 137=39)o


Prose Works 9 po 245o

300 fig-u.res of the

bolcf.' Styleo


As '."las usual uith Pope as discussions

of style 9 a norm ua.s to be observed.o solely from the

vzunliterar~ 1

plain 9 the sermo



This humility of form derived

almost conversational nature of the

that surfaces in Pope's later satireso

t-Jriting to the Earl of Oxford on I-1arch 3 9 1725/6 9 Pope elucidates t·rhat



meant by the



in connection "1-rith Homerus


A certain umediocrity of style 9 agreeable to conversation

and dialogueu is necessary as this is the narrative style 9 and this uought to be low 9 being put into the mouths of persons not of the highest condition or of a person acting in the disguise of a poor wanderer ooo Q from a


The proximity to an oral accent and its distance


'literaryl 1 style ensures its



The norm therefore between the

high:i and nlm·r 11 must be an ideal


mixture of both plainness and energyo "11



•t s




and functiono

To some extent 9 the subject

. t.~ono 2 s t y1 e of descr~p

Hm..rever 9 there must be

stylistic models as to what constitutes the elevated and what the degrade do

In Popevs discussion of the Iliad 9 the search for this

golden mean is a task of the first


0Nothing that belongs

to Homer seems to have been more commonly mistaken than the just Pitch of his Style:

Some of his Translators having swell 0 d into Fustian in

a proud Confidence of the Sublime;

others sunk into Flatness 9 in a

cold and timorous Notion of Sirnplicityo 03

This narrative norm is


Correspondence of Alexander Pope 9 edited by George Sherburn (Oxford 9 1956) 9 5 vols 9 2~ 370o


Pope in the above letter demonstrates how relative "simplicity" could beo He condemns the 1 one continued sameness of diction 1 that keeps all tragedy or epic predictableo


Prose Works 9 po 245o In the "Observations on the Catalogue 11 1 following Book II 9 Sirnplicitas 0 is one of those 1 excellent general Phrases for-those who have no Reasons 1 9 and could describe a 0 shameful 9 unpoetical Neglect of Expression° (TE 9 7: 175)o -


really formed by the judgement as to the correct occasion to be plain or otherwiseo

Homer 9 meanwhile 9 is seen to proceed

R.nd P.nllal rna iestvV -··






with an unaffected

OthP.rs approximating to that will frequently find



themselves involved in the bathetic 9 where the distinction between usimplicity 0 and


dullness 0 is an abstract 9

non~empirical one~

There is a graceful and ?ignify 0 d Simplicity 9 as well as a~ and sordid one 9 which differ as much from each other as the Air of a plain Man from that of a Sloven~ 0 Tis one thing to be tricked ups and another not to be dress 1 d at allo Simplicity is the Mean between Ostentation and Rusticityol This regionless and essentially classless simplicity seems especially designed to allow no vitiation or partiality to corrode the authority of the classico


Horace 0 s Epode 2

and inspired the several odes to retirement and

rural retreat



plain marl';eersona

is really a creation of

a tradition much longer lived than this strain of


ideal pastorale



This "simplicity" resembles Dennis 1 s sublime in

pure and noble 1 and found 'nowhere in such perfection as in

the Scripture and our author [Homer] 0 o This


air of simplicity' is therefore very much an indication of

the honest man that writes in such a styleo sign as a medium of


It is as much a moral

The nearest Pope gets to assigning

Rules for the effect is when he prescribes language only a little this side of Spenser 0 s archaismso

The mixture of


some Graecisms

and old words after the manner of Miltons if done without too much affectation's gives the correct pitch of styleo

Two peculiarities

of Homer 0 s style are 9 on the other hand 9 not true models for those writing in English:

his compound epithets and his repetitionso

Prose Works 9 Po 246o See Maren=Sofie R~stvig 9 The Hazpy Man: Studies in the Meta= morphosis of a Classical Ideal Oslo 9 1954=58) 9 2 volso



very faults in


search for a correct Homeric style Thomas Furney

openly advocates for pastoral poetryo those ready to


The division bet1:Jeen Pope and

Philips is clearly ::::ccn herev

little on the language of the lyrical pastorale



Tickell in praising

Philips approves a little nervously the Anglo=Srucon dialect of Spenser and Hughes follows that line 9 welcoming Phrase 9 as it humours the Scene and a



a sprinkling of the rural


Philips 9 shovJing

great Delicacy of Taste 0 thereby catches something of the

Spirit and Manner 0 of Spensera




Only Thomas Furney really takes up

the Modern argument in favour of a pretty rusticity and its effect on the heart as opposed to the judgementa Nature of


A Full Enquiry into the True

Part IV is devoted exclusively to this theme in Spenser is his model and it is Spenser's language

linguistic mattersa

in particular 9 not his ethical concern 9 that


supports his Pastorals 1 (po59)o

vfuat Furney selects as worthy of comment about such expression is Spenser 0 s diligence in °weakening and enervating 0 the stylea too many



harsh Old=Words' are employed \vithout an effort to confine

the vocabulary to a particular dialecto

This aim of


softness 0 implies

a conception of the pastoral form totally opposed to Pope'so in mind classical precedent;

Purney 1 s taste involves a

Pope has


appropriation of the form by 'throwing out all Words that are Sonorous and raise a Verse 0 (pa 60) 9 and then adding to this dialect Simplicity 9 Softness and Rusticity pleasant 0 a \'lfords and



0 in


weak and low 0

order to render it

This enjoyment is best provided by Old=Terms 9 Turns of


and by Compound VJords 9 all three linguistic choices

It proves 'more capable 9 of that pretty rusticity than the Latin° (Guardian 30 9 April 15 9 1713) 9 1~ l23o Spenser: Critical Po 274o

Herita~ 9

edited by RoMo Cummings (London 9 1971) 9

303 diametrically opposed to Pope 0 s Homeric preferences (po 62)o


archaisms help preserve a vigour in the verse and to avoid the error of Shepherds i:.o.lk:i.i:lg subliiiiely nand ui th Passion:; a.s Ll'l Trae;P.dies 0 o Those who have a


Genius 0 for pastoral


will have some Thoughts occur

so inimitably Simple 9 that they t-rould appear ridiculous in the Common Language 0 (po 64) o

It is interesting that Furney believes that this

small compass 1vould avoid the 11 lo1tl' and mean as much as Pope 0 s stylistic prescriptivenesso 11

It is not a case of Furney advocating a more

naturalistici 1 pastoral than Popeo

To some extent 9 the minimal

degree of localized dialect is a mere conventiono



of his recipes for style do resemble an effort to reinstate the speaking voice and its sound=value above that of mere 1if.ritingo


This is most obvious in the appreciation of °Compound Words 1 o Their effect is to lend an °easy and natural 0 relation between the character depicted and his or her utterances:


They must run easy and smooth 9

and glide off the Tongue 9 and that will occasion their not being observ'd in the reading' (po 66)o

This illusionistic harmony is

itself a characteristic phonic accent 9 a soft music that creates a sensual context for the shepherdso It would be wrong to conclude decisively that Pope's pastoral form \vas unmusical 9 but this music was never intended to be merely a word= musico

If the whole poem was to be an image 9 criteria of coherence 01


The Discourse 0 s pronounce=

and interdependence were to be pre=eminento

ments on style are a re=working of material that both Rapin and Chetwood had made availableo

Rapin had preferred a


concise 9 close way of

Expression° (po 60) and Chetwood had agreed that 'the sentences should


This is most strongly noticeable in Purney 0 s desire to preserve a 0 Spirit and a Liveliness of Expression° by-the inclusion of '0ldWords0o The alternative would be to !make Shepherds talk Sublimely 9 and with Passion 9 as in Tragedies' (po 63)a

304 be short and smart 0



help the effect of purity and

Pope reasons that this brevity l..rill simplicity~



some :reli5h of th.s

And it ought to preserve co~-~ectinnR

should be

loose 9 the narrations and descriptions short 9 and the periods conciseo Yet it is not sufficient that the sentences only be brief 9 the uhole Eclogue should be so too 0 (l: 26)o Ancient associationso

In Pope 0 s opinion 9 this carries

One Ancient example could have been suggested

by Rapin°s appreciation of Virgil 0 s Eclogue styleo Pliny on the art of Timanthes 9 loJhere


in all his pieces more \11as to

be understood than the Colours express 0 d oooo peculiarly happy 0 (po 40)o

He first quotes

In this Virgil is

This ability to say a great deal in a

few words is consonant with Pope 0 s emphasis on the heterocosmic pastoral ideal 9 especially in the technique by l-.rhich the poem as a whole can express much more than the individual parts 9 shepherds includedo

The singer 9 in Pope 0 s conception 9 will not determine the

full context of his song neither will he himself characterize the pastoral in which he appearso The potential for such gentle irony is either ignored or signifi= cantly foreign to Fontenelle 0 s design for the pastoralo

For the

lyrical grace that he finds most relevant to the pastoral form 9 there needs to be a freedom from reflectiono

Pope would have agreed 9 for

none of his shepherd=singers are philosopherso

However 9 this extra

cerebral dimension 9 where the rustic and unmannered are placed in a wider context is never a perspective shared by Fontenelleo

In terms

reminiscent of either Wordsworth or Coleridge 9 he claims that such poetry should 'run only on Actions 9 and never almost on Reflectionso Those who have a middling share of Wit 9 or a Wit but little improv 0 d by a Converse with polite Books or Persons 9 use discourse only of those particular Things of which they have a sense;

while others raising

305 tnernselves


reduce all things into general Ideas

This tendency to particularize and describe without obvious prior selection seems to be nc D.ttcmpt to cre::.te a. symbnJic o:r metaphorical significance for the rural settingo Tickell


From this original perception

as Fontenelle does 9 that the shepherds described

should not be exact transcriptions of experience 9 but his shepherds differ only in their more circumscribed and particularized expression from the learnedo


Truth being eternally the same to allv


only the

style of its appearance in the world can be susceptible to change or experienceo

Such unlettered shepherds are thereby forced only to be

able to record circumstantial descriptions


and those observations

which either strike upon the senses 9 or are the first motions of the . di o 2


This degree of mimetic probability is of a rather more

literal strain than in Chetwood or Popeo

It is perhaps due to its

undue reliance on the senses alone with no clear significance that Pope distrusted the length of the description of the Goatherd's cup I~yll l~

preferring the brevity of Virgil 9 s own revised description

(1: 29=30)o

By keeping such descriptions in proportion to the action


of the piece 1 the poem could retain its status as an image in itselfo This is why the conclusions by


Tickell were such anathema to Pope or Gayo

critics such as Furney or By allowing a scarcely

laundered rustic too much of the foreground 9 a pastoral poet was corroding the stainless and uncontaminated reality of his material and indirectly denying the poem its impact as an interdependent wnoleo


By 1 not pursuing their Ideas beyond what they have a Sense of 0 9 it is therefore possible to 11 defamiliarize 11 a country landscape: 0 Now the Hind is delighted with sensible Ideas 9 because it easily admits of them 9 and it loves to penetrate 9 provided it be without Effort ooo 1 (po 29l)o


Guardian 23 (April 7 9 1713) 9 1: 92=93o

306 In lieu of its Renaissance allegorical tradition? the pastoral all too

easily could become the repository of ill=judged servility where sense= -!-.. - - ..... .-.-..; _.,...,.... ..LlU_t'.!. 'C'OO.J..V.L.LI.J

,_._..,...'"" WV.L


However 7 in terms that echo Cheh.rood 9

,.."', rt>O"r'I,.,On

v-.u._._..._ "'""'-


Pope did have to admit some reference to a specifically rural settingo

His ideal of a udesign°d scene or prospectu should be offset by a 0

varietyu that adds a pleasing irregularityo

by the inclusion of ufrequent able objects of the country 0 that in each pastoral a






dra\m from the most agree=

Chetwood had boldly claimed

beautiful landscape 0 should present itself

uto your view 0 9 and cited Virgil 0 s of all pastorals 0

This could be attained



1 as the norm 9 °the standard

That this is no realistic impulse should

be evident by reading those passages in the Virgil that present natural descriptive details; of human desireo

in each passage 9 the landscape is a projection



view 0 of the scene is constantly referred back

to our growing knowledge of the character that is providing ito


to this 9 there is the rider that the landscape be



beautiful 0 o

adds to this Rapinian conclusion and agrees on a beauty taken from the Golden Ageo


the characters that people that time are not

provided with the rural circumstances that would give content to the designation:


shepherds 0 :


We are not to describe our shepherds as

shepherds at this day really are 9 but as they may be conceiv 0 d then to have been;

when the best of men follow 0 d the employment 0 (1: 25)o

It follows that the rurality of the poems would be metaphoricala Ho1rrever 9 if this position


impregnable 9 there would be no need

to betray some doubts about the life of contemporary shepherds as material for pastoralso

If it is indubitably accepted that in

portraying them and their concerns the pastoralist was using a modified allegory 9 the occasional lack of beauty would surely be no problemo Pope tacitly points to a contradiction in his own theory therefore


lvhen he feels it necessary to assert that


illusion to render a Pastoral delightful;

We must ooo use some and this consists in

of a shepherd's life, and in concealing its miseries' (l: 27)o namely:

He also provides a footnote to this claim 9

tFontanelle's Disco of Pastorals?o

So schematic is

Congleton°s desire to create order in the mass of pastoral theory that confronts the historian of taste that the watertight distinctions behveen the Rapin and Fontenelle


parties' 1 actually give a false

especially in Pope 0 s case 9 of its mingled threado


Pope 0 s

Golden Age is a manifest illusion 9 a myth that does not attempt to The



pastorals do paint the countryside untruly

by claiming its status as real 9 unmediatedo The desire to escape the schematic prescriptions of allegory was really involving the more neo=classical position in an illusion of another kindo

Joseph Trapp could claim that

always to be laid in the Country' "natural" effect the




Bucolics ooo ought

and yet in order to provide a

easie 0 language and form should endorse a

transformed countrysideo


The only


natural 11 thing about the

pastoral milieu from this account are the cadences 9 intelligible Such "simplicity" may tread a cautious

syntax and naive sentimentso

path between undue complexity and facile uniformity 9 but its "natural" position is endorsed by the extremes from which it is equidistant 9 not by an essential condition of human expressiono a


neo=classical pastoralists cannot allow its fiction to be

manifesto 0

In purveying

Therefore 9 the


simplen nobility of the periods and

loose 0 connections is as much an imposition and contrivance as the

induced 'tranquility 0 of the landscapes described by Fontenelleo


Lectures on Poetry 9 po l74o

308 There is little



that to both Pope and Gay 9 any

reduction of the metaphorical distance between the reader and the Ge..y; in the "Proeme 11 to The

Shepherd 0 s \veek 9 in ironic mode 9


the inartistic simple=


mindedness of the literal representation: Furthermore 9 it is my purpose 9 gentle Reader 9 to set before thee 9 as it were 9 a Picture 9 or rather lively Landscape of thy o~m Country 9 just as thou mightest see it 9 didest thou take a \flalk in the Fields at the proper Season. [1: 91] The


design°d scene' has become a


Picture 1 or 'lively Landscape 0

paintings a more material and potentially less intellectual exerciseo This lack of a universal relevance to the cularly suspecto


pastoral is parti=

Therefore 9 those who would \vish to learn the


art would have to be obedient to material circumstances such as checking when the


proper season' might beo

That there might not be a



season 1 9 when May-time might discover neat and contented country folks is the proposition suggested by Gay 0 s ironyo This attempt to recall the neo=classic standards of formal as opposed to aesthetic unity was forced to emphasise the metaphorical foundation of the pastoral 0 s appeal 9 the delight in a uliterary" as opposed to a more literal accounto

The alternative to the Golden Age

pastoral 9 however 9 owed its existence not only to


sympathetic 0 readers

but also to those who required a greater degree of verisimilitude or who were uneasy about such manifest mythologyo

This by no means

implies that the lyrical pastoral was 9 in effect 9 a naturalistic worko Fontenelle would set his ideal of the 'quiet life 9 with no other business but love 0 in the country with the qualification that


no Goats

or Sheep shou 0 d be brought in ooo for 9 the Goats and Sheep add nothing to its Felicity; ooo 1 (po 283)o poet 'know' the countrysideo

Addison 9 too 9 would have the pastoral One of the Pleasures of the Imagination



a due Relish of the ivorks of Nature 7 o


a poet should

be 'thoroughly conversant in the various Scenary of a Country Life 7 o This store of .i1iiag;es taken ilT.uilcdia.tcly frorr. Nature is sufficient for


Pastoral 9 and the lot..rer kinds of



but is still

the basic requirement for those vJho would attempt either the Epic or the Tragedy (Spectator 417 9 June 28 9 1712 9 3:


This reliance

on the observation of external nature provides a clear catalyst for the growth of the indigenous pastorale appears 9 for the 1simplicityUof the

This detail is not all it


variety is more to be

experienced than perceived 9 and the transcription of landscape imagery a means to a sublime or


pathetick11 end not a lmowledge of its rustic

context o Nevertheless 9 the landscape could be a particularly potent sign 9 a fertility that testifies to the corresponding decline in transcendent classicism a

The indigenous pastoral promised a tender pleasureo

Philipsgs Pastorals were praised by both Tickell and Furney for their native qualities as well as their tendernesso in exasperation:

1 ooo

As Tickell exclaims

in so fine a country as Britain 9 1r1hat occasion

is there for that profusion of hyacinths and Paestan roses 9 and that cornucopia of foreign fruit which the British shepherds never heard of?

o o o


To illustrate what a British pastoral could accomplish 9 he

then quotes the opening scene=setting of Philips's Pastoral 5o



amount of particularized detail is by no means the abstract tranquility meant by Fontenelleo detailo

Purney 9 for his part 9 is suspicious of too much

Arguing to similar ends as Pope 9 his section on "The Proper

Length for Descriptions" uses quite opposed reasons for curtailing landscape imageryo


In Pope 1 s case it had been the desire for

Guardian 30 (April 15 9 1713) 9



compressing meaning into as short a pastoral 0 s heterocosmic formo


as possible to enhance each

Purney 9 on the other hand 9 concentrates

more on the act of reading a.ncl its .a:il.-periential effects:

0 1

Tis best

only just to exhibit the Picture of an Object to the Reader 0 s Mind; for i f


tis rightly set and \..rell given 9 he \·Jill himself suppl.y the

minute Particulars better to please himself than any Poet can do; ooo 0 o This particular analogy from the "Sister Artn creates 9 despite its desire to escape particularization 9 the sense of a more plastic object for contemplation than the ethical abstractions of Nature or textual fictions such as the Golden Ageo

This description is not quite as

simple as all that on the other hand 9 for the terms Furney uses to depict the construction of the poetic object are only one part objectiveo Extended descriptions are to be avoided exactly because some circum= stances may not be


pleasant to every Fancy 0 ;

consequently 9 the

descent to particulars 'cools the Mind 1 (po 40)o

So that the poet

may retain control over the effect of the image and not render up power to the reading 9 Furney advises him to enumerate only two or three details to supply a hint to the mindo

It is significant that

Purney 1 s example from the Fine Arts is landscape painting:


When I

cast my Eye on a beauteous Landscape 9 and take in a View of the whole and all it 1 s Parts at once 9 I am in what it is that pleases me; Parts~

not knowing distinctly

but when I come to examine all the several

they seem less delightfulo

whence it proceeds 1 (po 4l)o


Pleasure is greatest if we know not

By the copious notes added to the 1717

appearance of his Pastorals 9 it is clear that for Pope the pleasure of reading was greater if it was known to be derived from either Theocritus 9 Virgil or Spensero

Eric Rothstein has borrowed a contemporary term

from the Fine Arts:



Non=Finito11 9 to describe this effecto


Kames in 1762 was to find there an 'ideal presence 1 9 but scattered

311 throughout the


pastoral theories are prototypes of the notion

that help cast off the confines of precedento li·tring cetapho:r of tha



The danger to the

shepherds oaw be d.G:llonstra.ted



to Noses Bro1rme 0 s An Essay in Defence of Piscator:_.y Eclogues (1729) o There Bro1rme disregards the Golden Age or Edenic, associations of the shepherd in moving the scene and occupation depicted in the pastoral from the fields to the streamso

The descriptive pleasures prove much

more transportable than neo=classical ones for 9 he asks 9 °li.ho can have greater leisure 9 or be led into more agreeable contemplation 9 than an angler 9 peacefully seated on the shady banks of a lonely river at his quiet recreation 9 attentively considering the gliding stream 9 mingled groves 9 hills 9 and open plains;

2 the various landskip around him? 0 o

This Defence proves how near to the descriptive or topographical poem the pastoral could be and how vulnerable the pastoral tradition proved to the disintegration of the shepherd metaphoro of his

Eclogues 9

In Bro1rme 1 s account

the landscape details produce an experience not the

art of its depictiono

William Diaper 9 in 1712 9 prefaced his Neriedes:

or Sea-Eclogues with a promise of mystery and sensual experience, arguing that


the Beauties (as well as the Riches) of the Sea are yet

in a great measure untouch 1 d:

And those who have made some Attempts


Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Poetry 1660-1780 (London, 1981), po 69o For the full quotation from Kames see The Elements of Criticism, 2 vols 9 1: 91=93e See also Eric. Rothstein, 110 Ideal 0 0 0 Presence and the Non Finito in Eighteenth=Century Aesthetics 11 9 Eighteenth-Century Studies, 9 (1975=76) 9 307=32o


po xxiio That the shepherd should be the regular pastoral subject is the result of 0 the arbitrary 9 humorsome pedantry, of Scholiasts and Commentators 9 Servius on the Bucolics 9 and Heinsius upon Theocritus 1 (po xix)o When reviewing the possibilities for a Halieutic pastoral 9 John Jones uses authorities for this view: 0 If the Waters contain in them nothing but what is uncomfortable and dreadful 9 'tis very strange that Ovid 9 who naturally loved what was soft and agreeable 9 should eve;=have made any Attempt in this kind; and that Mro Waller should have given us a specimen of the Halieutick Strain in his Battle of the Summer Islands 1 (Oppian's Halieuticks of the Nature of Fishes and Fishing of.the Ancients (Oxford 9 1722) 9 po 10 ).

312 that

to~ay 9

have only g:.ven us a feu ?iscatory Eclogues 9 like the first

Coasters 9 that ah.rays keep 1rJithin sight of Shore and never venture into Comp~rcd

to this pleasure, the neo=cl8ssir.al pastoral is

clearly seen 9 by its very structure 9 to be a homage to the past and the possibility of its emulation by the presento

Consequently 9 the human

figures are prominent 9 quite properly expressing the humanistic power of art to subdue or order natural impulseso

In the ne1r1 order 9 such

figures are frequently depicted only in order to give an idea of scaleo It would be wrong therefore to claim that the


eclogue was

ultimately more naturalistic than its antecedent exampleso

Fontenelle 9

who proves the authority for much of the psychological interest in a country life would 9 at times 9 almost banish shepherds from the poem: qi therefore am of the Opinion 9 that Poetry


be very charming 9

i f it is as low and clownish as Shepherds naturally are

pleasing is the Idea of Lifeo 1


o o

o 1r1hat is

which is inseparable from a Pastoral

The shepherd who is the exponent of the songmaking art 9 the

possessor of an inherited yet learnt gift found in both Theocritus or Virgil is never quieto

He may sing of quietness and a life freed

from care but it is this lack of tranquility that provides the impulse to singo

So it is that the shepherd is an embarrassment to the

descriptive eclogueo

Such a figure in the landscape is not easy to

assimilate = °For we do not mind the meanness of the Concerns that are their real Employment 9 but the little trouble which those Concerns bring o (po 285)o


'I'he meanness would wholly exclude Ornaments and Gall an try Fontanelle would have the shepherd exist in a

o o o 0


po Xo Dro Johnson distrusted the piscatory eclogue for two major reasonso Firstly 9 it afforded 0 much less variety than the land~ and therefore will be sooner exhausted by a descriptive tv.riter 0 and secondly 9 the 0 greater part of mankind 0 live in °ignorance of maritime pleasures 0 (Rambler 36 (July 21 9 1750) 9 . v!orks 9 3 ~ 199) o

the better to blend trith his

This selected image is


no deliberate catalyst to the active imagination as in Purney 1 s land= scapi...11~

but its



Let it [the Imagination] see only the half of a but let that half be sho~m in a lively manner 9 then it uill hardly bethink it self that you hide from it the other half 9 and you may thus deceive it as long as you please 9 since all the while it imagines that this single moiety~ 11Jith the Thoughts by \-Jhich it is taken up 9 is the \·Jhole Thingo (po 284) 1


Consequently 9 the mimetic truth of the representation is much beside the pointo However 9 the anti=classical energies of


pastoral were

welcome to those who saw the opportunity for a re=birth of


Nature 11 a

Addison praised Philips in those terms in §pectator 523 (October 30 9 1712)

Poetry no more needed 9 he





Fawns and Satyrs 9

Wood=Nymphs and Water=Nymphs with all the Tribe of Rural Deities 1 to lend it a poetical turn 9 for it could be seen by Philips's example how a


new Life 9 and a more natural Beauty' could be achieved by

anglicizing the form (4: 362=63)o boldly


This is the view of Furney who

the Golden Age on the grounds that


are not so much

interested and concern 1 d in what was only some thousand Years ago 9 and ne 1 re will be again 1 o naturally poetry


Besides 9 Furney emphasises 9 the more

deceives 1 9 the more it pleases;

therefore 9 if real

places are mentioned as the location for pastoral song 9 a greater 1

Air of Truth 1 is given them (po 25)o

As Congleton points out 9 this

desire for precise geographical terms and some particularized detail is quite alien to Fontenelle 0 s "Ideas 11 (po 208)o forms of pastoral ought to be highlightedo


These alternative

Congleton°s scheme of

Compare Tickell 1 s rephrasing in Guardian 22 9 1: 90: that a poet should 0 show only half an image to the fancy 1 and 'let the tranquility of that life appear full and plain 9 but hide the meanness of ito 1


neo=classical 0 as




on closer

mere varied


to 'rationalistic 1 marlcs a useful inspection~




rational 0 school shows a

Such schemEl.tic conflRt:inn GRYl 1 er.trl tn Rnme

misleading conclusions even on his own



The rationalists

do not exploit the pictorial element of the pastoral


In contrast

to their lack of interest in the scene 9 the rationalistic critics show an eager concern about the characters° Cpa 308)a

Although it is also

valuable to dub the varied theories of Philips 9 Furney and Tickell as 0

rational 1 9 too strict an adherence to this term eventually falsifies

the true pictureo


pastoral theories were rational to the

extent that they did not rely on the authority of the classical pastorals


but preferred to ground their assumptions about the

true nature of the form on "reasonablyf 1 induced criteria of aesthetic valueo

However 9 the endorsement of experiential readings owes nothing

to reason 9 but rather a renewed interest in aesthetics and its non= rational baseso

A less confining term such as


has a more

helpful orientation in that it covers more of the variety of theory at this time and implicitly indicates the clear need for the pastoral form to be re-directed away from the nervous adherence to accredited classical modelso The crisis in the classical defence of the form really stems from its vulnerability in the face of growing political and social confidenceo Theocritus and Virgil provided two orders of exampleo

Firstly 9 they

could be taken to have described non=geographical locations in Cos or Arcadiao

This idealist tendency is re=emphasised in translation or

allusion by locating these exemplary sites safely (and instructively) in the pasto

The focus of such theoretical positions is therefore


315 retrospective of lifeo

by extension 9 pessimistic about




It t·rill represent Virgil v s Eclogues as a support 9 pointing

to the elegiac


of Eclogues


5 and


precedent c-Iill be honoured as models of stylistic especially 9 will provide a stylistic


SP-COFdly; such 17

good tasten o Virgil 9

and create an authori=

tative paradigm of heroic phrasing vJith lyric grace: UAs for the numbers


as Pope puts it:

thou they are properly of the heroic

measure 9 they should be the smoothest 9 the most easy and flowing imaginable ooo 0 (1: 28=29)o

Theocri tus 9 hm11ever 9 although it is

apparent that Doric was an artificial dialect 9 endorses a cadence and dictiono



sub=literarj 1

pastoralists vrill come upon an oppor=

tunity for a nsimpler 11 style inspired by the Spenserian Dorice Imperceptibly~

the figural autonomy of the shepherd becomes less

and less and the landscape gains greater significanceo

An example of how opposed Ancient



pastorals is

found in the effect of Pope 1 s Guardian paper 40 9 which formed a supposed continuation of Tickell 0 s series on pastoral standardso Tickell had ended his run in an allegorical set-piece vJhere various figures were made to typify alternative pastoral modelso


Drest in

a richer habit than had ever been seen in Arcadia 1 9 the Fontenelle= poet 9


so enriched with embroidery 1 pipes a tune


set off with so many

graces and quavers 0 that the shepherds and shepherdesses vvho seem to constitute Tickell 1 s ideal bucolic audience 9 cannot follow the rhythm which


required great skill and regularity of steps 9 which they had

never been bred to 1 o

Similarly 9 a


person uncouth 9 and awkward in

his gait 1 9 by which the Theocritean Doric is suggested 9 difficulty 1 pipes



with some

harsh and jarring notes 9 that the shepherds cried

one and all 9 that he understood no musick ooo 1 o

He is banished to

the remotest crags of Arcadia and barred for ever from the pipea

316 Tasso's representative 'appeared in clothes that were so strait and uneasy to him 9 that he seemed to move with pain°o be gi-ven o-vE:r t:::


His reward is to

old shepherd ':Jho is to providP. hirn with suitable

clothes and t-rho hrould teach him to speal{


plain° o

Each of these

extremes are disting;L:ished from the fourth representative 1;Jho is anonymous 9 although by the frequency vi th t•Jhich they are Philips and perhaps Spenser 9 are meanto

Fontenelle is too ornamental

and divorced from the realities of rustic lifeo unmusical and therefore and so unpastoralo associations~






Theocritus is too

t"hereas Tasso is too complex

redolent perhaps of Virgilian

provides the golden mean 9 by pouring forth



melodious notes 9 that though they were a little wild and irregular 9 ooo filled every heart with delight 0 (Guardian 32 9 April 17 9 1713 9 l: l30=3l)o Purney 9 in his preface to the Pastoralso After the Simple Manner of Theocritus (1717) betrays what by modern standards appears to be a critical blindness by


Pope 1 s paper at face valueo

who accepted the contribution appears just as


Yet Steele

a coincidence

that must cause a second glance at Pope 1 s terms in the papero the guise of exposing



Mro Pope 1 s 1 errors cuid praising Philips 0 s

elegance 9 Pope is indeed accomplishing in Guardian 4o just the oppositeo

Thus 7 Virgil is convicted of too courtly a

being so pure and




He also 'introduces Daphnis 7

Alexis and Thyrsis on British Plains 9 as Virgil had done before him Philips is content to name his creations with more of an ear for probability and giving them a sound 'more agreeable to a Reader of Delicacy; Clout 0 o

such as Hobbinol 9 Lobbin 9 CuddX 9 and Colin

Philips 0 s attempt at a native "feel" to the pastoral is

here dismissed as inelegant and provincialo

He is also taxed with

317 an °0rder and Ivlethod' in his applic.ation of book=learning which comes near to plagiarism and 9 by selectively comparing more vacuous


of tenderneRR with Pope 1 s Pope uarms to his subject by quoting A Pastoral Ballad chosen for its 0

Nature and Simplicity 1 o

pastoral 0 :


This is his type of the

~-!oderns 0



It is composed in the Somersetshire Dialect? and the

Names such as are proper to the Country Peopleo 1 between Cicily and Roger is based upon is so obviously a spoken style:

The whole dialogue

the 1 ~o~ 1 passion


of jealousy and

"Roger go vetch tha kee* 9

or else tha zun / Will quite be go 9 beyore C0 have half a don 9 11 (*That is




and Philips with



(po 104)o

Pope clearly identifies both Spenser

this old West Countrt Bard 0 (po 106) 9 whereas he

smoothly dissociates his writings and those of Moschus 9 Bion and especially Virgil from the pastoral form altogether if this is the modeL That Furney could not perceive a manifest alteration in scope and concern beb-Jeen Tickell 0 s ideal pastoral figure and this Somersetshire ballad=singer is the salient detailo

He is drawn to defend his Doric

simplicity by accepting Tickell 1 s taste for that


pretty rusticity 0

for t·Jhich Virgil's Latin was found quite unsuitableo

He further

enlists the help of rustic decorum to suit the language to the Be the Language 9 says Quinctilian 9 always suited to the Mattero True it also is 9 that Homer used the most rustick Words 9 drawn from the Beotians; Virgil 9 from Ennius 9 in his Heroicks 9 render 1 d his Language uncommon; Milton 9 Shakespear 2 Spencer 9 and our contemporary Pastoral Writers 9 by reviving the antiquated English terms 9 by chusing and culling the finest Words of our Glorious Ancestorso2


Prose Works 9 po 99o


"Advertisement Concerning the Language 11 9 Works 9 edited by HoOo White (Oxford 9 1933) 9 ppo 3=4o


matter 0 :

318 Even the most sublime poetry uould be a travesty if ef21ployed on subject=matter;

llJ..o1!f 1

therefore 9 the argument goes 9 such localized dialect

has the charm of its


particular kind of rustic 9 a most unnaturalistic figureo


that he follo1!Jed in the steps of those authors of genius 1.1ho had allowed themselves archaic or uncommon styles 9 he notices a certain lack of mimetic truth in a literal transcription of rural expression for


vJhere the Phrase in use \·ras not suited to the softness and simpli=

city of his Characters 9 as he is acquainted with the Dialect of most Counties in England 9 has from thence


the tenderest Expressions

ooo and [those] best adapted to the simplicity of his sentiments 0 (po3)o He then exemplifies such sentiments by quoting the Ballad couplet from Pope 0 sq~est

Countr1 Bard 0 believing it to have been sanctioned by

excellent Judge of Poetry 9 Mro Addison°o



With Addison 1 s Spectator

series on the Ballad form still fresh in mind 9 Furney feels that such a defence of Philips 0 s style could be applied to Spenser and the common ballado 11

This association of an erstwhile "lower" form with the

unartificial 11 and unclassical 'simplicity" is just such an association

that Pope 9 Gay and Chetwood 9 follotving Rapin 1 s example 9 were out to denou.11.ce o Conclusion The term: "Simplicity" may be more familiar in connection t.Yith an eighteenth-century History of Ideas through the reception and application of the views of Locke and Newtono

As has been amply demonstrated 9 the

potentially reductive approach to Nature did not murder by dissecting


it~ but rather created ne,,J Nond.ero 1 principle;

Experience usurpad the place of

old hypotheses t-Jere examined afresh 9 but t':l'ere often

reinforced again even if by cliff'P.TPnt. mRt.erial8e

li'or Addisonii Locke 0 s

Essay on Humane Understanding (1690) t11as a primer for those t11ho



get a Reputation by Critical Uritings 0 9 for it helped a would=be critic learn the


Art of distinguishing between Words and


and of ranging his Thoughts 9 and setting them in proper Lightso 0 It proved most effective in dispelling °Confusion and Obscurity 0 (Spectator 291 9 February 2 9 1712 9 3: 36)o pleasure when the simplest


The imagination gave most

ideas 11 of experience were enjoyed by a

spectator innocent of the traditions by which such objects of perception were transformed in literatureo

However, this does not lessen the

reverence paid to the Creationo

Indeed 9 there is little interval

behJeen the physical perception and a complex arises from it 9



idean of wonder that

So that it is impossible for us to behold his Works

with Coldness or Indifference 9 and to survey so many Beauties without a secret Satisfaction and Complacency 0 (413 9 June 24 9 1712 9 3: 546)o This rrnatural" sublimity challenges the erstwhile steady states of decorum and


What is remarkable about the Pleasures of the

Imagination series of Spectator papers (409ffo) is not just its intense


The effect is much as described in MoCo Battestin 9 The Providence of Wit: As ects of Form in Au stan Literature and the Arts (Oxford 9 197 9 ppo 1-57: 0 The victory of Chaos and old Night which Pope envisioned in The Dunciad would soon be real enough; but for one bright moment before the darkness fell 9 Newton and the divines had restored the world to Order 9 giving new force to the values and metaphors of the Christian humanist traditiono The consequence for Augustan art was the triumph of form 1 (po 57)o See also Herbert Drennon 9 "James Thomson°s Contact with Newtonian= ism and His Interest in Natural Philosophy'' 9 PMLA 9 49 (1934) 9 71=80; Marjorie Ho Nicolson 9 Newton Demands ~Muse : NeioJton °s 0 0pticks 0 and the Eighteenth=Century Poets (Princeton 9 NoJo 9 1946); FoE oLe Priestley 9 "NevJton and the Romantic Concept of Nature 11 9 University of Toronto Quarterl~ 9 17 (1948) 9 323=36 9 and Jerome Stolnitz 9 "Locke and the Categories of Value in Eighteenth=Century British Aesthetic Theory11 9 Philosoph~ 9 38 (1963) 9 4o=5lo

320 concern for the visual but its


neglect of generic


or even definition per seo When he wishes to expose the inherited weaknesses of the taRte fnr epigram or forced conceit 1:1ith its piecemeal fine


ineffable majesty of thertonginian 1 sublime that he turnso 409 (June 19 9 1712) the


it is to the In §pectator

Mechanical Rules 1 are confronted by the

Spirit and Soul of fine lrJriting 0 and found tvantingo



Whilst it is

necessary that the unities be understood 9 °there is still something more essential 9 to the Art 9 something that elevates and astonishes the Fancy 9 and gives a Greatness of Mind to the Reader 9 which few of the Criticks besides Longinus have consider 0 d 0 o

Art henceforth can

elude the traditional calculus of example and authority 9 and reside in effect as well as 9 if not instead of 9 demonstrable causeso


the face of this 9 the traditional neo=classical consensus dissolves 9 and the


great force which lies in a natural Simplicity of Thought to

affect the Mind of the Reader 0 is most powerful (3: 530)a


is not striven for at the school of imitation or allusion but is ever availableo


EaLo Tuveson has identified as one of the most

vigorous set of texts the Boyle Lectures (l692-17-L4h designed to demonstrate by natural philosophy that a beneficent God sustains His Creationo


This emphasis on the cumulative impression of perfection

and the seamlessness of nature makes a virtue out of not exercising a precise critical vocabularyo

If the Deity is immense 9 then the

effects of His handiwork share such attributesa The Moralists (1705) impenetrable a


finds the Deity


Shaftesbury 9 in

boundless 9 unsearchable 9

In thy immensity all thought is lost 9 fancy gives

over its flight 9 and wearied imagination spends itself in vain 9


The Imagination As a Means of Grace : Locke and the Aesthetics of Romanticism (Berkeley 9 Caa 9 l9b0) 9 ppo 56=7lo

321 finding no coast nor limit of this Ocean 9 nor 9 in the tddest tract through which it soars 9 one point yet nearer the circumference than the fir::;L o:;euLn:~ whence it pru-tedo '


city" is an attribute of the Creator as 1:Jell as a description of his substance~

in his


the 'secret hand of


according to James

2 To the Hemory of Sir Isaac Nec>Tton 11 (1727) o


NecoJton 9 as had

Locke 9 inspired a fundamentalist revision of just c·Jhat felt simple a For Thomson 9 The heavens are all his own 9 from the wide rule Of whirling vortices and circling spheres To their first great simplicity restoredo The schools astonished stood; but found it vain To combat still with demonstration strong 9 And 9 unawakened 9 dream beneath the blaze Of truth ooo [llo 82=88] The novelty of this


first great simplicity 0 is not merely open to

demonstration but is a


nice distinctions of the

blaze 0 of new perception 9 sweeping aside the 1

schools 0 o

Shaftesbury 1 s reverence for the

interrelatedness and profusion of the Creation 9 for instance 9 drove him to endorse a philosophical poetry virtually indistinguishable from a poetic philosophy 9 Homer the grand example of the first and Xenophon of the lattero for its unorthodoxy¢

Xenophon 1 s well-bred philosophy was chosen

'Nothing could be remoter than his genius was


Characteristics 9 edited by John Mo Robertson (Indianapolis 9 1964) 9 2 vols 9 2: 98o For a general discussion of Shaftesbury's "simplicity11 9 see Alfred Owen Aldridge 9 "Lord Shaftesbury's Literary ·Theories 11 9 Philological Quarterl:y 9 24 (l9Lr5) 9 46=64; Robert \'Ia Uphaus 9 11 Shaftesbury on Art : The Rhapsodic Aesthetic" 9 Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 9 27 (1969) 9 341=48 9 and Pat Rogers 9 "Shaftesbury and the Aesthetics of Rhapsody11 9 British Journal of Aesthetics 9 12 (1972) 9 244-57o For a straightforward account of Francis Hutcheson°s extension of the "natural" Sublime into ethical matters in the Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725) 9 see ivilliam Franl-cena 9 "Hutcheson's J"loral Sense Theory11 9 Journal of the History of Ideas 9 16 (1955) 9 356-75o


Clo 15)o. Poetical Works 9 edited by Jo Logie Robertson (London 9 1908)9 po 436o

322 from the scholastic 9 the rhetorical 9 or more poetic kindo

He was as

distant on one hand from the sonorous 9 high 9 and pompous strains as


on the other ha:o.d :rrom the

quotation 9 from his Advice to an Author (1710) 9 immediately precedes his definition of the correct stylistic norm 9 that


natural and simple

genius of antiquity 9 comprehended by so few a_nd so little relished by the vulgar 7 o of the equally


l·Jhat Shaftesbury attempts to endorse is really a fusion

Longinian 11 regard for the rhapsodical Sublime effect and the 11

Longinian" observation that such force could only be fully

obtained by he who had accurately inspected masters 0 (1: 167)

1 0


the works of preceding

In practice 9 his advice is heavily weighted

towards a Modern freedom from academic tastes:


The simple manners

which being the strictest imitation of Nature should of right be the completest in the distribution of its parts and symmetry of its whole 9 is yet so far from making any ostentation of method 9 that it conceals the artifice as much as possible 9 endeavouring only to express the effect of art under the appearance of the greatest ease and negligence' This "real" simplicity arises directly from the influence of "Longinus" (1: 169)o

Gradually 9 it becomes clear that

critical prescription of all kinds is beside the real pointo aspiring author whilst fixing his eye upon a an intense


beauty of Nature' wedded to a

must rise above simple






consummate grace' and

perfection of numbers'

For even rude Nature itselfs in

its primitive simplicity 9 is a better guide to judgment than improved sophistry and pedantic learning' (1:


Shaftesbury 0 s "Longinus 11

is very much the inspirer of Philips and Purneyo


Shaftesbury 0 s fusion of rationality and liberty is not quite Hutcheson 1 So See Martin Price 1 s distinction in To the Palace of Wisdom: Studies in Order. and Energy From Dryden to Blake (Carbondale 9 Illo 9 1964) 9 ppo 93=98: VNatural phenomena are transitory; only their pattern is permanento Man's mind also requires stability of pattern if it is to be freeo Liberty of choice requires continuous identity 0 (po 95)o

323 Ir. the l:jake of this passionate apprel1ension o:i order, the more

overtly ordered rrkinds 11 of poetry \Jere no longer as distinct o Both Philips and Furney favoured a more indigenous pastoral sP.tti11e not because it signalled a greater realism but because such Doric simpli= city pleased more easilyo in

John Hughes 1 s edition 9

Even Spenser 0 s Doric had become by lyrical~


far more a signifier of provincial

charm than a signified of rustic lifeo

i"Jhilst pastoral is



at all 9 representational? there is a degree of difference between the tender troubles of Philips 1 s shepherds and (2) of


Januarye" or the 'bitter blasts 0 of

(1-2) of t1Februarie 11 o


hfinters wasteful Spight 0 1

rancke Hinters rage'

This ne1iv lyrical pastoral may still claim

a Doric ancestry but its Doric is not Spenser 0 s 9 but a more stream= lined modelo

This did not go unnoticedo

Reviewing Purney 0 s Theocritean

pastorals 9 Thomas Brereton in The Critick (May 19 9 1718) found such an attempt to ape country phrases laughably wide of the mark:


ooo we

are not such Cockneys in Town 9 as to believe [that] grown Men and Maids talk like Babys in the Country; between Simplicity and Impotenceo 11

hie make some Distinction The particular potency that

Pope was to aim at was not quite the heroism of Dryden 1 s translation of the EcloR;UeSo

Such grand gestures and immortal longings produced

a potentially humorous effect which might vitiate original compositions which could not so manifestly rely on Virgil 0 s practice as in a trans= lationo

The classical "simplicity" maintains a necessary distance

between the "High" occasion for Art and the "lo,.l' 9 more naturalistic 9 impingement of physical particularso

Erich Auerbach has discovered

in the classical separation of styles a major hindrance to the


The Critick 9 edited by John Pace (London 9 1857) 9 2 vols 9 1


324 development of realisma


The plainness of tnis nigher Simplicity is

a convention~ with heavy connotations of plain=dealinga 2 localized trappings as in Purneyvs Doric or Ran1sayvs Shepherd is freed from


1:Jithout such


nature 11 and becomes the property of

His reality is textual;



artn o

therefore 9 he is capable of vniversal sigai=

ficance t1ith all the endorsement of literary cultureo As will be discussed later with reference to Pope 9 the practice did not quite tally •vith the theoryo and S:onson vs


styles of the 1730so

The pastoral strains of 1709

by no means run parallel to the Horatian

These traditions of "simplicity11 have very

distinct sources and do not mix easilya

The priority of res over

verba that is found in Jonson's utilitarian classicism or the smooth perspicuity of Waller or Cowley lies adjacent to the pastoral smooth= ness of 1709 9 but should not be confused \vith ito

Basically 9 its

distrust of the metaphor or nhard11 conceit and its relish for hard 9 clear lines of thought boldly expressed leads more directly to the descriptive poem or Horatian odes of Retiremento the pastoral


What characterizes

simplicity11 of 1709 is its refusal to compromise its

classical ancestry for an "unliterary" awkwardness both of style and subject 9 and its recognition of the fine judgement that draws a thick line between "simplicity" and rusticity or between modest clothing and stiff bejewelled redundancieso

This position resembles that


Mimesis : The Re _resentation of RealH in hTest~rn Literature 9 · translated by Willard Ro Trask Princeton 9 NoJo 9 19 9 passim 9 especially ppo 554=55o Auerbachus methodology has been attacked mcist strongly by Timothy Bahti 9 11 Vico 9 Auerbach and Literary History" 9 Philological Quarterly 9 60 (1981) 9 239-55 9 and defended by Thomas Mo Depietro 9 "Literary Criticism as History: The Example of Auerbach's Nimesis 11 9 ~ 9 8 (1979) 9 377=88a


See the map of the changing definitions of the term in Raymond Do Havens 9 11 Simplicity 9 A Changing Concept 11 9 Journal of the History of Ideas; 14 (1953) 9 3=32o For its Renaissance conno= tations 9 see RoFo Jones 9 "The Moral Sense of Simplicity11 9 in Studies in Honor of ·Frederick \rio Shiple;v edited by RaFo Jones (Saint Louis 9 1942) 9 ppo 2G5=B7o

325 raac:hed by Drydan in ans\Jering objections abo:.1t the rr:eeting of Cleopatra and Octavia in All For Love (1678)o ~ight




the greatness of their

He knous that they c~?--racters;

end the

modesty of their sex 0 in the scene 9 but makes the point that though the one 1:Jere a Roman and. the other a quee:n 9 1 they 1.o1ere both lJ'Omeno Tis true 9 some actions 9 though natural~ are not fit to be represented; and broad obscenities in t-Jords ought in good manners to be avoided: expressions therefore are a modest clothing of our thoughts oooo If I have kept myself vdthin the bounds of modesty 9 all beyond it is but nicety and affection; ooo [1: 193] Hobbes would have


Davenant 0 s Gondibert (1651)


for when rejecting the indecencies of

he finds that one of them was the 'Dialect

of the Inferior sort of People ooo which is alwayes different from the language of the Court' and another


to derive the Illustration of any

thing from such Hetaphors or Comparisons as cannot come into mens thoughts but by mean conversation and experience of humble or evil 1

Arts 1 o

The preference for the "simple" alternative is really a

desire to keep the literary work nobly chaste 9 and is closely related to the primitive simplicity from which Man has falleno

Even Addison

complained that: If tve look into the Manners of the most remote Ages

of the World 9 we discover Human Nature in her Simplicity; and the more we come downward towards our own times 9 may observe her hiding herself in Artifices and Refinements~ Polished insensibly out of her Original Plainness 9 and at·length entirely lost under Form and Ceremony~ and (what vle call) Good=breedingo2 Addison's remedy had been to prescribe the ballad 0 s unsophisticated roughness to challenge implicitly the 'Form and Ceremony' of


Spingarn 9 2: 64o


Spectator 9 209 (October 30 9 1711) 9 2: 318o

326 contemporary polishol

Dennisrs objection to this recorrmendation

centres not so much on its untutored style as on its social impli= Hobbesns fear that the Qinferior sort the uncourtly 9 might be seriously portrayed and thus their Qrun1ers open to emulation 9 reQains in Dennis 0 s rejection of the ballad 1 s Simplicityo


any gesture tm·rards a problematic treatment

of (putative) rustic existence vitiated the sanctity of humanistic Arto


which had been for several generations a convenient

alternative to excessive wit 9 could novJ increasingly be used to question the literary decorum of representation according to social expectationso

Thomas Purney 1 s assertion:

uThere is nothing in

Pastoral 9 of which Persons have a wronger Notion than of the word Simplicityi, in A Full of style aloneo


(po 17) 9 seems to promise some ambiguity

The new sentimental pastoral 9 however 9 includes

bucolic criteria equally applicable to both Nature and Art: 'Simplicity and Tenderness are universally allow'd to constitute the very Soul and Essence of Pastorali (po 27)o

This passionate Simplicity asks of the

reader a measure of identification with a rustic character once generally considered inappropriate for literature except as an occasion for satiric bitterness or comic derisiono


For a fuller explanation, see Albert Bo Friedman, The Ballad Revival : Studies in the Influence of Po ular on So histicated Poetry (Chicago, 19 1 ~ ppo =113o For a description of French influence,·especially on its Modern perspectives, see ppo 100=4o Also see EoKo Broadus, 11 Addison°s Influence on the Development of Interest in Folk.;.Poetry in the Eighteenth Century", Hodern Philology, 8 (1910), 123=34, and Keith Stewart 9 "The Ballad and the 1 Genres 1 in the Eighteenth Century", Journal of English Literary Historr, 24 (1957) 9 120-37o


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