Unit I: lnhoduction to Theory


I . Philosophy, Science, and Nursing Melanie McEwen

Nursing as a Profession 2 Nursing as an Academic Discipline 4 Introduction to Science and Philosophy 5 Science and Philosophical Schools of Thought 7 Nursing Philosophy, Nursing Science, and Philosophy of Science in Nursing 11 Knowledge Development and Nursing Science 12 Research Methodology and Nurs~ngScience 16

2. Overview of Theory in Nursing


Melanie McEwen

Overview of Theory 24 The Importance of Theory in Nursing 25 Terminology of Theory 26 Historical Overview: Theory Development in Nursing 26 Classification of Theories in Nursing 36 Issues in Theory Development in Nursing 40

3. Concepf Development: Clarifying Meaning of Terms


Evelyn M . Wills, Melanie McEwen

The Concept of "Conceptn 50 Concept Analysis/Concept Development 54 Strategies for Concept Analysis and Concept Development 57


Theory Development: Strvdrring C01~:eptuolRdationships in Nursing

0 Mdanie McEwen

Overview of Theory Development 73 Categorizations of Theory 7 3 Components of a Theory 79 Theory Development 82

5. Theory Analysis and Evaluation

0 Melanie McEwen

Definition and Purpose of Theory Evaluation 9 6 Historical Overview of Theory Analysis and Evaluation 9 7 Comparisons of Methods 106 Synthesized Method of Theory Evaluation 106


Unit II: Nursing Theories

1 15

6. Overview of Grand Nursing Theories Evelyn M. Wills

Categorization of Conceptual Frameworks and Grand Theories 118 Specific Categories of Models and Theories for This.Unit 124 Analysis Criteria for Grand Nursing Theories 124 The Purpose of Critiquing Theories 127

7. Grand Nursing h i e s Based on Human Needs

a Evelyn M. Wills

Florence Nightingale: Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not 132 Virginia Henderson: The Principles and Practice of Nursing 136 Faye G. Abdellah: Patient-Centered Approaches to Nursing 139 Dorothea E. Orem: The Self-care Deficit Nursing Theory 142 Dorothy Johnson: The Behavioral System Model 146 Betty Neuman: The Neuman Systems Model 149

8. Grand Nursing Theories Bawd on Interactive Process

0 Evelyn M. Wills

Myra Estrin Levine: The Conservation Model 160 Barbara M. Artinian: The Intersystem Model 164 Helen C. Erickson, Evelyn M. Tomlin, and Mary Ann P. Swain: Modeling and Role-Modeling 169 Imogene M. King: King's Conceptual System and Theory of Goal Attainment and Transactional Process 173 Sister Callista Roy: The Roy Adaptation Model 177 Jean Watson: Caring Science as Sacred Science 182

9. Grand Nursing fieories B t J d

a Evelyn M. Wills

on Unitaiy Proceu

Martha Rogers: The Science of Unitary and Irreducible Human Beings 193 Margaret Newman: Health as Expanding Consciousness 198 Rosemarie Parse: The Humanbecoming Paradigm 202

10. Introduction to Middle Range Nursing Theories @ Melanie McEwen Purposes of Middle Range Theory 214 Characteristics of Middle Range Theory 2 15 Concepts and Relationships for Middle Range Theory 216 Categorizing Middle Range Theory 217 Development of Middle Range Theory 217 Analysis and Evaluation of Middle Range Theory 225

1I . Overview of S e l d Middle Range Nursing Theon'es Melanie McEwen

High Middle Range Theories 230 Middle Middle Range Theories 241 Low Middle Range Theories 248

1 2 Eviks-Based Pmdice and Nursing The~ry E v e b M. Wills, Mdonie McEwen

Overview of Evidence-Based Practice 259 Definition and Characteristics of Evidence-Based Practice 259 Concerns Related to Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing 261 Evidence-Based Practice and Practice-Based Evidence 261

Contents Promotion of Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing 263 Theory and Evidence-Based Practice 263 Theoretical Models of EBP 264

Unit Ill: Shared Theories Used by Nurses 277 13. Theories From the Sociologic Sciences

4 Grace Bielkiewicz Exchange Theories 279 Interactionist Frameworks 284 Conflict Theories 289 Chaos Theory 295 Postmodern Social Theory 298

14. Theories From the Behavioral Sciences


Debra Brossett Garner Psychodynamic Theories 306 Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Theories 313 Humanistic Theories 3 15 Stress Theories 3 18 Social Psychology 321

15. Theories From the Biomedical Sciences


Mdanie McEwen Theories and Models of Disease Causation 332 Theories and Principles Related to Physiology and Physical Functioning 339

16. Theories, Models, and Frameworks From Leadership and Management

0 Melinda Granger Obwleitner Overview of Concepts of Leadership and Management 355 Early Leadership Theories 355 Contemporary Leadership Theories 362 Organizational/Management Theories 365 Motivational Theories 366 Concepts of Power, Empowerment, and Change 368 Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Processes 372 Conflict Management 374 Quality Improvement 375 Evidence-Based Practice 380

17. learning Theories .(r Evelyn M. Wills, Melanie McEwen What Is Learning? 387 What Is Teaching? 388 Categorization of Learning Theories 388 Behavioral Learning Theories 389 Cognitive Learning Theories 392 Summary of Learning Theories 404 Learning Styles 405 Principles of Learning 406 Application of Learning Theories in Nursing 407



Unit N: Application of Theory in Nursing 41 1 18. Application of Theory in Nursing Practice

a Melanie McEwen

Relationship Between Theory and Practice 413 Theory-Based Nursing Practice 414 The Theory-Practice Gap 416 Situation-Specific/Practice Theories in Nursing 418 Applicatioo of Theory in Nursing Practice 422

19. Application of Theory in Nwsing Rtasewrch

a Melanie McEwen

Historical Overview of Research and Thcory in Nursing 431 Relationship Between Research and Theory 432 Types of Theory and Corresponding Research 434 How Theory Is Used in Research 437 Nursing and Non-Nursing Theories in Nursing Research 444 Other Issues in Nursing Theory and Nursing Research 445

20. Application of Thaary in Nursing Administrution and Management Melinda Granger Oberleitner

Organizational Design 453 Shared Governance 456 Tra~lsformationalLeadership in Nursing and in Health Care 458 Patient Care Delivery Models 459 Case Management 466 Disease/Chronic Illness Management 468 Quality Management 470

21. Application of Theory in Nursing Education

a Evelyn M. Wills, M a n i e McEwen

Theoretical Issues in Nursing Curricula 481 Theoretical Issues in Nursing Instruction 488

22. Future Issues in Nursing Theory

a Melanie McEwen

Future Issues in Nursing Science 499 Future Issues in Nursing Theory 500 Theoretical Perspectives on Future Issues in Nursing Practice, Research, Administration and Management, and Education 502

Glossary 513 Author Index 523 Subject Index 554



CONTENTS -,I I I I... Unit I: lnhoduction to Theory 1 I . Philosophy, Science, and Nursing Melanie McEwen Nursing as a Profession 2 Nursing as an ...

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