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ARCHIVES 2008 2007 pdf df f pdf df pdf pdf pdf pdf pdf pdf df df df pdf pdf f .pdf pdf df pdf df df df df df df df df df pdf df pdf df f pdf df df f df pdf f f pdf df pdf pdf zi.pdf ds.pdf df f df df df df pdf ata.pdf pdf pdf pd pdf df pdf df f df pdf f pdf df df pdf df .pdf gi.pdf df f f pdf df pdf df df df pdf pdf f pdf f pdf df f f pdf pdf df f df pdf df sma.pdf df f t.pdf pdf f df df.pdf[/url] df 006.pdf df df df HT.pdf pdf df pdf df pdf d 0 Comment


The single best way to protect against the flu is to get vaccinated each year. There are two types of vaccines: The "flu shot"— an inactivated vaccine (containing killed virus) that is given with a needle, usually in the arm. The flu shot is approved for use in people older than 6 months, including healthy people and people with chronic medical conditions. The nasal-spray flu vaccine — a vaccine made with live, weakened flu viruses that do not cause the flu (sometimes called LAIV for “live attenuated influenza vaccine” or FluMist®). LAIV (FluMist®) is approved for use in healthy* people 2-49 years of age who are not pregnant. Each vaccine contains three influenza virusesone A (H3N2) virus, one A (H1N1) virus, and one B virus. The viruses in the vaccine change each year based on international surveillance and scientists' estimations about which types and strains of viruses will circulate in a given year. About 2 weeks after vaccination, antibodies that provide protection against influenza virus infection develop in the body. When to Get Vaccinated Yearly flu vaccination should begin in September or as soon as vaccine is available and continue throughout the influenza season, into December, January, and beyond. This is because the timing and duration of influenza seasons vary. While influenza outbreaks can happen as early as October, most of the time influenza activity peaks in January or later. Who Should Get Vaccinated

In general, anyone who wants to reduce their chances of getting the flu can get vaccinated. However, it is recommended by ACIP that certain people should get vaccinated each year. They are either people who are at high risk of having serious flu complications or people who live with or care for those at high risk for serious complications. During flu seasons when vaccine supplies are limited or delayed, ACIP makes recommendations regarding priority groups for vaccination. People who should get vaccinated each year are: 1. Children aged 6 months up to their 19th birthday 2. Pregnant women 3. People 50 years of age and older 4. People of any age with certain chronic medical conditions 5. People who live in nursing homes and other long-term care facilities 6. People who live with or care for those at high risk for complications from flu, including: a. Health care workers b. Household contacts of persons at high risk for complications from the flu c. Household contacts and out of home caregivers of children less than 6 months of age (these children are too young to be vaccinated) Use of the Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine It should be noted that vaccination with the nasal-spray flu vaccine is always an option for healthy* people 2-49 years of age who are not pregnant. Who Should Not Be Vaccinated 1. There are some people who should not be vaccinated without first consulting a physician. These include 2. People who have a severe allergy to chicken eggs. 3. People who have had a severe reaction to an influenza vaccination. 4. People who developed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) within 6 weeks of getting an influenza vaccine. 5. Children less than 6 months of age (influenza vaccine is not approved for this age group), and 6. People who have a moderate-to-severe illness with a fever (they should wait until they recover to get vaccinated.) Vaccine Effectiveness The ability of flu vaccine to protect a person depends on the age and health status of the person getting the vaccine, and the similarity or "match" between the virus strains in the vaccine and those in circulation. Testing has shown that both the flu shot and the nasal-spray vaccine are effective at preventing the flu. Vaccine Side Effects (What to Expect) Different side effects can be associated with the flu shot and LAIV. The flu shot: The viruses in the flu shot are killed (inactivated), so you cannot get the flu from a flu shot. Some minor side effects that could occur are Soreness, redness, or swelling where the shot was given Fever (low grade) Aches If these problems occur, they begin soon after the shot and usually last 1 to 2 days. Almost all people who receive influenza vaccine have no serious problems from it. However, on rare occasions, flu vaccination can cause serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. As of July 1, 2005, people who think that they have been injured by the flu shot can file a claim for compensation from the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP). LAIV (FluMist®): The viruses in the nasal-spray vaccine are weakened and do not cause severe symptoms often associated with influenza illness. (In clinical studies, transmission of vaccine viruses to close contacts has occurred only rarely.) In children, side effects from LAIV (FluMist®) can include 1.runny nose 2.wheezing 3.headache 4.vomiting 5.muscle aches 6. fever In adults, side effects from LAIV (FluMist®) can include 1.runny nose 2.headache 3.sore throat 4.cough 0 Comment


The Cause of Malaria Malaria affects huge numbers of people worldwide: up to 300 million clinical cases, mainly children, emerge each year causing 1.5 to 2.7 million deaths. The disease is caused by a group of parasites called plasmodia. Like all forms of parasites, plasmodia are organisms that need to feed on other organisms in order to survive. The four different parasites that cause human malaria are: Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale. They are transmitted by mosquito bites, specifically female mosquitoes, which need a supply of blood to produce and lay eggs. The mosquitoes that transmit human malaria belong to a group called Anopheles. Worldwide, some 400 different mosquitoes belong to this group, and approximately 60 of these transmit the malaria disease. Mosquitoes breed in standing water, which is very common in tropical countries, especially after floods. In colder climates the malaria mosquitoes are not as common, because the low temperatures will kill them. They contract the disease by taking blood from an already infected person, and later pass on the disease when they bite someone else. The discovery of the parasite in mosquitoes earned the scientist Ronald Ross the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1902. In 1907 Alphonse Laveran received the prize for his findings that the parasite was present in human blood and that it caused the malaria disease. Symptoms Symptoms of malaria include fever, shivering, pain in the joints, headache, repeated vomiting, generalized convulsions and coma. If not treated, the most serious kind caused by the P. falciparum parasite, can become deadly within two days. The other malaria parasites cause less serious symptoms, but can weaken a person's immune system, making him/her more vulnerable to other infectious, life-threatening diseases. Copyright © Nobel Web AB 2008 0 Comment


Water is basic to life and health. Over 1 billion people worldwide have no access to safe drinking water. The United States is fortunate to have one of the best supplies of drinking water in the world. Although tap water that meets federal and state standards is generally safe to drink, threats to drinking water quality in the United States still exist. Outbreaks of drinking water-associated illness and water restrictions during droughts demonstrate that we cannot take our drinking water for granted. DPD’s Healthy Drinking Water Program was created to reduce the spread of drinking waterassociated illness by working with partners to: 1. develop evidence-based prevention recommendations and health communication materials, 2. enhance surveillance for drinking waterassociated illness, 3. support illness outbreak investigations and emergency responses, and 4. support epidemiologic and laboratory research on drinking water issues. 0 Comment


Penyakit diare masih sering menimbulkan KLB ( Kejadian Luar Biasa ) seperti halnya Kolera dengan jumlah penderita yang banyak dalam waktu yang singkat.Namun dengan tatalaksana diare yang cepat, tepat dan bermutu kematian dpt ditekan seminimal mungkin. Pada bulan Oktober 1992 ditemukan strain baru yaitu Vibrio Cholera 0139 yang kemudian digantikan Vibrio cholera strain El Tor di tahun 1993 dan kemudian menghilang dalam tahun 1995-1996, kecuali di India dan Bangladesh yang masih ditemukan. Sedangkan E. Coli 0157 sebagai penyebab diare berdarah dan HUS ( Haemolytic Uremia Syndrome ). KLB pernah terjadi di USA, Jepang, Afrika selatan dan Australia. Dan untuk Indonesia sendiri kedua strain diatas belum pernah terdeksi. Defenisi Suatu penyakit dengan tanda-tanda adanya perubahan bentuk dan konsistensi dari tinja , yang melembek sampai mencair dan bertambahnya frekwensi berak lebih dari biasanya. (3 kali atau lebih dalam 1 hari. Faktor yang mempengaruhi diare : Lingkungan Gizi Kependudukan Pendidikan Sosial Ekonomi dan Prilaku Masyarakat Penyebab terjadinya diare : Peradangan usus oleh agen penyebab : 1. Bakteri , virus, parasit ( jamur, cacing , protozoa) 2. Keracunan makanan/minuman yang disebabkan oleh bakteri maupun bahan kimia 3. Kurang gizi 4. Alergi terhadap susu 5. Immuno defesiensi Cara penularan : Infeksi oleh agen penyebab terjadi bila makan makanan / air minum yang terkontaminasi tinja / muntahan penderita diare. Penularan langsung juga dapat terjadi bila tangan tercemar dipergunakan untuk menyuap makanan. Istilah diare : Diare akut = kurang dari 2 minggu Diare Persisten = lebih dari 2 minggu Disentri = diare disertai darah dengan ataupun tanpa lendir Kholera = diare dimana tinjanya terdapat bakteri Cholera Tatalaksana penderita diare yang tepat dan efektif : Tatalaksana penderita diare di rumah Meningkatkan pemberian cairan rumah tangga (kuah sayur, air tajin, larutan gula garam, bila ada berikan oralit) Meneruskan pemberian makanan yang lunak dan tidak merangsang serta makanan ekstra sesudah diare. Membawa penderita diare ke sarana kesehatan bila dalam 3 hari tidak membaik atau : 1. buang air besar makin sering dan banyak sekali 2. muntah terus menerus 3. rasa haus yang nyata 4. tidak dapat minum atau makan 5. demam tinggi 6. ada darah dalam tinja Kriteria KLB/Diare : Peningkatan kejadian kesakitan/kematian karena diare secara terus menerus selama 3 kurun waktu berturut-turut (jam, hari, minggu). Peningkatan kejadian/kematian kasus diare 2 kali /lebih dibandingkan jumlah kesakitan/kematian karena diare yang biasa terjadi pada kurun waktu sebelumnya (jam, hari, minggu). - CFR karena diare dalam kurun waktu tertentu menunjukkan kenaikan 50% atau lebih dibandingkan priode sebelumnya. Prosedur Penanggulangan KLB/Wabah. 1. Masa pra KLB Informasi kemungkinan akan terjadinya KLB / wabah adalah dengan melaksanakan Sistem Kewaspadaan Dini secara cermat, selain itu melakukakukan langkah-langkh lainnya : 1. Meningkatkan kewaspadaan dini di puskesmas baik SKD, tenaga dan logistik. 2. Membentuk dan melatih TIM Gerak Cepat puskesmas. 3. Mengintensifkan penyuluhan kesehatan pada masyarakat 4. Memperbaiki kerja laboratorium 5. Meningkatkan kerjasama dengan instansi lain Tim Gerak Cepat (TGC) : Sekelompok tenaga kesehatan yang bertugas menyelesaikan pengamatan dan penanggulangan wabah di lapangan sesuai dengan data penderita puskesmas atau data penyelidikan epideomologis. Tugas /kegiatan : Pengamatan : Pencarian penderita lain yang tidak datang berobat. Pengambilan usap dubur terhadap orang yang dicurigai terutama anggota keluarga Pengambilan contoh air sumur, sungai, air pabrik dll yang diduga tercemari dan sebagai sumber penularan. Pelacakan kasus untuk mencari asal usul penularan dan mengantisipasi penyebarannya Pencegahan dehidrasi dengan pemberian oralit bagi setiap penderita yang ditemukan di lapangan. Penyuluhahn baik perorang maupun keluarga Membuat laporan tentang kejadian wabah dan cara penanggulangan secara lengkap 2. Pembentukan Pusat Rehidrasi Untuk menampung penderita diare yang memerlukan perawatan dan pengobatan. Tugas pusat rehidrasi : Merawat dan memberikan pengobatan penderita diare yang berkunjung. Melakukan pencatatan nama , umur, alamat lengkap, masa inkubasi, gejala diagnosa dsb. Memberikan data penderita ke Petugas TGC Mengatur logistik Mengambil usap dubur penderita sebelum diterapi. Penyuluhan bagi penderita dan keluarga Menjaga pusat rehidrasi tidak menjadi sumber penularan (lisolisasi). Membuat laporan harian, mingguan penderita diare yang dirawat.(yang diinfus, tdk diinfus, rawat jalan, obat yang digunakan dsb. 0 Comment


Campak merupakan nama yang tidak asing lagi bagi para ibu yang mempunyai bayi berusia 9 bulan. Ya, karena pada umur 9 bulan atau tepatnya 8 sampai 9 bulan, bayi akan mendapatkan imunisasi campak yang merupakan salah satu imunisasi wajib pada bayi untuk mencegah bayi terkena penyakit campak. Campak merupakan penyakit yang sangat menular terutama menyerang anak anak, walaupun pada beberapa kasus juga dapat menyerang orang dewasa. Pada anak anak dengan keadaan gizi buruk ditemukan kejadian campak dengan komplikasi yang fatal atau berpotensi menyebabkan kematian. Sebelum vaksinasi campak digunakan secara meluas, wabah campak terjadi setiap 2-3 tahun, terutama pada anak-anak usia pra-sekolah dan anak-anak SD. jika seseorang pernah menderita campak, maka seumur hidupnya dia akan kebal terhadap penyakit ini. Penyebab dari penyakit ini adalah infeksi virus Rubella, oleh karena itu campak juga sering disebut Demam Rubella. Virus ini sangat menular terutama pada anak anak dengan daya tahan tubuh yang buruk. Virus masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui perantara udara yang berasal dari batuk, bersin atau kotoran tangan penderita campak. Penderita dapat menularkan infeksi ini dalam waktu 2-4 hari sebelum rimbulnya ruam kulit dan selama ruam kulit ada. Membedakan penyakit campak dengan penyakit demam yang lain tidaklah terlalu sulit. Pada penderita campak akan ditemuka demam yang tinggi (paling tinggi dicapai setelah 4 hari), bintik putih pada bagian dalam pipi di sebelah depan gigi geraham, mata merah dan berair, tenggorokan sakit, pilek, batuk yang khas kering dan keras. Pada beberapa anak terdapat muntah-muntah dan diare, bintik yang khas ini muncul di belakang telinga, menyebar ke muka kemudian ke seluruh badan. Komplikasi yang timbul pada penyakit ini merupakan penyebab kematian utama pada campak. Komplikasi itu antara lain : Infeksi telinga bagian tengah, Bronkhitis (infeksi saluran pernafasan bagian bawah), Pneumonia (infeksi paru-paru), Encephalitis (radang otak). Mengerikan bukan? Seperti penyakit penyakit lainnya, pada penyakit campak pun ada beberapa hal yang bisa kita lakukan sebelum ke dokter. Tindakan tindakan itu antara lain : tinggal dirumah sampai penyakit tidak menular lagi, istirahat dan minum banyak cairan, minum obat anti demam, minum obat batuk. Bila menderita sakit telinga, keluar cairan dari telinga, demam terus-menerus, kejang-kejang atau mengantuk segera ke dokter. Saat tiba di tempat dokter, penderita campak akan diberikan beberapa tindakan medis guna mencegah komplikasi tetapi bila sudah terdapat komplikasi maka akan dilakukan upaya upaya untuk mengobati komplikasi yang ada. Bila dokter merasa bahwa penderita memerlukan perawatan lebih lanjut maka dokter dapat merujuk pasien ke rumah sakit terdekat. 0 Comment Postingan Lama





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