Basic Principles of Advertising and Public Relations


PAPER-1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ADVERTISING AND PUBLIC RELATION LESSON 1- Advertising Definition, Classification, Growth & Development LESSON 2- Basic Model and process of advertising, Motivational & Persuasional Communication of Advertising LESSON 3- Advertising Public Relation and Publicity LESSON 4- Extension Education LESSON 5-Social Advertising LESSON 6- Advertisement Agencies: Structure & Function, Empanelling & Budgeting LESSON 7- Public Relations: Definition, Role & Function, Growth & Development LESSON 8- Difference between Public Relation & Corporate Public Relation LESSON 9- Public Relation in Public and Private Sector LESSON 10- Crisis Communication and Lobbying LESSON 11- Public Issue Communication

Course Code: 01

Author :

Dr. Bandana Pandey

Lesson: 01

Vetter :

Prof. Manoj Dayal

Advertising: Definition, Classification, Growth & Development

STRUCTURE 1.1 Objectives 1.2 Introduction 1.3 Definition 1.4 History of Advertising 1.5 Classification of Advertising 1.6 Role of Advertising 1.7 Scenario of Indian Media 1.8 Summary 1.10 Key words 1.11 Self Assessment Exercise 1.12 Suggested Readings 1.1 OBJECTIVES The main objectives of this lesson are to understand the basic concepts of advertising and its definition. To acknowledge the history and development

of advertising. To know the different classifications of advertising. To study the Indian media scenario. To understand the role of advertising.



What is advertising? Advertising is a powerful communication force and vital marketing tool helping to sell goods, services, images, and ideas through channel of information and persuasion. It is highly visible force in the society. Today all of us receive many advertising messages daily. Now it is essential to the success of any type of business and industry. Furthermore, advertising strategies are employed more and more by non-business organisation such as government,








characteristics. It is one of the parts of the marketing and communication process. Advertising convince people to buy products. All advertising contains both information and persuasion. Today we can say advertising is a communication, marketing, public-relation, information and persuasion process. Advertising reaches us through a channel of communication referred to as a medium. It is usually aimed at a particular segment of the population - the target audience (Consumer and business).

Basically it is a medium of dissemination of information and persuasion. It always creates a glamorous area. No doubt today advertising covers almost every area of the thought process and action of society. It is considered to be a highly sophisticated communication force and powerful marketing tool. In other words we can say that it is a complete psychological treatment of the consumer and a very creative and glamorous area also. 1.3 Definition The word advertising came from the Latin word' advertere' means "to turn the mind toward". The American Marketing Association (AMA) recommends the definition, "Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor". The AMA points out that advertising is a tool of marketing along with the product and its packaging, price, distribution and personnel selling. Definitely advertising is openly and over the overtly subsidized information and persuasion, and its task is to present and promote for more than merchandise. According to this definition promotion is 'non-personal'. It is directed "to whom it may concern". If advertising is effective, it is because the audience is receptive to it. Paid form: When product or services are mentioned favorably in the media-

newspaper, magazines and radio or television- the item appears because it is presumed to provide information or entertainment for the audience. But this is publicity, and no payment is made by the benefited organization. Advertising on the other hand, is published or broadcast because the advertiser has purchased time or space to tell the story of a certain product or service. Non-personal presentation: Personal selling takes place when a personal face-to-face presentation is made. Although advertising complements or may submit for, personal selling it is done in a non-personal manner through intermediaries - or media. Idea, goods and services: From this point advertising is concerned with much more than the promotion of tangible goods. Most of the advertising is designed to help sell goods and services. It is being used increasingly to further public interest group. An Identified Sponsor: Advertising discloses or identifies the sources of the opinion and ideas. According to an identified sponsor, this point distinguishes advertising from propaganda. Propaganda attempts to present opinions and ideas in order to influence attitudes and actions. Advertising on the other hand, disclose or identifies the source of the opinions and ideas it present.

AMA definition actually describes the four main following points of advertising: The phase paid form in the AMA definition is too restricted for many advertising professionals. The phrase was designed to distinguish between advertising, which is delivered through space, or time for which the advertiser has paid, and publicity, which is delivered without charge as part of the news and entertainment content of the media. According to Mc Cann Erickson, Advertising is "Truth Well Told" Actually advertising is a paid publicity and silent salesmanship. It takes known what we have to sell or what we want to buy. According to Seldon, "Advertising is a business force, which through printed words, sells or helps sale, build reputation and fosters goodwill". John V. W. expressed, "Advertising like salesmanship is an attempt to influence the thoughts and action of people". Canor and Wichart has given a definition in this form, "Advertising includes those visual or oral messages in magazines, newspapers, movies and letters, over radio and television and on transportation vehicles and outdoor signs which are paid by their sponsors and directed to consumers for purpose of influencing their purchases and attitudes". According to Britannica Dictionary, "A form of paid announcement

interested to promote the sale of commodity or services, to advance an idea or to bring about other effect desired by the advertiser". Webster’s New World Dictionary has mentioned Advertising is


to tell about or praise (a product etc.) as through print media, audio

and visual, so as to promote sale; 2.

to make known; and


to call public to things for sale, for rent etc., as by printed or presented

notice. Another definition stresses the Idea that advertising is controlled, identifiable information and persuasion by means of Mass Communication. Such definition points to another distinction between advertising and other forms of promotion. Albert Lasker, the father of advertising expressed, "Advertising is salesmanship in print". But he offered that definition long before television and internet, at a time when the nature and scope of advertising were quite limited. The London Institute of Practitioners in Advertising has given a definition which very closely approximates the following points: "Advertising presents the most persuasive possible selling message to right

prospect for the product or service at the lowest possible cost". These definitions include the element of payment for the sponsor. But the sponsor of the advertisement should not only make the payment for it, but should also identify itself in the advertisement. Finally we may consider the prevalent definition of advertising "as paid, non-personal communication through various media by business firms, non profit organization and individuals who hope to inform or persuade members of a particular audience". As also the definition given by Wright, Winter and .Zeigler which identifies advertising as- "Controlled identified information and persuasion by mean of mass communication media". Information: It provides the communication link between someone, who needs something, is' often just that simple. The advertiser provides information to person who is seeking it. Surely, advertising is the most efficient means of reaching people with product or service information. 'Presentation' and promotion however hardly suggest an active attempt to influence people to action or belief by an overt appeal to reason or emotions. 'Persuasion' which is a major objective of modern advertising, is what has just been described. Controlled: The word "Controlled" provides an important distinction between advertising and either personal selling or publicity. The content,

time and direction of an advertising message are controlled by the advertiser. Identifiable: This word is used in preference to such terms as "by an identified sponsor" to indicate that receiver of the advertising message is able to identify both source and purpose. The source is responsible for the message and recognizes or should recognize that its purpose is to persuade the receiver to accept the ideas or opinions it present. Mass Communication Media: It is designed to separate personal selling and advertising and also to convey the concept of multiple messages delivered to groups of people simultaneously. 1.4 History of Advertising Advertising is an important element of our culture because it reflects and attempts to change our life style. The concept of advertising dates to early civilization. It had to undertake a long journey through the centuries before- it attained its present form. Actually advertising is directly related to the need of man to communicate his message and attract to each other. Our knowledge of advertising in ancient times naturally is fragmentary. Early advertising can be traced back to the archaeological evidences available in Greece and Rome. In 3000 B. C. Babylonia merchants hired parkers to hawk their wares to perspective, customers and placed signs over their doorways to indicate what they sold. Advertisements were found on walls in the streets

of the excavated Roman city of Pompeii. Another evidence of a piece of papyrus preserved in the British Museum provides the earliest and direct reference to written advertisement. An Egyptian had advertised 3,000 years ago asking for the return of a run away slave. The word of mouth or oral advertisement or spoken publicity was still older. The use of hand bills, posters and newspaper advertisements emerged after Gutenberg developed movable type in the 15th century. When Benjamin Franklin established the Philadelphia Gazette in 1729, it soon became a favorite medium of advertising. When the weekly Pennsylvania packet and General Advertiser became a daily in 1784, it featured an entire front page of advertisement. In ancient India, some of the typical seals used by the Mohanjodaro and Harrapa people were directly connected. But formally, the history of advertisement in India parallels the history and development of the Indian Press during the past 200 years. In other words we can say that advertising is a father of Journalism. Because the first Indian newspaper started by James August Hickey on January 29, 1780, was called the "Bengal Gazette" or "Calcutta General Advertiser". It was full of informative advertisement. In




advertisement free of charge.





By the dawn of 19th century the pattern of advertising changed-and the power of advertising increased rapidly with the growth of trade and commerce. With the Industrial Revolution in our country, the number of advertisements from British Business Houses rose considerably. The Times of India and The Statesman started their own facilities for layout and copy of the advertisement. The development of advertising agency was founded due to the development of Indian industries provided by the Swadeshi Movement of 1907-1977. The major advertising agencies were, The Calcutta Advertising Agency, Alliance Advertising Associates, Publicity Society of India, J. .Walter Thompson (Now Hindustan Thompson). During the mid-17th Century, newspaper started appearing in Europe and newspaper advertising was initiated in full swing and large number of advertisement started crowding the newspaper announcing publication of books, new beverages, travel plans and matrimonial offers. But all early advertisements were basically only announcement. In England, some of the advertisement, which were known as a "Pioneering advertisements" were Coffee (1652), Chocolates (1657) and Tea (1658). The Industrial revolution, discovery of the growth of transportation facilities, advent of radio and television and revolution in printing

technology discovery of the steam power in England and America had a keen role to play in the development of advertising. After the Second World War and with the independence of India many British advertising agencies were brought by Indian businessman. During the above period print advertising had to be used to raise funds. By 1932 there were 109 advertising agencies in India ~~ advertisement had become the main source of revenue of print media. In 1950 the advertisement of cosmetics was on the top of the list of items advertised and in 1960 consumer goods continued to dominate with textile advertisement. The 1970 was the important year of the growth of advertising in India. When the 'Vividh Bharati' and 'Doordarshan' played a great role in the form of commercial broadcasting and telecasting. Now radio commercials made a real dent on the rural audience and urban working class. Besides these many periodicals like 'India Today', 'Bombay'; New Delhi'; Surya' and various film magazines made their appearance in Indian advertising. The role of tabloids in English and the Indian languages were very examples in the field of advertising in India. The programmes and plans of the government were also publicity announcements as also those of the TISCO, DUNCOP, Coltex, Philips, Godrej and Hindustan Lever. These media gradually started emerging as a mutual competitor for advertising revenue also. With the

beginning of 21st century, the advertisers themselves became more serious and their approach becomes more sophisticated. Print, Radio, T. V. and Internet Commercials have created deep impact on Indian advertising. Indian advertisement has no doubt to register a rapid growth and has acquired a certain amount of professional character. In India it has played a vital role in the development process by creating a demand for consumer goods and raising a living of standard of millions. On the government sector, advertisement of the railways also dominated which was soon joined by the public sector advertisement. The massive government campaign for family planning was a new attempt to penetrate into the conservative psyche and practice of Indian massive. Mani Shankar Iyer has also won laurels for his unique campaign on cancer prevention. In 20th century advertisement bloomed to its full form. More emphasis was laid on advertisement copy. Art services and advertisement production became more and more important.

1.5 Classification of Advertising The nature and purpose of the advertising differ from one industry to another or across situations. Marketers advertise to the consumers market

with national, local and direct-response advertising which may involve stimulating primary or selective demand. They use industrial, professional and trade advertising for business and professional markets. To better understand the nature and purpose of advertising it can be classified by the following criteria: 1.

National Advertising: Advertising done by a company on a

nationwide basis or in most regions of the country and targeted to the ultimate consumer market is known as national advertising. The companies that sponsor these ads are generally referred to as national advertisers. Most of the advertisements for well-known brands that we see on TV or in other major media are examples of national advertising. It informs or reminds consumers of the brand and its features, benefits, advantages and uses or reinforces its images.


Retail/Local Advertising: Another prevalent type of advertising

directed at the consumer market is classified as retail/local advertising. This type of advertising is done by major retailers or smaller local merchants to encourage consumers to shop at a specific store or use a local service such as local financial companies, bank, hospitals, fitness club, restaurants, show rooms etc. While the national advertisers sell their products at many

locations, retail or local advertisers must give the consumer a reason to patronize their establishment. Retail advertising tends to emphasize specific customer benefits such as store house, credit policies, services, atmosphere, merchandise assortment and other distinguish attributes. 3.

Direct-Response Advertising: Direct-response advertising is a

method of direct marketing whereby a product is promoted through an advertisement that lets the customer purchase directly from the manufacturer. Direct response advertising has become very popular In recent years owing primarily to changing life-styles. The convenience of shopping through the mail or by telephone has led to the tremendous increase in direct-response advertising.

4. Primary and Selective Demand Advertising: Another way of viewing advertising to the ultimate customers is in terms of whether the message is designed to stimulate either primary or selective demand. Primary Demand Advertising is designed to stimulate demand for the general product class or entire industry; Selective Demand Advertising focuses on creating demand for a particular manufacturer's brands.

Primary demand advertising is often used as part of a promotional strategy

to help a new product gain acceptance among customers. Products in the introductory or growth stages of their life cycles often have primary demand stimulation as a promotional objective because the challenge is to sell customers on the product as much as it is to sell a particular brand. 5.

Business to Business Advertising: Some times the ultimate customer

is not the mass consumer market but rather another business, industry, or profession. Business-to Business advertising is used by one business to advertise its products or services to another. It is categorized in three basic categories like industrial, professional, and trade advertising. a)

Industrial Advertising: Advertising targeted at individuals who buy or

influence the purchase of industrial goods or other services is known as industrial advertising. Industrial goods are those products that either become a physical part of another product, or used in manufacturing other goods. Business service, such as insurance, financial services, and health care, are also included in this category. Industrial advertising is usually found in general business publications or in trade publications targeted to the particular industry. b) Professional Advertising: Advertising that is targeted to professional groups-such as doctors, lawyers, dentists, or engineers-to encourage to use the advertiser's product or specify it for other's use is known as professional

advertising. Professional groups are important because they constitute a market for products and services they use in their businesses. Also, their recommendations influences, many consumer purchase decisions.


Trade Advertising: Advertising with in a trade to attract the

wholesalers and retailers and motivate them to purchase its products for resale is termed as trade advertising. Company sales representatives call on resellers to explain the product, discuss the firm's plans for building demand among ultimate consumers, and describe special programs being offered to the trade, such as introductory discounts, promotional allowances. Trade advertise usually appears in publications that serve the particular industry. These classifications of the various types of advertising demonstrate that this promotional element is used in a variety of ways. Advertising is a very flexible promotional tool whose role in marketing program will vary depending on the situation facing the organization and what information needs to be communicated.

1.6 Role of Advertising A peculiarity of the mass communication system is that advertising

pays most of the bills. All advertising contains both information and persuasion. It influence in the mass media market place. The classified advertisements in the daily newspaper are almost pure information. Their primary intention is to advise the readers of the availability of a product-telling where, when, and for how much. The audience either wants it or they don't. Actually advertising is omnipresent and is basically persuasive in nature. It pays most of the bills. It accounts for around two thirds of the revenue of the print-media and nearly all the revenue for electronic media (Television and Radio). It has both marketing and communication. Advertising is a message industry that plays a major role in shaping the content and operation of the mass media. It plays an important role in our popular culture because it shapes and reflects our life styles. It is one step ahead of other elements in our culture and is usually the first to reflect social trends. Now the scenario is that the average adult is exposed to uncounted number of advertisements each day. It plays two following broad roles in the socio-economic landscape of a country.


Economic roles


Social roles


Advertising is basically an economic institution. It performs an

economic function for an advertiser affect economic decision of the audience and is an integral part of the whole economic system. Thus an economic evaluation show accompanies other types of appraisal of advertising. Here are some of the economic role and benefits of advertising: 1.

Advertising encourages economic growth.


Providing information utility.


Advertising and Brand name.


Media support.


Distribution costs


Effects on business cycles.


Providing product utility.


Advertising and monopoly.


Encouraging new product.


Maintain Competition


Market concentration


Concentration and prices (i)

Advertising and prices


Advertising and profitability


Advertising and Brand stability.

At all economic level, advertising stimulates demand, educate consumer about new product, policies, programmes services and organizations, increase competition and improve standard of life-style by helping to bring new product to the consumer. No doubt, it is a fuel that boosts the economy by helping to introduce new products faster and more effectively to consumer by supporting to achieve the economies of scale faster and by helping to remove the monopoly of the product.


At social level advertising plays upon, derives from and contributes to

the social texture of a country. Advertising reflects society and socie1y reflects advertising. Various social changes are brought about or helped by advertising. It makes role models who can create societal change. Adult education, family planning and pulse polio campaign also used to sell the concept of social advertising. It is a positive force in our society. It makes to the nation's social welfare.




New product


New usage



Family life



There are five roles of advertising to social welfare Efficient source of information for both consumers and industrial buyers for product quality, new material or merchandise, new technology and cost. Reduces distribution costs through personal selling. Encourage competition. It increases product quality through solid brand identity. It creates publicity for material and cultural incentives of a liberal

enterprise society. It makes able media all mass media to maintain independence from government, political parties and other special interest groups. Advertisers have the raw power to manipulate consumers. Many companies have the capacity to obtain large numbers of advertisement exposures. But, there are several following issues which are discussed with the negative role of advertising in the society. Taste: Some critics feel that advertising is objectionable because the creative effort behind it is not in good taste. It is too omnipresent or intrusive and too long, too repetitions or involved unpleased voices, music or people. Advertising is criticized friskily, unreal, boring or depressing nature. Nearly one fourth of the offensive advertisements were considered inappropriate for children. Clearly, there is a strong product class effect with respect to irritation with television advertising. Appeal: Fear appeals is advertising have also been criticized. The extent of fear appeal is to create anxiety that can supposedly be alleviated by an available product (insurance against a fire or toothpaste for the prevention of germs). Such appeals may create emotional disturbances or a long run anxiety condition in some audience members. The cumulative effects of such advertising may be highly undesirable to some, although it can also be

urged that they quickly cease to have any significant degree of emotional impact, and the audience soon becomes immune to the messages. Intrusiveness: An advertisement campaign moves with repetition from a period of effectiveness and presumably audience acceptance, to a period of irritation. The number of exposures between the start of a campaign and the stage of growing irritation is obviously a key variable. An important factor, of course is the intensity of the campaign itself. Bursls of advertising that generate many exposures over a short time period will be undoubtedly run a high risk of irritation.

Effects on values and life-style By nature advertising receives wide exposure. Furthermore, it presumably has an effects on what people buy and thus on their activities. It is a persuasive vehicle which has an impact on the values and life-style of society and that this impact has its negative as well as positive side. Various appeals of advertising have criticized in different ways such as appeals to mass markets tended to promote conformity, appeals to status promote envy, pride and social competitiveness, appeals to fears promote anxiety, appeals to newness promote disrespect for tradition, durability experience or history,

appeals to youth promote reduce family authority, appeals to sexuality promote promiscuity and so forth. There are three main issues that have attracted particular attention on the negative role of advertising in the society they are:


The relationship of advertising to materialism. Materialism is defined

as the tendency to give undue importance to material interests People buy Air Condition (A.C.), Music system and automobiles for social status. So advertising create or foster materialism or merely reflects values and attitudes that are created by more significant sociological forces.


The role that advertising has played in creating harmful stereotypes

of women and ethnic minorities. (c)

The possible contribution of advertising in promoting harmful

products. The basic argument is that alcohol and cigarettes is a 'harmful' product. Alcohol is unhealthy for the individual and is indirectly responsible for injuries and deaths resulting for drunk drivers. Why encourage people to use alcohol through advertising. The use of celebrities suggestions that alcohol is not only harmless but it is associated with fun loving, healthy people. As Deer advertising has increased fastly in the media while that is a

national concern with the problems of alcohol and cigarettes. Information and broadcasting Minister Smt. Sushma Swaraj has declared a ban on wine and beer advertising on Doordarshan. Similar banned against tobacco by Allahabad high court was implemented in U. P. but due to the appeals in Supreme Court the decision changed and now ban has been removed. In the conclusion we can say that there are three categories of issues concerning advertising role. Two of them represent the aggregate effects of advertising on society's values and life styles and on society's economic well being. The third focuses on the nature and content of advertising. It involves issues of ethics, manipulation, taste, and advertising to children. It is clear that advertising ethics and other social and economic issues of advertising are heavily interwined. Some advertising is criticized on the basis of taste. It is urged that advertising has a negative impact on values and life-styles of society. The key issues are what values and life styles are to be avoided and what relative impact or influence does advertising have on them. What is materialism and is it bad or is it merely a means to various goals? What role does and should advertising have in promoting or combating stereotypes?


Scenario of Indian Media

Advertising spend more money on various media. In India more than Rs. 1,050 crores was spent on newspapers and magazines advertising. In the present time the favorite media are the T. V., the press, and posters along with radio and film. These have widest coverage. However other advertising media like posters, direct mail, transit media and electric and neon signs are by favored a few top advertisers. Newspaper There are several types of newspaper such as; daily, weekly, retail advertising bulletin, morning/evening, special interest etc. It is classified as national, regional, fully local etc. In India 'The Bengal Gazette" in published 1780 from Calcutta edited by James Augustus Hickey was "The Pioneer" in publication of advertisement. It is also known as "Calcutta General Advertise". Its major section was covered by advertisement. In 1790 'Courier' of Bombay carried advertisement. Though the newspaper was published in English, but advertisement was appeared in regional languages like Gujarati, Marathi, and Konkanese. In 1821, there were nine newspapers in Bengali and one in Persian, but all of which were published from Bengal in India. In 1826 the first Hindi newspaper was started from Calcutta. Other major Indian

language dailies newspaper was started in Tamil (1831), Marathi (1832), Telgu (1833), Urdu (1836) and Malayalam (1840). It should also be noted that today there are more than 25,000 publications, now registered with Registrar of Newspapers for Publication. Out of them there are 2281 are dailies highest number of newspapers is published in Hindi. According to the NRS highest circulated dailies in Hindi is "Dainik Jagran" and in English is "Times of India". In India there is publication in regional languages, apart from the English and Hindi languages. Actually newspapers have a broad reach. It reaches near about 10 crores people. Newspaper advertisements are also easy to prepare because newspapers are relatively extensive medium, when used selectivity.

Radio The first radio broadcasting station was set up in India in 1921. It was made by the Times of India in collaboration with post and telegraph department and after five year an organized radio broadcasting started in 1927. Indian Broadcasting Company set up two centres at Calcutta and Bombay. Therefore, a regular broadcasting service however, went on the air from 1927, when the Indian Broadcasting Company Ltd.., a private concern came

into being. The government runs broadcasting service and it was called Indian State Broadcasting (95 B.C.) Service. In 1936 the responsibility was handed over to All India Radio (AIR) a specially formed body for this purpose. The name 'Akashvani' was adopted in 1957, and short wave transmission also started in February 1938. External services of A.I.R. inaugurated in 1939. The introduction of commercial channel 'Vividh Bharati' launched on October 2, 1957. It increased the interest and popularity of radio as a mass media in 1980; the A.I.R. comprises a countrywide network of 90 stations including two 'Vividh Bharati' commercial centres, one at Chandigarh and the other at Kanpur. Besides these the A. I. R. puts out 70 national news bulletins in 19 languages each day. By 1991, the A. I. R. witnessed an extra ordinary growth. Today, there are 155 radio stations and a few more are coming up. The whole country is covered by SW transmitters. Its signal is available all over the country. In the rural area approximately 37% population still get information from the radio. It covers 95% population and 860/0 of the area of the country. Radio sells advertisement time in spot of 7, 10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds which are interspread during the media vehicles.

India ushered in a new era of FM (Frequency Modulation) broadcasting on August 15, 1993. It was inaugurated in 1997 at Madras. Since then, it is a long journey to private participation in FM on August 15, 1993. It became a separate channel since 1991. According to the NRS IV (1993) the Radio has regular internship of 59% as against 600/0 in NRI III 1983. In urban areas, it is the listening pattern rather than the listenership. Radio commands 5-6% of advertising budget. There are already 64 stations and 22 more stations are proposed. Basically, it is a music channel. It is a low cost audio medium, which can effort everybody throughout the country. Vividh Bharati and F. M. both always received favors of the advertisers contributed Rs. 23-79 crore in 1990 as against Rs. 15.94 crore in 1985. Advertisers are using FM on an experimental basis. Therefore, radio still remains a key medium especially for consumer soft like soap, detergent, tooth paste and durables like cycles. FM channel also best suited in the beginning for brand building with a specific target audience in mind. For agricultural products like fertilizer, seeds tools etc. radio along with FM is an extremely cost effective medium. Particularly for the rural area of India it is a leading medium. Operation Research Group (ORG) study indicates that Radio is a major medium, which has regional

advantage too. Presently A. I. R. has taken a number step to improve the pattern and quality of content of programme. They have started 10 more Vividh Bharati centres and computerized Vividh Bharati programme through Satellite.

Television Television was introduced on experimental basis in India on September 15, 1959. The range of the transmitter was forty kilometers only. The equipment was gifted by UNESCO. In August 1965, entertainment and information programmes were introduced and daily transmission was started in Delhi. The Federal Republic of Germany helped in the settlement of a TV production centre. In the beginning of 1970, four major cities had TV station which was Jullundar, Lucknow, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. "KrishiDarshan" programmes started in January 1967. Actually it was an era of Black and white television. The numbers of TV sets approximately 22,000 were imported. Although Indian TV sets were available in the market. The Bombay centre was started in 1972 and the same year other few TV centres were started in Sri Nagar, Amritsar, and Pune. But these were only relay centre. In 1975, Calcutta, Madras and Lucknow had TV centre. In the year of 1975, The American Apple Satellite was used for national TV service in

the collaboration with ISRO. 1 January, 1976 was a remarkable day when "Commercials" were telecasted at all the centres. Advertising on television was introduced in 1976. It covered 3% of total transmission time in 1991-92 and earned revenue of Rs. 300 crores. Another significant development must be mentioned of same year which was separation of television from All India Radio. It became an independent media unit with new named "Doordarshan". In 1977, the territorial transmitters were also started. The year of 1980 was a "boom year" of television and 1982 was a memorable year in the history of television in India when on 15 August 1982 colour television was able to reach among 970/0 of the country's population. It was the eve of the Asian games (ASIAD, 1982). National Programmes and regional transmission was started using the INSA T. Introduction of Metro channel in 1993 had introduced with new form to the views and advertisers and started five satellite channels of entertainment, music, sports, current affairs and business also. In February, 1994 Doordarshan gave its new shape in the form of DD-1, DD-2, DD-3 and the regional channels of DD-4, DD-5 and DD-6. It started its own movie channel on 7th April 1995.

Cable TV During the 1990s, the cable TV became an attractive entertainment and

media option. Though cable entered in the country in 1983, The Hong Kong based company Hutch-Vision followed CNN (Cable News Network) with a programme mix of news and entertainment and STAR channel also started same year. Asia Television Network (A TN) started operating commercial in June 1993. It was first private broadcasting organisation who launched Hindi channel with transcontinental reach. But it was noticed that when the cable TV








Advertisement viewership trend was changed fastly. Ad watching in fact was much higher on cable TV in comparison to all other media. Advertising industries have welcomed the growth of television as a popular and best effective medium. The advertising revenue on television has grown to Rs. 3,000 crores in year of 2,000. New television has been the single biggest factor in opening a broad rural market for consumer product and has created a high level of awareness among middle class family.

Out door media Out-door-media is one of the medium of advertisement. It is the oldest kind of advertisement. It was used as a sign in the ancient Rome and Greece. In the present time, advertisers are increasingly recognizing the media value of outdoor. Basically the out-door-media is known as posters, bill boards,

hoardings, road side sign, highway advertising and transit advertising etc. These are used for movies and consumer items like toothpaste and soaps. Posters have begun to be used effectively inside and outside train and buses in Mumbai and Delhi. Because it has visual appeal and can be changed frequently. It is noticed that hoardings contribute to the bulk of outdoor advertising. In Bombay the price of hoarding in 1992 varied between Rs. 10,000 and Rs. 1.2 lacs for 10 days. India is said to be spending highest (10%) on outdoor followed by Korea (8%) Japan (7%) and Malaysia (1.1%). There are some following leading advertising agencies of out door-media in India:



M. P. Publicity



Asian etc.

In Mumbai alone, there are more than 5,000 hoardings and 20,000 kiosks available and Bombay Municipal Corporation have received 800% through license fees for outdoor. Though the metros and urban areas remained the traditional centres for outdoor advertising, it is fruitful in rural areas too. Billboards are also a very useful media of outdoor advertising. The most notable users of billboards are Amul and AIR India. Amul hoardings are an excellent example where copy and visual are quickly changed. In India transit advertising is very popular and it is a potential advertising medium also. Buses, trams, and taxies are the popular vehicles for transit advertisement in metro cities. Cap Advertising Ltd. in Bombay and Rashtriya Advertising in Delhi is an example who has been floated to offer spaces on Taxis to carry advertisement all around. Transit advertising is about 3.3% of the total advertising business and 40% of outdoor advertising. 1.8 Summary Advertising is a powerful communication force and vital marketing tool helping to sell goods, services, images, and ideas through channel of information and persuasion. Advertising is any paid form of non-personal

presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor. The concept of advertising dates back to early civilization. Early advertising can be traced back to the archaeological evidences available in Greece and Rome. In ancient India, some of the typical seals used by the Mohanjodaro and Harrapa people were directly connected. Advertisements can be classified as follows: national, retail or local, direct response, primary and selective demand, business to business, industrial, professional, and trade advertising. Advertising plays two broad roles in the socio-economic landscape of a country- economic roles and social roles

1.9 KEY WORDS Persuasion: cause someone to believe or do something by reasoning Usher: lead, escort Dissemination: spread widely Ethnic: of a group sharing a common origin, culture, or language

1.10 SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTION Q 1Describe the basic concept of advertising? What are the important classifications of advertising? Q2 Briefly discuss the history of advertising. Q3 "Advertising increases competition and improve life-style by helping to bring new product to the consumer". Explain. Q4 What is the role of advertising in society? Q5 Write an essay on the topic of "Indian media scenario regarding advertising".

1.11 SUGGESTED READINGS Arens & Bovee: Contemporary Advertising; 5th edition IRWIN; Australia 1994

Belch & Belch: Advertising & Promotion; 5th edition; Tata McGraw Hill; 2001 Don Milner: Advertising & Promotion; 1st edition; London 1995 David A.Aaker, Batra, Mayers: Advertising Management; USA 1995 Mahendr J Mohan: Advertising Management - Concept & Cases; Tata

McGraw Hill; 2002 Stan Le Roy Wilson; Mass Media/Mass Culture; McGraw Hill; 1994 Sarojit Dalla: Advertising Today; 1994

Course Code: 01


Dr. Bandana Pandey

Lesson: 02


Prof. Manoj Dayal

Advertising: Basic Model and Process of Advertising, Motivational & Persuasion Communication of Advertising

STRUCTURE 2.1 Objectives 2.2 Introduction-Process of Advertising Elements of Advertising Communication Need of Advertising Process Motivation & Persuasion Linear Model of Communication AIDA Model of Communication Hierarchy Effect Model of Communication

Innovation Adoption Model of Communication Information Processing Model of Communication One Step & Two Step Models of Communication Multi Step Model of Communication 2.3 Summary 2.4 Key words 2.5 Self Assessment Questions 2.6 Suggested Readings

2.1 OBJECTIVES The main objective of this lesson is to understand the basic model of advertising and its need. To study the process of advertising and to understand the motivational & persuasion communication of advertising

2.1 Introduction Advertising is an element of the marketing mix and hence advertising objectives are derived from the organization's marketing objectives. From objectives we move on to advertising strategy and advertising execution. Better advertising is born out of a total understanding of all the variables impacting on the brand.

Advertising has a specific role to playas a form of communication. To exploit the strength of advertising for communicating information and motivating the audience, it is necessary to understand how the audience processes the information contained in advertising stimuli and how do they behave in their role as a consumer. As you know, Communication is a part of the framework of policy and strategy. Some companies undertake a communication audit as a part of their strategic analysis to see where their strengths and weaknesses lie in this area. The word 'communication' is partially interchangeable with the word 'publicity'. All forms of publicity can be called communication, but not vice versa. Such as instructions, requests for information, answer to such requests is called communications which we would not want to call publicity. In the communication system the consumer is considered as the information processing and decision making entity. Hence it is important to analyze how the required information reaches the entity and how the responds and reacts to the given information or stimulate i.e. advertising. The function of all elements of the advertising communication programme is to communicate. As communication has been variously defined as the passing of information, the exchange of ideas or the process

of establishing a commonness or oneness of thought between a sender and receiver. These concepts suggest that for communication to occur there must be some common thinking between two parties and information must be passed from one person to another or from one group to another. But establishing this commonality in thinking, it is not always as easy as it might seem. The advertising communication process is very complex. Success depends on such factors as the nature of message, the audience's interpretation of it and the environment in which it is received. The receiver's perception of the source and medium used to transmit the message may also affect the ability to communicate, as do many other factors words, pictures, sounds and colors may have different meanings to different audiences, and people's perceptions and interpretation of them vary. PROCESS OF ADVERTISING The basic task of advertising is communication with motivation and persuasion of the audience for responding according to the intended design of the advertiser. It is essential to analyze what motivates people to act in a particular manner. Advertising objectives are often classified under the two headings of to inform and to persuade. These two headings cover all sorts of

communication and it is difficult to think of any promotional activity that does not contain element of each. Advertisers send a message to millions of consumers at the same time in the advertising process. But it does not mean effective communication process occurred. This may be only one of several hundred messages the consumer is processed, comprehended or stored in memory for later retrieval. Even if the advertising message is processed, it may not interest consumers or may be misinterpreted by them. As you are aware, that a number of models and theories have been developed in the advertising communication process, there are some best known models of the response process for different reasons of advertising such as AIDA model, Hierarchy effects models, Innovation adoption model and information processing model. Target audience need to be informed of all manner of things: product specification, product availability, prices, after sale services and many other items as well. When something new is being introduced to the market - a new product, a new service, a new branch of a retail chain - then the need to inform is very high. It is not only consumers who need to be informed and techniques such as public relation, direct mail and conference can be used to inform employees, shareholders, local communities and government

department as well. Persuading is harder than informing. It may require the relieves of the message not only to understand what is being said but also to act on it in some way. In the communication system or advertising process the consumer is considered as an information process and decision making entity. Hence it is important to analyze how the required information reaches the entity and how he responds and reacts to the given information or stimulus i.e. the advertising. A basic model of the various elements of advertising communication process has evolved as shown in figure-I. Two elements represent the major participants in the advertising's communication process; 'The Sender' and 'The Receiver'. Another two are the major communication functions and processes. Such as 'Encoding', 'Decoding', 'Response' and 'Feed back'. The last element 'Noise' refers to any extraneous factors in the system that can interfere with the process and work against effective communication. Thus the communication system vis-a-vis advertising also dependent on four basic elements: Source


The advertiser



The advertising message



The media



The audience

It has been opined that the process of advertising also includes above three elements. This is known as 'Triangle of Communication' as shown in figure 2.

Since the source is not in direct contact with Receiver, a fourth element has been introduced. This element is the as above mentioned 'channel' or medium (The media), through which message receiver the 'Receiver' The 'Receiver' himself turns out to be a source of Information. In this reference it is also important that effective communication in advertising requires a field of experience (as mentioned in figure 1) that is common both to 'Source' and 'Receiver'. Advertiser will have to take advantage of this common field of experiment and translate or transmit the product information into a language understood by the consumer.

1.3 ELEMENTS OF ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION The Source/Sender The 'sender' or 'source' of a communication is the person or organization that has information to share with another person or group of people. 'The source' may be an individual (a salesperson, or hired spokes person, such as celebrity, who appears in a company's advertisements) or a non-personal entity such as the corporation or organization. The source of the system is obviously where the message originates. The advertiser is the most commonly interpreted source because it is the advertiser who is using the system to gain reception from the receiver. The receiver's perceptions of the source influence how the communication is received. There are two types of sources involved. The first is 'the company' or 'the brand' that is interested in communicating certain information and the second is the spokes son, models or the personality featured in the advertisement. Each of these should have credibility (expertise, unbiaseness) and attractiveness that will affect the communication system of advertising. The communication process begins when the source selects words, symbols, pictures and the like, to represent the message that will be delivered to the receiver. This process known as ENCODING, involves

putting thoughts, ideas or information into a symbolic form. The sender's goal is to encode the message in such a way that will be understood by the receiver. It means using words signs or symbols that are familiar to the target audience. Many companies also have highly recognizable symbolssuch as coca-cola, Pepsi Trade mark that are known to consumers not in the country but around the world. THE MESSAGE The 'encoding' process leads to development of a message that contains the information or meaning the source hopes to convey. In other words, the message refers to the content and form of the advertisement which enters into the perception process of the receiver. Here the creative aspect of advertising operates for formulating appropriate messages for reception in right degree and context by the target audience. The message may be verbal or non-verbal, oral or written, or symbolic. Message must be put into a transmittable form that is appropriate for the channel of communication being used. The message should be presented in such a way that can easily be translated from the language of the advertiser into the language of the consumer. In advertising this may range from simply writing some words or copy. The symbols and signals used should be understood in the same way be both 'source' and 'receiver'. And 'the message' must be

formulated in the manner so that it gains maximum attention of the 'receiver'. Beside these the message must be able to arouse the awareness of needs in the 'receiver' and should suggest some method of satisfying these needs to make the desired response. To better understand the symbolic meaning that might be conveyed in advertising. Semiotic is important in advertising communication which studies the nature of meaning and asks how our reality-words, gestures, myths, signs, symbols, product/services, theories acquire meaning. Channel (The Media) The third element in the advertising communication process is the channel. It is the method by which the communication travels from the source or sender to the 'Receiver'. At the broadest level, channels of communication are direct interpersonal (face-to-face) contact with target individuals or groups. Salespeople serve as personal channels of communication when they deliver their sales message to a buyer or potential customer. Social channels of communication such as friends, neighbors, associates, co-workers or family members are also personal channels. They often use word-of-mouth communication, a powerful source of information for consumers. Non personal channel of communication are those that carry a message without inter-personal contact between sender and receiver. It is

generally referred to as the mass-media or mass communication since the message is sent to many individual at one time. The advertising communication channel consists of media like print media (newspaper, magazine, direct mail, and billboards), electronic-media(radio, television), hoarding, point of purchase material etc. All these media have their specific strengths and weaknesses and all of them are capable of creating impact on the target audience in varying degrees depending on the audience profile and the communication message used. These aspects are directly related to the channel capacity and motivating capacity of every medium. Receiver The receiver is the person with whom the sender shares thoughts or information. The 'receivers' of the advertising message is obviously the target audience or receivers are the consumer who read, hear and see the advertising message and decode it. Decoding is the process of transforming the sender’s message back into thought. This process is heavily influenced by the receiver’s frame of reference or field of experience. Which refers the experiences, perception, attitudes and values audience brings to the communication situation. The term 'target audience', however, will have to be interpreted with care and should be described in terms of audience segmentation variables,

life-style, demographic and psychographics as also benefits sought by respective segments. The audience or the receivers may be interested or willing to search for a particular product or its information in keeping with his involvement and interest. While on the one hand identical set of audience may not be exposed to all the media like radio, T. V., newspaper, magazines, Pops etc. in identical degree. On the other, every single message projecting the product service or idea may not be of equal interest and importance. The communication messages may also have variety of intended effects on the target audience upon the communication objectives and the attitudes structure of the receivers. These might be intended to create awareness commune-information or to change audience attitude or participating behavior might be other intentions for communication. All these regulate various factors of the communication process separately or unified. In other words we can say that for effective communication to occur, the message decoding process of the receivers must match the encoding of the sender. Simply put, this means that receives understands and correctly interprets









communication is more likely when there is some common ground' between the two parties. (Shown in figure-l as overlapping of two circles). The more

knowledge the sender(advertiser) has about the target audience, the better the sender can understand the needs of consumer (receiver) empathize with the target audience and communicate with them effectively. The notion of common ground between advertisers (sender) and target audience (receiver) may sound basics. It often found great difficulty in the advertising communication process. Marketing and advertising people often have various fields of experience from the target audience or consumer who create the mass markets with whom they must communicate. Advertiser spend millions of rupees every year to understand the frame of reference of target group or market who receiver their messages. They also spend much of time, attention and finance protesting 'messages to make sure consumer's perception and decode them in the manner the advertisers intended. A message must enter in the mind of the receiver (audience consumer) before it can effectively transfer knowledge, create or change image or an attitude or behavior. This is known as a perception process. An advertising message has to be exposed to an individual who should pay attention to it and should also interpret it in the way the advertiser intends it to be done. Noise In the process of communication the message is a subject which has extraneous factors that can distort or interfere with its reception. This

distortion or interference is known as a NOISE. Such as errors or problems that occur in the encoding of the message, distortion in a radio or TV signal, or distraction at the point of reception are example of noise. When we watch our favorite commercial on television or listen to the favorite programme on radio and a problem occurs in the signal transmission, it will obviously interfere with our reception, lessening the effect of the commercial. Noise may also to take place because of the fields of experience of the sender (advertiser) and receiver(audience) doesn't overlap. Lack of common ground may result in improper encoding of the meaning - using a sign, symbol, or words that are unfamiliar or have different meaning to the receiver. Feedback/ Response The receiver's set of reactions after seeing; hearing or reading the message is known as a response. Receivers' response can range from non observable actions such as storing information in memory to immediate action such as dialing a toll free number to order a product advertised on television. Feedback which may take a variety of forms closes the loop in the communications flow and lets the sender monitor how the intended message is being decoded and received. Generally mass media are not able to receive the feedback because advertisers are not in direct contact with the customers; they must use other

means to determine how their messages have been received. The ultimate form of feedback occurs through sales, it is often hard to show a direct relation-ship between advertising and purchase behavior. Research based feedback analyzes leadership and recall of ads, message comprehension, attitude change, and other forms of response. Marketers use other methods to receive feedback such as customer enquiries, store-visits, coupon redemption, and reply cards etc. In the conclusion, it can say that to communicate effectively with their customers or consumer must understand who is the target audience, what is known or what they feels about the product or company or service, and how to communicate with audience to influence its decision making process. Advertisers must also know how the market is likely to respond to various sources of communication or different types of messages. 1.4 Need for Process of Advertising Advertising is a form of communication. It plays a specific role for communicating information and motivating the audience. The function of all elements of the advertising is to communicate. An organization send communications and messages in a variety of ways in advertising such as brand names, logos, copy, graphics systems and visual images. Thus those involved in the planning and implementation of an advertisement

programme need to under stand the communication process and how it occurs. This lesson presents the fundamentals of communication and describes various perspectives and models regarding how consumer respond to advertising and how understanding of communication process is important. In this reference it is important to analyze how the required information reaches the entity and how to respond and react to the given informational or stimuli. Communication is a process of the "passing of information", the exchange of ideas" or the process of “commonness or oneness of thought” between a sender and a receiver. This definition indicates that the process of communication brings three elements - a source, a message and receiver and fourth element also introduced which is channel or medium. The communication process is often very complex, with success depending on such factors 1 as the nature of message, the audience’s interpretation and the environment in which it is received. This process points out that for communication to occur there must be some common thinking between two parties and information must be passed from one person to another or from one group to another. The receiver's perception of the source and the medium used to transmit the message may also affect the ability to communicate, as do many other factors. Words, pictures, sounds and colors may have different meaning to different audiences and people's

perception and interpretations. Advertiser must understand the meaning that words and symbols take on and now they influence consumer's interpretation of products and messages. There are two major elements that show the major involvement in the communication process 'The Sender' and 'the Receiver'. Another two are the important elements are 'message' and 'Channel'. Four other important communication functions encoding, decoding, response and 'feedback'. The last element Noise hints interference factor in the system that can work against effective communication. Source encoding The sender or source of a communication is the person or organization that has information to share with another person or group of people. The source may be individual or a non-personal entity. For example a celebrity who appears in an advertisement. The communication process begins when the source selects words, symbols, pictures and presentation of message that is delivered to the receiver. The process identify as encoding indicates putting thoughts, ideas or information in to a symbolic form. Many advertisements also have highly recognizable symbol such as Pepsi trade mark etc. There are two type of sources- first the company or the brand, and the second is the spokes person, model or the personality features in advertisement.

Message The encoding process leads to development of message that holds the information or meaning the source wants to make known ideas or feeling to another. The message may be verbal or non-verbal, oral or written or symbolic. It refers to the content and form of the advertisement. In advertising message may move from only writing some words or advertising copy. The product name and picture help to communicate a feeling of emotion and delight between the consumer and audience in-advertisement. To better understand the symbolic meaning that might be conveyed in a communication, the advertiser must consider the meanings consumer attaches to the various signs and symbols. It may be helpful in analyzing how various aspects of advertising programme such as message, copy brand names, non-verbal communication, gestures, mode of dress etc. are considered by the receiver. Definitely, the message must be able to awaken the awareness of necessity and wants. Channel The third factor of the process of advertising communication is 'the channel'. The Channel is the method by which message transmitted or going to a place from the source (Advertiser) or sender to the receiver (Audience or consumer). There are two types of communication channel:

1. Personal channels of communication 2. Non-personal channels of communication 1.

Personal channel of communication: It is a direct interpersonal (face-to-face) interaction or connection with

target group or a person. Sales executive performs as personal channel of communication. It a word of mouth communication such as friends, relatives, family person, neighbor, co-worker, etc. It is very effective source of information. 2.

Non personal channel communication: It carries a message without interpersonal relation between sender and

receiver. It is known as mass media or mass communication as the message is sent to many individual at one time. For example, a television or radio advertisement telecast or broadcast may be seen by million households at once. 1.5 MOTIVATION & PERSUATION Every communication must have a purpose in mind. Advertising objectives are often classified under the two headings of. To inform. To Persuade These two headings cover all sorts of communication and it is difficult

to think of any promotional activity that dos not contain element of each. Target public needs to be informed of all manner of things, product specification. Product availability, prices, after sales services and many other items as well. When something new is being introduced to the market- a new product, a new service or a new branch of a retail chain- the need to inform is very high. It is not only consumer who need to be informed but the marketers and techniques such as Public-Relations, direct mail and conferences can be used to inform employees, shareholders, local communities and government departments as well. Persuading is harder than informing. It may require the receiver of the message not only to understand what is being said but also to act on it in some way. Persuading may be at the level of simply changing somebody's perception of something but usually we want people to do more than just change their mends. As we know the basic task of advertising is communication with a view to motivating and persuading the audience for responding according to the intended design of the advertiser. The relationship between informing and persuading is frequently summed up in what is sometimes called a hierarchical model. It is called hierarchical because it is believed that people begin at lower-order level and until they reach the highest order level. There are three important points,

which comes under the motivation and persuasion. 1. Cognitive- The lower order level of simply knowing something. 2. Affective- A higher order level of letting what one knows influence what one actually thinks and believes. 3. Behavior- The higher order level of translating what one thinks and believes into action. A number of model and theories on the communication process have been developed. Some of these are elaborates ones, while there are large number of theories in the middle ranges. In 1940s, the psychoanalysis oriented motivational researchers introduces the conscious and unconscious motivation in marketing. By the late 1950s mathematical model emerged. Again from psychology stochastic learning models were adopted and were soon followed by cognitive model, flow chart model and computer stimulation approaches. In the reference of advertising process there is a need to understand only few of the most popularly accepted models and theories which are following: 1.

Linear Communication Model


AIDA Model (Strong 1925)


Hierarchy Effects Model (Lavidge And Steines 1962).


Innovation Adoption Model (Rogers 1962)


Information Processing Model (William HC Guire)


Linear Model of Communication It is a simplest model where it has been pointed out that the

communicator develops the message and transmits is to the audience through the channel I. e. media. The feed back can be obtained by a reverse process from the audience to the communicator.

The feedback can be built in by a reverse arrow from the audience what effect. 1.7

The AIDA Model The AIDA model is a simpler hierarchical model developed in 1920

in the USA. It is one of the earliest of the communication model. The model suggests the sequence of action into which a prospect may be induced by advertising. The advertising must attract attention and then help in gaining interest which intern should create a desire and ultimately precipitate action.

This model stand for Attention, Interest Desire action, it highlights the importance of arresting the attention to gain the initial importance in the crow of advertisement. Strong levels interest should create desire to own or use the product. The advertisement generates interest among the consumer by providing information through the copy and visual. The interest thus generated for a particular product or service will help in creating a desire. The action stage in the AIDA model involves getting the customer to make a purchase commitment. It indicates that the number of people whose attention is obtained will be greater than those who eventually take action. A

Attracting Attention


Rousing Interest


Building Desire


Obtaining Action


Hierarchy effect model This is one of the best known models of advertising communication

process. It is developed by Lavidge and Sletnes in 1962. According to this model advertising as a force must move the people up a series of steps from their unawareness about the product to the final act actual purchase? The above model worked as paradigm per setting and measuring advertising objectives. The Hierarchy of effects model shows the process by which

advertising works, it assumes a consumer posses through a series of steps in sequential order from initial awareness of a product or series to actual purchase. A basic premise of this model is that advertising effects occur over a period of time. Advertising communication may not lead to immediate behavioral response or purchase, rather a series of effects must occur, with each step fulfilled before the consumer which can move to the next stage in this hierarchy of effects model. The hierarchy of effects model has become the foundation for objective setting and measurement of advertising effects in many companies. It included six stages: Awareness, knowledge, Liking, preference, conviction and purchase. 1.9 The Innovation Adoption Model Everett Rogers developed the innovation adoption model which is evolved from the work on the diffusion of innovation in 1962. This model represents the stages a consumer passes through in adopting a new product or services. According to experts, Rogers's model is appropriate involving marketing of new products and adoption of most commercial services or practices in developing countries. Like other models it says potential adopters must be moved through a series of steps before taking actions. The following five stages are defined by Rogers. (a)









Adoption After achieving the level of awareness: it is necessary to develop

interest. Thus is followed by an evaluation stage in which it was thought that, word of month or interpersonal communication not only can influence the buying decision, but can also help him moving the prospect from the stage of interest to that of evaluation. Finally, the trial occurs and adoption decision is precipitated. Just like when the challenge facing company introducing new products is to create awareness and interest among consumers and then get them to evaluate the, product favorably. The best way to evaluate a new product is through actual use so that performance can be judged. Marketers often encourage trail by using demonstration or sampling programmes or allowing consumers to use a product with minimum commitment. After trail, consumers either adopt the product or rejected. 2.0 Information Processing Model The information processing model of advertising effects was developed by, William McGuire. This model takes up the receivers in a persuasive

communication situation like advertising is an information processor or problem solves. McGuire suggests the series of steps a receiver goes through in being persuades constitutes a response hierarchy. The stages of this model are similar to the hierarchy of effects sequences, attention and comprehension are similar to awareness and knowledge, and yielding is synonymous with liking. The information processing model includes a stage not found in the other models that is retention. Retention or the receiver's ability to retain that portion of the comprehended information that he or she accepts as valid or relevant. Each stage is a dependent variable that must be attained and that may serve as an objective of the communication process. The effectiveness of each stage can be measured that provides advertiser with feedback, as shown below. The above model may be an effective framework for planning & evaluating the effects of a promotional campaign. We analyzed the communication system and process in advertising. As we discussed that source message, and channel factors are basic and controllable elements in the communication model. Persuasion The most dominant and perhaps the most effective forms of persuasion in contemporary culture are print and electronic advertising. Although we might feel smug about running out and buying every product

we learn about from advertisement, products ads still have a dramatic impact onus they shape not only our purchasing behavior but other behavior as well (for example, becoming aware of a products existence, developing attitudes towards products and even making changes in our values and preferred lifestyles). The persuasion has two sets variables: 1. Independent variables 2. Dependent variables 1. Independent variables: are the controllable components of the communication process such as source, message, and channel. 2. Dependent variables: These are the steps a receiver goes through inbeing persuaded. Advertiser and marketers can choose the person or source who delivers the message, the type of message appeal used, and the channel or medium. The following model suitable example of persuasion process in advertising: 2.1 ONE STEP AND TWO STEP COMMUNICATION MODELS In one & two step communication model the medium has been left out and the word 'Receiver' is used to indicate one single member of the audience

In a one-step model, the message goes directly to the intended audience without any intermediary intersection. Theoretically, advertising is a one-step process, with the advertisement being seen or heard directly by the audience. But in a two step model of communication press and public relations in a two-step process as follows:

In the above said mode, the message being first sent by the company to the media and then communicated onwards to the intended final audience. The problem for the originator of the message in a two step- process is what the intermediaries audience (newspapers, radio, television) will do with it. They may enhance it, pass it on unchanged or diminish it. Or they may just ignore and not pass it on at all. 2.2. Multi-step models of communication As we discuss previous paragraph that advertising is a one-step model

and it may be combine some of the elements of a two-step model with some of the receiver acting as opinion leaders on the remainder. In fact the media can also be termed opinion leads. This has shown with this following model.

The above said model indicates that receives (a) and (e) see the advertisement but have no contact with the opinion leader. Receiver (b) and (f) do not see the advertisement but do have contact with the opinion leader who may tell about it. Receiver (c) and (d) both see the advertisement and have contact with the opinion leader who may influence their perception of it as the product. This model illustrates the possibility of media as an opinion leader beyond these opinion leaders may exist in any social group. A neighbor, a member of family, and workplace friendship group can all be opinion leader. Like the media opinion leader may enhance or diminish the original message or just pass it on unchanged opinion leader tend to be more outspoken and

extrovert member of member of a group; they are more likely to use new products first and their influence as opinion leaders is given more credibility by this experience. Their importance to advertisers is that if it is possible to identify and get access to them it may also be possible to exploit their position and to use them in promoting the product. In this model there are some arrows which are double headed to indicate the two media like advertising tends to be our way with message traveling from sender to receiver without any discussion or interaction (feedback may follow late, of course) But on the other side the other example of interactive TV technology providing for immediate responses may change the nature of TV advertising from a one-way to a two-way system. Telephone and Television technology are combined into a single system. Besides, these personal and telephone selling or teleshopping are the most important examples of two way communication. In the conclusion we can say that whatever system is used, these are always communication objective to be achieved. These can be described as ascending from the simple transmission of knowledge, through changing the way somebody actually think, to affecting somebody behavior.

2.3 Summary Advertising is an element of the marketing mix and hence advertising objectives are derived from the organizations marketing objectives. The basic task of advertising is communication with motivation and persuasion of the audience for responding according to the intended design of the advertiser. The sender or source of a communication is the person or organization that has information to share with another person or group of public. The encoding process leads to development of a message that contains the information or meaning the source hopes to convey. Channel is the method by which the communication travels from the source or sender to the receiver. The receiver is the person with whom the sender shares thoughts or information. In the process of communication the message is a subject which has extraneous factors that can distort or interface with its reception. This distortion is known as noise. The receiver set of reaction after hearing or reading the message is known as

response. Advertisement is a form of communication. Advertising objectives are classified under two headings 1 to inform 2 to persuade a number of model and theories on the communication process have been developed. Most popularly accepted models are: 1 Linear communication model 2 AIDA Model 3 Hierarchy Effects model 4 Innovation Adoption Model 5 Innovation Processing Model

2.4 KEY WORDS Stimuli: something that arouses a person or thing to activity or energy Perception: perceiving, the ability to perceive (giving meanings to particular information)

Innovation: introduce something new Gestures: a movement designed to convey a meaning Demography:






Empathize: share or understand another’s feelings

Cognitive: gaining knowledge through thought or perception Precipitated: cause to happen suddenly or prematurely, cause to move suddenly or uncontrollably

2.5 SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTION Q1 Describe the basic model for communication and its process in advertising? Q2 “Advertising is a form of communication. The function of all elements of the advertising is to communicate.” Explain it with suitable examples Q3 What do you understand by motivation? How motivational theory is useful to create effectiveness in advertising? Q4 What is persuasion? Which theory is most suitable to create persuasion in advertising? Q5 Describe the AIDA models and its important stages used in advertising.

Q6 What do you understand by the Innovation Adoption and Information Processing model? How it is useful in 'the field of advertising?

2.6 SUGGESTED READINGS Arens & Bovee: Contemporary Advertising; 5th edition; IRWIN; Australia 1994 Belch & Belch: Advertising & Promotion; 5th edition; Tata McGraw Hill; 2001 Don Milner: Advertising & Promotion; 1st edition; London 1995 David A.Aaker, Batra, Mayers: Advertising Management; USA 1995 Mahendra Mohan: Advertising Management - Concept & Cases; Tata McGraw Hill; 2002 Stan Le Roy Wilson; Mass Media Mass Culture; McGraw Hill; 1994 Sarojit Datta: Advertising Today; 1994

Course Code : 01

Author :

Dr. Bandana Pandey

Lesson : 03

Vetter :

Prof. Manoj Dayal

Advertising Public Relations & Publicity

STRUCTURE 3.1 Objectives 3.2 Introduction Publicity Advantages and Disadvantages of Publicity Public Relations 3.3 Summary 3.4 Key words 3.5 Self Assessment Exercises 3.6 Suggested Readings

3.1 OBJECTIVES The main objective of this lesson is to understand the terms Advertising, Public Relations and Publicity. To know the differences between Advertising, Public Relations and Publicity.

3.2 Introduction Advertising is defined as any paid form of non-personal communication about an organization, product, service or idea by an identified sponsor. The paid aspect of this definition reflects the fact that the space or time for an advertising message generally must be bought. An occasional exception to this is the Public Service Announcement (PSA), whose advertising space or time is donated by the media. The non-personal component means advertising involves mass media e.g. T.V., Radio, Magazines, Newspapers) that can transmit a message to large groups of individuals often at the same time. The non-personal nature of advertising means there is generally no opportunity for immediate feedback from the message recipient (except in direct response advertising). Therefore, before the message is sent, the advertiser must consider how the audience will interpret and respond to it. Advertising is the best known and most widely discussed form of promotion, probably because of its pervasiveness. It is also a very important promotional tool, particularly for companies whose products and services are targeted at mass consumer market. More than 130 companies each spent

over $ 100 million a year on advertising in the United States every year. Figure 1-2 shows the advertising expenditures of the 25 leading national advertisers in 1998. There are several reasons why advertising is such an important part of many marketers promotional mixes, First it can be a very cost-effective method of communicating with large audiences. For example, during 19992000 television seasons, the average 30 second spot on prime time network television households reached was around $ 14.00. Advertising can be used to create brand images and symbolic appeals for a company or brand, a very important capability for companies selling products and services. That is difficult to differentiate on functional attributes. For example, since 1980 absolute has used creative advertising to position its vodka as an upscale, fashionable, sophisticated drink and differentiate it form other brands. Most of the print ads used in the longrunning campaign are specifically tailored for the magazine or region where they appear. The campaign, one of the lost successful and recognizable in' advertising history, has made the Absolute brand nearly synonymous with imported past 15 years, Absolute sales have increased '10 fold and the various absolute brands have a combined 70% market share. Another advantage of advertising is its ability to strike a responsive

chord with consumers when differentiation across other elements of the marketing mix is difficult to ,achieve. Popular advertising campaigns attract consumer's attention and can help generate sales. These popular campaigns can also sometimes be leveraged into successful integrated marketing communications programs. For example, Eveready used the popularity of its Energizer Bunny campaign to generate support from retailers in the form of shelf space, promotions such as in-store displays, premium offers and sweepstakes features the pink bunny. Pictures of the energizer bunny campaign’s impact on the point of purchase. Eveready has extended its integrated marketing efforts to include tie-ins with sports marketing and sponsorships. The nature and purpose of advertising differ from one industry to another and/or across situations. The targets of organizations advertising efforts often vary, as do its role and functions in the marketing program. One advertiser may seek to generate the immediate response of action from the customer; another may want to develop awareness or a positive image for its product or service over a longer period. Advertising predisposes a person favorably for a product/service/idea moving him towards its purchase. Advertising is indirectly concerned with sales. It either informs or persuades or reminds about a product or service.

Most of the times, it is indirect in its approach and has a long term perspective, e.g. building up a company image or brand image. Advertising is not the only form of persuasive communication. Very closely allied to advertising are sales promotion and PR. In fact both are important parts of advertising and are often 'managed' by the some people or agencies or departments. Advertising is termed 'above-the line' communication. Advertising has a greater role when we are selling a tangible product. Advertising and PR are different from the point of view of their objectives. Advertising is an aid to selling and it improves the bottom line of business. Advertising and PR can't replace each other. By PR we create a good image. Advertising is necessary to take advantage of that good image for actual selling. PR has higher degree of credibility since it is not paid for Advertising, however, creates a brand personality. Only advertisements can add value to a product.

Publicity Publicity refers to non-personal communications regarding an organization, product, service, or idea not directly paid for or run under identified

sponsorship. It usually comes in the form of a news story, editorial, or announcement about an organization and/or its products and services. Like advertising, publicity involves non-personal communication to a mass audience, but unlike advertising attempts to get the media to cover or run a favorable story on a product, service, cause, or event to affect awareness knowledge, opinions, and/or behavior. Techniques used to gain publicity include news releases, press conferences, feature articles, photographs, films and videotapes. An advantage or publicity over forms of promotion is its credibility. Consumers generally tend to be less skeptical toward favorable information about a product or service when it comes from a source they perceive as unbiased. For example, the success (or failure) of a new movie is often determined by the reviews it receive from film articles, who are viewed by many moviegoers as objective evaluators. Another advantages or publicity is its low cost, since the company is not paying for time or space in a mass medium such as T.V., radio, or newspapers. While an organization may incur some costs in developing publicity items or maintaining a staff to do so, there expenses will be far less than these for the other promotional programs. Publicity is not always under the control of an organization and is

sometimes unfavorable. Negative stories about a company and/or its products can be very damaging. For example, a few years ago negative stories about abdominal exercise machines appeared on ABC's "20/20" and NBC's "Dateline" news magazine TV shows. Before these stories aired, more than $ 3 million worth of the machines were being sold each week, primarily through infomercials. After the negative stories aired, sales of the machines dropped immediately; with in a few months the product category was all but dead. Publicity refers to the generation of news about a person, product, or service that appears in broadcast or print media. To many marketers, publicity and PR are synonymous. In fact, publicity is really a subset of public relations effort. Publicity is typically a short-term strategy while PR is concerted program extending over a period of time; PR is designed to provide positive information about the firm and is usually controlled by the firm or its agent. Publicity, on the other hand, is not always positive and is not always under the control of, or paid for by, the organization. Both positive and negative publicity often originates, from sources other than the firm.

In most organizations, publicity is controlled and disseminated by the

public relations department. One of the factor that most sets off publicity from the other program elements is the sheer power this form of communication can generate. Unfortunately for marketers, this power is not always realized in the way they would like it to be. Publicity can made or break a product or even a company. Publicity is so much more powerful that advertising or sales promotion- or even other form of PRO First, publicity is highly credible. Unlike advertising and sale promotion publicity is not usually perceived as being sponsored by the company (in the -ve instance, it never is). So consumers perceive this information as more objective and place more confidence in it. 1.3 ADVANTAGES ANDDISADV ANT AGES OF PUBLICITY Publicity offers the advantages of credibility, news value, significant word-of mouth communications, and a perception of being endorsed by the media. Beyond the potential impact of a negative publicity, two major problems arise from the use of publicity timing and accuracy. Timing Timing of the publicity is not always completely under the control of the marketers. Unless the press thinks the information has very high news

value, the timing of the press release is entirely up to the media- if it gets released at all. Thus, the information may be released earlier than desired or too late to make an impact. Accuracy A major way to get publicity is the press release. Unfortunately, the information sometimes gets lost in translation- that is, it is not always reported the way the provider wishes it to be. As a result, inaccurate information, omissions or other errors may result. Sometimes when you see a publicity piece that was written on the basis of a press release, you wonder if the two are even about the same topic. Publicity is defined as non-personal stimulation of demand for a product/service/business unit by planting commercially significant news about it in a published medium or obtaining favorable presentation of it on radio, T.V. or stage that is not paid for by the Sponsor. Two significant distinctions emerge. Publicity is not openly paid for. Secondly, presentation is not programmed. Marketers have less control over publicity than they have over advertising. Publicity is left to the discretion of the media in terms of whether to present it or not, contents of presentation and the format of presentation. Publicity may be negative as well as positive.

1.4 Public Relations It is very often felt that PR is a cheaper substitute for advertising. It has been accepted that PR practice is the "deliberate", planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its publics." PR emphasizes on establishing and maintaining mutual understanding with its publics while advertising are mutually interdependent through the very process of understanding. PR deals with a much wider area. It is important to recognize the distinction between publicity and public relations. When an organization systematically plans and distributes information in an attempt to control and manage its image and the nature of the publicity it receives, it is really engaging in a function known as public relations. Public relations is defined as "the management function which evaluates public attitudes, identifies the policies and procedures of an individual or organization standing and acceptance. Public relations generally has a broader objective than publicity, as its purpose is to establish and maintain a positive image of the company among its various publics. Public relations used publicity and a variety of other tools- including special publications, participation in community activities, fund raising, sponsorship of special events, and various public affairs activities- to

enhance an organization's image organizations also use advertising as a public relations tool. Traditionally publicity and public relations have been considered more supportive than primary to the marketing and promotional process. However, many firms have begun making PR on integral part of their predetermined marketing and promotional strategies. PR firms are increasingly touting public relations as a communications tool that can take over many of the functions of conventional advertising and marketing. The actual process of conducting public relations and integrating it into the promotional mix involves a series of both traditional and marketing oriented tasks. Public relations is concerned with peoples attitudes towards the firm or specific issues beyond those directed at a product or service. These attitudes may affect sales of the firm's products. A number of companies have experienced sales declines as a result of consumer boycotts, Procter and Gamble, Coors, Nike and Bumble Bee Seafoods are just a few companies that responded to organized pressures when high ranking Texaco officials were caught on tape allegedly making racial slurs, the negative publicity led to public outrage. Texaco was hit with a $ 520 million racial discrimination lawsuit, as well as a second lawsuit by shareholders against

Texaco directors and executives for joining to cheek racist attitude and practices in the company. Corporations exist in communities and their employees may both work and live there. Negative attitudes carry over to employee morale and may result in a less than-optimal working environment internally and in the community. Due to their concerns about public perceptions, many privately held corporations, publicly held companies, utilities and media survey public attitudes. In a survey of 100 top and middle managers in the communications fields, over 600/0 said their PR programs involved little more than press releases, press kits for trade shows, and new product announcements. Further, these tools were not designed into a formal public relations effort but rather were used only as needed. In other words, no structured program was evident in well over half of the companies surveyed. The public relations process is an ongoing one, requiring finalized policies and procedures for dealing with problems and opportunities. Just as we would not develop advertising and/or promotions program without a plan, you shouldn't institute public relations efforts haphazardly. The PR plan needs to be integrated into the overall marketing communication program.

Cut lip, center & Broom suggest a four-step process for developing a public relations plant: 1.

Define PR problems


Plan and program


Take action and communicate


Evaluate the program

Advantages of PR 1.





Avoidance of clutter


Lead generation


Ability to reach specific groups


Image building

The major disadvantage of PR .is the potential for not completing the communications process. While PR message can break through the clutter of commercials, the receiver may not make the connection to the source. Many firms PR efforts are never associated with their sponsors in the public mind.

PR may also misfire through mismanagement and a lack of coordination with the marketing department. When marketing and PR departments operate independently, there is danger of inconsistent communications, redundancies in efforts and so on. Effectiveness of PR 1.

It tells management what has been achieved through public relations activities.


It provides management with a way to measure PR achievements quantitatively.


It gives management a way to judge the quality of PR achievements and activities. The ultimate aim of PR is to develop a favorable image in the eyes of

the public. It refers to a company's communication and relationships with various sections of the public-customers, suppliers, shareholders, employees, governments, media, and society at large. PR can be formal or informal. PR, unlike advertising, is personal. The institute of PR, London defines PR as "The deliberate planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain understanding between an organization and its public". PR is low-cost compared to advertising for the

publicity. Obtained; say in the press, through PR is not directly paid for. Indirectly, the expenses involve keeping in close touch with people in the media through press conferences, press visits and press releases. Besides, media persons have to be 'entertained' and some of them expect' gifts' from companies. There are four elements to the machines of PR 1.

The message to be transmitted.


An 'independent' third party endorser to transmit the message.


A target- audience that it is hoped will be motivated to buy whatever is being sold.


A medium through which the message is transmitted. PR, which is the business of image management, can't replace

Advertising. PR can in some way push up sales because it changes the way consumers perceive the company and hence the product. Advertising and PR are complementary in most cases but sometimes advertising is not necessary PR can do the job. If a new manufacturing facility is started by a company, it can't be advertised. A PR effort is more effective. PR no doubt is valuable edit space is far more important than paid ad space. Of course, what has been achieved by PR must be adequately supported by the product and service. If PR is professionally handled, it can

achieve benefits for an organization at a fraction of a cost of advertising. PR has higher degree of credibility since it is not paid for, Advertising, however, creates a PR has now slowly evolved into an integrated approach called corporate communication.

3.3 SUMMARY Advertising is defined as any paid form of non-personal communication about an organization, product, service or idea by an identified sponsor. Publicity refers to non-personal communication regarding an organization, product, service or idea not directly paid for or run under identified sponsorship. Public relations is concerned with peoples attitudes towards the firm or specific issues beyond those directed at a product or service.

3.4 KEY WORDS Sophisticated: characteristic of or experienced in fashionable life and its ways Predisposes: make liable or inclined to a particular attitude, action


Define the terms Advertising, Public Relations & Publicity.


Differentiate between Advertising, Public Relations & Publicity.

3.6 SUGGESTED READINGS Arens & Bovee: Contemporary Advertising; 5th edition;IRWIN; Australia 1994 Belch & Belch: Advertising & Promotion; 5th edition; Tata McGrawHill; 2001 Don Milner: Advertising & Promotion; I st edition; London 1995 David A.Aaker, Batra, Mayers: Advertising Management; USA 1995 Mahendra Mohan: Advertising Management - Concept & Cases; Tata McGrawHill; 2002 Stan Le Roy Wilson; Mass MedialMass Culture; McGrawHill; 1994 Sarojit Datta: Advertising Today; 1994

Course Code: 01


Dr. Bandana Pandey

Lesson: 04

Vetter :

Prof. Manoj Dayal

Extension Education Structure:4.1





History & growth


Extension System


Philosophy of extension education


Principles of extension education.


Extension system of extension educations




Key words

4.10 Self assessment questions 4.11

Suggested readings

4.1 Objective: The motive of this chapter is to understand the definition, history, growth, nature, philosophy and system of extension education. Further in the present chapter, Principles approaches and aims of extension education is also discussed. After reading of this chapter you will able to understand : 1. The concept of extension education

2. The growth and development of extension education 3. The principles, philosophy, approaches, objectives and system of extension educations.


Introduction: A dynamic and flexible type of education is one which serves the

people wherever they are. It assists in the development of Individual as well as all categories of constituents of society. These characteristics and qualifications are well suited to the disciple of extension education. Extension and extension education relate to the process of conveying the technology of scientific system to the specific target group in order to enable them to utilize the knowledge for better occupational and better economy. This consists of provision for non formal educational facilities through organised services, introduction of non degree institutional programmes to impart vocational skills to the people for improving their productive activities. Extension education is an applied science consistent of contents derived from researches, accumulated field experiences and relevant principles drawn from the behavioural science, synthesized with useful technology, in the body of philosophy, principles, contents and methods focused on the problem of out of school education for adults and youths. 4.3

Early Extension Efforts:

The extension work in India started with the establishment in various departments. Extension education started in 1860 in Agriculture, Health and Animal Husbandry departments. Gradually various other department were also set up to improve the economic conditions of the villagers and the several tasks were undertaken such as supply of seeds, fertilizers, implements and bank facilities but these department fail to meet the requirement or basic needs of people and so the government decided to start some new projects. This topic of ours deals with the origin of extension education in India with respect to pre and post independence extension activities in India. For most of the part, they work in isolation from one another without government assistance. These people either work with their imagination or simply visualize a better way of life for the rural people. The worth of our attention is to remember that these revolutions are also an evolution, family linking the idealism of the pioneers of the past with the dedication of the extension worker of the present. Extension Activities in India – Early Attempts: In the pre-british period the villagers were self contained. Self sufficient and self governed units; there was little need for social welfare. The social system provided these in times of need. This was disturbed by the

invasions of the foreigners and Mughal rule when people felt the need for rural reconstruction work. The panchayat system provided some of the facilities but the development of centralized seats of the government made these unimportant. The overall agriculture and educational development through extension activities in India is the outcome of several reforms and efforts made over years. This can be described in four stages: Stage 1:

Pre Independence era (1866-1953)

Stage 2:

Post Independence era (1947-1953)

Stage 3:

Community development and Extension Service Era

(1953-1960) Stage 4 :

Intensive development era – 1960 till date.


First five year plan.


Second five year plan


Third five year plan


Fourth five year plan


Fifth five year plan


Sixth five year plan


Seventh five year plan

Stage 1:

Pre – Independence Era (1886- 1947)


Three Famine Commission The first famine commission was appointed in 1866, Second and third

in 1870 and 1880 respectively. On the recommendation of 1st commission, Department of Agriculture was started and second commission report lead to the establishment of Medical and A.H. Departments and 3rd to the Institution of Taccavi Loan. Gradually other developed departments were created but the planned efforts have hardly left its impact. Some of the salient defects that have been realized are as follows: 1)

There was complete absence of co-ordination among sister departments


These departments did not have any representative at village level.


Initiative for planning, taking decisions and over for many actions remain mostly with govt.


The information flow was one way from departments to villages and not vice versa.


They tried to develop the villages but not the villagers


Lack of scientific knowledge and research facilities. During the pre-independence various scattered and short lived efforts

were made towards rural development in various parts of the country by individuals or other organisations. Notable among these were cooperative

movement. Mahatma Gandhi’s work at Sevagram, Tagore’s work at ShantiNiketan, Sponcer Hatch’s efforts at Marthandon, F.H. Brayne’s work at Gurgaon, Firkha Deve Scheme in Tamil Nadu, I.V.S. Stage – II

Post independence Era (1947-1953)

During British rule Indians were exploited so badly that there was wide spread poverty, ignorance and diseases etc. Consequently, the first few years of our independence were faced with many extra ordinary problems of floods, diseases and draughts. Hence in post independence era some special emphasis was laid on rural development aspects especially in agriculture sectors. Large number of approaches was, therefore, made to achieve quick results. All the departments for rural development were working in isolation and reaching the people directly without any coordination. The importance of coordinating the activities of the development departments was felt and strongly emphasized after independence.


Extension System

Extension setup in universities was based on the Ainnings committee recommendations and on the Education Commission recommendation. Not all the universities adopted the same set up, but the choice of set up was based on the no. of factors, such as over all goals of the universities, their stage of development with respect to other functions such as teaching and research staff capabilities & the environment dealing with similar activities. In order to critically review extension setup of few universities is given below: 1)

Govt Efforts CD NES





Extension set up in Universities: 1)

State wide extension education programme are operated by the DEE through three districts wings.


Role and functions of DEE : - All the extension policies are decided by the Extension Education advisory committee (EEAC). - DEE was to plan and execute the programme of extension in the University with Co-operation of the Deans of colleges and

Director of Research. - DEE has to ensure close co-ordination of extension activities with state departments. Organisational set up of Directorate of Extension Education Head of Institute / Vice Chancellor Extension Education Advisory Committee

Director of Extension Education

Advisory Service

Training Service

Associate Director

University Level

Extension Specialists

Information and Communication Service Joint Director (Extension)

Associate Director District Level

Associate/ Assistant Professor

Audio Visual Specialist

Exhibition Officer

Coordinator Movie Cameraman

Radio & TV Contact Officer

Extension Education – A Developing Discipline Widely accepted and well recognised view regarding extension is – “The extension is education and its aim is to bring the desirable changes

in human behaviour.” Whether one wishes to understand or to improve the human behaviour, it is necessary to know a great deal about the nature of extension education as a developing discipline.

Conditions fostering the rise of discipline: Extension education as a discipline has its history and past in U.S.A., Where people made significant contribution to both research and theory in extension education. They also established the first organisation devoted explicitly to research on extension education. The time and place of the rise of extension education were of course not accidental. American society of “Cooperative Extension Service” Provided the kind of condition required of the emergence of such an intellectual movement. Over the years, since that time only certain countries have afforded a favourable environment for the growth. Today extension education has taken its firm root in U.S.A. and in India. Three major conditions seem to have been required fort its rise and subsequent growth. a)

A supporting society.


Developed profession and


Developed social science.

The impact of the above favourable conditions can hardly be

explained at this place, yet the publication of “Journal for Cooperative Extension Service” in U.S.A. and “Indian Journal of Extension Education” in India has revolutionized the thinking and this lead to organisation of development of professionals in the countries started earlier. The incentive to work for the growth of discipline was no longer seen as simple and unitary but rather infinitely varied, complex and dynamic. The new view opened










conceptualizations to handle the problem. With the coming up universities and Extension educational institutes in India, the growth of discipline enhanced at a faster rate. Student’s researches and staff researches project opened a new vista in the development of discipline. Thus, we have suggested that extension education; become an academic discipline and a field of study, as it fulfils the skinners Giteria with the following achievements. a)

Extension education is focused upon the human behaviour.


It is a body of facts or information that has resulted from observation and investigation.


The body of knowledge can be summarized or generalized into principles or theories.


Extension education uses social research methodology and statistics by which investigations are made, information is discovered, hypothesis are tested and theories are derived.


Thus, use of methodology is useful in arriving at the solution of educational problems as they present themselves.


This information, this knowledge, these principles, and the methodology used, constituting the substances of extension education and provides a base for educational theory and educational practice. Aforesaid conditions fostering rise of discipline are presented in figure 1.

Body of Organized Facts having Conviction Objectivity Understanding Prediction (Control)

Fig. 1 Conditions foster is rise discipline

Aims of Extension Education Discipline The general aim of extension education discipline is to provide a body

of organized facts and generalizations that will enable the teachers, researchers, extension workers and administrators to realize increasingly both cultural and professional objectives. Some of most important aims are: 1.

To develop a conviction and realization of the extent that growth can be promoted, learning acquires, social behaviour improved and personality adjustments effected. The realization of this objective will produce an increasing appreciation of what extension education contributes to the teacher or extension education.


To assist in defining and setting up extension educational objectives and standards in terms of desirable behaviour, for bringing them about.


To aid in developing an impartial but sympathetic attitude towards clientele, so that their behaviour will be regarded objectively.


To assist in achieving a better understanding of the nature and importance of human relationship and method of developing these in clientele.


To provide a body of facts and principles that can be used as problem oriented and project directed solutions.


To aid in affording the extension educators a better perspective for finding both the results of his own efforts and the practices of

others. 7.

To furnish the teachers with the necessary facts and techniques for analyzing behaviour to the end that normal adjustment may be facilitated and growth affected.


To assist in defining, maintaining and combining progressive extension methods, procedures and techniques for dissemination of sophisticated technologies in a simple and understandable form.

Professional Growth of Discipline: As a member of fast developing and what Sinha, calls it as a “Complex of many disciplines” we possess a strong conviction that the fundamental purpose of extension education is providing an educational experience for the people with whom we are privileged to work. We can also say that extension education as a branch of instruction or education or a department of knowledge is solely responsible for teaching its clientele. Such educational tasks are task for professional. This gives rise to clarification of the concept of profession. 1.

Criteria to be a profession : Webster defines a profession as “A calling in which one professes to

have acquired some special knowledge used by way of either instructing, guiding or advising others or of serving them in some act.”

A well recognized fact is that the educational task of extension is a task for professionals. Now let us see how this claim best rits in as per criteria evolved by Clark and Singh. These are : 1-

Members fulfill established requirement of personal and academic qualification for admission in to the profession.


Its members adhere to a high standard of ethical conduct.


They exhibit self discipline and self direction.


The group attains self fulfillment through public service.


Members attain professional growth through continual research teaching and extension.


It has a rapidly growing body of knowledge with tools and techniques well developed.


Periodic evaluation of an objective nature in an attempt to improve self efforts and efforts of others.


Its members organize associations through which they act collectively to maintain and improve the service. The author of these criteria has very rightly claimed extension

education as a profession. 2.

Recent Break through:

Recent break through in revolutionizing and developing the professional leadership in the extension education discipline is laid with: a)

Establishing the Indian society of extension education on 22nd June 1964 and publication of world’s Second Journal of Extension Education.


Opening and developing the chain of Agricultural Universities in various states.


Integration of resident teaching, research and extension in above agricultural universities.


Organizing a production unit and farm advisory services with the team of subject matter specialists by the divisions of agricultural extension.


Post graduate teaching leading to doctoral programme in such universities as a breeding place of highly skilled, heavily field oriented and sufficiently disciplined professionals.


Rapidly growing body of knowledge with approximate kinds of technology.


Continual process of evaluation, self-checking and self directing.


Lastly, the matching efficiency of the discipline to bridge the gap between morning inventions of sophisticated technology to the

evening diffusion of such innovation. But lacuna of very serious nature does exist. When we see that some members as teachers in the discipline do not fulfill established requirement of temperamental, personal and academic qualifications for admission into the profession. Barring this, we can easily claim that extension education both as discipline as well as profession are fast developing and fast growing and providing the desirable leadership to the nation.


Philosophy of Extension Education: Philosophy is a body of general principles or laws of a field of knowledge. In a wider sense philosophy may also the termed as the pursuit of wisdom or knowledge of things and their causes both theoretical and practical. It is also defined as moral wisdom. The philosophy or extension has been concerned by different authors in different ways. I) Kelsey and Meme (1955) The philosophy of extension is based on the importance of the individual in the promotion of programme for rural people and for nation. ii) Emending (1962) He expressed the philosophy in the following lines: a)

It is an educational process


Working with men, women, young people, boys and girls.


It is helping people to help themselves.


Learning by doing.


Development of individuals, their leaders, their society and their world as a whole.


It is working together for welfare.


It is relationship, respect and truth for each other



It is a two way channel.


Continuous educational process.

Dharma (1965) gives the following points as the ‘Philosophy’ of




Self help.


People are the largest resources


It is a cooperative effort.


It has its foundation in the democracy.


It involves a two way channel of knowledge and experience.


Based on creating interest by seeing and doing.


Voluntary, cooperative participation in the program.


Persuasion and education of the people


Based on attitude and value of the people


It is never ending process.

Mildred Horton: It has described four governing principles of philosophy of extension

education. a)

The individual is supreme in democracy


The home is fundamental unit in civilization.


The family is the first training group of human


The foundation of any, permanent civilization must rest on partnership of men.


Henagar (1971) Perceives extension to be the activities of state governments which

provide the farmer with technical know-how as a guide to improved methods, in order to bring desirable changes in their behaviour at the aim of attaining high production. vi)

Supe (1986) : Extension education philosophy is based on the hypothesis that : a)

Rural people are intelligent


interested in obtaining new information.


have a keen desire to utilize. This information for their individual school welfare. Basic philosophy is directed forward changing the outlook of man by educating him.


Principle in Extension Education : A principle is a statement of policy to guide decision and action in a

consistent manner (Mathews). When any theory is put to several rigorous tests, under different settings by different individuals and the things are

found to be in substantial agreement, then it is called principle. Understanding of principles in extension is of vast importance. Without this knowledge of the extension worker keep on labouring under some handicap or make mistakes, particularly in the initial state. It is never possible to prepare a complete and final list of extension principles and some of them are following : 1)

Extension work is a system of voluntary education to be effective it

must begin with the needs and interest and use them as a spring board for developing further interests. Many a times the interest of the rural people are not the interest of extension worker. Even though he see the needs of the people better than they do themselves, he must begin with the interests and needs as they (people) see them. 2).

Green Root principle of Organisation : For making the extension work an effective one it should be

synthesized with democracy at family level and move particularly at village level. Things must spring from below and spread like grass. A higher level of living also calls for wider specialization in village, which calls for the corresponding organisations of different professions. Thus, the establishment of a three system namely. Village panchayat, Block Samiti and Zila Parishad followed by State Legislatures and Parliament satisfies the grass-root

principle of organisation in extension. 3)

Principle of Cultural differences: In order for extension programmes to be effective the approaches and

procedures must be suited to the culture of the people. A blue print of work designed for one part of the globe cannot effectively to another part, mainly because of cultural differences. An obvious differences in type farming, degree of mechanization, and size of farms are easy to observe. The differences of life attitudes, values availabilities and customs are not so easy to recognize. An extension agent must be alert to these differences if his work is to be effective. 4)

Principle of cultural changes : Change is assence of growth and progress. With its growth and

development, extension work has also to be changed to make it effective. The extension worker should know, what the villagers know & what they think with an attitude of mutual respective ness. The workers must seek to discover and understand the limitation, taboos and the cultural values related to each phase of his programme. 5)

Principle of Cooperation and participation: Extension work is cooperative. In order to involve maximum number

of people in achieving common desired and let them choose the one and then

aid them to organize their self efforts to do the things they want to do. People become dynamic if they are permitted to take decisions concerning their own affairs, are helped to carry out projects in their own villages. 6)

Principle of applied science and democratic approach: Applied science is two way process. The problems of the people are

taken to the scientists who do the experiments and again the extension worker treats the scientific findings in such a way that the families voluntarily adopt them to satisfy their needs. However extension work is a democratic approach that is a situation is shared with people. All possible alternatives are bringing forth and they are left to decide which alternative they will adopt. 7)

Principle of learning by doing: Growth results from participation in the solution of problems. Good

extension effort is directed toward assisting rural families to work out their own problems rather than giving readymade answers. The motive for improvement must come from people and they must practice the new ideas by actually doing them. It is learning by doing, which is most effective in changing people’s behaviour and developing the confidence to use the new methods in future. 8)

Principle of trained specialists:

The extension specialists are changed with responsibility of keeping in close touch with experimental research and of encouraging rural people to adopt practices proved sound by the experts. That is why; trained specialists have to be providing for making the extension programme success one. 9)

Adoptability principle in the use of extension teaching Methods: People differ from one another. Every group differs from other group.

Even conditions differ; thus no one teaching method is not effective under all situations. Reading materials are for those who can read. Radio programmes are for those who have radio etc. Farm and home visits by far the most valuable method, but takes considerable time. However, extension agents have found that a large number of teaching methods are needed. Out of those they can select one which best suits to the situation and purpose and culture of the people. At times all methods must be devised to meet the changing needs of people. 10)

Principle of leadership: A good rule in extension work is ‘Never do any thing itself that you

can have someone to do for you” This calls the development of local voluntary leadership. Leadership available but in most cases unidentified, it is the situations of searching them out and creating an environment that each will permit and encourage their development.

Old leaders, if they are trusted upon as well as close the gates to new type of community action. If such leaders are converted to new functions they can prove very helpful. 11)

Whole family Principle: The family is the unit of any society. All the members of the family

have to be developed equally by involving all of them. This is because of the following reasons: •

The extension programme effects all members of the family

The family members have great influence in decision making.

It creates mutual understanding.

It aids in money management

It balances farm and family needs

It educates the younger members

It provides an activity outlet for all.

It unifies related aspects, such as the social economic and culture of the family.

It assured family service to the community and society.

This is the work in agriculture for the man and home economics for

the women. Although extension work among farmers, farm women and youth appears to be separate first chance, there is much overlapping and integration in the family approach of extension work. 12.

Principle of Satisfaction: Satisfaction of the people is very essential in extension work. Unless

the people are satisfied with the end product of any programme, it is not going to be able to run. In democratic societies people can’t be made to move like machines. They must continue to action out of their own conviction and that is possible only when they derive full satisfaction through adoption at innovations well suited to their needs and resources. 13.

Evaluation Principle: Extension work is based on a belief in the method of science. It itself

must be scientific careful studies are made to determine how well the work is progressing, the degree to which the extension is reaching its educational purpose, where and what can be done to improve it. The effectiveness of the work is measured in so far as it is possible to measure the changes in people resulting from the teaching process. 14.

Principle of Planning: Village people must make their own plans. Planning with people is a

continuous and extremely important part of extension work. At first much of

the planning has to be done by the extension worker in consultation with leaders and key people. Soon they will be planning with their people and in consultation with extension workers. The extension workers should always guide and support the village, women in helping themselves. The credit for the success of the planning and execution of any plan must go to the village in order to build confidence in their ability to plan, to work co-operatively and to succeed. 15.

Principle of helping people to help themselves: Helping people to help themselves is a slogan which has been used

around the world where people are underfed and under privileged. Helping people to think through the problems for themselves and arrive at desirable solutions can be one of the greatest accomplishments of any extension workers for e.g. when a family thinks how much a costly wedding will be with additional debts and talks about relatives and friends as individuals and as a group of villagers may arrive at the conclusion not to go into debt for celebrating marriage and other costly festivals. 16.

Principle of classes, castes and creeds Extension workers must assist all classes, castes and creeds Gandhi Ji

expressed this principle as one of the greatest need of the nations. An extension worker must watch, carefully that she is not interested of working

with only high caste or rich people, because the rich man can afford step take more risks than the poor, it is easier to give them more attention. Working with one’s own caste will be the easier of all. But extension education is for everyone. It is essential; therefore, that every worker watches herself to ensure that she works with everyone, old and young, rich and poor, educated and illiterate. 4.7

Approaches of Extension Education The fundamental objective of extension is the development of the

individual in the community and the ultimate aim to improve the well being of all the rural people within the frame work of National economic and social policies. Extension agents work with people differing in age, Educational status, levels of living, cultural background and value system etc. These differences demand a wide range of approaches and a great variety of method. The purpose of extension approach is to motivate the people to act towards some specific goals. Approach, means (Dictionary) “the act of coming near”, movement towards the establishment of personal relations with, one power of approaching an access of a mean or way of approach. Thus it conveys, clearly now that it, is the organisation, group or a community to educate. So far drawing nearer to the aim and objectives of extension education we have

to follow some paths, lines or approach. Extension may be said as extension approach or technique of reaching the people. The purpose behind the approach is stirring the people to motivate them to act towards some specified goals. Approaches in Extension 1.

Individual Approach


Group Approach


Mass Approach


Individual Approach: Through, personal visits personal letter. For this approach, the

extension worker should know about the motivating factors involved in making a life of individual. Thus makes it necessary that the extension worker should know what is of interest of the person he wants to approach. For this kind of approach extension worker is required to keep the following objectives in mind. 1)

To find out the villagers interest.


To discover to whom the villagers tend to look for leadership and for other purpose.


To find out villagers problem and their interest in solving them.


To create learning attitudes among villagers and himself.

Advantages: •

It provides first hand information about village problems and activities.

It establishes confidence in the extension worker

It develops good will.

It helps the extension worker in the selection of good leader and establishing good relations.


Group Approach: 1.

Through demonstrations


Training the leaders


Discussion Meetings a)

Group discussion


Panel discussion






Group interview


Dialogue or public conversation g)


Group approach is an approach to two or more people for this extension worker required to know:


Type of group he is approaching

Leadership pattern

Particular interest of the group

Mass approach: Through films and slides, flash card, printed material, Posters, models

and exhibits, radios, records, charts, diagrams etc. It has been estimated that in some communities, this method has amounted to 30% of the total approach against 18% in case of individual approach and 25% in group approach. The visual and audio visual aids help the extension worker to approach and contract the masses. Where to approach: The attack on rural poverty is an attack on the way of life of the people. The best approach to the poor villagers is by direct and continuous educational process of developing, motivating and by creating new incentives and building up social pressure to induce the people to change. The approach to the whole family rather than to individual usually brings results. In general, from food supply, shelter and clothing to the bringing up of children and educating the youth. The responsibilities have been more or less predetermined traditions and give little margin of deviation. Farming is a co-partnership in which women where as much responsible as men and

home making is also as important as farming. Rural youth in more countries are much behind in education and professional training than the urban youth. It they have to adopt farming as their vocation they get the training from their own farms only. It is very important to provide training to the rural youth in improved farming methods, proper care and efforts are required to organised the youth to provide necessary training. Classification of Approaches of extension. Approaches of extension may broadly be classified as below: 1.

Multi subject matter extension


Single subject matter extension (Specialised)


Democratic Approach


Regional Development Approach


National Development Approach


Self-help small project Approach


Aided Self-help projects


Foreign Aided programmes


Farmer initiated organisations


Extension work development as an extension of teaching of Agricultural schools colleges and universities


Research workers conduct extension activities.


Multi-subject Matter Extension: In this field the agent although supported by a large number of subject

matter, specialists, has to deal with all the subjects at field level. I.e. Agriculture, Health, Home Science etc. 2.

Specialised or Intensive Approach: This type of approach needs technically trained field staff in each of

the subject matter to be given education to the rural people. 3.

Democratic Approach: In this the extension worker takes people’s real problem and takes

them into confidence for its solicitation by contracting their favorite leaders. 4.

Regional Development Approach: Specific programmes for a certain region having specific conditions

and problems are allotted to a specially trained personal according to the special need and interest of the people of that regions i.e. the hilly area of Punjab have different agro-climatic conditions and different type of agricultural crops, fruits, forests, tea plant, industries are to be developed there then in the plains of Punjab. 5.

National Developmental Approach: When National Government combine many activities like education in

school, colleges, development of roads, railways, irrigation etc. or provide

facilities for research for disease and pest control, marketing, traditions, Price control, all aimed at rural development. 6.

Self-help small projects: When a group of people having common interest to join their hands,

may form a society and work together to fulfill their aim without any assistance from the government using their own men, material and finance e.g. constructing a temple building in a village. 7.

Aided self-help projects: Where the betterment of a community achieved through their own

participation and partly by the financial help by the government. Such projects combine education investment and organisation. 8.

Foreign Aided programmes: Where foreign aid is involved in carrying out an extension programme

may it be for a few selected areas or activities, the approach will be foreign aided e.g. higher education special courses are offer by foreign government. 9.

Farmers Initiated Organisations: Farmers themselves form a local organisation for the purpose of

improving their agricultural methods and they hire technical advisors to assist in bringing to them the latest scientific knowledge and techniques. 10.

Development of extension as a Result of Teaching in

Agricultural, School, Colleges and Universities: In this the students after having their own standard either settled on their own lands and improve their standard of cultivation or share their experiences and knowledge with neighbours and thus help extending the knowledge. 11.

Research workers conduct Extension Activity: New findings of the research workers are necessary got to be tried

under local conditions and when they conduct trials in rural areas than this provide an excellent learning situation. A dynamic and flexible type of education is one which serves the people wherever they are. Extension and extension education relate to the process of conveying the technology of scientific system to a specific target people in order to enable him to utilize the knowledge for better occupation and better economy, Extension education is an applied science consistent of contents derived from researches, accumulated field experiences and relevant principles drawn from the behavioral science. Widely accepted and well recognized view regarding extension is “The extension is education and its aim is to bring the desirable changes in human behaviour. It is a discipline has its history and past in U.S.A. where people made significant contribution to both research and theory in

extension education with the coming up universities and extension education institute in India, the growth of discipline enhanced at a faster rate. The general aim of extension education discipline is to provide a body of organized facts and generalization that will enable the teachers, researches, extension workers and administrators to realize increasingly both cultural and professional objectives. In a wider sense philosophy of the extension education may turned as the pursuit of wisdom or knowledge of things and their causes both theoretical and practical. The principle of this extension education is a policy to guide decision and action is a consistent manner when the theory is to put to several rigorous texts, under different setting by different individuals and the things are found to be in substantial agreement, then its is called a principle of extension education. It is a system of voluntary education and should be synthesized with democracy and family level and more particularly of village level Extension education work must assist all classes, castes and creeds. It conveys, clearly, now, that it is the organisation group or a community to educate extension may be said as extension approach or techniques or reaching the people which are individual, group and mass. Each approach has both merits and demerits. The proper selection and

application of a particular approach would depend upon the type of their needs and interests, resources and the working conditions in the absence of any empirical evidence. It is to pin point the combination of approaches. That should be made use of in a particular situation. 4.8 SUMMARY Extension and extension education relate to the process of conveying the technology of scientific system to the specific target group in order to enable them to utilize the knowledge for better occupation and better economy. The extension work in India started with the establishment in various departments. Extension started in 1860 in Agriculture, Health and Animal Husbandry departments. Extension setup in universities was based on the Ainnings committee recommendations and on the Education Commission recommendation. Widely accepted and well recognized view regarding extension is-“the extension is education and its aim is to bring the desirable changes in human behavior” Three major conditions seem to have been required for its rise and subsequent growth- a supporting society, developed profession and developed social science. The general aim of extension education discipline is to provide a body of organized facts and generalizations that will enable

the teachers, researchers, extension workers and administrators to realize increasingly both cultural and professional objectives. Philosophy is a body of general of general principles or laws of a field of knowledge. A principle is a statement of policy to guide decision and action in a consistent manner. Some principles are –Green root principles of organization, cultural differences, cultural changes, cooperation and participation, applied science and democratic approach, learning by doing, trained specialists, adoptability principle in use of extension teaching, leadership, whole family principle, satisfaction, evaluation, planning, helping people to help themselves, classes, castes and creeds. The various approaches in extension are- individual, group, and mass approach.

4.9 KEY WORDS Assistance: help Scatter: throw in various random directions; move off in different directions

Taboo: a ban or prohibition made by religion or social custom Lacuna: a gap, a place where something is missing

4.10 Self Test Questions Q. 1

What do you understand by extension education? Describe the philosophy of extension education.

Q. 2

Write an essay of history and growth of extension Education?

Q. 3








education in India. Q. 4

Explain the structure of extension system in India.

4.11 Suggested Readings 1. Writer name, Title of Book, Year of Publication, Place of Publication

Top & Leading Agencies of India Rank

Gross Income


19992000 1

1998-99 1

2 3


Growth over Headlast year (%) Quarters/City





19992000 Hindustan Thompson 1615.75 Associates Ogilvy & Mather 113.89














Communications 4


FCB-ULKa Advertising



Reaijusion –Dy & R











New Delhi

R.K. Swamy/ BBDO 384.48







India 7


Advertising Ltd. 8



Grey 331.00

Advertising (I) 9


Chaitra Leo Burnett












Contract Advertising 267.90






Marketing 11


(I) 12


MAA Bozell
















RSSCG 228.14








Communications (P) 14


Enterprise Nexus



Euro Advertising




Communication 17


Percept Advertising







Ambience D’Arcy







Saatchi & Sauthi











Integrated 106.00

Communications Ltd. 21


TBWA Anthem




New Delhi



Publicis Zen












SSC & B Lintas





Communication 24 25


Q. Uadrant







Purnima Advertising 57.57








Kaal 55.86



New Delhi





Crayons Advertising 42.90



New Delhi





Vision 39.40



New Delhi

and 36.35




Advertising 36.03







Agency 27


Interface Communications



Ushak Advertising Ltd.



Fountainhead Communications



& Marketing 31


Sasi Advertising




Advertising Mktg. 33


Imageads communications


Equus Company







Agencies 36





New Delhi


Akshara Advertising




New Delhi


Haduhodo Percept




New Delhi






News 24.34




Market Missionaries 24.11




Advertising 23.74




National Advertising 22.90



New Delhi




Communications 40


Advertising 41


(India) 42


Ram Service


Agency 44


Moulis Euro RSCG
















Communications 46


Fortune Communications



Jelitta Advertising











New Delhi

Rashtriya Advertisng 16.77



New Delhi





Agency 50

Creative Unit


Source: Book – Foundations of Advertising: Theory & Practice S.A. Chunawalla, K.C. Sethia

Top & Leading Advertising Agency of Abroad Foreign Agency

Indian Affiliate

Equity Position Current Initial

1. BBDO (Batoon, Barton, Durstine & Osborn) 2. B.DDP (Bouter, Dru, Dupuy & Petit) 3. Bozel Worldwide

R.K. Swamy




Will be 40% soon 20%





74% soon




4. OMBB (D’Arcy, Masius, Medison Benton & Bowles) 5. Dentsu Young & Rediffusion Rubicam 6. DDB Needham Mudra 7. FCB (Foote, Cone & Belding) 8. Grey Advertising

Ulka – Clarion Nil

10% (will be 80%) 51%




9. J.Walter Thompson

Nil 40%

10. Lintas Worldwide

HTA & Contract Lintas India


60% 40% 40%

11. Leo Burnett Advertsing




12. McCan Erickson



51% Acquired

13. Ogilvy & Mather

Ogilvy & Mather Sista’s






will be 51% soon Nil

14. Saatchi & Saatchi Advertising Worldside 15. Ogilvy & Mather Worldwide

Course Code: 01


Lesson: 05

Dr. Bandana Pandey

Vetter :

Prof. Manoj Dayal

Social Advertising STRUCTURE 5.1





Concept of Social Advertising.


Need of Social Advertising


Types of Social Advertising


Areas covered under Social Advertising


Agencies involved in Social Advertising




Key words

5.10 Self Assessment Questions 5.11 Suggested Readings

5.1 OBJECTIVES The main objectives of this lesson are to understand the basic concepts of social advertising. To acknowledge the need of social

advertising. To know the different classification of social advertising. To study the area covered under social advertising and the agencies involved in it.

5.2 INTRODUCTION In today’s competitive business world each organization depends on advertisement. Beyond this non commercial originations are also using advertisement for their publicity. Today the world is characterized by fast changes taking place in all spheres business. Products, society, culture etc. This has increased variety of socio-economic problem for the whole human beings. It has developed various economics in very many ways. The problems so created have both indirect and direct impact on the working of different public. Government being the guardian of the society is pursing to deal with problems on different counts in a variety of ways. But the government has its boundaries. A few organization at their own with the intention to carry out their social responsibility of business come out and help the government propagating for a social cause also known as public service advertising. The main objectives are found in social ads:(a)

Image building


Action Inuring


Giving Awareness


Information of non commercial things like disease, flood donation competes.

The advertisement which contents publicity about social concerns of human being is called social advertisement. Social advertising as stated earlier refers to those advertisements which deal with social causes aimed at welfare and well being of the people. In other words, such advertisements create awareness among the masses, inform and educate them about socially relevant issues like conservation of Oil, Petrol, Diesel, Water and Energy, health, Family Welfare, Literacy, National Integration to mention a few. They aim at communicating social causes, ideas or message to the people. The tremendous success of commercial products can largely be attributed to advertising. The successful use of advertising for commercial products has paved the way for gradual increase in the use of advertising for noncommercial products, services and ideas as well i.e. for social causes or what is popularly known an “Social Cause Advertising.” This is evident from the fact that even a bureaucratic organization like the government has to fall back on advertising for propagating social causes such as Health, Child Care, Family Welfare, Literacy etc.

As compared to West, Social Ads are of recent origin in India. Way back in 1964 the government of India decided to tackle ads on family planning. In late sixties with the increasing socio-economic problems and popularization of TV, Social ads were given increasing attention. Since then they have become part and parcel of life and the government sanctions some crores of rupees for the telecast of various social ads such as the family planning and child care ad to mention only two. Besides from time to time ads are also shown on communal harmony. Apart from the indigenous advertising which has a major role to play in communicating about social causes to the masses, various government department / ministries, National and international Agencies, Voluntary Organizations and Autonomous Bodies deal with different social cause or different aspects of social causes. A few of these issues and agencies taken up for the present study are discussed below. 5.3

SOCIAL ADVERTISING: CONCEPT The use of advertising to plead a cause rather than sell a product is not

new. Yet, as noted by Green, we are currently witnessing a surging growth in the area of what is loosely termed as “issues/causes” advertising. Much of the difficulty in labeling stems from the fact that it covers such a wide

variety of objectives, audiences and communication tools. That there is a lack of consensus on the terminology is revealed by the findings of International survey on social advertising. No one term satisfactorily conveys the meaning of this type of advertising. At various times it is referred to as “Public Service”, “Institutional”, “Idea”, “Non-Product”, “Social”, “Advocacy”, and “Public Relations”








“Propaganda”. An international survey on social advertising revealed that there is a lack of agreement on terminology in this regard. however, a few commonly used connotations in this context are. Public Interest advertising, Public-affairs







advertising, public-afairs advertising, public Service advertising, View point advertising, advertising,

Strategic Adversary






Advocacy advertising.

Accordingly, various authorities have conceptualized the term to suit their own point of view. Coming out of the jumble of words, in the following paragraphs, a few view points are presented to clarify the concept. In the words of Garbett, Public Service advertising is "that kind of advertising either government or association sponsored which promotes

causes and activities generally accepted as desirable. By its nature, public service advertising is usually non-controversial. It may then be paid or resented by the media without charge. Most importantly, it is associated with "good works" about which there is consensus. Another expression commonly used in this context is public service advertising. Such advertising may be undertaken by public bodies such as municipal corporations. It may also be undertaken by business concerns in the public interest. As the name of the company will normally appear in the advertisement, some payoff from such advertising, to the company's goodwill may be there. However, where the primary purpose of such advertising is to promote a social cause, it may be considered noncommercial. While there can be no categorical classification of ads, it is the basic motive which counts. From








characteristics of social ads can be highlighted here. 1.

Public service advertising is a type of public relations advertising and such has a non-product, non-service, non-profit perspective.


The main focus of this advertising is on some matter of social importance.


The social economic or cultural issues dealt with in the advertising

are worthy of public attention, and often, need public action. 4.

The media pay for the time or space it is paid for by someone other than the sponsor.


This kind of ads is sponsored by government, voluntary organizations and sometimes by business houses.


It promotes those causes and activities which are generally accepted as desirable or about which there is general consensus.



It is usually non-controversial.


It contains the idea of folk culture usually.


Rural concern is the main target of these ads. WHY SOCIAL ADS Today the world is characterized by fast changes taking place in all

spheres-sciences and technology, business, products, processes, society, culture, economy, etc. This has created variety of socio-economic problems for the entire human species. It has influenced different economies in very many ways. The problems so created have both indirect and direct impact on the working of different type of publics. Government being the guardian of the society is pursuing to deal with problems on different counts in a variety of ways. But the government has its own limitation. As result of which problem has largely remained

unsolved and only aggravates with the passage of time. A few organizations at their own with the intention to carry out their social responsibility of business come out and help the government propagating for a social cause also known as public service advertising. 5.5



Political Advertisements These ads skyrocketed in the elections way back in 1976, in the US

the presidential candidate spent a huge amount on this. The latest Lok Shabha election of India 2004 is the best example of political advertisement ‘India Shining’ and “feel good factor” are known by each countryman. Lintas and HTL which are the main agencies of advertisement were involved in 1989-90 political campaign of congress.


Charitable Advertising It is distinguished from social cause advertising. it is used to raise

donation on regular or emergency basis. Where the money will be used to help the needy unfortunate or sick. 3.

Social Cause Advertising

In America for many years the advertising council Inc., a non profit organization financed by American industry has used advertising to promote social cause such as safe driving, aid to education etc. It accepts a number of causes each year and arranges for the donated services of advertising agencies and media to prepare and broadcast this advertising. It tends to leave more controversial causes. Social cause organizations such as ecology groups, family planners and women’s liberation organization have also stepped up their advertising budget to get their message out to the public. 4.

Government Advertising At times various government units are frequent advertisers. The take

funds to advertise a particular task. For example encourage tourism, tax payment etc. Police departments issue message to he general public on safety issue. 5.

Private non profit advertising: Universities, museums, hospitals and religious organizations all have

stray communication programmes and develop annual reports, direct mailing, classified advertisements, broadcast massage and other forms of advertising. Various professionals whose ethical code formerly formed advertising – social workers psychologists, etc. are now free to advertise. 6.

Association Advertising

Professional and trade association have substantially increased their use of paid advertising. Their objective is to improve their public image and also the public’s knowledge of their services. Public service advertising programmes have recently been undertaken by associations representing lawyers, accountants, doctors and other professionals. 7.

Advertorials The advertorial deal with not merely selling of particulars goods and

services but the advocacy of particular points of view on controversial view. It is this that we mean by Advertorials – the expression of a position by an individual, group, or organization, on a topic of some controversy, through the medium of advertising. The fact is that the advertorial form has became for more a presence in the last tow decades than ever before in history. It will be helpful, then, to recognize two very general sub categories, viz. non business ‘causes’ advertising and advocacy advertising. 8.

Institutional Advertising It is one of the earliest types of public relation advertising. Very often

used by the business corporation, its goal is to communicate to the public the activities of the organization that might otherwise go unreported through other media channels. A business form, for example, may want to let the public know about its extensive research facilities or its active role in

community affairs. Some have referred to this type of Advertising as “image” advertising or even “Corporate image” advertising. 9.

Advocacy Advertising Unlike institutional advertising the advocacy advertising is usually

argumentative deals with controversial subject and is directed at either specific or general targets or opponents. In brief advocacy advertisement is directed at an opponent at times a specific opponent and at unspecified one which is considered to be “The energy”. The target can be political activities, the media, competitor’s consumer groups or government agencies. 5.6 AREAS COVERED UNDER SOCIAL ADVERTISING’ Health Care "Health for All" by 2000 Ad is an important theme of our National Health Policy. Advertisements on health include ads on Cancer, AIDS, etc. Such ads highlights causes, symptoms, target group, preventive measures etc. For instance... newspaper advertisements on AIDS highlight what causes AIDS, what are the symptoms, who are the most susceptible / target group, what preventive measures can be taken etc. Same holds true for cancer and other

health ads. The significance of this cause is reflected in the fact that the world observed 7th April 1990 as the "World Health Day". Health and human development from an integral component of overall socio-economic development of any nation. India, over the last 44 years of freedom has consistently followed the path of planned progress. The main objective of this planned development has been to fulfill the common man's basic minimum needs and to bring about an upward shift in the quality of his life. The health plan has been an intrinsic part of the overall development. The broad objective of the health programmes so far has been "to control and eradicate communicable diseases and to provide curative and preventive health services..." Emphasis is also being laid on preventive and primitive aspects by organizing effective and efficient health services. The National Health Programmes are said to have made considerable progress over the 4 decades of independence. In India today life expectancy at birth is over 58 years as against 32 years way back in 1947; whereas the death rate has declined to 10.8 as against 27 at the time of attaining Independence. In terms of overall performance we can say that the performance has been a mixed one because while we have achieved considerable success in certain areas, we still have a lot more to do in other

areas. For instance, while we have succeeded in eradicating smallpox and morbidity and morality due to incidence of Japanese Encephalitis calls for making the National Health Plans and programmes more effective. The same holds true for other programmes also, such as: The national programme for control of blindness which aims at reducing the blindness in the country from 1.4% to 0.3% by 2000 A.D. with nine million blind persons in the country and about 45 million with visual impairment considerable efforts still need to be put in. With AIDS first reported in USA in 1981 and threatening to spread to other countries WHO estimate indicates that by 1991 5 to 10 million people would have been affected by the AIDS Virus. Considerable attention to be paid in this direction also. Leprosy is said to be as much a social problem as a medical one. About 4 million persons are said to be suffering from Leprosy of which every 5th is said to be a child. During the year 1987-88 5.7 lakhs people are reported to have been cured on one hand, while on the other hand, 5.19 lakhs cases have been detected, indicating the efforts that remain to be undertaken for the latter group. The National Goitre Control Programme with nearly 40 million

persons suffering from iodine deficiency in the endemic sub Himalayan region also has a long way to go. Because it is now learnt that Thyroxin deficiency not only causes goiter, but can also lead to the birth of a mentally retarded or otherwise malformed or low birthweight baby, if the expectant mother has this deficiency. Other programmes include the National Diabetes control programme, a programme for oral hygiene; and the National Mental Health Programme introduced in the VII Plan which aims at ensuring availability and accessibility of minimum mental health care facilities to the people in a phased manner. Family Welfare The demographic situation in the country today is a matter of grave concern. One of the most crucial problems facing the country today is the galloping population which has been growing at an alarming rate. As against the 1947 figures, India's population by 1981 is observed to have doubled itself. The rate at which India's population is increasing annually can have serious repercussions on the socio-economic development of the Nation and therefore pose a crucial problem for all concerned. In this context, the Family Welfare programme needs to go hand inhand with our Health programmes so that population stabilization becomes a

realistic goal in the near future. The present infant mortality of 95 per 1000 live birth offers some consolation when viewed against the 1975 figure of 140. However, it continues to remain high in comparison to developed nations and calls for efforts on art of all concerned. The government efforts in this direction include the government target of bringing this figure below 60 by 2000 A.D. Some other government efforts with respect to family welfare include: National Technology Mission on Immunization. Universal Immunization Programme. Promotion of oral Dehydration. This situation can be tackled effectively nearly proving better health care facilities but educating the people about the evils today in our country. Very many ads are floated in this context. In India, ads on Family Welfare include-ads such as Family Planning, Vaccination, Immunization, Cleanliness, etc. Text of certain ads in context is given below: "Chota aur Sukhi Parivar ke Liye Nirodh Apanaye". The use of film stars to convey the message "Garbhvati Maatao kotikaa jaroor lagvaiye" (get pregnant mothers immunized). The ad saying "Adhik Jankari ke Liye Lachine P.O. Box No..... New

Delhi " Child Care The all round development of women and children is an important component of the Human Resources Development. Therefore, the special treatment given to these two groups apart from the benefits they derived from the general development programme in the country. The government efforts for this target group include establishing a separate department of women and child Development in order to revitalize the existing development programmes for women and children. The Centre and the State government share the responsibility of implementing welfare and developmental programme for women and children. The Centre formulates welfare policies and programmes apart from coordinating guiding and promoting the implementation of various programmes by the Central Ministries/ departments, the State government and the voluntary sector. The department of Women and Child development is the modal agency to guide, co-ordinate and review the efforts in this area, both governmental and non-governmental. The major thrust of the programmes being to ensure a state of wellbeing for women and children, particularly those of the weaker section of the society through integrated programmes. The department consists of 2 bureaus one of which is the Nutrition

and Child Development. The technical support to the activities of the department is provided by the Planning, Research and Statistics Division. Further, the department in its functioning is assisted by the Central Social Welfare Board and National Institute of Public Co-operation and Child Development both of which are doing a notable job. These efforts are further substantiated by the voluntary sector through the help it renders in carrying out the task. The Bureau is also responsible for overall policy and coordination of child development, apart from implementing programmes for the welfare and development of children. Financial Investment. Looking at the significance of and the need to concentrate on this group of target audience, the investment in the development of women and children has increased from Rs. 117.90 crore during the Sixty Plan (1980-85) to Rs. 740.62 crore in the Seventh Plan (1985-90). Nutrition Programme Launched in 1970-71, the Special Nutrition Programme (SNP) provides supplementary nutrition to children below six years of age, expectant and nursing mothers. The programme mainly caters to ICDS beneficiaries. At present about 110 lakhs beneficiaries all over the country

are being covered under the programme. The SNP is implemented partly with the food supplied by CARE (Co-operative for American Relief to Every Where) and WFP (World Food Programme) and partly with indigenous food. In order to expand the existing feeding services a new programme






supplementary nutrition for pre-school children and nursing and expectant mothers has also been introduced. Another nutrition programmes includes the programme run through baalwadis/ aanganwadi ( day-care-centers) by voluntary organizations. This programme covers about 2.29 lakhs children in the age-group of 3-5 years through about 5,000 balwadis/aanganwadi run by 5 voluntary organizations via: Central Social Welfare Board Indian Council For Child Welfare Harijan Sevek Sangh Bhartiya Adinjati Sevak Sangh Kasturba Gandhi National Memorial Trust. In all the SNP's health inputs and safe drinking water facilities are being progressively extended to maximize the impact. Children form an important segment of our population and as such

they are the future citizens of any Nation. 1979 was observed as the "International Year of the Child" thus reflecting the significance attached to children as population. Some National and International Efforts Towards Children National Children's Fund. In the 'International year of the child 1979, a National Children Fund was constituted with the object of creating a source of assistance to the voluntary organizations for innovative programmes of child Development. United Nations Children's Fund. India has been associated with the UNICEF since 1949. UNICEF has been providing financial as well as technical assistance to India for programmes related to child welfare. India has progressively increased her contribution to UNICEF's general resources which now stands at Rs. 280 Crores. Child Care advertisements in India include those saying: ".. . Sal lagne Se pehle bachche ko DPT ke teen tike jaroor

Iagvalye...” The ad saying "Chal padi hai laher gauv gauv aur shahar shahar mai ... apne shishu ko shishu mela mai le jakar tike lagvaiye..." " . . . apne kala tika to laga liya, lekin kya apnai apne bachche ko DPT ke teen tike lagvaiye ?..." Also the ad of O.R.T. the ad showing how to prepare a mixture of one Teaspoon Sugar, Pinch of salt in a glass of water in order to prevent a child from getting dehydrated. These certainly speak of the importance of child care in our country. As a result of which even in villages mothers regularly go in for vaccination. Dowry Prevention This is one of the most burning problems of the country today. It is rather distressing to note that this problem was as much acute before Independence as it is today-more than 43 years after Independence. Despite tall claims of progressing towards 21st century and all efforts towards education









burning/harassing continues to persist even among the so-called educated, intelligentsia of the society. More distressing is that the so called women organizations and society at large stand mute witness to this issue. Apart from the women/their organizations (s)/the society, this issue is a matter of

grave concern for the government also and poses a serious challenge to it. It also indicates the existing government efforts or laws are inadequate for the existing government efforts or laws are inadequate for the elimination of such a deep-rooted evil cause. One of the most vulnerable targets of this problem is young brides of upper and middle classes. And it is this section of the society that needs a change in public opinion. Although the government has amended the Dowry provision Act 1961-as the Dowry prohibition (Amendment) Act 1986 what is needed to tackle this problem is strategic planning consistent efforts on part of all concerned and a totally different approach and outlook towards this problem. This problem can be checked to some extent if attempts are made to educate public in this context. Doordarshan regularly comes out with a variety of ads on the problem. Ads on Dowry in India may be varied in contents or pictures but a common message runs through all of these. . .. "Dehej lena kanuni julm hai". Untouchability This is one area where one fails to recall having seen an ad on Untouchability. And yet fact remains that after all the education, literacy mission and such other efforts, this problem continues to persist even today. Efforts are required to stress on a person as an individual and on dignity of

labour rather than look down on a person/section of society just because of their nature of work. Despite over 44 years of independence besides other problems India is still plagued with the problem of untouchability. Government has been making efforts to do away with this problem through various educational programmes, voluntary organizations and such other efforts.



this direction include laws framed by the government from time to time. One such law is the untouchability (offences) Act 1955 which has been amended by the Untouchability. (offences) Amendment and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1976 which came into force from 19 November 1976. The idea behind this amendment was to enlarge the scope of the previous Act and to make the penal provisions more stringent. The name of the principal Act has been changed to Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955. The Act provides for penalties for preventing a person on the ground of untouchability from enjoying the rights accruing out of abolition of untouchability. Enhanced penalties/punishments have been provided for subsequent offences. By virtue of Article 17 and Article 24 untouchability is said to be abolished and its practice in any form forbidden. Literacy National average literacy rate which was 16.67% in 1951 has

increased to 36.23% in 1981 and 63.86% in 1991 with Kerala holding the highest position with a rate of 70.42% and Arunachal Pradesh holding the lowest with the rate of 20.79%. In terms of absolute figures the total literates increased from 601.9 lakhs (1951) to 2,475,5 lakhs (1981) (including the estimates of Assam) indicating a four-fold increase among the literates in 30 years. The corresponding figure for illiterates show an increase from 3,0091akhs 1951) to 4,376.3 lakhs (1981) slightly over double; of these 3,695.2 lakhs (84.44%) live in rural areas indicating the need for concentrating efforts on this section of the audience. However, these figures are not very encouraging if we look at the literacy rate among the males and the females; the literacy rate among men being 46.89% nearly double of the female literacy rate. Since the corresponding figure for women is 24.82%. This only reflects the tremendous efforts required to be put into increase the latter rate this would rather be challenging task for those concerned given the socio-economic cultural background of our country. This task assumes all the more significance with 243 districts out of 444 showing a literacy level below the National level. Education has been accorded a high priority as an integral part of the country's development process. It is no doubt claimed that efforts during the

last 42 years show a 4 fold increase in the total number of literates. But the figures when compared to other developing countries of the developed nations are not very encouraging. Together with quantitative expansion of educational. Facilities there are also a need for qualitative improvement. During the VII Plan, the main thrust of educational activities is towards promotion of quality and excellence providing wider opportunities for vocational education at different levels and restructuring it to encompass the development of the country's human resource potential. Efforts are also being made to achieve the goal of universal elementary education and eradication of illiteracy in the age group of 15- 35 by 1995. In order to provide the basic amenities in education in primary schools "Operation Blackboard" is being implemented. Some other efforts in this direction include: Constitutional directives provide for Universal, free and compulsory education to all children up to the age of 14 years. The National policy on education resolved that all children who attain the age of 11 years by 1990 will have had 5 years of schooling or its equivalent through non-formal stream. Likewise by 1995 all children will be provided free and compulsory education up to the age of 14 years.

Other efforts include not only the "Operation-black-board" but the National Literacy Mission (NLM) Free education Programme (FEP) etc. Women's Education Women Education plays an important role in the socio-economic development of the country as they constitute 50% of the country's population. Hence unless they are well educated any country cannot move towards the path of progress. In its Literacy Mission, the government recognized the significance of education of girls and women to accelerate socio-economic development of the country. In this context, the government has formulated variety of measures from time to time. The National Policy on

education envisages that education would be used as a strategy for achieving a basic change in the status of women. The National Education System is expected to : 1.

Playa positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women.


Contribute towards development of new values through redesigned curricula and textbook and


promote women's studies as part of various studies. The

government also reimburses tuition fees to girls in Classes IX-XII. In spite of the fact that education for girls is free up to class XII, it has been observed that the enrollment ratio of girls is only: 40.3 % at the primary stage. 36.2% at the middle stage. 32.1 % at the university stage. Also the drop out rates for girls is higher than that of boy's inspite of all incentives. It is 70.04% at the National level as against the boys which is 64.42% from classes I to VIII (1985-86). One of the finest examples of Literacy in India is the "Saksharta Abhiyan" or the Literacy Mission. Instances of ads on Literacy are not acking. A few common ones floated in this context by Doordarshan and other media are as under. ". . . aiye Ise Kamla bana de" wherein a lady is expected to put a thumb; instead the signs as 'Kamla". "

tabhi to kahti hu kit u padh likh Ie..."

another ad where in a lady shown receiving a postcard. She goes from house to house requesting some one to read it out to her. Alas no one does! She realizes had she know how to read or write she would never have faced such a situation.

Instances of ads encouraging people to go to learn reading and writing at the continuing adult education or such other centers are not lacking. Latest efforts in this direction include: an ad showing a thumb mark and a message runs across - "Ye nishan hum sub pur dhubba hai; aiye ise Ramprasad banaye; ise padhaye; . . . .. Likhiye Rashtriya Saksharta Mission. . . " In a country like India such efforts are long due and could contribute a greater deal towards dealing with the grave problem. Drug abuse Like Western countries, the drug menace too is spreading in our country at a fast pace. The most susceptible group being the youngsters. India also is witnessing a gradual increase in the incidence of drug abuse. Several government laws and efforts of voluntary agencies are involved in tackling this menace and in rehabilitating this section of the audience. The Government; Action: Article 47 of the Constitution enjoins that the State shall endeavor to bring about prohibition of the consumption, except for medicinal purposes, of intoxicating drinks and drugs which are injurious to health. The State governments are thus responsible for fulfilling the constitutional obligation with respect to prohibition. The government has been continuously making efforts to educate the

people about the ill effects of drinking through mass media as well as encouragmg voluntary organizations through grants for educative publicity. Till December 1988, 27 voluntary organizations are said to be given grant-in-aid up to Rs. 1.13 crore for promoting the cause of prohibition. Efforts in this direction also include films on prohibition; prints of these films are being supplied to the Directorate of field publicity for screening them all over India. In addition, a 10 minute radio sponsored programme "Aao Haath badhayein" is also broadcast in Hindi on eleventh channel. With the increasing incidence of drug abuse, the problem has been gaining attention of the government. The government has adopted an integrated approach involving identification, referral services treatment, public awareness, education, rehabilitation, training of functionaries as well as controlling supply of illicit trafficking. A number of ministries/departments are concerned with various aspects of this problem. Leading in this direction is the Ministry of Welfare which has been concerned with the educational and social welfare aspects of drug addiction. Further efforts in this direction include assistance provided to voluntary organizations in order to set up de addiction centers for treatment of drug addicts and counseling centers for their follow-up and rehabilitation, holding of de-addiction camps and undertaking awareness

building programmes. At the State/Union territories level, the concerned administrations have been requested to draw up their plans and programmes of action to tackle this problem. A few instances of ads in this context are as under: “..........This is my life and that is yours”. Most of the people are familiar with an appearing on TV wherein some party is going on. A drug addict drags himself home. Just before climbing steps he turns around and one is shocked to see a skull instead of a human face. And a message gets across Drugs are dangerous. A 10 minute radio-sponsored programme "Aao Hath Bahdayein" is also broadcast in Hindi on eleven channels. Such instances of ads on drugs are not lacking.

Safety Problem The number of deaths due to accidents reported daily either on Doordarshan news or in newspaper only reiterates the need to emphasize on safety. It is rather unpleasant and nerve-racking not only to read those news early in the morning but the worst part is to go through those accompanying pictures of blood oozing maimed bodies on the road early in the morning

with the morning cup of tea. It almost leaves a person disinterested in picking up the morning newspaper or switching on the T.V. for morning transmission of news until one has finished with his/her Cup of tea. The situation is not different whether it is the developed or the developing nations. The Indian picture is not very encouraging either; because it closely follows the US with 44,000 road mishaps. It has also been observed that India has many as 3.7 fatalities for every 1000 vehicles as against the US paltry of 0.25. This is despite the fact that the superpower has 180.84 million vehicles against the Indian corresponding figure of 13.6 million vehicles the US having 14 times India's vehicles. One of the probable reasons of this scenario may be the rather dismal standards of road safety in India. This problem assumes all the more significance and becomes crucial with India witnessing an unprecedented automobile boom. This situation will turn all the more grave if urgent remedial measures are not taken. Because there were mere 3.06 lakhs vehicles in the country in 1951, with 27,000 of them being 2 wheelers. As against this, by the turn of the century these figures are estimated to rise to a surging 413.59 lakhs vehicles with 346.48 lakhs two wheelers. The growth in number of vehicles being tremendous.

Besides, "While the mechanical fitness test for cars in the west is mandatory annually when the vehicle is more than 3 years old and the car in the developed country is test 17 times in the first two decades its counterpart in India undergoes only two such tests." The current Indian scenario on safety is therefore not surprising. This only reiterates the fact that India has a long way to go on safety aspect also. One comes across a number of ads on safety. For instance: One such ad on road safety is brought out by the Delhi Traffic Police (DTP) wherein they show a group of youngsters going out and the driver is drunk. At some point the driver loses control and they land up meeting with an accident; and a message gets a cross....." Drunk drivers get killed". Another ad requesting people to avoid racing or face the same consequences. Follow traffic rules and signals in order to avoid accidents. An ad showing "Choice is yours". Similarly we have ads showing what precautions to take in dealing with LPG, electricity, kerosene and what to do in case of an eventuality. National Integration The idea of National Integration is not new for India. Over the years at

different points of time and in different ways the country and its people have withstood challenges. The idea is highlighted in the fact that the constitution lays down that India is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic. The government efforts include various educational, socio-cultural programmes, fairs, festivals etc. undertaken from time to time. Recent efforts include the advertisements dealing with 'Mera Bharat Mahan' and such other ads. Other aspects of National Integration have already been discussed in the earlier section and in order to avoid reputation are not taken up here. Ads on National Integration appear to be most popular; one which a large number of audience is familiar with. Instances of such ads include An ad showing brother and sister playing under a tree and the brother asks the sister "didi ek kya hota hai ?... and the sister replies, "chanda ek, suraj ek tare anek... ek, ek, karke ho gaya anek" ... The one showing" Mile sur mera tumhara to sur bane hamhara. . . " And of late, one of the most popular one's is the ad dealing with "Mera Bharat Mahan". Energy Conservation Energy is an essential impact for improving the quality of life and for economic development of the country. India's per capita consumption of

commercial energy is only 1/8th of the world average and is likely to increase with the growth in Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and improvement in the standard of living of people. India is endowed with a vast energy resource base. As against 40% share of commercial Energy with balance 60% contributed by noncommercial energy resources, the share of commercial primary energy in 1989-90 is estimated to be about 67%. This figure is further projected to increase to 76.76% by 2004-05 (2046 mtr), according to planning with an anticipated share of 47% of commercial energy consumption by the turn of the century. In India, commercial energy accounts for a little over half of the total energy used in the country, but this is likely to increase with the industrialization on a large scale. The remaining energy coming from non commercial resources like cow dung, fuel wood and agricultural waste. The remaining energy coming from non-commercial resources like cowdung, fuelwood and agricultural waste. Though the share of these non-commercial sources has been coming down, it is observed that consumption of energy through this source has almost doubled since 1953 up to 1980. These renewable, non-commercial sources have been used in India for years together now, but no systematic, efficient, optimum way of utilizing these

has been developed. As a result these sources continue to be used in a primitive and inefficient manner and a large reservoir with tremendous potential remains unexploited. Its time some serious thinking is done in this area, especially when we are close to Energy crisis, this could prove to be a blessing in disguise. The seventh five-year plan emphasizes the development and accelerated utilization of renewable energy sources in rural and urban areas. A major policy of the government is directed towards increasing the use of coal in household and electricity in transport sector so as to reduce dependence on oil which is becoming scarce gradually. Indian renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd. Is registered as a government company with a view to promoting projects in the area of new and renewable sources of energy on a wider scale and performs various functions. It is reported that the demand in developing countries for all forms of energy is likely to increase by more than 50% in the next 6 years which will cause these countries share of global demand to rise from 17% to 24%. This was stated in the annual report of the Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP), which was started by the World Bank and the United National Development Programme (UNDP). It also projected in its annual report that the world oil demand will have increased by almost a

3rd by the year 2000-with developing countries accounting for about ~ of the total increase. Also, annual growth in oil demand could average 2.8% for the developing countries. Demand for other fuels is also expected to grow. - especially biomass-which will continue to be most important fuel in many of the poorest countries where it often represents as much as 90% of energy consumed; with this scenario in the background, inorder to enable the developing countries meet their future energy needs, ESMAP is conducting studies in about 60 countries to promote more efficient use of energy –which though belated, is an essential step in the right direction. The Present Situation: The existing situation today is that in the key area of energy, the rural areas consume only 10% of the total commercial energy consumed in the country -in the form of coal, oil and oil derivative and electricity. However, of the total energy consumed in the country only 50% is commercial. And about 80% of the remaining 50% of noncommercial fuels are consumed in rural areas-which largely are the form of firewood and animal and crop wastes. But with the increasing population, producing enough amount of energy to match the increasing demand is going to be uphill task, leave alone the impact it will have on our environment. It has rightly been pointed out that sustainable development

required in which we can make a transition as soon as possible and depend on renewable energy sources especially for the rural areas. It urgently calls for solar energy, solar energy systems and biomass based systems. Energy Conservation ads include: Ads on "Save Oil, Save Petrol, Save Diesel, Save Water, Save Electricity" etc. One gets to see such ads more frequently on petrol pumps. Or the TV ad saying "Bijlee hai shakti, Ise vyarth no gavao, jitni jamrat hai utni hi jalao.." Girl Child In India Girl Child is considered to be a burden on the family. So right from the childhood she is discriminated against her brother on every count. More often than not she forced to live life of deprivations, ill health and exploitation due to age old traditions, socio-religious customs and prejudices. It is also observed that in a large number of cases, a girl child's birth is not cherished even by the parents of the child's birth is not cherished even by the parents of the child apart from other members of the family. Discrimination against the girl child manifests in various forms in the family as well as the society so much so that the girl child is regarded as the lasser

child. Nothing could be more obvious than this to indicate the plight of the Girl Child. The following points indicate the plight of Girl Child in India: The systematic and deliberate neglect of the girl child is supported by socio-religious practices, customs and traditions. For years together now, the role of the girl child is restricted to primary group viz. family, neighbors and friends with restriction also imposed on her interaction in the large society. The men in the society have not changed their attitude. Even in farms in rural areas, the productivity of women labourers in undervalued and considered secondary and sometimes they do not even have a right to their own earnings. Kapur has pointed out various kinds of abuses Female Feticide: Discrimination against the girl child is now practiced even before her birth with the use of technological development in the form of amniocentesis for sex determination of the fetus and in many instances abortion is resorted to if it reveals a girl. Female Infanticide: The female child is neglected deprived of love, care, nutrition and Medicare not only because of the environment being inimical to her mental and physical growth, but mainly so due

to the international neglect of the girl child. Despite all efforts of the government and voluntary sector, the girl child is deprived of equal educational opportunities-evident from the girl child's enrolment and drop-out ratios. She is burdened with too much work-both at home and outside. Surveys also indicate that female infants and children fall ill more often than boys-she is deprived of health and medicine, food and nutrition. 5.7

Agencies involved in social advertisements In the India context, the foremost in advertising is the DAVP and

other such agencies which are the pat of the ministry of information and broadcasting. As the central agency of the government the DAVP publicities the policies, programmes and performances of various ministries through the widest range of communication media such as, press advertising, printed publicity material like posters, folders broachers, booklets. Outdoor publicity items like hording, transit advertising on fudges, tram-cars, railway coaches, audio visual media viz. Radio T.V. etc.

During 1987-88 the directorate of Audio visual publicity organized 600 exhibitors were held throughout the country, specially in rural and remote areas. These have been visited by over 1.25 crore people. DAVP has released during 1987-88 around 16000 to 17000 advertisement to various newspapers and journals on behalf of various ministers and departments of Indian’s central government. The Directorate of field publicity is the largest oriented interpersonal communication medium in the country. International Agencies 1.

The United Nations


United Nations International Children’s fund


World Bank


World Health Organization


Norwegian Agency for international Development


United States Agency for International Development


Danish International Development Agency


Overseas Development Agency

5.8 Summary One can observe the trend towards the use of advertising for social cause. It is increasingly being realized that business houses, government,

profit and non profit organizations can definitely contribute to the welfare and well being of the masses. Infect communicating about social cause to the masses is a daunting task before all concerned today. Despite all debates on terminology








advertisements. Though various terms and classifications (such as public service, institutional, social advertising, political advertisement, Advocacy, Advertorials etc.) have been used and various reasons cited for the growth of such advertisements, fact remains that the focus of such advertising is welfare of human being. With the increasing problems of both developed and developing countries, such ads are no doubt gaining momentum. Social ads are doing much more for social concerns and awareness for human being.

5.9 Key words Integration: combination Tremendous: Excellent

Propagating: spread Jumble: mix in a confused way Opponent: one who disagrees with

5.10 Self Assessment Questions Q1 What do you understand by social advertising? Why do we need social advertisements? Q2 Briefly discuss the various types of social advertisements. Q3 Give details of areas covered under and agencies involved in social advertising.

5.11 Suggested Readings Arens & Bovee: Contemporary Advertising; 5th edition; IR WIN; Australia 1994 Belch & Belch: Advertising & Promotion; 5th edition; Tata McGrawHill; 2001 Don Milner: Advertising & Promotion; 15t edition; London 1995 David A.Aaker, Batra, Mayers: Advertising Management; USA 1995 Mahendra Mohan: Advertising Management - Concept & Cases; Tata McGrawHill; 2002

Stan Le Roy Wilson; Mass MedialMass Culture; McGrawHill; 1994 Sarojit Datta: Advertising Today; 1994

Course Code: 01


Dr. Bandana Pandey

Lesson: 06

Vetter :

Prof. Manoj Dayal

Advertisement Agencies: Structure & Function, Empanelling & Budgeting

STRUCTURE 6.1 Objectives 6.2 Introduction 6.3 Types of Agency Organisation 6.4 Structure of Advertising Agency 6.5 Functions of Advertising Agency 6.6 Empanelling of Advertising Agency 6.7 Agency Compensation System 6.8 Space Selling 6.9 Leading Advertising Agencies of India & World 6.10 Summary 6.11 Key words 6.12 Self Assessment Questions 6.13 Suggested Readings

6.1 OBJECTIVES In the present lesson we will discuss the structure and various functions of agencies along with the empanelling procedure and the budgeting process. It includes the space selling system of advertising agency. It also lists the leading advertising agencies of India and world.

6.2 INTRODUCTION "Advertising is a funny business because it not only a business - it is half a business quarter a profession and quarter an act." Advertising is a function of marketing, and pushes the product in the market for bigger sales. The advertising department usually relies on outside experts, often the advertising agency which prepares the advertising messages, selects appropriate media and arranges to release them. In small firms, there may not be a separate department in the name of advertising, but the functions are either looked after by the marketing manager or the Chief Executive. In a large corporation, the advertising staff

are employed for different product/brand live. Product or brand manager develop the advertising and promotion needs of their products or brands. 6.3 Types of Agency Organisation The agency may be organized on the basis of a group system or a departmental system, or as a decentralized organisation or smaller agency organisation. (i)

Group System

The group system involves writers, artists, and media planners. They remain with the advertising agency. They are employed under the general direction of the executives. Each member of the group is given a special function. The main advantage of this system is the concentrated application of the skills of specialists to common set of objectives. (ii)

Departmental System The specialists are grouped under separate departments. For. example,

copywriters are employed or deputed under the copy department. Artists work under the art department. They work directly under departmental heads. The advantages of the departmental system are that the specialists contribute to the maximum. The advertising agency is benefited by the knowledge and experience of the specialists. (iii)

Decentralized Organization

The decentralized functions are allocated to some branches which perform the advertising jobs in their respective areas. The branch office is fully authorized to discharge its functions effectively. (iv)

Smaller Agency Organisation The smaller agency organisation performs all the jobs of advertising.

The executives handle a variety of jobs. They write copy, specify production, work out the media schedule and perform other advertising functions. Advertising Business Every business entity, irrespective of its size, ownership and kind of business, does take the help of advertising- the push that makes things happen. Advertising is a function of marketing, and pushes the product in the market for bigger sales. The different kinds of advertising have been discussed in the introductory chapter. Here, we shall be concerned with the study of the organisation that plans, produces and places advertising campaigns in the media and the internal organisation of the advertising department. When a firm has decided upon an advertising programme as part of its overall promotion mix, it needs to have a system and an organisation to implement it for the attainment of the desired objective. Firms do have an advertising and publicity department to mange the

advertising function. In some small firms, there may not be a separate department in the name of advertising, but the function is either looked after by the Marketing Manager or the Chief Executive. The company's advertising department usually relies on outside experts, often the advertising agency which prepares the advertising messages, selects appropriate media, and arranges to release them. The advertising department of a company has only a limited creative function, primarily a supervisory one. This department is merely a liaison point in the company for the agency, though it is responsible for the advertisement budget, and supervises the performance of the agency. An advertising manager has to co-ordinate with the marketing and sales function, so that the advertising efforts may be fully integrated with the firm's marketing and sales strategy. He has also to perform the managerial task of formulating advertising strategy and planning advertising through the advertising agency. The agency often assists the advertising manager in programme formulation. The Advertising Manager The advertising manager usually works under the marketing manager for effective advertising. However, in some organisations he may function directly under the higher management. Whatever may be the hierarchical levels, the advertising programmes should be in 'conformity with total

market planning. Product managers and brand manager have also to coordinate with the advertising department for appropriate advertising efforts, so that a particular product or brand may receive an adequate promotional support. The hiring of an advertising agency is a function of the advertising manager. If the agency has to be changed, the recommendation to that effect is made to the higher management by the advertising manager. In a large corporation, the advertising staff is employed for different product/brand line. Product or brand managers develop the advertising and promotion needs of their products or brands. Similarly, sales managers determine the kind of advertising support they need for sales, and distribution managers inform it of the advertising support they require. All these requirements are coordinated by- a manager, who is known as the advertising manager. He sets the advertising objectives and communicates them to the agency. In a typical, large-size organisation, the advertising manager reports to the vice-president in charge of advertising, sales promotion, publicity and public relations with a view to determining an effective total promotion mix. An organisation structure of such a comprehensive advertising department is depicted. The advertising manager and his department work closely with the agency in the preparation of the ad budget, the media schedule, the creation of individual ads and the schedule

of their release. Very large organisations may hire the services of more than one ad agency to cater to the varying nature of their advertising jobs. Retail advertising, though very common in the USA, hardly exists in our country. American newspapers and radio stations are full of retail advertising. In fact, these media would not be able to exist without retail advertising, which is their important source of income. Retailers, such as department stores, advertise their goods in the local market through the local media in the form of brochures and newspapers inserts. In fact, people do look at such newspaper from a manufacturer's advertising in the sense that most retail firms do not employ the services of an advertising agency. One of the important reasons for this is the non-payment of commission by media to the agency, whereas in the case of a manufacturer's advertising, the media pay about 15 percent commission to the agency to compensate it for the services it renders. This is why retailers have an advertising department which does all activities of advertising, unlike a manufacturing firm. 6.4 Organization, Structure of Advertising Department All major advertisers maintain an advertising department. The structure of the department however may vary from one organisation to another, as each one tries to develop a form which is most suited to one's requirements. The principal forms of organizational structure are based on

(i) sub-functions of advertising, such as copywriting or artworks (ii) communication media (iii) geographical spread (iv) product and (v) end users. Irrespective of the specific form, the advertising department has to perform several functions. Principal among these are setting advertising goals, plans and budget, selecting the outside ad agency, maintaining contacts, providing support to the marketing staff and monitor the functioning of the ad agency. Selecting the ad agency is one of the important tasks of the advertising department. Several criteria, including experience, size, track record and the quality of the personnel, are considered in the selection process. As you know, there are different categories of advertisers. Depending upon their functions, each organisation develops its own structure, of which advertising department is a part. What is important in this connection is to analyze the functions an advertisement department is expected to perform. Organisation is a Manufacturing Unit Bulk of advertising is carried out by manufacturing firms. It is therefore, necessary to understand the various principles on which the advertising department can be organized in manufacturing units. The basic principles are (a)

By sub-functions of Advertising Advertising as a function can be segmented into its various

components, such as, Copywriting, Art Production and Media. Each component can be handled by a specialist who in turn reports to the advertising manager. (b)

By Media This structure would involve segregating the total man load on the

basis of the media to be used, such as Newspapers or TV. (c)

By Product In a large multi product firm, the advertising department may be

organized focusing on a product/product group. Each manager would be given the responsibility of one brand or several brands. (d)

By Geography If an organisation has distinctly different regional marketing problems

and plans, including advertising plans, it may follow a structure based on geographical location of markets. (e)

By- End-users Sometimes, the same product may be sold to different market

segments and it is necessary to plan advertising to take care of the divergent buying behaviors of the different segments. In such a situation, this organizational structure may be desirable.

Reporting Structure The advertising manager has to report to somebody who is higher up in the organizational structure. To whom the advertising manager would report depends upon how much importance advertising is given in the total operations of the firm. There are several alternatives. These are: (a)

Report to the Chief Executive (Chairman/M.D.)


Report- to the Director (Marketing)


Report to the divisional head if the firm is a multi-division firm and responsibility is delegated at the division level.

Centralization or Decentralization Should advertising be done on a centralized basis or should the responsibility be delegated to lower levels - say product or geographical divisions? A









Ziegenhagem, Director of Advertising and Public Relations, Babcock & Wilcox Co., as that which- is located at or directed by corporate headquarters, reporting to a corporate sales or marketing head or in top management. In operation it gets the necessary product, market, and budget information from the divisions it serves and then controls the execution of the various

programmes by (1)

Providing the needed information and guidance to the advertising agency another services; and


Then reviewing and approving the completed work before getting division approval. (See Roger Barton (Ed.), Handbook of Advertising Management, 1970). A Decentralized Advertising Activity is operated and controlled by

individual units located in each major division, usually reporting to a division head or to a division marketing or sales head. The division advertising, sales ad marketing people and control both the 'what' and 'how' of the advertising job, getting only advice and counsel plus miscellaneous services from a central advertising function. In practice, however, it has been found that most companies follow the centralized pattern of advertising organisation. There are at least two important reasons for it. (1) It is difficult to transfer the tasks of preparation and execution of creative advertising from the few to the many without loss of efficiency to a great extent. (2) Most companies entrust their advertising work to outside agencies and it is more convenient to deal with them in a centralized way.

Interface with Other Departments Advertising and, therefore the people, manning the advertising department, do not function in a vacuum. Advertising is a tool of marketing. It is done to achieve a specified short-term or long-term goal. The advertising staff, therefore, must actively interact with other departments most importantly, marketing sales. The interaction has to be intensive to draw up a coordinated marketing plan, of which advertising is a part. In fact, not only the advertising department, but also the outside advertising agency it may have employed, would have to be actively associated with the formulation of the marketing plan. In companies, which realize the importance of advertising in its proper perspective, the advertising department gets useful inputs from sales, product and brand managers: from marketing heads, general managers and top management and also from many others in the engineering and manufacturing departments who provide valuable advice in respect of appeals to be focused and also other advertising matters. 6.5 Functions of the Advertising Departments Just as the organizational structure of an advertising department varies, the activity profile also is subject to change from one organisation to another. Kleppner has identified 14 activities which include all the major functions an

advertising department in a manufacturing organisation is supposed to carry out. These are: 1.

Detennine in consultation with top management the advertising goals,

the advertising budget, and the advertising plan. 2.

Help select the advertising agency.


Set up a plan of activity, allocating which work is to be done by the agency and which by the advertiser. Establish with top

the internal division of such non-commissionable duties

management as


promotion, research and public relations. 4.

Transmit the policy and problems of management to the agency; keep it informed of changes in marketing strategies and other related areas.


Decide upon the proportion of the appropriation to be assigned to different tasks in the advertising programme depending upon the importance of these tasks.


Approve the plans for advertisements by the agency and by others who work on the advertising problems.


Prepare, purchase and issue sales material-point of purchase displays and direct mail, including receipts, dealer advertising service, premiums (unless company has separate premium

departments). 8.

Prepare, issue and control billing of corporate advertising.


Keep the sales force informed of forthcoming advertising.


Prepare portfolios of advertising for the salesman's use in showing advertising to the trade and to other distributors.


Work with the sales department in preparing special programmes.


Prepare instruction manuals for those who will sell and use the product; all in all, do everything possible to make the most effective use of the advertising investment.


See that all mail enquiries are answered with mailing as required.


See that all bills are properly checked; keep an account of funds and prepare proper reports for management. The ad manager in charge' of an advertising department has

both managerial and operational functions. He is responsible for interacting with agencies and the media. He pays attention to outdoor aids. He takes part in campaign planning and media planning. He frames an ad budget, and allocates it. He is responsible for broadcast media. He gets POP prepared. 6.6 Empanelling of Advertising Agency An advertising agency may be a full-service agency or Ii part-service agency. Each has a different outlook and advertising activities. The selection

of advertising agencies depends on whether one wants a full-service agency or a part-time agency. The selection is also made on the basis of compatibility of the agency team, agency stability, services, credibility and the agency's problem solving approach. (i)

Full-service Agency or Part-Time Agency The full-service agency is involved completely in the advertising

functions. It has a large number of expert employees. The organisation is typically useful for performing advertising activities. It looks upon customers as key clients. It communicates with the prospective purchasers. Larger agencies offer better services.

The part-time agency offers service on free of cost or project basis. These agencies perform various outside activities and co-ordinate the activities of the advertiser and media men. Clients have greater control over advertising companies. Advertisers generally embark on advertising activities with the help of part-time agencies. Research agencies generally perform the job of part-time agencies. The selection of a particular agency depends on its size, its services, knowledge and growth. (ii)

Compatibility The selection of an advertising agency depends on the compatibility

of the agency. The needs of the company determine the fitness of the agency. The advertiser visits several agencies and chooses the best agency on the basis of its merits, its methods of handling the accounts and using the available opportunities. (iii)

Agency Team The agency team includes management specialist, market researchers,

copywriters, media experts, production managers and art directors. The attitude, thinking, experience and personalities of the team members have positive effects on the selection process. (iv)

Agency Stability An agency which has been long inexistence generally performs

efficiently and effectively. The greater the investment in the agency, the more vital the contribution of the agency to the advertising activities. The personnel, finance, management and credit are examined before selecting a suitable advertising agency. (v)

Services The services rendered by the agency are evaluated with a view to

choosing the best advertising agency. Cost accounting, general agreement, project estimates, selling attitudes and other services performed by the advertising agencies are considered to evaluate their efficiency and

credibility in performing advertising jobs. The greater the range of an agency's services, the more fully it can serve the clients needs. The agency can serve the clients by its potential capacity for advertising, sales promotion, media placement, public relations, market research, sales training and distribution channels. (vi)

Creativity Creativity is the main element in advertising. If the advertising agency

is capable of great creative effects, it is selected for the purpose, Style clarity, impact memorability and action - these are taken into account while evaluating creativity . (vii) Problem-Solving Approach The agency which has a problem-solving approach is considered to be superior and useful. The importance of choosing the right agency cannot be ignored. Compatibility, balanced services, responsiveness, talent and equitable compensation -these are important factors in selecting an advertising agency. 6.7

Agency Compensation System The agency compensation is based on the forms of commission and

problems in agency compensation. (i)

Forms of Commission

The agency is paid in three forms, viz. commission, agency charges and fees. (a)

Commission: The advertising agency charges a certain percentage

to the media. The advertising commission is decided on the basis of the cost of a full page in the newspaper, magazine, etc. The ratio and television charge a certain amount to the client as their fee. The agency secures a certain percentage of the total cost received by the media. (b)

Agency Charges: The agency charges a certain amount to its clients.

The rate is fixed on the basis of the amount received by the media. The expenditure on talent, production, copywriters, films, etc. is paid to the respective sources. The charges of the agency are determined on the basis of these factors. Generally speaking, 15 percent of the total cost is charged by the advertising agency. (c)

Fees: The advertising agency charges a certain fee for specific non

commission. There are certain activities which are provided on the consideration of fees. For example, the agency may charge fee for conducting market surveys, market research, advertising research, and so on. Problems in Agency Compensation The agency compensation is determined by several factors, viz., medium, fee, copy, etc. It is difficult to arrive at a common platform of

understanding. There is less reason for haggling over non-price factors. The agency faces the problems of recognition, house agencies, and rebate, so on. The agency should be recognized by the media before it gets as commission. The media frame certain rules and procedures for the recognition of an agency. These rules are strictly followed in many cases. The advertising agencies face competition with other advertising agencies and media men. Sometimes, they come in close touch with each other and also have to face tough competition from retail advertisers. The competitors may offer a higher commission to brokers and agents. Some agencies offer rebates to clients on the commission received by them from the media. Rebates lure the clients to accept the proposals of these advertising agencies. The quality suffers because competing agencies charge a lower price to the clients. These are some of the problems which confront sound and established agencies. They have to maintain an image as well as to compete with these types of agencies.

6.8 SPACE SELLING Advertisements need a medium to reach its target consumer for this the advertiser or media planner chooses the right media to place the advertisement, which depends on many things like, budget, target audience

etc. For giving advertisement in print media advertiser buys space. In case of electronic media advertiser buys time slot. Each media has its rating system. Space selling is the process to buy the services of any media to place the advertisement in that. Rates of various media Advertiser gives the advertisement in various media viz Print media, electronic media and outdoor media having different criteria of rates. Let us talk about the rates of Newspapers space for advertisements. Rates of News papers for space There are basically three types of rates. 1. Open rate, 2. Contract rates and 3. Flat rates. The open rates is ,the highest rate quoted for a national advertiser and involves no commitment beyond a single insertion. Contract rates which are lower are offered to those advertisers who plan to run a series. Those advertisers who plan to run a series of ads in a newspaper over a period, usually of one or more years are offered contract rates. Newspapers offer a rate structure based on frequency and linkage. The flat rate is one that provides for neither frequency nor volume reductions.

When an advertiser or his organisation fails to fulfill the ads schedule for which a contract rate had been agreed upon the newspaper naturally has the right to bill him / it at the rate actually earned. The difference between the contract rate and the earned rate is called the short rate. Let us now discuss few technical terms pertaining to basic ad data. In a particular edition of a newspaper the display page has a column width of 4.87 cms, column depth of 57 cms, and there are 8 columns to a page. The back page has a configuration of column width and column depth of 4.2 cms and 57 cms respectively with 9 columns to the page. Then comes the appointment panel, which may be say 4 cm x 7.78 cms whereas the ear panel may be 5 cms x 5 cms. When a particular newspaper has more than one edition the rates would vary for advertisement in two or more editions. Newspaper space Usually space in print media and specially in Newspapers for national advertisers has been sold by the agate line. The problem is that newspapers use columns of varying width. Some has six column per page, while other have eight or nine, which affects the size and shape, and costs of an ad. This results in a complicated production and buying process for national advertisers purchasing space in a number of newspapers.

To make a newspaper more comparable to other media that sell space and time in standard units, the newspaper industry switched to STANDARD ADVERTISING UNIT in 1984. All newspapers under this system use column width 2 [1/16] inches wide, with tabloid-size paper five columns wide and standard or broadcast papers six columns. The column inch is the unit of measurement to create the standard unit. Newspapers rate for local advertiser continue to be based on the column inch, which is 1 Inch deep by 1 column wide. Advertising rates for local I advertisers are quoted per column inch, and media planner calculates total space costs by multiplying the number of column inches by the cost per inch. Newspapers space rates also vary with an advertiser's special request, such as preferred position or color. The basic rates quoted by a newspaper are run of paper (RaP) which means the paper can place the ad on any page or in any position it desires. While most newspapers try to place an ad in a requested position the advertiser can ensure a specific section and or position on a page by paying a higher preferred position rate. Color advertising is also available in many news papers on a Rap basis or through preprinted inserts or Sunday supplements.

Combination rate system is also in trend. In this system adve11iser get a discount for using several newspapers as a group. A combination rate system occurs when a publisher owns both a morning and an evening newspaper in a market and offers a reduced single rate for running the same ad in both newspapers generally within a 24 hour period. Discounts are also available when the advertiser buys space in several newspapers owned by the publisher in a number of markets or in multiple newspaper affiliated in a syndicate or newspaper group. Rates of Electronic Media Rates on ad spots have remained constant since 1996. The industry benchmarks ad rates against DD which charges Rs. 45,000-Rs. 50,000 per ten seconds at prime time and delivers on average TRPs in the range of 4550 on satellite channels, time programmes and new movies command rates in excess of Rs. 40000 per 10 seconds. While day parts in morning or night costs Rs. 6400 per 10 seconds. Satellite channels commission the programme and thus them aborts the production costs. Therefore programme quality is not compromised. Zee's Network allows it to price the ads strategically. It changes premium level rates for Zee and flank these rates with the low ad rates of other Zee channel like smile, trendz. However the combined TRPs of the other Zee channels are higher than other channel like

Sony etc.

Zee sets its non prime programme at rock bottom rates - as low of Rs. 2000 per 10 seconds. If the ads are exclusive to Zee network, it offers tremendous discounts. Star Plus and Star Movies offers a package deal with rates in the region of Rs. 30000 per 10 seconds across the two channels. The channels and the agencies default on producers payments. The earlier credit period was 2-3 weeks. It is now 3-6 months. To ease the problem regarding payment, all satellite channels and DD propose to sign up for an organisation called the Indian Broadcast Society (IBS). Each member of IBS has to pay earnest amount of Rs. 50000 annually. There are several agencies in TV with outstanding bills of 120 days & other companies with 200 day outstanding. The IBS will set a code for TV industry in consultation with the Advertising Association of India. Channel Cost, Pay Channels It takes Rs. 80 crore to 100 crores to run a channel. It takes half the amount to run a niche channel, ego Are in Tamil, Bajla etc. Many of new channels are going to be pay channels, which mean these will be encrypted and the subscriber will have to pay for them. Same pay channels like star plus take subscription from operator, whereas some

want direct subscriptions, e.g. DD for its movie channel. Other channels want to make its movie channels into pay channels.

Rate of Outdoor Media When an advertiser needs to saturate a market to introduce a new product or announce a change in design of package, outdoor advertisement makes broad coverage possible overnight. The basic unit of rate for bill boards, or posters is 100 gross rating points daily or a 100% showing. One rating point is equal to I % of a particular markets population. Buying 100 gross rating points does not mean that the message will appear on 100 posters, it means the message will appear on as many panels as needed to provide a daily exposure to theoretically equal to the total size of the market's population. Actually a showing of 100 gross rating points achieves a daily reach of about 88.1 percent of the adults in a market over a 30 day period. Advertisers that want more saturation can increase the number of posters to as high as 200 or 300 GRPs per day. Transit Advertising It is a category of outdoor media that includes bus, train, taxi, cab advertising as well as posters on transit shutters, terminals and subways.

With larger and better transit systems transit advertising now reaches mass audience as well as ethnic and neighborhood groups. It is especially suitable for reaching middle to lower income urban consumer and for providing supplement coverage of these groups. It is equally popular with local advertisers. Theaters, Hotels use it for reminders and special announcements. Let us talk about its rate system. In transit advertising, just a few will buy 1000 exposures. The unit of purchase ~s a 'showing', also known as run or service. A full showing means that one card will appear in each vehicle in this system. Space may also be purchased as a one half showing or a one quarter showing. Media Cost And Media Ability To get the most out of the advertising budget spent the main matter of thinking of the advertiser is selection of the suitable media. The cost of buying space or time (electronic media) is weighed against the quantity of audience influenced by advertising. In fact it is quite similar to buy a local use commodity. The media cost should be commensurate with the measure of the media's ability to carry the message to the target group. Media ability refers to a 'media image' which is able of enhancing the perception and communication value of the message. The selectivity offered by same media is useful for advertisers for it

enables them to reach a distinct target ~market with minimum waste. In fact a great deal of information on the media about their demographic characteristics is proved by the media themselves. The main motto of any media planning person is to reach at the best possible m'1-tching level of media and market.

Media ability is measured under the following: Distribution measurement - Expressed in the number of copies circulated. (i)

Audience measurement - Expressed in terms of size of audience, composition and the amount of audience exposure.


Exposure measurement - The advertiser loops for the ability of the media to create advertising exposure. Once the media have produced desired exposure, the quality of the message will determine








communication and behavioural response. Position of Advertisement It is generally acknowledged that a right hand page commands great attention than the one on the left; a top of the column ad is seen before a bottom placement and an edge of the page ad enjoys an advantage over a "gutter" position which is near the centerfold. CT Benner conducted a

pioneering study on this subject under the little, "Position and Pulling power," where in he made an analysis of ten thousand newspapers inquiries based on a campaign in 43 dailies. The study shows that certain positions on the left side are superior to the matching space on right. And on the left page, the lower center is the best. (It is not in India) Harold Brutt has argued that a person after the age of six or seven, when confronted with a printed page, first loops at the upper left portion, for this is where the material in almost all the language, farring a few, begins. Another study in favour of the left, based on eye movement showed that when two advertisements are presented the left ad is seen first 3.8 times more often that the right hand. The specific positioning of the ad in the news-paper improves demographic selectivity. For women products, the fashion page or the food page may be more desirable whereas for men's products, many advertisers prefer the sports page. Many Newspapers offer split - run facilities. The split run is a process by which alternate copies of the same newspaper are printed with different ads for the same product. Normally the location of Ads in both the editions is the same. The newspapers do charge extra space free for this split run service. The advertisement of the top left and the top right of a news paper are

called 'ears'. Media Cost inflation Advertisement agencies grudge the insufficient budgets given by the clients who experts them to perform miracles. The clients thinks that they are paging a lot and receiving too little. The agencies feels that budgets are very low to achieve the clients goals. Media cost of late have gone up. On TV the cost of sponsoring a Hindi feature film on Saturday a has gone up from Rs. 1,12,500 for 10 seconds to anything between Rs. 1,60,000 and Rs. 2,50,000 depending upon the film. Marketing of Space Space selling is out Space marketing is in. The media planner in the agency is now not only concerned with the circulation figure but in a detai1ed analysis of the readership the circulation base, of course, is important. But demographic done by media will go a ,long way in the media planning for the right media - product market match. Even media has to position itself. There is a need to find a right slot for the publication and large the publication, including its editorial, to a select audience. Space sellers also cannot be generalists but will have to master specialized segment of business, e.g. appointment ads; financial ads, classifieds etc. know the readership. Determine your clients target group. And how best you can

match the two is the ball game all about. Swapping Ad space Between two media, advertisement space can be swapped; e.g. a satellite TV channel advertises in print media and then the print media carries programme ads of the same satellite channel. It is a cross media exchange. Even one satellite channel can swap space with another satellite channel e.g. Discovery has faster spots on Sony and M TV. Following are same examples of swapping Ad space. 1.

We have seen the Advertisement of Amar Ujala (print media) on TV. Channels. The advertisement was 'Khabro se pahle aap tak pahuche' Amar Ujala.


Each Newspaper prints the various satellite channels programme ads in their edition. For example 'Malini Ayar' advertisement is very

popular in print advertisement today. 3.

Zee music shows advertisement of Zee News.


Sony TV presents the ads of AXN . Advertisements swapping can be categories as under a.

On the basis of structure of media. (i)

Print to print media


Electronic to electronic media

(iii ) Electronic to Print media (iv) b.

Print media to electronic media

On the basis of media group (i)

Swapping in same media group. (whether print or electronic)


Swapping in other group (whether print or electronic)


Rank 19992000 I 2 3 4 5 6 7


Gross Income 1998-99 I 9991998-99 2000 I Hindustan Thompos 1615.7 1523.85 Associates 3 Ogilvy & Mather 113.89 772.35 Mundra 4 784.49 717.99 Communications 5 FCB-ULKa 782.26 514.20 Advertising 6 Reaijusion -Dy & R 664.42 451.34 8 McCann-Erickson 521.67 33471 India 7 R.K. Swamy/ BBDO 384.48 347.22



9 10

12 15







14 15

13 14



Advertising Ltd. Trikaya Grey Advertising (I) Chaitra Leo Burnett Pressman Advertising & Marketing Contract Advertising (I) MAA Bozell IB&W Communications (P) Enterprise Nexus Euro RSSCG Advertising Triton

Growth over Headlast year (%) Quarters/City 6.03


44.22 9.26

Mumbai Ahmedabad



47.21 55.86

Mumbai New Delhi


Chennai -





295.08 280.77

237.18 166.16

24.41 69.98

Mumbai Kolkata













237.90 228.14

203.37 168.72

16.98 35.22

Mumbai Mumbai




Mumbai -

17 18 19 20

22 18 17 20

21 22 23

21 25 19

24 25 26

33 26









31 32

31 27




Communication Percept Advertising Ambience D' Arcy Saatchi & Saatchi Everest Integrated Communications Ltd. TBWA Anthem Publicis Zen Madison Communication SSC & B Lintas Q. Uadrant Purnima Advertising Agency Interface Communications Ushak Kaal Advertising Ltd. Fountainhead Communications Crayons Advertising & Marketing Sasi Advertising Interact Vision Advertising Mktg. Imageads and communications Equus Advertising Company

164.73 152.00 148.10! 106.00

79.84 125.00 128.99 93.64

106.33 21.60 14.82 13.20

Mumbai Mumbai Mumbai Mumbai

104.37 100.06 98.74

86.25 61.53 118.00

21.01 62.62 -16.23

New Delhi Mumbai Mumbai

74.00 72.95 57.57

23.00 32.24 47.05

221. 7 4 126.27 22.36

Mumbai Pune Ahemedabad





55.86 I



New Delhi








New Delhi

40.60 39.40

35.94 45.55

12.97 -13.50

Coimbatore New Delhi









6.10 Summary Advertising is a function of marketing, and pushes the product in

the market for bigger sales. Various types of agency organization are-group system, departmental system, decentralized organization, and







irrespective of its size, ownership and kind of business, does take the help of advertising- the push that makes things happen. The advertising manager usually works under the marketing manager for effective advertising. In large organization, the advertising staff is employed for different product/brand line. Product managers develop the advertising and promotion needs of their products or brands. All major advertisers maintain an advertising department. The principal forms of organizational structure are based on (1) sub-functions of advertising, such as copywriting or artwork (2) communication media (3) geographical spread (4) product (5) end users.






determining the advertising goals, the advertising budget and the advertising plan. An agency may be a full-service agency or a part-service agency. The selection of ad agency is made on the basis of compatibility of

the agency team, agency stability, services, credibility and the agency’s problem solving approach. The agency compensation is based on the forms of combination and problems in agency compensation. The agency is paid in three forms, commission, agency charges and fees. Space selling is the process to buy the services of any media to place the advertisement in that. To get the most out of the advertising budget spent the main matter of thinking of the advertiser is selection of the suitable media. The cost of buying space or time is weighed against the quantity of audience influenced by advertising. 6.11 Key words Consultation: advice from Segregating: separate from others

6.12 SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS Q 1 Give a brief account of structure and function of advertising agencies. Q2 Briefly discuss the procedure of empanelling of advertising agencies.

Q3 Describe the agency compensation system. Q4 What do you understand by space selling?

6.13 SUGGESTED READINGS Arens & Bovee: Contemporary Advertising; 5th edition;IRWIN; ustralia 1994 Belch & Belch: Advertising & Promotion; 5th edition; Tata McGrawHill; 2001 Don Milner: Advertising & Promotion; 1 5t edition; London 1995 David A.Aaker, Batra, Mayers: Advertising Management;USA 1995 Mahendra Mohan: Advertising Management - Concept & Cases; Tata McGrawHill; 2002 Stan Le Roy Wilson; Mass MedialMass Culture; McGrawHill; 1994 Sarojit Datta: Advertising Today; 1994

Top & Leading Advertising Agency of Abroad

Foreign Agency 1. BBDO (Batoon, Barton, Durstine & Osborn) 2. B.DDP (Bouter, Dru, Dupuy & Petit) 3. Bozel Worldwide 4. OMBB (D' Arcy, Masius, Benton & Bowles) 5. Dentsu Young & Rubicam 6. DDB Needham 7. FCB (Foote, Cone & Belding) 8. Grey Advertising 9. J. Walter Thompson

Indian Affiliate R.K. Swamy Triton

Equity Position Initial Current 20.1% Will be 40% soon Nil 20%

MAA Medison

20% 20%

30% 74% soon






Ulka - Clario


10% (will be 80%) 51%

Trikaya HTA& Contract 10. Lintas Worldwide Lintas India 11. Leo Burnett Advertsing Chaitra 12. McCan Erickson TSA 13. Ogilvy & Mather Ogilvy & Mather 14. Saatchi & Saatchi Sista's Advertising W orldside 15. Ogilvy & Mather speer Worldwide

20% Nil 40% 40% 10% 40% 40% 10% 80%

40% 60% 40% 40% 51% 51 % Acquired 51% will be 51 % soon Nil



36 37


38 39


40 41





44 45

36 39



47 48 49

44 47


35.78 Marketing Consultants and Agencies Graphisads 34.26 Akshara 29.50 Advertising Haduhodo Percept 27.49 MCS 25.28 Communications Kamerad - News 24.34 Advertising Market 24J I Missionaries (India) Ram 23.74 Advertising Service National 22.90 Advertising Agency Moulis Euro RSCG 22.06 Urja 21.23 Communications Fortune 19.21 Communications Jelitta Advertising 17.95 Abdur 17.20 Rashtriya 16.77 Advertisng Agency Creative 5.70 Unit




27.13 27.50

26.28 7.27

New Delhi New Delhi

21.37 12.05

28.64 109.79

New Delhi Channai












New Delhi

21.94 15.73

0.55 34.97

Chennai Mumbai




13.50 11.30 13.70

32.96 52.21 22.41

Kottayam New Delhi New Delhi




Source: Book - Foundations of Advertising: Theory & Practice S.A. Chunawalla, K.C. Sethia

Course Code: 01


Dr. Bandana Pandey

Lesson: 07

Vetter :

Prof. Manoj Dayal

Public Relations: Definition, Role & Functions, Growth & Development

STRUCTURE 7.1 Objectives 7.2 Introduction 7.3 Definitions 7.4 The Public Defined 7.5 Role of Public Relations 7.6 Growth of Public Relations 7.7 Widespread Use of Public Relations 7.1 OBJECTIVES The main objectives of this lesson are to understand the basic concepts of public relations and its definition. To acknowledge the history and development of public relations. To understand the role of public relations .



Public Relations is Universal It is only in the twentieth century that public relations came to be codified, formalized, and practiced as a profession. Actually, however it is as old as the human race. Every organization, institution, and individual has public relations whether or not that fact is recognized. As long as there are people, living together in communities, working together in organizations, and forming a society, there will be an intricate web of relationships among them.

The good will of the public is the greatest asset that any organization can have. A public that is well and factually informed is not only important; without' it, an organization cannot long survive. Therefore, the starting point for good public relations in any organization is the development of sound policies that are in the public interest. Public understanding and approval must be deserved before they can be earned.

What is Public Relations? Despite all this, however, public relations is notoriously hard to define. There is no universally accepted definition, perhaps because public

relations is actually a composite of many different elements research, media relations, product publicity, graphics, public affairs; it is all these disciplines and more. What draws them together is a common focus. From this can be derived a broad but accurate definition of public relations as the use of information to influence public opinion. Public opinion is the ultimate power in a free society, and the role of public relations is to ensure that the public has the information it needs to take informed decisions. The decisions may include whom to elect to public office, which, securities to invest in, which international trade liaisons to establish, or which product or service to buy, or more subtle decisions may be involved, adding up to favorable attitudes. Such attitudes are vital to the institutions and organizations of a free society, and to none more so than to business and industry- which can operate only at the will of public opinion. It is clear, then, that: 1.

Anything not in the public interest is an unworthy cause.


Prestige and good will are invaluable assets of any institutions.


An organization or institution has a clear responsibility to provide information and interpretation that are truthful and realistic, because public distrust may be due to lack of information.

7.3 Definitions

In 1978, at the World Assembly of Public Relations Associations in Mexico City issued this statement, "Public Relations practice is the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicating their consequences, counseling organization leaders and implementing planned programmes of action which will serve both the organization's and the public interest." According to Public Relations Society of America: "Public relations is a philosophy and function of management expressed in policies and practices which serve the public to secure its understanding and goodwill. " According to Paul Garret, (Pioneer of Modern PR) "Public Relations is a fundamental attitude of mind, a philosophy of management, which deliberately and with enlightened selfishness places the broad interests of the public first in! every decision attracting the operation of a business. " Sam black in Practical Public Relations expresses that "The fundamental purpose of public relations practice is to establish a two-way of mutual understanding based on truth, knowledge and full information." According to Frank Jefkins "Public Relations consists of all fonns of planned communication, outwards and inwards, between an organization and its publics for the

purpose of achieving specific objectives concerning mutual understanding." Arthur R.Roalman in Profitable Public Relations defines PR as "Public Relations is service, a craft that must be adapted to the needs of whatever business your company is in. Therefore PR practitioners, learning the basics of Public Relations is (only) half the job." Edward L.Bernays said that Public Relations is the attempt by information, persuasion and adjustment to engineer public support for an activity, cause, movement or institution. According to Cutlip, Center and Broom in Effective Public Relations "Public Relations is the management function that identifies, establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the various publics on whom its success or failure depends."

Crable & Vibbert describe PR as a "Multi phased function of communication management that is involved in researching, analyzing, affecting & reevaluating the relationships between an organization & any aspect of its environment. " 7.4 The Public Defined Public relations practitioners recognize that there is no such things as

one homogeneous "public." Not only do we live in a pluralistic society; we also live in a complex one in which each one of us may be, at the same time or at various times, an employee, a consumer, a stockholder, h member of an industrialized community, a voter, a parent, or a member of any of several other groups. Often, the comprehensive term "the public" may be used to denote different groups, rather than the entire populace. Therefore we speak of "publics" rather than of "the public". From the point of view of business and industry, the major publics that need to be addressed include the following: Employees. Good public relations begins at home, and employees are part of the business "family." Stockholders. They are the owners of the corporation- the "capitalists" whose investments provide the funds with which corporations are founded, maintained, and caused to grow. Communities. The areas in which the corporation maintains offices, factories, or services facilities. The people of the community are the corporation's neighbors, whose friendship, loyalty, and support it needs. The news media. These comprise all the means of public communication - print, electronic, satellite, computer networks, and

others that are constantly being developed and restructured as technology continues to improve and audiences become more segmented. Government. At all levels- federal, state, and local-government, as "the voice of the people," has the power to tax, regulate, and in one way or another supervise the operations of corporations under its jurisdiction. The investment community. In particular, the people and institutions that analyze and evaluate the performance of corporations and both invest themselves and make recommendations to others based on their findings. Customers. The ultimate consumers of the corporation's products, whose between public relations for profit making organizations and that for not for profit groups (discussed in Chapter 18) is one of goals and audiences, not one of technique.

Most organizations, upon launching a public relations effort tend to concentrate first on those identifiable categories of people who are often referred to as "opinion leaders." These are the people or groups who are admired by others and who tend to be believed in. What they do, say, write,

or express opinions about actually forms public opinion. And often, the decisions. 7.5 Role of Public Relations Public relations, as we have seen, began as "corporate publicity." But it soon became apparent to both public relations people and management than there was a much broader role for public .relations to play. Business has bitter experiences and had suffered serious reverses as the result of actions that had not taken into account the public interest or the effects on public opinion. Management began to see that the public interest had to be considered when important decisions were made. Management itself started the trend toward raising public relations to the good opinion is vital to the continuing success and growth of the enterprise. For any given enterprise this list of publics may be longer or shorter. For example, a corporation that sells its product only to other corporations is likely to have only a few customers, but one whose products include food or household supplies, for example, may have literally millions of them. For organizations other than corporations, target public; will be defined differently and will depend on the makeup, purposes, and goals of

the organization. Labor leaders, hospital managers, foundations heads, college presidents, administrators of charitable, research, or benevolent organizations, and others will define their primary audiences their publics-in the light of their own adjectives, problems, and needs at a given time. Candidates for elective office and heads of government are perhaps the only persons for whom the public means everyone within their jurisdiction who is or may possibly become part of their constituencies. Depending on the field of interest of a given institution, other audiences may be of example, college-educated women, or ethnic groups, or teenagers, or a particular professional group such as doctors or lawyers. The basic difference policy level and giving public relations people responsibilities in the policy making area. Until recently, however, relatively few public relations people had moved up to the policy level partly because, perhaps, the number qualified to do so was limited. Today, there have been an increasing number of public relations executives who have taken their places on management teams and who are fully qualified to do so. It is not unusual to find the senior public relations executive of a corporation-often called the director of corporate communications or something similar-with a high corporate title, such as vice president, senior vice president, or perhaps even higher in the corporate structure.

This is a contenting trend. There is still room at or near the top for public relations people who are able, as a result of their education, experience, and knowledge of business, to observe and interpret public opinion, to help make management decisions, and to plan and carry out programs that will gain and maintain public understanding and support. Management today realizes that in making even routine decisions, the impact on public opinion and the resulting consequences can be of tremendous importance. A company making such a commonplace decision as one to change the price of a product, for example, at one time would take into consideration only the costs of production, the prices of competing products, possible reactions within the trade, and legal consideration. But today, other factors must be taken into account-public and consumer attitudes, the possible reactions of labor and of government to the price change, and the reactions of the financial community. Once the decision has been made, public relations skills are called into play to announce the change so that it is clearly understood by all the "publics" that will be affected by it. These skills will include expert writing, careful planning and scheduling, and consideration and care in serving the special needs of the news media through which the announcement will reach

the public. 7.6 Growth of Public Relations During the 1940s and 1950s, public relations underwent a period of tremendous growth, which continues today. The initial period of growth as stimulated by the followings: Increasing government regulation of business and industry, and a perception on the part of many that government was increasingly making itself responsible for much in society that had previously been the concern of individuals or the private sector-for example, care of the poor and the aged. The growth of organized labor in numbers, in political clout, and in legislative gains. A higher level of education and of social concern among the public, giving rise to such social movements as civil rights, environmental consumerism, and the like. Increasing recognition by organizations and institutions of all kinds, including government itself, of their dependence on public approval and of their need to communicate. Today, much of this has changed. The 1980s have seen increasing deregulation business. At the same time, some government agencies- the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States may be one

example. That were once seen as antagonistic to business, are now generally regarded as helpful. Organized labor, though still highly visible and vocal, has lost much of its strength in numbers and no longer can be viewed as a political monolith. Such social movements as environmentalism, consumerism, civil rights, and the like have, on the other hand, continued to grow and have become enshrined in public agencies at all levels of government. And new ones, such as feminism and antinuclear activism, have been born and have gained tremendous strength. The growth of Public Relations started since the times of Greeks & Romans even though the name is comparatively of recent origin. 1.

from Greeks & Romans to 1914 Great care & attention was devoted to the Public opinion even in

during the times of Greeks & Romans. Public Relations appear to be an integral part of Greek & Roman Government. The Romans dramatized the importance of Public opinion in the slogan Vox populi, Vox die - the voice of the people in the voice of God. Samuel Adams, Thomas Paine, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton & Thomas Jefferson used voice & pen to make a profound effect on the public opinion & started American Revolution. They wrote in the

press, circulated pamphlets & lectured to spread their revolutionary ideas.


During 18th Century The methods used by Jonathan Swift & Daniel Defoe in England in

the 18th Century to propagate their ideas are similar to present day public Relations practice. Similarly the work of Huxley to promote the evolutionary ideas of Darwin & the writings of Charles Dickens to expose the social evils of his time are similar to present day PR. The PR is the proliferation of the idea consequent on the Industrialization and intensification of modem life and the availability of the new means of communication. The former has created the need for public relations; the new mass media have provided the tools. In the United States:- The first actual use of the phrase "public relations" is thought to have been made in 1807 when President Thomas Jefferson, drafting his "Seventh Address to Congress" in his own hand, scratched out the words, "State of thought" in one place and wrote in "public relations" instead. It is to the United States of America too, that the world owes the modem development of public relations, although Great Britain and other countries have proved apt pupils who may outstrip their mentors in due course. Ivy L.Lee, a reporter in 1903 and a press agent and personal advisor to John. D. Rockefeller in 1914 used the tern "Public Relations" in 1919 for the

first time. Lee contributed many of the techniques and principles that characterize public relations today and he was among the first to realize the fallacy of publicity unsupported by good works. His success in altering the Public image of John D. Rockefeller, Sen., from a "Greedy old capitalist" to a kindly old man who gave dimes to children and millions of dollars to charity has become a legend. The 1914-18 War gave public relations a big impetus in the U.S.A President Wilson setup the Committee on Public Information in response to a suggestion by a Journalist friend, George Creel. The Creel Committee grew into a vast enterprise which demonstrated the power of organized publicity. In 1928 Bernays coined the term "Public Relations council" and his book, Crystallizing Pubic Opinion, was the first full length book dealing with Public Relations. Between the wars, there was a remarkable expansion of Public relations activities in every walk of American Life. The Advent of the second world war accelerated this tendency and once again the Government led the way with the formation of the office of War information under Elmer Davis. The Many of today's leading practitioners served their apprenticeship in the gigantic public relations programme which dwarfed the efforts of the

earlier creel committee. 3.

20th Centenary Developments: Public Relations as practiced today is peculiarly a 20th Century

phenomenon, although the origins of public relations are traced back to the dawn of civilization. Its fundamental elements informing people, persuading people, and integrating people were basic to earliest society just as they are today. Goals, techniques tools, and ethical standards change with the passage of time; Primitive leaders for example, were concerned with maintaining control over their followers through the use of force, intimidation or persuasion. If these failed, magic-totem, taboo or supernaturalism was invoked. Attempts to control opinion were conditioned by the fact that the individual had not then developed a sense of individuality. Evaluation of personality was a late development in the history of the human race. With the invention of writing, methods of persuasion changed significantly. Public opinion played a role in the national life of states even though these may have been ruled by despotic monarchs. Governments spent money; and efforts in creating! And enhancing the reputation of their rulers. The literary remains; of the civilizations of ancient Babylonia, Assyria, and Persia Which have come down to us contain elaborately publicized accounts

of the bravery of their kings in battle and their success in conquest. The rise of democracy and the actual beginnings of the current concept of public relations. However, can be traced in the United States to the Presidency of Andrew Jackson. When the common man won the ballot without property qualifications a great democratic middle class came into being. The common man began to concern himself with issues, and more widespread free education followed. The Industrial Revolution was making itself felt. In 1813 the printing press operated by a hand lever, was displacing the screw type press began replacing the handle ever press only to be followed by the double cylinder press. When Jackson came in the presidency in the 1830s, the United States had more newspapers than any other country in the World, Ben Day turned out the first issue of the New York Sun in 1833, inaugurating the penny press and marking the beginning of the mass media. Prior to the advent of the media of mass communication, people tended to be self sufficient and independent. With the industrial Revolution, modem states started an accelerating trend towards urbanization and mass production and an increase in wire arid rail communication. Railroads were the first big business they were followed by giant corporations in oil, steel, coal, meat, packaging and pubic utilities. Through unprecedented growth and uncontrolled mergers, giant monopolies became common. Growth and

expansion, dominated by individualism and laissez-faire fostered money madness and a worship of success that left: their imprint on all phases of social, economic, and political life. Business was enjoying its golden age, the actual glamour of "bigness" appealing to the masses of the people.

A specific public relations function has developed in a manner to suggest professional status, like any profession, public relation is concerned with gathering information about particular interests, understanding the policies of specialized agencies, and determining the abilities of these agencies to meet these interests. Public relations should aim not only to inform the public but also to secure better understanding of public attitudes towards business and that positive steps should. be taken to gain public understanding, and goodwill. The term public relations did not come into general use goodwill. The term public relations did not come into general use until after World War I. In the early 19th Centaury, U.S. newspapers frequently granted space in their news columns to publicity stories in return for paid advertisements. Other papers inadequately staffed. Accepted contributions without close scrutiny of the motives of the writers. Shortly after the Civil War in the United States, land promoters, railroads, politician and financial groups, made systematic use of opportunities. In 1869 James

McHenry, Press representative of the Fisk Gould financial group obtained wide publication of material in the group's interest. Soon after this, a number of business and political organizations installed publicity departments, then called "literary bureaus". In the early 1900's publicity men came into focus in New York City, most of them former newspaper reporters. Knowing the ingredients of a lively newspaper story, some of them particularly theoretical press agents drew freely on their imaginations. In 1909 the American Newspaper Publishers Association, alarmed at the spread of press-gentry, appointed a Committee on Free Publicity. One bulletin issued by it listed 757 "Space grabbers". Nonetheless, most newspapers continued to use a substantial amount of material from publicity sources. A parallel situation occurred later in Britain. Report on the British Press published by "Political and Economic Planning" in 1938, stated: "Some newspapers are very much opposed to accepting material from press agencies, and not long ago the Home and Southern Countries Newspapers Federation representing nearly 300 newspapers, made a concerted attempt to eliminate it. Nevertheless, many of these newspapers continued to print such material the news-value in them proving too strong bait".

Till the early years of the 20th Century, leaders of business and finance had been strongly rebuffed newspapermen. While the businessman's belief in his right to secrecy was rooted in tradition, it was dangerous to rest on real or supposed rights, in view of popular antagonism towards big business. 7.7 WIDESPREAD USE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS In recent years, an ever-increasing number of organization have felt the need to promote public understanding of themselves and their causes, and have put to use the techniques of public relations-notably, skill in dealing with the news media-in order to do so. Public relations, has therefore, increasingly been recognized and used not only by business and industry but also by the proponents of most issues, interests, and causes in American life. During the 1960s, Bert C. Coss, then chairman of Hill and Knowlton, Inc., cited sex evidences of the increasing role of public relations in management. Some of his statements were simply factual, others prophetic. His six points were as follows: 1.

Public relations now constitutes an integral part of the operations of business- and there will be increasing emphasis upon good

relations by business in the future.



Public relations today operates as an arm of business managementand the future public relations practitioner will have to be thoroughly familiar with modem business procedures as well as the skills of communications.


Public relations executives-because of the pervasive influence of the functions they perform-will continue to move in large numbers into positions of responsibility in American business.


Increasingly greater emphasis will be placed on the acquisition of highly trained professional talent, on the development of better methods, and on the use of modem research in the practice of corporate public relations.


Public relations in the future will. devote a greater portion of its efforts to the problem of winning understanding and support from the intellectual leaders of the nation-who, through their teachings and writings, are able to influence the minds of millions.


Public relations as an organized function will, continue to expand

internationally as business and communications and political ties between nations increase. In his fifth point, Goss may have overestimated the influence of "the intellectual leaders of the nation," by which he seems to have meant the academic community. He apparently did not foresee that these leaders would increasingly seek to influence minds not so much through their teachings and writings as through their adoption of the techniques of public relations.

7.8 SUMMARY Public relations is a fundamental attitude of mind, a philosophy of management, which deliberately and with enlightened selfishness places the broad interests of the public first in every decision attracting the operation of a business. Public relations is the attempt by information, persuasion and adjustment to engineer public support for an activity, cause, movement or institution. Public relations practitioners recognize that there is no such thing as one homogeneous “public”. The major public that needs to be addressed include the following: employees, stockholders, communities, the news media, government, the investment

community, and the customers. Public relations began as “corporate publicity”. During the 1940s and 1950s, public relations underwent a period of tremendous growth, which continues today. Public relations now continues an integral part of the operations of business- and there will be increasing emphasis upon good public relations by business in the future. Public relations as an organized function







communications and political ties between nations increase. 7.9 Key words Intricate: very complicated Pluralistic: more than one Monarch: ruler with the title of king


Describe the basic concept of Public Relations?


What do you understand by the term Public? How it is different from Public relations?

Q 3 Give a brief description of growth and development of Public

Relations. Q4

What is the role of Public Relations in society?

7.11 Suggested readings Belch & Belch: Advertising & Promotion; 5th edition; Tata McGraw Hill; 2001

Stan Le Roy Wilson; Mass Media/Mass Culture; McGraw Hill; 1994 J M Kaul: Public Relations in India: 1987 Anne Gregory: Public Relations in Practice; Crest Publishing House; New Delhi ;2003 Caroline Black; The PR Practioner: Crest Publishing House; New Delhi ;2003 Jaishri N. Jethwaney: Public Relations

Course : Basic Principle of Advertising & Public Relations Course Code : 01

Author : Dr. Bandana Pandey

Lesson : 08

Vetter : Dr. Manoj Dayal

Difference Between Public Relations & Corporate Public Relations STRUCTURE 8.1 Objectives 8.2









communication 8.4



Key words


Self Assessment Exercise


Suggested Readings

8.1 OBJECTIVES The main objectives of this lesson are to understand the basic concepts of advertising and its definition. To acknowledge the history and development of advertising. To know the different classifications

of advertising. To study the Indian media scenario. To understand the role of advertising.

8.2 INTRODUCTION Public Relation is very much popular modern management discipline and vast changes are taking place in the climate of P.R. globally as well as in India.

New Dimensions are also being added to the

practice of P.R. in almost every area of operation. The term Public Affairs, Corporate Communication, Perfect Relation etc. are some very popular terms that describe the function of P.R. Actually the term P.R. is comprehensive enough and needs no revision though it is admitted that it involves much more in terms of the number of publics and the variety of issues that are today required to be covered. Since P.R. and corporate P.R. both share similar work of image building or to influence publics, but they are not the same P.R. is a practice to maintain relationship with all publics including consumer while corporate P.R. is an integrated communication and broader than P.R. P.R. is a very broad team.

It can be a concept, a

profession, a management, a practice. Every company, organization

or Govt. body has a relationship with their public. They might be, employee’s customer, stock holders, supplies or general public or consumer. It is a determination and evaluation of public attitudes P.R. is a practice of identification of policies and procedures of an organization with a public interest. It is a development and execution of consumer’s action programme which is designed to bring about public understanding and acceptance.








communication 1.

Basically public relation involves much more than activities

made to sell the product or spread the policy and services. It is concerned with people’s attitudes toward the organization or specific issues. Today’s every company or organization must consider the public impact of their activities and decision of policies.


each decision of an organization effects different group in different way. But by the effective P.R. mutual understanding and positive out comes can be possible.

It makes favourable influence on public

attitude, build goodwill among groups of people of an organization, and establish and maintain a satisfactory reputation for the organization. Actually, a well executed P.R. is a continuous process that molds or builds a positive and stable relationship.


corporate P.R. is a goal of the company with social responsibility or corporate reputation.

It is an integral component of the overall

communication strategy of the organization. 2.

Public relation is a management function that evaluates

public attitudes, identifies the policies of an individual or organization with the public interest and executes a program to earn public understanding and acceptance. On the other hand corporate P.R. is designed to promote overall awareness of a company or enhance its image among a target audience as well as in the whole society. 3.

Public relations are a planned and sustained programme

of communication between an organization and those audiences essential to its success. The audience is replaced by a public. It is an important practice that attracts the attention of the audience. Basically corporate P.R. is an extension of the P.R. function. It does not promote any one specific organization or product or services rather it is a work to promote the overall activities of the firm by

enhancing its image, assuming a position on a social issue or cause or seeking direct involvement in something.

Public relations all

activities & attitudes intended to judge, adjust to influence and direct the opinion of any group or group of person in the interest of any individual, group or institutions and its public to accommodate each other. On the other hand corporate P.R. is a social and civic sense. The core of corporate P.R. is that human mankind has now moved it to “we” generation from “me”. It means it is a philosophy of everyman for himself and the devils care the hind most.” 4.

Public relations is an effort to promote goodwill between

itself and the public. P.R. people learn what others think of them, determine what they must do to earn the good will of others, devise way to win the good will and carry on programs designed to secure goodwill. Public Relations helps establish and maintain mutual lines of communication, understanding, acceptance and cooperation between an organization and public, involves the management problems or issues, help management to keep informed on and responsive








responsibility of management to serve the public interest, help management keep abreast of and effectively utilize change serving

as an early warning system to help anticipate trends and uses research along with sound and ethical communication techniques as its principle tools. On the other hand Corporate P.R. is closely related to the corporate identity.

It is designed to generate investment in the

corporation. By creating the more favorable image, the film makes itself attractive to potential stock purchasers and investors.


investment mean working capital, more money for research and development and so on. In this instance corporate communication or corporate identity is almost attempting to make a sale, the product is the firm. Firms that spend more on corporate P.R. also tend to have higher priced stock. A positive corporate image cannot be created just from a few P.R. activities or from few advertisements. Quality of product and services, innovation, sound financial practical, social responsibility, good corporate citizenship and wise marketing are just a few of the factors that contribute to overall image. In addition, the type of product marketed and emotional appeal also contribute. The study shows that companies are ranked differently on key corporate attributes including emotional appeal, social responsibility, work place environment, vision and leadership.


P.R. is very useful in its traditional responsibility as well

as in a more marketing oriented role.

In corporate P.R., the

organization remains the source and retain much more control. It is definitely a promotional mix and must be used with each of the other elements of P.R. Corporate P.R. are considered integral components of the overall communication strategy. They respect the same rules as the other promotional mix elements to ensure success. 6.

Public relations crops up in different firms in non-business

areas as well. Every one in an organization performs some sort of P.R. function whether aware of it or not. To this comment can be added that every act of communication performs some sort of P.R. function as well. It is as a separate specialist business function that can success best if these two propositions are properly understood by every body. People not directly involved in P.R. might well be reminded that every thing you do and every thing you say tells some body else something about what sort of organization this is”. The formal recognition of this fact is seen when companies include P.R. in the policy and decision making process. In fact many external P.R. Campaign have to be support with molding or changing the news, thinking behavior and decision of the public inside the organization

and getting their recognition, acceptance and support. The poor attitudes and response of some people inside an organization may actually be thought of as “Negative P.R. and be contributory cause to any P.R. Problems. The company has every communication (may be oral or written) as P.R. dimension regardless of its actual purpose whether be well or badly written, designed, conveyed or both. Poorly made sales Literature, impolite receptionist, truculent deliveryman, and offensive advertisements all create bad impression. On the other side where “P.R. identified and “P.R. solutions” are proposed at the policy making stage it is called corporate Public-Relation. Policy decision may create P.R. opportunities of which the decision makers are unaware. In this case corporate P.R. has the role of identifying such opportunities and proposing ways of exploiting than, Where the P.R. expertise is involved at every stage of the decision making processes “P.R. problems” and “P.R. opportunities” can be identified early and “P.R. solution” and” programmes” put in place in a thoughtful and systematic way. What can be done to resolve problems. It highlights the good about an organization, but it does so truthfully and fact fully. It follows that credibility is an important element of any P.R. programmes.

7. when


P.R. is a problem solving process, put to use not merely problem



but a Proactive strategy.

Organization which accord priority for corporate and financial P.R. are also those best likely to place PR activities under marketing. It is more concerned about communication with audience.

It entails

facing up to a problems and explaining the background of them endeavoring to obtain sympathy and understanding through an appreciation of the difficulties facing an organization and an understanding. Corporate P.R. is the way in which the organization communicates the standard of the management and is particular about the standard at the time of crisis management and provide for success or failure.

Much sponsorship activity and indeed the

adoption of such measures as support for certain charities or other non-commercial community related activities has a bearing on corporate P.R. It is not a means of allowing the P.R. function to score points off its rivals in marketing, but it should be a case of enabling the relationship to be clarified not simply between PR and marketing but between the centre and the brands, between the general management and the product and most of all between where the

organization currently stands and perhaps where it has stood in the past and where it intends to position itself in the future. 8.

P.R. is a sustained programme of communication with a

number of different audiences. Every P.R professional should have the longer term strategy in mind when advising employers or clients, and within that strategy it is essential that there should be a programme. The programme has to be prepared and proposed for there to be broad agreement between the PR function and those who are depending on PR support. The preparation of programme starts with an appreciation of the organization’s role and its objectives in the short medium and longer term. The threats and opportunities facing the organization, the requirements of marketing employee’s relations and investor relations and the overall image of the organization are all fundamental factors to be taken into account in preparing a strategy. Corporate P.R. has been described as the single image presented by a company or other organization giving an impression of unity through all the various manifestation of its activities. It is known as corporate identity.

By manifestations one means not

simply different activities but the opportunities offered to show the identity on such items as motor vehicles premises, literature,

stationary, advertising material, products and so on.


identity came in three different types which are very much relevant. First of all there is a monolithic identity which sounds awe some but in fact is best represented by many of the most successful names in business. Secondly, companies which have diversified often opt for the endorsed identity with the intension of establishing the relationship between the parent company and its subsidiaries in the minds of customers and investors, as well employee. The third type of identity is the branded identity in which the identity of the parent is kept out of sight the concept is that the brand is more important than the corporate centre. The development of the brand may owe more to advertising and promotional decisions that to a corporate culture, especially when competing brands are produced in the same factory manufacturer might maintain a corporate identity for product customer and concealing the common ownership.

So corporate

identity is not preserve simply of the specialist. It reflects on the entire organization and the way in which it is perceived. It also says something about the corporate culture. 9.

P.R. is a system of human understanding. It is merely

human decency which flaws from a good heart with god performance

and publicity appreciated because adequately communicated. This is not only a sincere effort to establish a mutuality of interest but it achieves the harmonious adjustment of an institution to its community.

It is practically a self defining term, whose aim is to

create good will and earns credit for achievements. Public relation is a mode of behavior and a manner of conveying information with the object of establishing and maintaining mutual confidence, based on mutual knowledge and under understanding between organizations. While a corporate PR carrying out various functions or activities and the different sections of the public, internal and external that is affected by some or all the functions and activities of P.R. 10.

There are many objectives that may be achieved through

expert PR activity. Any one of them, any group of them or all of them may be the basis for an organization’s PR programme. Professional PR directs every activity towards reaching selected objectives. Extraneous efforts are avoided.

Objectives that could be sought

includes : 1.

The greatest resource of PR is human installed and

creativeness. 2.

PR must deal with changes in attitude.


It is necessary to probe into the minds of people.


Favorable image audits benefit.


Promotion of product or services.


Goodwill of employees or member.


Overcoming misconception and prejudices.


Forestalling attacks.


Goodwill of suppliers.


Goodwill of Government.


Goodwill of the rest of the industry.


Goodwill of dealers and attraction of their dealers.


Ability to attract the best personal.


Education of the public point of view.


Investigation of the attitudes of various groups towards a

company. 16.

Goodwill of customers or supporters.


Formulation and guidance of polices.


Fostering the viability of the society in which the organization

function. 19.

Directing the course of change.

While the objective of corporate P.R. is a specialized policy such as :I.

Basic premises common to public and private sector.


First responsibility is customer, second will be those who work with them (The men and women in the factories and offices), third is Board of Directors.


Communities (society) in which they live.


Share holders business must make a sound profit.


The main work of corporate P.R. are community relation, Public information, customer information, Govt. information stockholders, dealers, customer relations, Govt. relation and media relations.


Classified component of corporate P.R. work are : writing, editing,





programming institutional advertising and other functions also. 11.

P.R. is to favorably influence public opinion build goodwill

and establish and maintain a satisfactory reputation for the organization.

P.R. effort might rally public support, obtain public

understanding or neutrality or simply respond to inquiries.


executed PR is an on-going process that molds good long term relationship.

It comprises a variety of activities from crisis

communication to fund rising. Practitioner use many tools besides press conference and news release.

P.R. Professionals spend

maximum of their time generating news from basically low-news demand organization. Their activities range from product publicity and press gentry to special events management and speech writing etc. Its first function is to plan and execute the PR programme. The practitioner analyze the relationship between the organization and its public, evaluate people attitude and opinion towards organization, assesses how the organization policies and action relate to the public, determine PR objectives and strategies, develops and implements a mix of PR activities, integrating them whatever possible best with the organization’s other marketing communication and lastly receive feedback to review and analyze the activities effectiveness. Public relation personal prepare many of organization communication literature, such as news release and media kits, booklets, broachers, manuals and books, letter, inserts and enclosures, annual reports, posters, bulletin, boards and exhibits, audiovisual material and position papers and even advertising.

Corporate PR has come to denote to enhance a company’s image and increase awareness.

It serve variety of

purpose to report the company’s accomplishment.

Position the

company competitively in the market, reflect a change in corporate personality, share up stock prices, improve employee morale or avoid communication problems with representative or agents, dealers, suppliers, or customers. It is using for better awareness familiarity and overall impression.

Corporate PR is to achieve specific

objectives such as develop awareness of the company and its activities, attract investors, improve a tarnished image, attract quality employees, tie a diverse product line together and take a stand on important public issue. Corporate PR can also build a foundation for future








Organization feel pride in their logos and corporate signature. The graphic designs that identify corporate names and products are valuable assets and organization take great pains to protect their individuality and ownership also. Corporate PR can make a good impression on the financial community, thus enabling to raise capital at lower cost and make more acquisition. It can motivate the employees and attract

better recruit. It is a famous saying that “good PR beings at home.” If the employees of an organization understand the policies of the company they will be the best ambassador.

Corporate PR can

influence public opinion on specific issue. Lastly we can say that there is very micro difference between the PR and corporate PR is a process used to manage an organizations







employees, customers, stock holders competitors and the general public.

Many PR activities involve media communication.


activities include planning, publicity and press gentry, public affairs and lobbying, promotion and special management, publication, preparation, research, fund raising and membership drives and public speaking. The tools used in PR include news release, and media kits.

Photography, facture articles, all sorts of printed materials

posters, exhibits, and audio-visual materials. To help create a favorable reputation in the market place organization use various types of corporate PR along with corporate identity and image.

There we get the conception of community

service which tells us that unless we strive to elevate all, the elevation of a few is the country’s degradation and delay.

Corporate PR also a management tool but by it the management strives to earn the trusts of its publics not just their business. A trust corporate citizen does not forget that trust is earned by during it not only right but also inspiringly every single time to every kind of public and he does not also forget that goodwill goes where it is well received and stays where it is well treated. When a business corporation says it “Stands” behind its public the corporate PR manager’s duty it is to see how many of these publics keeps can “Standing”. The discipline of corporate PR practice can be summed in the format foundation of business, is credit, foundation of credit is, confidence, foundation of confidence is characters foundation of characters is reputation and foundation of reputation is land by PR. In other words we can say that corporate PR is a creed of social responsibility. In the conclusion we can say that the technical resources and managing talents of industry in both public & private sectors have a function in society and obligations to the community much wider than the discharge of their primary business functions. The reality of present time is that demands are being made on companies,

demands that business obligations be expanded to include a whole range of social obligation.

The purpose of corporate PR is the

contribution to society as a corporate citizen, to cope with pressure mounted increasingly by pressure groups to harmonize company’s economic goals with the nation’s aspiration, there is need for a distinct, top level managerial function. It is basically a people relation and a gateway of community service and social audit.

8.4 Summary Public Relations are very popular modern management discipline and vast changes are taking place in the climate of P.R. globally as well as in India. PR is a very broad team as it can be a concept, a profession, a practice etc. It evaluates public attitudes, identifies the policies of an individual or organization with the public interest and executor a program to earn public understanding and acceptance. Public Relations as traditional discipline has evolved over a period of time. It has extended from PR to corporate public relations. It is all about building a positive image for the organization or company and doing things or activities to further strengthen the


Corporate communication is all about man management,

issue management and crisis management.

8.5 Key words 1.

Execution – Carry out (an order) produce or perform.


Dimensional – An aspect or feature.


Manifestations – Clear and unmistakable, show clearly, give signs of.


Fostering – Encouraging or helping the developments of.

8.6 SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTION Give the various differences between Public Relations and Cooperate Public Relations.

8.7 Suggested Readings Belch & Belch : Advertising & Promotion; 5th edition; Tata MC Graw Hill; 2001 Stand Le Roy Wilson; Mass Media/Mass Culture; McGrawHill; 1994 JM Kaul : Public Relations in India : 1987

Anne Gregory : Public Relations in Practice; Crest Publishing House; New Delhi; 2003. Caroline Black : The PR practitioner : Crest Publishing House; New Delhi ; 2003 Jaishri N. Jethwaney : Public Relations.

Course Code : 01

Author :



Pandey Lesson :


Vetter :

Dr. Manoj Dayal

Public Relations in Public & Private Sector Structure 9.1



Introduction of Public Sector


Concept of Public Sector


PR in Public Sector


Introduction of PR in Private Sector.


Staffing & Training of PR in Private Sector.


Duties of PR


Qualities of PR


Organisational Structure of PR in Private Sector


Departmental organisation of PR


Performance of PR in Private sector.


Tools of PR in Private Sector.


PR in crisis of company.




Key words

9.16 Self Assessment Questions 9.17 Suggested Readings

9.1 Objective :- The motive of this chapter is to understand the concept, structure, function and tools of Public Relations in Public & Private Sector alongwith staffing, training, duties, qualities and performance of PR in public sector. The lesson also explains the role of PR in crisis of company in private sector. After reading this chapter you will be able. 9 To examine the concept of public sector. 10 To understand the PR in public and private sector. 11 To suggest the staffing and training of PR in private sector. 12 To suggest the staffing, and training of PR in private sector. 13 To discuss the organizational structure performance and tools of PR in private sector.

9.2 Introduction Public relation in Private sector may be described as the many

management function, which gives the same, organized and careful attention to the same asset of good will as is given to any other major asset of the business. It involves all sorts of practical decision of every day business, beginning of course, with a sound quality product or service. Public Relation is a function of management which helps a company establish and maintain good name for itself and its product services through professional communication techniques. A company must deserve a good name in order to maintain it, and public-relations strives to assure that this aim is constantly in view. Private sector organizations work for benefit in a competitive scenario using effective marketing strategies. A solid PR programme provides priority to the interest of its employees and public in every decision affecting the working of its business. It public relations helps and guides a firm to be a “good citizen” in meeting its social responsibilities under the modern concept of democracy and capitalism. A positive and favourable image must be maintain not only within the employee of the company and firm’s customers but with everyone who is in the position to either help or damage the firm. It includes employees, stockholders, suppliers, government at all levels, competitors, and those people who may eventually work for the company, buy its stock, or purchase its products. It is the duty of P.R men to

assist the management in shapping and implementing effective policy of management towards each of these specific public. Staffing and Training of Public Relations for private Sector : The basic requirement for every PR man in private sector, whether he/ she is the director of Public-Relations or Assistant Public-Relation, should be able to communicate clearly and effectively. Stern says that of the hundreds of PR people he has placed, 94% have been basically a good writers and 77% had working news paper and other mass modern. In recent year, public-relations has taken on a great number of new responsibilities which the private sector, these are an increasing number of specialists being hired who in no way have the traditional background that usually leads to public-Relations. 9.4 Duties Public-Relations in Private Sector The following duties has considered for Public-Relation personal in public-sector. 1.

Handling customers complaints


Arranging offices manes from city to city.


Advising on product nomenclature, pricing.


Checking advertising claims and making market survey.


Handling credits and collections meeting.


Managing skits for customers meeting.

Qualities of P.R private sector qualities There are some following qualities which have considered for the PR persons.


He / She must be able to resist internal pressure.


P.R person must share the top management view point.


He must get along easily with every departments head in




P.R.O must have judgment not only to choose among the

task suggested to him but also to face inquiries from the media

such as press.


He has to full command English language.


Public-Relation personal must be the kind of man whom


top management can trust for confidential matter.


He must be able to handle himself well in meeting and before large group or public.


He performs his duty as a communicator rather them an initiator of concept.


He must have a professional approach.


Vice President (Special service)

Vice President (News section)

Vice President (Employee Publication)

Vice President (International P.R.)

Vice President (Community Relations)

Departmental organizaion of P.R These are different type of organizational in structure of public Relalions department in various companies of public-sector However, there are several basic patterns that can be found in any firm of private sector which practing P.R. A small company of private sector owned company which manufactures one or two produets and employs only a few hundred people

may have one person assigned to P.R. He edits the employee

newspaper, handles news relases, community relation amd perhapes is responsible for a different function as well, such as well personnal he should know the advertising skill. There are number of small agencies have no one assigned to P.R, but hire out side agencies to complete the job of P.R. in such cases, the Director or President of firm may work as a PR man. The simplies type of PR organization will, of course, be found in the

small, one product company. Such a company may be owned by one man or a small group of person APR operations chart would took something like following figure.

Vice President

Personal Direction

Vice President Marketing (Adv)

P.R. Department

Many instances can be citied where the president of a small firm has

hired ourside councel for the PR purpose. As a company grows or its PR department settles well, it begins to take on a specific character or orientation. Many companies of today with no consumer product still spend much more PR time, money and effort on employee combination. There are number of advanced companies having organized and effective PR operation. The PR department of large companies combines the best features of a PR setup in private sector. The overall objectives of the PR programme are following :Departmental organization of PR 1.

Make company known as an efficient producer of quality goods and serving


Build the reputation of company and its product.


Have company considered as a valuable asset to the industrial social and economic life of nation and the community in which it operates.


Enhance company prestige in product developments.


Achieve and maintain understanding of the company, its policies, problems and operation with all publics.


PR Representative

Director of PR Manger

Manager of PR international

Manager of PR

Assistant PR Manager Community Special Event

Regional P.R. Finance Women Radio & TV

Regional Manger

P.R. PR Manager Assistant P.R. Photography P.R. News Editing Letter PR of News Bureau PR employee News paper




PR (Publication) PR (Sales Publication)

Publication P.R. coordination Publication

The president or chairman have employed qualified public relations personnel. To reach maximum effectiveness a PR programme must be fully supported by the chief executive officer. The PR Director should of course, be on individual in whom the chief Executive has confidence and one who will use his direct contact with president judiciously. The top officer approves and consider Public-Relations policies and major programmes proposes by his public-Relations departments. He also should seek the opinion of his public-Relations director on major policy decision before such division are firmly made. The extent to which a chief executive officer should directly participle in Public-Relations obviously depends on many factors. Among them are the following 1.



The sign of Company


Current company Factors


Magnitude of Public-Relations Project


Industry Trends


Personality President and choiceman of PR

department in private sector should be dynamic and eloquent speaker with unusual writing ability. The company executive who likes to make speeches

thrives on public appearances and fencing with stock holders and is also a good manage is indeed fortunate, and so usually, is his public Relation director However, such an individual should be extremely careful of the type and extent of publicity he seeks. Public-Relations can help shows that the firm has management in depth. This can be accomplished by motivating members of the management to make speeches write by lines articles and make public pronouncement within the company. Public Relations efforts to make it appear so undoubtedly will be doomed. 2.

The sign of the company :-

In the small private sector the director may well have the time and inclination to give personal attention to some of the detailed aspect of Public-Relations. He can also be able to call his employees into a meeting and personally explain a new policy or give on effective pep talk in an effort to boost production or meet a certain objectives. Definitely the president of Public-Relations of private sector depends on skilled public Relations people to help him communicate with vast a public including employees, customers, stockholders, public officials and many others. 3.

Current Company Factors

In the present time of continuous antitrust suits and investigations, a highly sensitive stock market and the like the public Relation responsibility of a PR

Director or president of private sector becomes more and more difficult. In the event of serious investigation it is sometimes better for a company president to release most public statement through the subordinate Magnitude of PR project : Careful judgement should always be exercised to decide in which the Director of PR personally participate. For example if the product is of vast financial significance or of the type which might result in an “Emotional reaction” for on the consumer, it may require the prestige of the PR director’s office. In the area of financial relations, the company treasurer of financial vice president may be best suited to supply facts and figures to a public Relations officer (news) Industry Trends :- Any statements concerning an industry in general; instead of a specific company but which may reflect on the company should be made by the chief executives. To illustrate the importance of managements keeping the public relation director fully informed of all important policy decisions while they are in the formative stages. It is equally important that the public relation department keep management informed as to what it is doing. The most knowledgeable manager of PR not only resent regular and systematic reporting of his efforts, or she but looks forward to it eagerly. He makes every efforts to report on a basis equal to the operating and other service divisions. However PR manager reports all

major activities of his division briefly, tersely and with enough interpretation to bring about understanding. He should not, of course exaggerate the matter or information. There are two guidelines for the PR Manager which apply to reporting information. 1. Efforts which do not being immediate concrete results but which require considerable time and planning should be reported along with tangible results. 2. It should be within reasonable limits. They should follow the format and schedule that has been established for operating division. However, a report from the P.R. department should be in a format families enough to the company president for him to understand. In reporting to top management the personality of the chief execulitive must also be taken in account. If the reporting proves to be satisfactory, a PR manager can claim a report with his management which seldom exists. There are some obvious variation to regularity scheduled reporting : 1.

Any major publicity or news effecting the company should be reported immediately.


The top management of firm’s should relieve all publication systematically which is but out by the proguoup systematical.


Result of major publicity projects such as introduction of an important

new product. It should be reported immediately. In such a report there should be the number of inquiries or other reactions noted to the date of report. Reporting should being at the specialist level and goes upwards. Each specialist in a public Relations department or division should file a written report on his activities to his immediate supervisor at last once in a month. His or her report should follow the pattern which the PR Director uses to report to top management. Each supervisor or section head should take the individual reports from the specialists in his area collect and file and over all report prepared on the activities for which PR person is responsible. Then the Director takes his report from those prepared by the supervisor. This report is obviously that of large public Relations division of giant company in private sector. The division is engaged in many types of activity and has an adequate budget. Also the division appears to be well organized smooth running and highly effective. The PR Director report is drawn from these reports which were submitted by his department head. The departmental reports went into much more detail about the activities and were based largely on reports of specialist within the department. This report, tersely and simply gives company management for a quick review of all important progress and development with in the PR division. To

supplement the monthly report, the PR Director gives personal presentation on all major new proposals which would require considerable outlays of funds. In addition he gives presentation to the management regarding annual visual presentation of progress made during the past year and presents plans for the coming year before the budget committee. Every company management comprising budget committee, has the right to ask the question about value of certain projects as to ask PR Director. 4.

The PR Director should seek an opportunity to give top management a

bird’s eye view of accomplishment at least one a year. The vice president of Public Relations reports directly to top management. The general manager of Public Relations is operationally in charge of PR Reporting to him are five section heads as follows Special Services Constituting of five man including the section head this department handled the annual report, shareholders relations and administration of the editorial Committee. The committee checked all speeches, technical papers, booklets, broachers and photography prior to public Relations. News sections This section is headed by a news manager having no of news assistant. There are also two assistant managers and each handle approximately

half of the section’s functions several of the personnel in this section served as a reporters. These reporters usually handle their feature from beginning to end – originations and researching them, then deciding distribution or placement in a particular medium. They also use their own contact work with the media. Employee Publication The private sector monthly, or quarterly or yearly produces some journal, or news bulletins by this employee relations. There are also two Assistant editor to discuss mutual problems and to keep informed on company progress and policies. International Section P.R.

: Many big companies realised the

importance of good public relation across the country. The manager of Public Relations Section has the function of co-ordinating all abroad publicity. It keeps well informed to headquarters on special issues. Community Section P.R. : This unit Headed by a Head alongwith number of community relations experts. The function of community P.R. is to work with company and regional public relation managers. The company has public – Relation manager of every branch or at least a press representative. It has also

regional public relations managers. All major plant P.R. matters are referred to the community relations section. Ultimate responsibility for success and failure of public-relations, lies with the chief executive officer of P.R. The PR Director is an individual in whom the chief executive has confidence and one who use his direct contact with president judiciously. The top offices of public –Relation approves and gives careful consideration to public-relation policies and major policy-decision before such policy decisions are firmly made. 9.11 Performance of PR Programmes or Activities Performing a PR programme is basically a matter of selecting the right techniques and utilizing them professionally. The techniques chosen by PR person depends mostly on the group the PR prgramme is trying to influence. The often used PR term for specific group is “Public”. Thus every company of private sector has several publics. Generally, they include the following :1.



Customers a)

General Consumers




General Public






Competitive and non competitive firms in same industry.


Communities in which plants are located


Governments (Local, state, and federal)




Educational Institutions

Now, more and more companies of private sector are becoming aware of the importance of being known by the general public as progressive, well managed, organizations, even though the firms products may be used only industrially as components of a finished item. The National Industrial Conference Board, New York has listed the following techniques : Employee Relations Media – Relations Stock holders Relations Customer Relations Community Relations Supplier Relations Financial PR


Public-Relations plays a vital communication in engendering good

relationship between the management and its employees of private sector Most PR managers are indeed most employees, employee communication. Many specialist alongwith PR, are of course, needed in achieving and maintaining good management employee relations. These include labour relations and personal experts such as employee advisors. However, the PR department can be of a great assistance in explaining company benefits and management policy and philosophy to employees. On various occasions, the lack of communication has become manifest by sudden violent strikes which are entirely unjustified on the basis of wages, benefits and working conditions the PR techniques used in communicating with employee can be effective only if they support a genuine two-waycommunications programme between employ and management. The PR techniques used in communication through company publication and others media are fairly well established. Employee communication must come to be appreciated as a valid management tool, on a par with the others considered earlier. Good employee communication is as much a management tool as reporting and monitoring procedures. It is not too much to expect that the message will be consistent not only with the information portrayed to external audiences but also with training and other messages.

One of the managed communications with the employee is to control the flow of information, not to deluge employees with a food of material, much of it relevant. If too little of what is on offer is relevant, it becomes counter productive as employees switch off or in the mass of material overlook items which are of interest of them. Some of these methods used to help achieve employee communication are discussed below :1.

Employee survey :- Survey can provide information obtained

from employees in form of any kind. It should be held in strictest confidence as to the identity of the employees. 2.

Suggestion Programme :- It is a cost saving device. The

management of the company decide to take a close look at the suggestion programmes to see the operation were really worth retaining. Suggestion systems may structured in many different ways. The national association of suggestion systems lists the following objectives. a)

Develop an attitude of loyalty among employees.


Provide on opportunity for individual expression


Give personal recognition for specific accomplishment.


Enhance the dignity of the individual.


Provide a natural environment.


Identify the individual who are creative thinker.


Provide two way channel of communication.


Improve safety and other working condition.


Develop a spirit of team work among all employees


Reduce grievances by providing channel for an individual.


Add to employees job knowledge by providing an opportunity.


Provide and additional indicator of supervisory performance


Give management personnel a better knowledge of specific problems

Termination Interviews : Termination means voluntary end of employment by an employee. Many companies hold an exit interview with terminating employees systematic termination interviews can point up problems area that might otherwise go undiscovered. Question and Answer : Some company provides question and answer space in the publication the firms the publication motivate the employer to ask any question of management. Face to Face or Interview : It is best way to achieve upward communication. But the importance of upward communication con not be over emphasized perhaps, many company management feels shocked by sudden violent strike. It is very important to mention here that the

management should know that strike itself a form of communication. The strike may not be justified, But, if good communication had existed. I there that may be easily correct. So, the way in which the company communicates with its employees are much more established than the ways in which employees communicate upward. Tools of Public-Relation in Private Section 1.

Meeting and briefing


Circular & Notices




Newspapers & News Letter and special handbook.






Special employees programmes


Special Problems


Audio-Video Programme


Meetings mean different things to different people. The meeting

should be structured with the massage following logically and covering all relevant points. The use of supplementary material helps to overcame one of the fundamental short coming of meetings or printings, that of the message becoming distorted as it.

The level of any meeting or briefing is improved if those can be encouraged to ask questions, since this often shows organizers what truly concern those attending. 2.










communication of all, these are cheak and easy to produce, requiring no skills other than the ability to communicate effectively in standard English, or what ever the local language maybe. The prime quality is to ensure that they are circulated properly and read by the entire target audience. Circular should all be dated and given a serial number, and if one regularly has to restrict circular to a specific target audience, these much be separately identified from those on general circulation. Consistent numbering helps with identification and also has the advantage that the recipients can readily see whether or not they have missed a circular. Typed information is best suited to circulars is that which is likely to date quickly and which has some urgency. Actually circular is a very cheap tool, which can be targeted more easily than many more sophisticated media. One important point is that every branch, location or department as head should file a copy of each circular, so that there is a complete record to hand if anyone wishes to refer back to a point.


Periodicals : Periodicals for employees may be one, or more, of

several different types of publication, such as newsletters, newspapers or magazines, which will vary considerably depending not only on the size of the organisation and the funds available, or even the nature of the audience, most importantly on the task which the employee publication is expected to achieve. a)

The employee Newspaper : Almost every organisation has a

publication of some kind. They range in quality all the way from gossip sheets published by secretaries to highly professional publications that are in every way equal in quality to some of the best newspapers and magazines. Objective and philosophies underlying company newspapers are about as varied as the newspapers themselves. Generally speaking, an employee newspaper should at least contain the following. 1.

News about the company’s products.


The company’s financial releases


Stories about plant expansion, acquisitions etc.


News of management changes, promotions etc.


Features articles about employees whose performance has been unusually outstanding.


Articles which encourage participation in community


Articles supporting safety & similar programs.

A large company with many plants in different cities may have a corporate newspaper which is distributed to all employees, plus a plant newspaper for each major location. Some firms have established an ‘editorial service’ for the branch plant newspapers. b)

New Letter : Newsletters are in effect ‘mini’ newspapers, although

an A4 front page can be difficult to fill in an interesting manner – not large enough for the big, bold, splash headline or for a good selection of front page stories. Other hand, this format is easier to handle and for readers to file than a tabloid style newspaper. Photography Photography is important not only in employee publications but also in all other








communications. Like all other PR activities, good photography requires advance planning. Photography is a highly specialized activity. However, from an editorial standpoint, photographs often get more attention than the written word. Therefore, the PR man involved in editing an employee newspaper or in publicity work should develop some “feel” for photography. Photography is a highly specialized activity. However, from an editorial

standpoint, photographs often get more attention than the written word. Therefore, the PR man involved in editing an employee newspaper or in publicity work should develop some “feel” for photography. Some of the things to remember include the following : 1.

Photographs are used to illustrate a story.


If time and money permit, a number of photographs from which a few are to be selected should be taken.


Natural, rather than posed, effects usually communicate more effectively.


Outlining photographs needed in “Script” form helps bring good results.


The photographs should be allowed a reasonable length of time to make a photograph


A photograph taken at a press conference is meant to emphasize two particular men in conversation.


In product publicity photographs, it is acceptable to use a beautiful things if it fits into the picture.

Audio And Video programmes Organizations are looking at audio or video tape for messages. Employees are accustomed to listening to radio programmes and watching television, so

this is the way to transmit information today. This is an over implication, nevertheless, since the impact of both these types of communication is enhanced if the message tends itself to the medium. Both have more life than the written work, and create more sense of the personality of whoever is giving the written work, and create more sense of the personality of whoever is giving the message, but neither replaces the written word completely. Video production costs can be cut by using different type of type of recording material, and although the costs of tapes do not vary much, the availability and cost of the editing suites do. Costs can also be controlled by keeping an eye on the crewing of the video team. Television news gathering teams are far smaller than their counterparts preparing documentaries. One must also be sure that the audience can listen to or watch the programmes being sent out using either have to ensure that equipment is provided at the place of work and that time is provided for all staff to listen to or see the message. A major advantage for video, and to a lesser extent audio, programmes is that it brings the audience closer to the management personalities being interviewed. The advantage of satellite broadcast is that what are in effect television

programmes can be broadcast, with the necessary immediacy. To obtain the maximum benefit, a television studio is necessary, and professional support becomes essential. A good time to introduce satellite broadcasting to internal communications comes when the video equipment needs to be replaced, spending the money on satellite dishes instead. Conferences Annual or half yearly conferences for employees are often limited either to the sales forces or to managers alone. Many organization see merit in ensuring that a conference is held away from the organizations own locations. The venue and form of the conference to meet the communications needs of the organization. The venue can be used to communicate a message in itself, since taking the sales team to a resort abroad can be interpreted as a sign of appreciation for an outstanding performance. Specialist assistance with meetings & conferences is readily available, and this is especially important for those organizations who place great emphasis on special effects. Infrequent conferences : These held annually or half-yearly have the advantage of bringing together a substantial number of people who might seldom meet.

The main advantage of holding a conference is that it is more personal than video, allows the delegates to respond, and if it is necessary to provide some training on a new product, or provide a demonstration, this is so much more readily done at a conference than on video. Disadvantages of conference are that they can take employees away from this normal duties, with a loss of business opportunities as a result. They can be costly in both financial and opportunity terms. Special Employee Programs Public relations personnel often are given the responsibility in many companies for helping out with special programs. These programs accomplish the following : 1.

Attempt to show the employee, as an individual, has a personal responsibility to do his job right.


Such programs explain that the economic well-being of a company is inextricably tied in with his own career.


Recognition and rewards of some type should be given those employees who excel in such programs.


Such programs have tendency to be aimed at factory workers as much at the office workers as at the hourly employees.


The standard methods of communications are used in such

programs. Usually, announcement of their inception is made by the company president in a letter to employees, in the employee newspaper, and on bulletin boards. 6.

Report of the results of the program are feed back to employees.


Normally, these programs attempt to appeal to the employeed natural pride in doing a good job.

Special Problems Almost every company is at one time or another with a major, nonrecurring problem. Such a problem is illustrated by the relocation of the firms headquarters for example, mid-town New York. Relation involves many problems for the average family. Children have to be taken out of school, old friends and neighbours are left behind; new places of worship must be found. Therefore, a PR program to inform employees about all details of the move is usually necessary. Such a program could take the following course : 1.

Announcement of the move


Public interest in the move.


Material should be prepared explaining the financial aspects of the move to the employee.


Booklets, and movies, if possible, should be prepared showing

the advantages of the new community. 5.

Booklets and brochures and the company newspaper can’t be depended on entirely in the informational program. Direct personal contact is necessary.


The new community should be informed about the company.


Timing the move is important. Months are most convenient and changing schools in mid-session is avoided.


After the move, the informational program should be continued during a reasonable transition period.

The most important thing a PR man can do in helping management communicate with employees. Other Methods of communicating with employees Employee publications are almost universally the concern of public relations, many other ways of communicating with employees are, in some companies, the responsibility of the public relations department. Among these some are the following :1.

‘Open houses”- days set aside for employees to bring their familiar in to see where they work.


Tour of factory


Letters sent direct to employees. These letters range in content

from an announcement of a Dewali/Christmas bonus. 4.

Receive copies of the annual report and of brochures prepared for outside use. These booklets describe benefits plans, company history, advancement opportunities, work rules etc.

Many firms have special communications programs for them. These include : 1.

Special bulletins


Announcements about reorganization


Special handbooks

Community Relations : A modern corporation has certain citizenship responsibilities. These are many reasons for this. One is that today’s company, particularly a large one, although private, actually has a public character since it affects so many lines. Good community relation start with good employee relations. A good company wants the towns in which it has plants to have the best in the way of schools, recreational facilities, religious institutions, medical services etc, because it employees will be happier and therefore the company should be able to hire better people and keep them. Obviously, employees relations are very closely interwoven with community relations. Some of the elements

and techniques of good community relations are discussed below. 1.

Controlling Pollution : Pollution is not necessarily the price of industrialization. Responsible companies all over the nation are taking many forward steps toward controlling pollution. Company held a seminar for local, state and federal health service officials to demonstrate what could be done to control pollution. These officials were given a through briefing on the facility and shown that the waste products treated by it were discharged into a river in a harmless and non obnoxious condition.


Land Reclamation : Related to pollution control is land reclamation.


Public Officials : Favourable relationship should be maintained with all public officials in cities where plants are located


Education Cooperation : A company can help education as much as or as little as it desires, in numerous ways or few. For the small firm, there are organizations comprised of groups of businesses which can combine their resources to aid education. Some of the many ways in which business firms are helping education

follow : 1.

Grants to colleges and universities.




Special Awards


Special Exhibits


Plant visits


Summer employment


Employee Participation programme


Preparation of Special Materials.


Speakers Bureau

10. Field Trips 11. Speaking out on education 12. Contribution of Material 5.

Public Affairs : More and more companies are assuming the

responsibility for stimulating interest in political and other civic affairs among their employees. The employees are encouraged to become informed on the working and philosophies of local and national governments and of political parties. They are also encouraged to take active roles in polities, not merely to register and vote to actually ring doorbells for the party of their choice or even to seek elective office. Various communications techniques can be utilized in efforts to stimulate employees to greater participation in public affairs. Employee newspapers, bulletin boards, letters to the home can

be used to communicate strictly nonpartisan information along the following lines. a)

Dates of registration for the communities in which employees live can be published in the company newspaper.


Some firms publish background information and even analytical material on vital issues before the public.


Background information about candidates can be given. It should always be nonpartisan, objectives, and fair to all candidates.


Candidates can be invited to write statements concerning their platforms and objectives for the employee newspaper.


Although employee publications should not attempt to complete with the general media in political coverage, there are certain circumstances in which information about such events as political conventions can be of value to employees when published in the company newspaper or magazine.


Information about government operations – local, regional or national – can be given in company publications.


News stories about employee participation in civic affairs should be published in the company newspaper.


When an employee achieves recognition outside the company for

outstanding civic activity, he probably will welcome a letter from the company president complimenting him for his achievement. i)

Some firms give “Good Citizenship” certificates to employees who participate in civic affairs.


Contributions : All business firms are constantly besieged with requests for contributions for various charitable causes. It is the policy of the company to assume a fair share of support of

charitable activities in communities where plants and offices are located. Such aid includes contributions, both monetary and non-monetary, to charitable organizations operating in the fields of health, welfare, and social betterment, which serve the entire community. Obtaining Favourable Publicity / Media Relations An obviously important aspect of any good corporate PR program is a continuing effort to obtain favourable publicity this is accomplished by bringing to the attention of the media, in any one of a number of ways, the company activities which comprise legitimate news or feature stories of interest to the general public or a part of the public. Some PR people consider many methods of public communication to be medial. Some of the subjects which usually constitute legitimate publicity material

are : 1.

new Products


promotions or executive changes


capital improvements such as new plants, new additions, new machines, etc.


statements of opinions, usually given in speeches, by the management personnel.


new processes


milestones, such as the 50th Anniversary for a company.


authoritative statements on how to do something, quoting a company scientist or other expert, etc.


colorful personalities in the company


research results.


civic and philanthropic activities.


features, predicting future wonders.

The PR director who should decide what publicity is good for the company and what is not. Some sample techniques used in efforts to obtain favourable publicity are discussed below. 1.

The General News Release : This is a basic and perhaps the most

widely used, method of obtaining publicity. Far a “straight” or “hard” news release, such as on announcement of a new plant, the essential facts should be in the first sentence, or “lead” of the story Elaboration should follow in order of importance. If possible, such a release should be in the hands of the editor considerably a head of the release time the release time. The release time, incidentally, should be clearly started at the top of the release. The release is aimed at afternoon newspapers, the words “FOR PM RELEASE” are sufficient. Generally speaking, the radio and television stations observe a standard release time of 6 P.M. for a release market “AM RELEASE” Release times can also be set simply by delivering the release at a certain time with the notation “FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE” on it. In all instances, the release should list the following additional information : 1.

the name of the firm or organisation


the address, telephone number


the name of the author or someone.


The Press Kit : Sometimes a firm has something to announce

important enough to warrant a press kit Generally, a press kit contains elaboration of a basic news release. Press kits are often packaged in four-

color folders with an original design or expensive artwork on the cover. The press kit containing newsworthy material is usually just an effective when distributed in a manila envelope. Press kits should contain several photographs of good quality with separate captions attached to each. Idea to include a covering letter on note to the editors briefly describing what the kit contains. Press kits can and often do contain many other things. For example, background history of the firm, extensive written profiles and photographs of its top executives, and photographs of the personnel who would head the new facility. Usually, it is best to keep a press kit as brief as possible. 3.

The News Conference : One of the most abused of all publicity

techniques is the news conference. PR person should be extremely cautions in deciding whether to hold a press conference or not. It is decided that one should be held, then every possible preparation should be made in advance to assure success. Sometimes, when a firm has something important to say, a few phone calls will bring the right media representatives to the company’s offices with very short notice. At other times, planning goes on for months and greatly detailed preparations are made. News conferences should be scheduled at a time convenient to most of the

media. In most cities, midmorning or mid-afternoon is usually good. Every event of the conference must be allocated a certain amount of time, with a little breathing room, and this schedule should be followed as closely as possible. The main reason for holding a news conference should be to show something or say something or say something that could not be shown or said as well in any other way. An opportunity to ask questions is expected by media representative attending a news conference. The firm giving the news conference should therefore be prepared for questions and the PR man directing the operation should set aside time for them. He should also be able to anticipate many of the questions. Usually, it is best for the PR staff to take a very miner role at the conference itself. The PR director may introduce his company’s president or chief scientist-simply because the PR man knows the media representatives and they know him – but it is generally best for the non-PR executive to make the presentation for which the conference is being held. Material given out to the Media at a news conference can include a press kit such as described previously. Details such as the time when the press kit should be distributed often have to be considered carefully in planning a news conference.

The invitation should, of course, state the time, place and date of the news conference. Brief information should be given telling why the news conference is being held. Follow-up telephone calls to editors after invitations are sent is routine procedure in some PR operations. PR man would not make such a call unless he had not heard either way from on editor by the time final reservations had to be made for meals or transportation. In some operations there is also much follow-up activity after the news conference. Small firms can use this same method within their particular sphere of operation. Local media representations certainly will take advantage of an opportunity to meet occasionally with the head of a firm located in the city. If television stations or networks are expected to cover the conference with camera crews, a room large enough to accommodate this equipment must be reserved. Power must be checked to make certain that it is sufficient for the TV lights and cameras. The success of a news conference will depend partly on the arrangements made and the planning that has gone into it. The Feature Article : A feature article usually does not involve an urgent time element. It

may cover a subject in a much broader context than a straight news announcement. Feature articles can be used in many ways in a publicity program. Feature articles may also be direct mailing pieces. The story from this point can describe the successes of several outstanding person scientists employed by the firm. Pertinent biographical information should be included, such as professional hours won, patents, and educational achievements. Also included should be some personal data, such as marital status, number of children, etc. Incidentally, in any publicity stories about employees, the subjects should be asked if they want to participate in the article. 5.

The Inquiry : Most companies, at one time or another, receive

inquiries from representatives of the media. These inquiries cover a wide range. Every inquiry should be taken very seriously. Therefore, one of the most important functions of a PR department is to answer inquires thoughtful and intelligently. Private firms should be as open as possible, they also have certain rights of privacy. Sometimes an inquiry presents a very good opportunity for some highly favourable publicity. 6.

Consumer Products Publicity : Basic publicity techniques can often

be applied to a company’s consumer products with success. The media almost always use material about genuinely new products. 1)

It is always best to publicize a product prior to

advertising it. 2)

Whatever method is used to publicize the product,


adjectives should not be used in the news releases.


Never hold a news conference to introduce a trivial

product. While almost every publication and television and television and radio station make some provision for covering new products, acquiring additional publicity gets more difficult after the initial introduction. Public relations activities for consumer products have, however, been highly successful in programs established for use after the first “go-round.” Well-written, well-researched, straightforward articles about simple products have been published in widely read and highly respected media. 9.13 PR in crisis Negative situation are always concern of PR, and in many case can be greatly alleviated by Public-relations. In this reference, there are three following situations : a)

a disaster


a strike


an antitrust investigation

Every large and small company of private sector ones have faced more than one of these situations. Many large firms are confronted with at least one of them at almost any given time. A Disaster – A firm should give the same close attention to public relations procedures involved in a disaster situation as it does to the safety procedures designed to prevent disaster. Public relations procedures can not save lives of course, or prevent damage to a company, but it can help a company go through a disaster with a minimum of damage of reputations. There are some following steps should be taken by PR that will help company during disaster : a)

Make a irrevocable rule that the moment there is a hint of disaster.


At all times there should be in the files of all local news media a list of names that can be called in the event of an emergency.


A plan for working with the press should be in existence at all time.


Policies should be firmed as to the general type of information that would be given, the press during a disaster.


In setting up procedures and polices which would be implemented

during an emergency a PR person should attempt to explain to his management the basic attitude of the press towards disaster. It is to the company’s advantage to release factual information as rapidly as possible so that the media can publish, broadcast and telecast their facts and have done with it. The strike : Each strike has its own characteristics, poses each different problems and requires different solution. Some strikes are violent others merely involve picketing across the table negotiations. It is inevitable in any strike, however, that feelings and emotions will run high, increasing the danger of making a PR mistake that could seriously damage the company. During the strike it is vitally important that all statement released to the press be coordinated by a central PR source. Anti Trust Investigation The anti trust field is basically concerned with the lawyers of the company. But in some cases, PR people entering the picture only after trouble has begun. The PR personnel works closely with the lawyers and top management in educing every one who called commit an antitrust violation to possible pitfalls such preventive measures can save a company much trouble. The first step in an anti trust prevention programme by PR person is to

create an awareness among all concerned of the difficulties violations can cause a business. These concerned would be almost anyone who deals with the outside world on behalf of the company, including such groups as salesman, purchasing agents, and marketing people. Finally, of course, from the PR view point, incalculable harm can result to a company’s reputation upon conviction. How ever, the public-relation people would do well to become acquainted with them, either directly or through council. The PR men who does this will be in a better position to help his company guard against violation. He also would have a better understanding of the situation in the event that his company is changed with a violation. Business relationship with competitors, customers and suppliers all have anti trust pit falls which must be guarded against.

P.R. in Public – Sector

Introduction Public – Relations has already been defined as “the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its public.” It is clear from the above said statement that the Public – Relations function basically remains the same whether the particular organization for which public – relation is conducted in the public or private sector Actually PR may be carried on even for noncommercial organizations. It is argued that if at all there is a need to be specific one would have to discuss the problems of every sector separately whether it is public or private. There is a great similarities in the nature of the problems containing various public sector enterprises. Public – relation is a projection of favourable image and establishing of communication link with various target group. It is very challenging role in Public-sector. The public – sector in India was set up to promote the economic growth of India. Its provides huge employment to the workers. Public sector unit established for public good, these are not only for commercial lines. Therefore it is playing a vital role for the P.R. personnel in the field of public sector to counter the negative aspect and public –

criticism. It is a profitable and productive care sector has social commitment. Public – Relations contributes to revival of sick unit and it is self – reliant in the key see for Public – relation department can keep the Trade union in touch with the management and maintain harmony. Concept of Public Sector The basic concept of Public sector is to provide proper condition for agricultural, industrial and economic growth and progress. It is started to control the concentration of economy in the hands of few capitalist and to look-after a required development of the economy of country. The objective of the Public-Sector is to achieve strategic alternate for executing the national objective of making a socialism oriented society alongwith advance techniques to improve production. It adopts best organizational model of employer. Other purpose of public-sector is to assure the participation of organizational personnel in the management with self-reliance in difficult field of protection and progress. This sector provides massive opportunity of the employment with the philosophy of “Service the nation and social responsibility. It is also necessary to note that the public-sector has to day already nearly attained the objective set for it by the late Jawaharlal Nehru to gain control of the commanding heights of the economy.

Therefore, number of P.R. personnel employed in the public sector has been increasing fastly in recent years and even though exact figures are not available, rough estimates seem to indicate that there are today more public relations persons in the public-sector. The public-sector undertaking are basically divided into two categories First, Centre Public Sector and second is State Level Enterprise. Both are divided into manufacturing units such mineral and metals. There are four types of public enterprises under the both central and state level categories. These enterprises exists under a system of price control (FERTILIZER CORPORATION OF INDIA), enterprises selling the entire products to central government (HAL & Indian Telephone Industries), enterprises whose products are sold to state government enterprises or to its own branches (BHEL – Bharat Heavy Engineering Ltd.) and enterprises whose products are sold in cross country market (Shipping corporation). Dimensions of the Public – Sector in India The public sector has played a dominant role and emerged as a major factor in the country’s economic growth. Its comprises the public utilities like the railway & road transport services, ports etc. The departmental undertaking of the central and state government i.e. Chittaranjan Locomotive Works & Diesel Locomotive works which derive their finance almost

wholly from the central government in the form of equity capital and loans. Apart from the central government enterprises mentioned above, there are large number of state government enterprises provide huge employment in the state. The ownership of public-sector enterprises vests in the government, whether at the central or at the state level. One of the most important publics of the private sector enterprises – the shareholders – is therefore non-existent as far as the public–sectors is concerned. Public sectors are entirely financed by the government and financial Institutions. It has greater public interest in the performance and results than large private enterprise. They have therefore to function under the gaze of constant public scrutiny. Public sectors develop basic infra-structure for production and investment and work as a catalyst for overall development in the key sector of economy. It developes and ventures in to Hi-tech and Hi-Capital investment area. Public – Relation in Public – Sector For these carrying on public Relations on behalf of the organization there is a need for a much greater alterness and sensitivity to public reactions and a much faster response is required by way of expression of communication. Therefore number of PR personnel employed in the public

sector has been increasing quickly in recent years and even though exact figures are not available, rough estimate seem to indicate that are today more and more public-Relations person in the public-sector. Showing a greater P.R. interest there is much greater coverage of Public sector by the media. Hardly a day passes without the coverage of public-sector enterprise or the other hitting headlines either because of some success scored by it or some weakness or failing revealed. It is very famous saying that a public-Relation personnel in the private sector has often to make a serious effort to get into the news columns of a paper while the PR men in the public sector wakes up almost every morning to find that his organization featured in some. newspaper, TV or Radio the other. Actually the duty of PR includes issuing of press release, arranging press conferences, writing articles, preparing publicity materials, creating advertising, managing events and press visits, maintaining record and filling all news cutting to evaluate the placement of news in various media. The PR men works as a information officer who provides answer of various quarries, slides and films. He/she also be responsible for print publication of the organization such as pamphlets, posters, booklets, Broachers, News Bulletin, House Journal, annual reports etc.

In the public sector enterprises the main source of communication is often the Head quarter or Ministry of Delhi while in private sector enterprise the source of information, regarding the enterprise inmates from the enterprise it self. Public-relation personnel helps to foster good inter-personal relations between different units within the organization. All inter-related departments work with close-coordination to maintain a team feeling and for showing a good devotion. Dedication and discipline in the work culture PR department attempts to ensure interaction from gross root to managerial level and performs the duty of participatory PR in the management. It establishes a communication link between employee and management through various tools of public-relation such as booklets, news Bulletins, direct mail, meeting with the different types of target groups or public of the organization . PR men can also keep the trade union in touch with the management and maintain harmony. Definitely, if a good working relationship exists between the two groups there may be certain advantages in this situation. But where such co-ordination does not exist and communication gaps develop the two groups or between employer and employees, management or workers serious problems can arise.

The size and strategic importance of many of the public-sector lends to problems of internal communication a much greater significance. The duty of PR personal in this area thus is relatively even greater than that of his counter part in the private sector.

The Public Sector is directly run by

the government are subject to government regulation and control. Many important decision on policy matters are taken at the ministerial level. It is also distinguished from the private sector by the nature of its management now. 9.14 Summary PR has developed as a more general and widely used management tool at the service of other department, including, personal, finance and general management of the public and private sector both PR is not an easy job; and it is not for those seeking a comfortable and quit existence, since all aspect of PR require commitment and skill, as well as flexibility . PR is cost effective but it must never be regarded as cheap. PR often means ensuring that an organization’s story is told effectively, but it is not a case of telling lies, or half truth.. The first duty of PR person is to ensure that organisation which employs them, either directly, if they are in house or indirectly if they are working for a consultancy, accepts the need for good PR and good counselling. The various publics with which a company deals- its customers,

potential customers, stockholders, government at all levels, communities in which it operates, suppliers and distributors, opinion forming media of all types alongwith special public which is company’s employees. The most advanced type of PR not only seeks to create goodwill for the organization as it exist, but also helps formulate policies which will of themselves result in favourable reaction. Today, most major business firms have some glamour and interest to a product or policies which is basically good. In many cases the PR executives is expected to know how to maintain a media relation and also to be familiar with labor law and with the laws and regulations of the government. He/She is expected to be knowledgeable and competent about a multitude of other subject ranging from anti-trust laws. In the conclusion we can say that PR is not advertising and sales promotion, although it may support these activities for a maximum success, a PR Programme must be carefully thought out in advance in terms of company philosophy and goals.

9.15 Key words Inception: beginning of something Reclamation: make usable Besieged: lay siege to

Allusive: refer briefly or indirectly

9.16 Self Assessment Questions Q1 Describe the basic concept of Public Sector and Private Sector. Q2 Explain briefly the role of Public Relations in Public Sector. Q3 What are the duties and qualities of PR in Public as well as private sector? Q4 Discuss the Organizational structure of PR Department in Public and Private sector. Q5 Write a brief note on the corporate identity and image building.

9.17 Suggested readings Belch & Belch: Advertising & Promotion; 5th edition; Tata McGraw Hill; 2001 Stan Le Roy Wilson; Mass Media/Mass Culture; McGraw Hill; 1994 J M Kaul; Public Relations in India; 1987 Anne Gregory; Public Relations in Practice; Crest Publishing

House; New Delhi; 2003 Coroline Black; The PR Practioner; Crest Publishing House; New Delhi; 2003 Jaishri N. Jethwaney; Public Relations

Course Code : 01

Author :

Dr. Bandana Pandey

Lesson : 10

Vetter :

Prof. Manoj Dayal

Crisis Communication and Lobbying Structure 10.1 Objectives 10.2 Introduction-Crisis Communication 10.3 Types of Crisis Communication 10.4 When Crisis Strikes 10.5 Lobbying 10.6 What Lobbyists Do? 10.7 Summary 10.8 Key words 10.9 Self Assessment Questions 10.10 Suggested Readings

10.1 OBJECTIVES The motive of this chapter is to understand the concept of Crisis Communication. It also explains the types of crisis communication and how to overcome the situation. Various steps to support the crisis

communication. The lesson also defines lobbying, its ethics and the role of lobbyists.

10.2 Introduction-Crisis Communication Say "crisis" and look at the response. An "untoward happening") an "unexpected event", "when you are driven to the wall") "you are in a soup", "something bad," "When everything blanks out", "Chaotic" these will be some of the spontaneous answers. Let us see the dictionary meaning. The Oxford Dictionary describes crisis as "a turning point, especially of disease, time of danger or suspense in politics, commerce etc." No life - personal, corporate, national or international - can be immune to crisis) yet most of us are taken unawares by a crisis. All crises pose a severe test. In such test, good planning and sound judgment make all the difference. Public relations have a special role in times of crisis. Actual disasters such as fires, explosions, accidents, earthquakes, floods, famines etc. These can be termed as exploding crisis. Controversial or scandalous incidents or immediate crisis. Anticipated crisis due to premeditated decisions like closure of a Plant, discontinuance of a service, retrenchment etc. In other words,

building crisis. Continuing crisis - where an organisation, a product or a service is under long-term attack - especially environmental of safety issues etc. An organisation in its life may face one or all kinds of crisis referred to above. 10.3 Types of crisis communication 1. Exploding crisis 2. Immediate crisis 3. Building crisis 4. Continuing crisis Crisis Communications: Dealing with the Unforeseen Crisis and controversy can strike any organization, regardless of its size or line of business. For management and communications professionals alike, the rule is; anything can happen. No organisation with the remotest chance that its regimen could be upset by surprise happenings should fail to keep at least one eye open for the unexpected. Whether this is accident or disaster, labor difficulties or a strike, political or public attack, or a temporary reverse in financial affairs, public relations professionals must work hand-in-glove with management to

anticipate what can go wrong and to develop efficient means to respond when it does. Crisis communications, or crisis management, is the newest discipline in public relations and perhaps the most challenging because to be effective it draws on a number of public relations capabilities. And while it usually comes into play only after the unforeseen has occurred, crises communication ideally is forethought, a preventive measure for responding swiftly and responsibly when a crisis strikes. It's now part of good business. 1. Exploding crisis 2. Immediate crisis 3. Building crisis 4. Continuing crisis Crisis Communications: Dealing with the Unforeseen Crisis and controversy can strike any organization, regardless of its size or line of business. For management and communications professionals alike, the rule is; anything can happen.

No organisation with the remotest chance that its regimen could be upset by surprise happenings should fail to keep at least one eye open for the unexpected. Whether this is accident or disaster, labor difficulties or a strike,

political or public attack, or a temporary reverse in financial affairs, public relations professionals must work hand-in-glove with management to anticipate what can go wrong and to develop efficient means to respond when it does. Crisis communications, or crisis management, is the newest discipline in public relations and perhaps the most challenging because to be effective it draws on a number of public relations capabilities. And while it usually comes into play only after the unforeseen has occurred, Crisis communication ideally is forethought, a preventive measure for responding swiftly and responsibly when a crisis strikes. It's now part of good business. This is crisis management at its best: preparing in advance, knowing whom to call and which buttons to push, but hoping the plan will never be called into use. Three simple questions can put the crisis communication planning process into context: 1. Before disaster strikes the public relations staff should ask, " What if……? 2. When the crisis occurs, the staff should ask, "What now...?" and proceed with plan. If there isn't one, the organisation should bring in outside crisis experts immediately.

3. In thinking about the aftermath of the problem, the staff should ask, "What next...?" and work to rebuild the confidence of affected constituencies while trying to attract new ones. Steps before developing crisis communication. Developing a crisis communication program has four key ingredients: 1.

Farsighted management. If is the job of an organization's leadership to know the territory, its downside risk factors, and how

to communicate quickly and effectively with the key

internal and 2.

external publics.

Professional communications assistance. In an actual crisis, the flow of information must be flawless. Both management and it communicators will need the right information to achieve this goal. In putting together and organizing the material and in managing communications, public relations professionals playa vital role. In order to develop an adequate crisis communication plan, the company's public relations staff needs ready access to management and the experts who know the problem. Once they know how management evaluates the risks facing the organization, the company's public relations staff can outline mechanisms to keep all constituencies





developments. 3.

Experienced communications counsel. A crisis should not be training ground for the inexperienced. Because both emotions and management pressures run high when a crisis strikes, the objective viewpoint and broader experience of specialized communications counsel can help the company in crisis to quickly marshal its resources and control the damage. These agencies work frequently with companies in trouble and bring added strengths to even the most professional in-house communications staffs, with which they must work closely.


"What if" exercise. These are mental fire drills, but their purpose is not only to rehearse a disaster response. This exercise also will help

management and the communications staff to anticipate

contingencies that could affect the organization and to create rational communications responses. 10.4 When Crisis Strikes Point to remember when a crisis strikes are: 1.

Accept that it is a problem. This is the most difficult step. Assessing the potential consequences requires sensitivity to public opinion and a feel for the future. Management must able to take the

reins quickly and guide the firm through a difficult period, realizing that the company will remain in the public spotlight for some time. Effective communication to and from management should facilitate this crucial step. 2.

Gather the facts. It is vital to let the public know immediately that you are dealing responsibly with a crisis and that you will convey essential information as it comes to light. Yet, in cases of disasters, -controversies, and scandals, the impulse all too often is to try to hide the facts - or worse, to rush out an announcement or disclaimer before all the facts are known. The best procedure is to gather available facts immediately and to open the lines of communication to the public. Never go beyond the known facts until more are at hand. Only when the situation's full magnitude is known can proper conclusions be drawn and conveyed.


Throw all available resources into resolving the problem. To give good direction in crisis, management needs to be award of its resources and know how to use them. Management must know how the communications contingency plan works, the roles of the persons involved, and the capabilities of outside assistance. Senior leaders also should work closely with communications staff

counsel and listen before giving direction. 4.

Maintain an open flow of information once you know the story. Media covering a crisis story often are urgent and insistent, firing barrages of questions and demanding quick answers. The temptation to respond on the basis of personal feelings, theory, or supposition is strong, but it never pays. As more information is gathered, management will be able to evaluate the available data, to share them as appropriate with media and other key audiences, and to give enlightened direction to resolve the problem effectively.


Establish a pattern of disclosure about the issue. As reassurance that the company is acting responsibly and is in command, the media and other key audiences should be kept informed to al developments during the crisis, as well as after it's over.

"What Now...?" Checklist Although crisis communication plans differ, some procedures are common to virtually all of them. Based on its years of experience working with clients in this area, Hill and Knowlton have developed a checklist for help in preparing a basic disaster plan. It answers many "What now


questions and can be used in preparing a generic plan to handle virtually any

kind of emergency. 1.

Alert corporate communications immediately. The company's

communication staff should be informed of the crisis immediately. Corporate communications, the link to management, should have all known details in hand before advising senior level officers. These include: How, when and where did the problem begin? What are the financial, legal, human relations considerations? What's happening now? Have outside agencies been called in for help? Are there injuries or deaths? Are people in the surrounding area safe? Have families of the injured or dead been notified? Who's in charge of keeping the families informed? When will the situation be cleared up? What additional help is necessary? 2.



Establish emergency alert procedure. Division leaders, plant managers, and supervisors should be drilled on reporting crisis emergencies to the corporate communications department. They except on those occasions when they are designated to do so. Establish centralized spokesperson. The switch-board operator and all of the company's employees should know that they are to refer all questions to the corporate communications department for routing to the designated spokesperson, which must have full knowledge and understanding of the material to be communicated. Determine the facts. Corporate communications staff and authorized employees at the crisis site should confer and determine what facts are known, prepare a short statement, and inform the media.


6. 7.




11. 12.


Establish a press corps station. All media arriving at the scene of the emergency should be directed to a safe place at which they can learn the situation and receive periodic progress reports. Provide communications assistance to the media. Typewriters, telephones, and additional staff assistants should be made available to members of the media. Log information released: track questions received. Assign a member of the communications staff to keep track of when each announcement was made, what questions were received, and who asked them. Don't release information prematurely. Names of victims should not be released to the media until the families have been notified by someone from management. Also, don't minimize the effects of an unfortunate incident; your company will not only appear callous but you may also create legal problems. Don't speculate. The cause will become apparent as more facts become known; let the experts (police, fire department, etc.) determine what happened. Speculative statements have a tendency to come back and haunt the company that issued them. Correct false information. The media has sources other than the company itself: the police, the fire department on the scene witnesses. Whenever possible in statements and interviews, address possible misconceptions of the event and provide the facts. Control camera crews. Photographs tell a story in graphic terms. Think ahead, and be on guard for camera crews whose work could misrepresent the story. Keep information flowing. Update the media as often as possible, but only when there's something to say. Release only accurate information and correct previously released information that's known to be erroneous. Ask "what next?" and plan follow-up coverage. As soon after the crisis ends as possible, offer to discuss the incident and what it means to the company and its constituencies: the community, employees, etc. A full scale communications program to keep people informed of post crisis developments should be considered.

"What Next .. ?" Just as there's no telling what crisis or controversy might strike an organization, there's also no way to know how long a problem may persist. Even though the actual incident may be readily contained, lengthy investigations may ensue, and lawsuits may affect the company's finances for years afterward, and reference to the matter on the public record may continue for some time. Because of this, good crisis management also deals

with the aftermath of the crisis, rebuilding the company's image in the public mind. Sometimes







organization with an opportunity to impress both the public and the media with its good planning and efficiency. The company's image rebuilding process begins with the first public announcement about the situation. A Case in Point In 1982 the JWT Group, Inc., a communications holding company, discovered a serious financial irregularity in its television advertising syndication unit. The development would force the company to restate its earnings for four prior years and write off $30 million. The firm's public relations strategy was: Tell the full story clearly and consistently to everyone who should know. Almost immediately, major clients were telephoned by the chief executive officer and told they would receive details, as they became known. While auditors and legal counselors examined the situation, the public relations staff alerted the New York Stock Exchange, assembled and distributed background materials to analysts, the media, and the company's office managers around the world. More than 5,000 shareholders, 1,000 clients and approximately 8,600 employees in 150 offices in 32 countries

were apprised of the situation. Because of the single, forthright strategy, several analysts reaffirmed their "buy" recommendations, since they predicted the stock price would drop on disclosure of the story and a bargain was at hand. Coverage during and following the crisis was fair and accurate because of open communications. Even the initial reaction by the media was positive, praising the thoroughness with which the JWT Group ensured reporters' understanding of the complexities involved. Clients were supportive, understanding that they could face a similar crisis at almost anytime. Banks more than doubled JWT Group's line of credit and, after understandable sag, the company's stock recovered and climbed to a new high Within a matter of mouths. JWT's Professional approach contrasts with the muddled manner in which the National Aeronautics Space Administration reacted to the explosion of the shuttle Challenger in 1986. The chronology of the tragedy tells the story. The spaceship blow up at 11.10 Am More than an hour kater, NASA announced it would hold a press conference at 3.00 PM. It was twice rescheduled, and finally at 4.00 PM spokesman Jesse Moore had little to say other than to confirm what millions. of people had seen on television five

hours earlier.

He could have made his statement -all but the fact that a search showed no signs of survivors- well within the 20 minutes directed in NASA's disaster contingency plan. Because of its delay, NASA demonstrated it had lost control of the crisis. By failing to heed its own contingency plan, the agency did itself a disservice. As the Presidential Commission appointed to investigate the cause of the disaster would later determine, there were indeed communications problems at NASA. The investigation uncovered cost overruns, flaws in the agency's decisions-making process, budget, and personnel problems, NASA's "trial by the media" was grueling. It is likely that negativism towards NASA would have prevailed in any case, regardless of the public affairs office's lack of decisiveness. Frank Johnson, a former director of NASA's public affairs office said, "You need to have clear, crisp procedures which aid in making decisions in the event of crisis. When line management tries to improvise, you have to pull back and say, 'Hey, we have a policy. It's designed to happen this way. These are important words for all crisis management professionals to heedbecause anything can happen.

10.5 Lobbying Lobbying is normally defined as attempting to influence legislation but, for all practical purposes, it also includes attempting to influence the interpretation and administration of laws and regulations. Therefore we shall treat it as aimed at both legislators and executors. The Ethics of Lobbying: Many people thinks that any practice to influence legislation or administration of laws is evil. In their eyes "lobbying" is a nefarious practice. There is a Federal law that requires all lobbyists to register with the US Department of Justice. Some states, too, restrict lobbyists. Yet, there really is nothing wrong in trying to secure favourable laws and regulations or to prevent unfavourable ones. Any other conclusion would require that all legislators and executive department employees are absolutely fair and completely informed about all subjects on which they pass judgment. With all the actual and potential laws we have, it should be obvious that many of these law makers and law enforcers must get help from people who are familiar with the subjects on which action is to be taken. The Nature of Lobbying Lobbying has two functions-informing and persuading. It is the

persuasion that arouses most opposition, It is difficult to decide where informing stops persuasion begins. Cold facts can be highly persuasive. They can be even more effective when presented in a dramatic manner, even though not a word of persuasion is used. Lobbying is done by individuals, business firms, labor unions, government agencies, and associations. Probably most lobbying is done by associations which represent specific segments of business, agriculture or industry. Thus there is lobbying for railroads, motor trucking, airline, insurance, orange growers, brewers, automobile workers, school teachers, liquor dealers, undertakers, and so on ad infinitum. Lobbying can be continuous or done in brief. It there is a one-time, short-term goal, the effort can be brief and the work stopped when the plan succeeds or fails. 10.6 What Lobbyists Do? Lobbyists are often visualized as furtive individuals using all kinds of pressure to get their way. Lavis entertainment and bribery are thought of as the tools they use to attain their objectives. Probably, some of this is done but in the great majority of cases, the lobbyist is an honest and sincere person whose main work is communication. He gives information to governmental agencies and to his principals. A typical lobbyist may do any

or all of the following: 1)

Inform his sponsor or principal about major developments in legislative and executive :departments, such as a new committee Cairman or a new-explanation of regulations.


Report the introduction and development of bills that might affect the sponsor.


Arrange for the appearance of witnesses at legislative or executive hearings and investigations.


File statements with committees or departments.


Communicate with legislators or executive personnel either in person or by phone.


Examine proposed laws or regulations.


Inform the legislators and the public about possible effects of laws or regulations.


Provide facts about his sponsor's policy regarding legislation or regulation.


Assist in formulating his sponsors policy regarding legislation or regulation.


Educate legislators and executive department personnel about the economics of the business or industry he represents.


Inform legislators and executive department people about the way in which his business or industry he represents.


Help legislators draft laws.


Help executive department officials.


Publicize testimony given at hearings on proposed laws and regulations.


Actively support or oppose laws by enlisting the help of the law makers an by planning with them the legislative strategy needed.


Mobilize opposition to harmful laws or regulations.


Persuade legislators to introduce and support laws helpful to his sponsor.


Persuade legislators to oppose laws harmful to his sponsor.


Persuade executive department personnel to personnel to prepare favorable regulations or to revise unfavorable regulations.

10.7 Summary Today corporate and Institutional is going in a complex environment. The political regulatory, economic, social and technological factor shake the way organization work and perform presently. Practical experience demonstrate that barriers exist to understanding, resourcing and managing the impact of change in the future, we are

convinced that the implications of failing to examine the farthest reaches of the light house loom - how issue emerge, mature and resolved. Equally, evidence exists to suggest that organizations can gain influence and commercial advantage through positively shaping the progress trends, conditions and events which spawn issues. The rationale for anticipation, planning and progression to minimize and capitalize on opportunities in the issues arena are explored in this lesson. Effective issue communication is based on two key principles - early identification and organized response to influence the public policy. It is a proactive anticipatory and planned process designed to influence the development of an issue before it evolves to a stage which requires crisis management. Exerting an influence on the development of identified issues before they bring negative consequences means that an organization should actively represents its interest in the public policy process, by broadening the debate and informing those groups of importance. This advocacy participation in the public policy process is central to issues communication. Although, there is never a single generic approach that will help to anticipate identify and plan a response to potential issues identify and plan a response to potential issues in a methodical and innovative way.

10.8 Key words

Speculate: form of opinion by guessing

Heed: pay attention to Spawn: generate Negativism: refusal

10.9 Self-Test Questions


Define the term Crisis Management. Explain the various kinds of Crisis management.


What steps can be taken before developing crisis management? How

can we strike them? Q3.

What do you understand by a concept of Public Issue" ? Describe the types of public-issue.


What are the important steps of public support on public issue? Explain the strategies relating to emerge public-issue?

Q 5. Explain the communication process of public issue Q 6. Define issue communication? What are the sceptices of publicissues? How a PR person can handle a public issue in corporate sector? Q 7. Describe the function, planning and guidelines of public issue communication. Q 8. Describes








communication. Q 9. What are the phases and action plan of the implementation public issue communication? Q I0 Define lobbying and the ethics in lobbying? Q 11 Briefly explain the functions of a lobbyists? 10.10 SUGGESTED READINGS Chase, W. Howard, "Issue Management: Origins of the Future, Jssue Action Publications, Inc. Lessburg, Virginia, USA. 1.

Hainsworth, Brad (1990) "Issue Management: Anoverview Public Relation Review", Vol 16 No. 1.


Mang, M.B. "Issues Management", Public Relations Journal, March 1992.


Michal Register & Judy Larkin, Risk Issues and Crisis

Management in Public-Relations," Kong page ltd., London, 2003. Q2 What steps can be taken before developing crisis management? can we strike them?


Q 3. What do you understand by a concept of Public Issue" ? Describe the types of public-issue. Q 4. What are the important steps of public support on public issue? explain the strategies relating to emerge public-issue? Q 5. Explain the communication process of public issue Q 6. Define issue communication? What are the sceptices of publicissues? How a PR person can handle a public issue in corporate sector? Q 7. Describe the function, planning and guidelines of public issue communication. Q8.









communication. Q9.

What are the phases and action plan of the implementation public issue communication?

Q 10 Define lobbying and the ethics in lobbying? Q 11 Briefly explain the functions of lobbyists?

Course Code : 01

Author :

Dr. Bandana Pandey

Lesson : 11

Vetter :

Prof. Manoj Dayal

Public – Issue Communication Structure 11.1 Objectives 11.2 Introduction: Public Issue Communication 11.3 Organization response on Public Issue 11.4 Types of Public Issue 11.5 Public Issue and communication Process 11.6 Public Issue communication and Public Relations 11.7 Issue ignored is crises insured 11.8 Summary 11.9 Key words 11.10 Self assessment exercise 11.11 Suggested readings

11.1 Objectives The main Objective of this chapter is to understand the concept of

Public Issue Commutation. Types of Public issues and the communication process is also explained here with in. It also defines the public issue communication and the public relations.

11.2 INTRODUCTION:Public Issue Communication Business today seems to suffer from the perception that its leaders are co-placent, greedy and unconcerned about the long term welfare of their companies and employees that have not been shown the door through down sizing. The media is widely believed to sensationalize the news as a means to establish its own agenda. Consumer activity, often considered to be agents for constructive change, are being criticized for exaggerating the danger facing society. Fair comment in mass media is one of the basic and cardinal principles that govern the profession. However the fair comment has always been missinterpreted by practicing media-man and in some cases by the public who feel that media-people make comment on issues that are either less significant or lacks any bearing on public-interest. Sadly, such misconception has most times gives the wrong signal especially when the public feels that some of the comments made by media-man are irresponsible.

Although such a judgment may be based on individual perception regarding an issue reality is that fair comment should always gear towards public-interest and the public must benefit from conment made, which should also serve to educate the public regarding an issue and must be properly clarified to the public to derive from the comment reasonable enlightment particularly for the man in the street. As such, the issue of the public right to know is the profession. This theory was initially propounded by Plato when Athenians, having given their mandate to their representatives to rule are left in the dark, which is say they were deprived of relevant state, information regarding governance. Therefore, Plato propounded theory for authorities to become aware of the fact the masses or electorates or management have the ultimate right to know the activities of their leader or representatives. This is to keep abreast of how they are being governed, whether leaders are working both in the interest of the state or nation or organization the people who elected them to power. These two concept should be seen to be working harmony. As the public has every right to know the activities of the organization or their leaders so the media man and the leaders are required to make for comment regarding interest of the state and the public comments that not

bother on public interest and the state or nation organization are not considered fair. There are many dynamic forces – political, economical, social, technological and regulatory-that are shaping the way organizations work, perform and behave. They are enlarging in the following way :The quality and speed of information globally. The impact of new broadcast and multi-media technologies on Publicopinion. the competition for reaching and influencing consumers. The knowledge, values and behaviour of constituents. The association between product and corporate brand reputation. 11.3 Organization response on Public Issue In today’s complex environment, organizations have to understand and respond to our rapidly shifting values, rising expectative, demands for public consultation and an increasingly intrusive new media. There is a growing expectation, on the part of a broad range of stakeholder group, that organizations should perform and behave in more open, socially caring and responsible way. These principles are even more important in times of intense pressure, for example, where there is a real or perceived risk to public-health, safety or the environment.

Value & Life Style

Ethical Standard

Information Age

Global Environment

The Organization

Attitude towards Business

Public Policy

Special Interest Group Role of Stake Holder Groups

The so called “Public-issues identifies new patterns of political and publicanxieties. It brought about by a combination of : - Continuous social change and uncertainty. - The remorseless pace of industries and technological innovation. - Time and cost pressure that do not permit for adequate scientific evaluation of the risks versis the benefits of new innovation - a trend towards greater individuality and assertive public-opinion. In above mentioned combination these factors are intensifying a host of public issue. Risk is a measure of the adverse effect of an issue. It is about assessing and communicating the possible hazard associated with a particular process relative to the safeguard and benefits which it offers. This helps to consumers, to make choices about our health and safety, and the protection of the environment in which we live.

Dynamics of public issue So, there are a number of dilemmas facing organizations endeavouring to understand and manage dynamics of public issue : - Issue means different things to different people - It is a basic attitude that are hard to change - The source of information about issue is critical - Emotion is the most powerful influences of all. - For organization facing emerging issues, some of the principle guideposts for effective issue communication are. - To understand the dynamics of public emotion and the working practices of special interest groups and the media who may strive to raise and legitimize a stance on an issue for public debate and ultimately public policy formulation. - To familiarize the organization with the cyclical development of an issue; to focus appropriate resources on early identification and monitoring of an information relevant to the emerging issue and organized activity for response. This should include a clearly defined policy and associated communication strategy. - To appreciate that is not realistic to change public – opinion about the size of the issue and so for the organisation or industry –


to communicate in language that relates to and alleviates public anxiety.


to establish and build trust about the commitment to control, reduce and contain it.

11.4 Types of public-issue From a corporate perspective there are some research on issue management carried out at the end of 1995 indicates that corporations were most concerned about in dealing with the types of issues which are following :- Legislative - Environmental - Safely - New technology - Political - Social - Industry Specific - Economic - Legal There are several types of issues characterized in following : 1.











Public attitudes






Values and life-style An issue originates as an idea that has potential impact on some

organization or public and may result in action that brings about increased awareness or reaction on the part of other organization or publics. Advocacy group of Public issue a)



Members and supporters


Boy cott






At its simplest, a campaign may consist of gathering information and passing it on to the media and government.


Often, by using research, a pressure group can win public support

for its cause and the courts can be brought into the equation to challenge corporate performance. Members and supporters can write to companies complaining about actions and policies. c)

More pressure can be exerted by a boycott.


Shareholders can also be tapped for support.


Demonstrations at company annual meeting are now regular events, targeting companies campaign attacking executive pay levels. The volume of work created by these advocacy groups, particularly in

the area of environmental protection, is forcing organizations to focus on introduction of issue management system and new functions to manage them. In recent years, big businesses have shifted their thinking, believing there are commercial as well as social advantages to communicating about the steps they are taking to reduce their impact on precious resources without redressing the imbalance in some way. Many companies now publish environmental policy statements and employ specialists to devise strategies for cleaning up manufacturing processes and developing environmental initiatives in the commonly. Similarly some organizations are implementing marketing and sponsorship programmes designed to promote brand awareness but in an ethically sustainable manner. ‘Advocacy

Advertising’ and ‘Cause Related Marketing’ Campaign are run by companies such as Benetton and many other consumer goods companies and retail Banks. Steps of Public Support on Public issue :There are some important, steps listed below to gain public support on public issue :1.

A key point of conflict is established generally presented in simple terms such as unique, new first.


Once the issue has been identified as urgent and important it requires legitimacy like research, evidence studies and tests.


The issue now has a sharp focus and is backed up with scientific research. It incorporates the essential element of broad-based public-support key words are people say, public-demand, solid support.

Tactics or Strategy Relating to Emerge Public-issue : In formulating a potential strategy relating to an emerging issue, it is possible to anticipate some of the types of tactics that advocacy groups are likely to adopt. These tactics help to mobilize public opinion in such a way that pressure for public policy chance – i.e. greater industry regulation can be brought to bear. These strategies will include:-


Advocating through the media and independent Scientific experts the need for a comprehensive and independently commissioned research programme to established bench mark criteria; the aim is to pressuring organization or government to take action.


It is a development of a model that would encourage activists at grass roots level such as :I-

Regulate every new compound.


Protect against vulnerability of children.


Change specific regulations and laws to take into account the additive and interactive effects.


Assess contaminant levels from any single source within the context of total cumulative exposure rather than on an individual basis.


Manufacturers to provide comprehensive labels for their product so consumers have the information they need to protect their families.


Manufacturers and distributors to accept responsibility for monitoring their product and contamination.

VII- Companies to detail the quantity of damaging material for living things.

VIII- Force government or organization to collaborate cross border to act in the face of a genuine threat to human welfare. So, the industry or organizational “issue action Plan” needs to factor in the methods of working and approaches of special interest group in order to effectively respond to this type of agenda setting. In addition, companies now need to be taking steps to activity consult with the communities of which they are a part. 11.5 Public issue and communication process In today’s political scenario, political leaders and business people are being called upon to embrace genuine public input outside-in thinking depends on an organizations ability to move away from one way information flow towards active dialogue with a wide range of stake-holder groups. It is about building a dialogue into the communication process to minimize conflict and to achieve as much consensus as possible in balancing the scales of protectionism and developmentalism. Simply assuming that being aware of up coming issues There are some following medicine of communication. (a) distributing some literature (b) placing some advertisements and holding a meeting. Public-concern (P.R) over what constitutes sustainable development

will continue to increase. Institution and companies, upon which we depend to provide and protect must run much faster both to resolve potential conflict and achieve consensus about their role and relationship in society

Definition of public-issue As we described in the earlier part of this lesson, organizations are running just stay in place in their chosen markets as rapidly shifting public values, rising expectation expectations, demands for public consultation and an increasingly intrusive new media present greater challenges. The mis match between political and public priorities, is even more pronounced. The actions of politician and political institutions today are inconsistent with changing public attitudes leading to greater frustration, anxiety and lack of trust in the integrity and effectiveness of elected officials. How issues are handled can mean the difference between a crisis out of control and proactive solution-between profit and loss. From own experience, many issues can be anticipated and successfully managed. On the negative side, how ever, many organizations still fail to see there is a problem. What is an issue There are many definitions of an issue offered by business

communicators and intellectuals. According to the Hainsworth and Mens “It is as a consequence of some action taken or proposed to be taken, by one or more parties which may result in private negotiation and adjustment, civil or criminal litigation, or it can become a matter of public-policy through legislative or regulatory action.” Further, Chess and Jones also described it as “an issue as an unsettled matter which is ready for decision” Other expert suggested that an issue can be defined as a point of conflict between an organization and one or more of its audience.” According to above said definition there are following point that must be consider as a element of issue :1. It is consequences of some action 2. It is a matter of public-policy 3. Matter is always unsettled 4. It is a point of conflict. With the analysis of above element experts of this field proposed very simple definition and expressed that “an issue represents a gap between corporate practice and stake holder expectations”. In other words, we can say that it is an emerging issue in a condition or event, either internal or external to the organization that have a significant influence on the

functioning or performance of the organization. or on its interest of future. Public Issues include the potential for new legislation, an opinion or claim advocated through the media or other channels, a competitive development, published research, a change in the performance or behaviour of the organization itself or individuals or groups to whom it is linked. However, managing public issues should not be considered a defensive activity. The creation of new issues or the gathering and management of information and opinion relating to an issue can be harnessed by an organization for significant competitive or social change. Communication of Public-issue What is an issue-communication ? Issue communication. has been around for almost 20 years, but while it has been accepted by some major corporations as a powerful strategic planning tool. In the mid 1970s, an environment hostility towards corporations led business communicators to rethink the role of corporate communication. Now various companies, increasingly subject to criticism, hired Public-Relations firms indroves to defend them in the face of growing public opposition; Budget grew tenfold, running into crores of rupees annually, but this did nothing to stop the decline of the Public-support for corporate enterprise.

Public issue management is an attempt to define the strategies that companies needed to use to counter the efforts of activist groups which are putting pressure on legislators for stricter control of business activity. A new era of corporate communication emerged and an public issue management was first implemented as way in which companies could deal with their critics. A public-affairs council defined “it is a programme which a company used to increase its knowledge of the public policy process and enhance the sophistication and effectiveness of its involvement in that process. Heath and Cousino offer their own explanation of public-issue management as a product of activism and the increasing inter and industry pressures by corporations to define and implement corporate social responsibility (CSR). In 1977, W. Howard Chase coined the term “Issue Management”. Chase drew upon his experience at “American Can Company and the lead of another specialist who introduced the term advocacy advertising to recommend a new kind of corporate communication response to the critics of business activities. The relationship between business and society has become an important strategic factor in reputation and financial field. So, Chase and Barry Jones Expressed “Issue communication as a tool which companies could use to identify, analyse and manage emerging issues

of public and respond to them before they become pubic knowledge”. Public Issue Communication is not crisis communication and the two terms should not be used interchangeably. Actually it is less action oriented and more anticipatory in nature than crisis communication. Issue communication is proactive in that it tries to identify the potential for change and influence decisions relating to that change before it has a negative effect on a corporation while crisis communication tend to be a more reactive discipline dealing with a situation after it become public knowledge and affects of the company. With public –issue communication, organizations should be aiming to eliminate any possibility of outrage, often by trying to anticipate trends, changes and events that may have a bearing on the ability of the corporations to continue to operate or indeed, achieve competitive benefit. Public issue communication involves looking into the future to identify potential trends and events that may influence the way an organization is able to operate but which currently may have little real focus, probably no sense of urgency and an unclear reference in time. Issues management specialist, Tucker and Broom defined that “issue communication is management process whose goal is to help preserve markets reduce risk, create opportunities and manage image (corporate

reputation) an as organisation asses :- for the benefit of the organization. 11.6 Public issue communication and Public-Relations Issue communication derives strength from Public-Relations, and from its various disciplines–Public-affairs, communication and government relations practitioners can move into full participation in management decision-making. PR practitioner understand that they are expected to play increasingly complex and involved role in promoting the bottom line, building harmonious relations with stockholders and protecting corporate interests in ways that must be sensitive to the needs of a variety of external interest. PR practitioners are well placed to help manage issues effectively but often lack the necessary access to strategic planning functions or an appropriate networking environment which encourages informal as well as formal contact and reporting. Functions of Public-Issue Communication The functions required for issue communication are identifying issues and trends, evaluating their impact and setting priorities, establish an image of company position, designing creative action of company and response to help achieve the position and implementing the plans. The key test of this activity are

Planning Monitoring Analyzing & Communicating These depend on the broad function requirement which are described below: 1)

Planning and operations : If issue communicator are doing an

effective duty of capturing the difficult changes in the public-policy environment then that information should be integrated into a strategic business plan and corporate communication strategies. Public issue communication can positively affect corporate performance by enhancing the firm’s responsiveness to environmental change. 2)

Defence and offence Public-issue communication offers the rationale, tools and incentives

for becoming involved in the discussion of public-policy issues as early as possible. If companies feel involved before issues have solidified, they can increase the likelihood of their communication campaigns succeeding. 3)

Social responsibility As we know market forces alone do not shape the fate of corporations

and public policy change plays its role. In addition, public-relations must be sensitive to public policy and issue forces and assist in corporate planning

and in the information of business ethics. Strategic Information System The nature of the market place is likely to influence their strategic business plan. It use issues monitoring to assess the public policy environment the key to making this activity effective is understanding a corporation culture, its organizational and potential structures and the nature of public policy issues analysis. Companies can then determine what issues to monitor and analyse as they refine their public policy and strategic plan.

Planning of public issue communication programme Hainsworth described that issue generally evolve in predictable manner, originating from trends or events and developing through a sequence of identifiable stages that are not dissimilar to the cyclical development of a product. Management identifies six possible groups or public that make issue as following : a) Associates. b) Employee associations c) The general public d) Government e) Media

f) Special or general interest group Their influence on organization may vary from controlling the operations of a company to forming internal and external coalitions to increase the potential influence of an issue. In a model, developed by Halvies Worth and men, described as a cycle made up of four stages are as follows Stage(1)


State (2)

Mediation and amplification

Stage (3)


Stage (4)


Stage 1


An issue arises when an organization or group attaches to a perceived problem or opportunity that is a consequences of a developing political or regulatory economic or social trend. From a communication point of view trends must be identified from which issue at same point may emerge. an issue to gain definition when an organization or group plans to do something that has consequences for another organization or group. In stage 1group or individuals generally begin to establish a certain level of credibility in areas of concern and seek out support from other influencers and opinion leaders who are involved to some degree in that

particular area of interest. The constant scanning of this process and early identification of potential issues is important and should be integral part of the corporate planning process itself Stage : 2 Mediation and Amplification As group emerge and lines become drawn, a process of mediation and amplification may have among other individuals and groups who may have a similar view point and may be expected to react in a similar way. In the beginning, this takes place within the relevant specialist media of interest groups, industries, professions and other comparable opinions values or concern. As momentum builds within the mass media, the issue becomes amplified into a public issue that may become part of the public policy process. The emerging issue stage indicates the gradual increase in the level of pressure on the organisation to accept the issue. A dominant factor in the development of the issue in this phase is media coverage. It involves usually try to attract media attention as a means of progressing the issue. Media Coverage will eventually become regular and it is a critical factor to be considered in the advancement of the issue. Stage 3- Organization Mediation brings varying degrees of organizations and public or

groups should be viewed as dynamic. They are often groups of individuals with varying degrees of commitment who face a similar problem exists and unite in some way to do something about the problem. These groups are not static and their level of organization, funding and media literacy can vary enormously. As these groups work out their viewpoint and objectives and seek to communicate their respective positions. Conflicts achieves a level of public visibility that is likely to push the issue in to the public-policy process. In this third phase, the issue has matured and is displaying its full potential upon those involved. Stage 4


Once issues receive the attention of public-officials and enter the policy process, either through changes to legislation or regulation efforts to resolve the conflict become protected and costly, once, an issues has run the full course of its life cycle, it will reach a high of pressure that forces an organization to accept it unconditionally. 11.7 Issue Ignored Is Crisis Insured The folioing guidelines must be considered in the public issue communication 1- Manage the response

2- Understand the public-view 3- Make the case clear and simple , 4- Work with media 5- Single and consistent communication 6- Remember – issues transcend border and politics. 1- Managing the response to an emerging issue as it gains momentum through roles and responsibilities and the committed time and focused attention of sincere management without this focus at the absolute top of the organization, reputation and performance are quickly threatened. Senior management must have appropriate systems and resources in place to the able to focus-full time if necessary on the management of the public issue communication. 2- The increasing demands of public scrutiny place new pressure or organizations to be alert, aware and ready to shape or respond to potential public-debate. It is often about harnessing and managing emotion. The speed and amplification techniques of a modern, global media and the growth and sophistication of a single-issue campaign groups make them extremely capable in reaching and relating to public emotion. These factors create a new imperative for institutions and corporation to monitor and assess public perception and

behaviour on any matter that could affect, either directly or indirectly operational performance. 3- The avoidance of complex language and statistics is essential. Instead, the use of analogies to emphasize the low degree of potential risk to the environment, coupled with basic facts, message points and illustrations are effective mechanism for making a clear and compelling case. This type of approach is not about talking down to people but it is about focusing on a few key points, and constantly and consistently communicating those points to secure understanding and, ultimately support from the majority of those either interested or directly involved. 4- Anticipate and Asses the issue – The whole point of an early warming system is to monitor, anticipate and assess the likely origin and evaluation of potential issues. This involves gathering information on the agendas and activities of all relevant audiences, however peripheral in the beginning. So, clear message points repeated over time help the make sense of complex issues for most of us. 5- Today, the powerful visual icons offered by a very media-aware single issue pressure group. This needs to be coupled with a clear

understanding of the working practices and demands of the media. There is also a tendency by the media to call for and critically scrutinize a company’s arguments and supporting data to a much greater degree then that of a pressure group. The need for regular availability of not more than two or three designated spokespeople for communication with the media is essential. 6- Faced with managing an issue, a company must never look divided. The company and their all personnel should speak with one voice. It is imperative that policy gridlines are introduced and adhered to in such a way that there is always a single, consistently communicated position on an issue, with authorized spokespeople assigned to represent the position. 7- Transmission of information and opinion through a host of newly available electronic media can not be geographically constrained. Any international organization should be turned in to policy making in all the market in which it operates. Appropriate early warning systems and internal information networks, which can operate across borders, are essential ingredients to the effective strategic planning and function of public issue communication within the organization. Tips of the success of public issue communication

Spot the issue early while the policy situation is still fluid. Ensure that the issue is actually worth managing Develop a strong case based on research and supported by influential in dependent endorsers. Where possible, take the company case forward with companies, as a consortium, or with other stakeholders as a coalition of interest. Ensure that company has access to the right expertise where a company or Public Relation Officers want it and excellent campaign coordination and administration. Remember, this immortal words, the world is run by the people who show up. Implementation of Public Issue Communication Programme : The four major stages of the implementation of public issues communication programme are as follows 1.

The awareness phase This phase emphasis on the communication

team is on listening and learning. These involved need to be alert, open, inquisitive and challenging. It should be made of backgrounds information, research and ensuring monitoring infrastructures are in place. 2.

The Exploration Phase This phase indicates an increased urgency

over the importance of the public-issue when specific responsibilities need to be assigned organizational awareness is raised and the analysis and opinion formation process begins. In this regard, there is a need of the following types of task force :a)








implementation. b)

appropriate access to information for decision making purpose.


easy access for arranging meetings and networking of information.



ability to combine analytical and creative skills.


avoid slow response and leakage of sensitive information

Decision Making Phase It is a phase to consider an action by the

company. The communication team must objectively assess and management team must decide upon the alternatives presented while still encouraging broad thinking and creativity in the formulation of action plan. 4.

Implementation Phase It involves taking an essential steps to make

management decision work in practice while fine tuning allows for the measurement and evaluation of current action and result or enhancement to the action plan can be made.

Kerry Tucker and Bill Trumpfhelles (1993) have established a five step plan to help establish public issue management system which are following :1.

Anticipate issue and establish priorities : It is a basic set of assumptions through to a highly elaborate issues

anticipation system. The following points must be analyzed. Immediate a mid term competitor and social or regulatory factors. Changes in the market place and wider political and social environment annually. Factors to effect the way of working. Special events and its impact. When the above mentioned issues are identified than priorities can be set and decision can be taken. 2.

Analyze issue Develop a formal brief of the issue, and estimating at the opportunities

and threats against a series of different scenarios. This should cover what could happen if the issue is ignored and assessment of how key audiences are likely to be affected by the issue. 3.

Recommend an organizational position on the issue To recommend an organizational position on the issue the public

relation officer or management must clarify that who is affected and how

they perceive the issue. This also explains that what are their position and what information can gather to support the issue. 4.

Identify groups and opinion leaders who can advance your position In the above said point the following point should emerge :a)

who is the decision maker of issues ?


who is likely to support the position of company ?


who is likely not to ?


who can target successfully in advancing the position of company? Opinion leaders closely followed by influential industry or employee

associations and other interest groups and informed media can be powerful allies in dealing with a range of audience, and criteria for selecting then include :-



target groups for advice on the issue?


who will the community and the wider public trust on the issue?


who has the credibility to best advance our position the issue?


who is likely to be open to the company position on the issue?

Identify desired behaviours Advancing specific behaviour relating to the company’s position

drives development of the rest of the planning processing namely communication and marketing strategy, goals, messages, techniques, resource allocation and budgets. The following type of activity must be considered to gain the initiative and protect against adverse development :Task force set-up Identify the experience task force to define and manage public issue communication strategy Maintain a flexible creative approach Think positively and make defensive strategy from the outset and lose the opportunity to secure or regain the advantage of opinion leader, media and public support. Intelligence Gathering and Analysis It establishes an early warning intelligence gathering network to monitor, collect and review relevant research along with relevant peer review and publication for assessment and action where appropriate, track trade and broader mass media. Background briefing materials Prepare background information relevant to desired positioning such as key messages, corporate or product or service backgrounders, reference

contacts and core presentation kits etc. Research database In industry sector where there is the potential for risk to public health, safety or the environment, it is essential to build and maintain technical and scientific database of information. Relationship building Build equity early through developing and managing influential relationship with supportive academics and opinion leader, journalist, regularities authorities, industry, employee associate, policy units, political groups and special interest groups. These groups communicate formally and informally together so it is important to understand the linkages between them and the potential for common agendas on public issues relating to an organizations positioning. Relationship with potentially supportive opinion leader may become influential independent, endorsers of the company is desired positioning. Information programme It builds support at grass root level through the organization of community meeting correspondence, road shows and provision of training to motivate more effective understanding and interest. Regulatory affairs

Company should be prepared to proactively respond to potential regulatory question relating to the organisational product or services. It must be prepare responses and develop relevant information updates and organize a meeting programmes to build relationship and neatralize potential critical reporting. Media Management In the public issue communication public-relation officer should work with the media by establishing, contact while ensuring spokespeople are available. who should authorized to issue press statement, letters to specialist publications, bylined articles, media briefings and to organize work shop. The department of public relations can monitors editorial coverage and individual journalist or publications for interest. Therefore, the famous saying, “act local but think global” should be consider as a central theme of the public issue communication. The company should be aware that as the impact of an issue declares in one market, it can easily cross national borders and quickly activate in other countries where local political or competitor agendas may trigger new threats. 11.8 Summary Today corporate and Institutional is going in a complex environment. The political regulatory, economic, social and technological factor shake the

way organization work and perform presently. Practical experience demonstrate that barriers exist to understanding, resourcing and managing the impact of change in the future, we are convinced that the implications of failing to examine the farthest reaches of the light house loom – how issue emerge, mature and resolved. Equally, evidence exist to suggest that organizations can gain influence and commercial advantage through positively shaping the progress trends, conditions and events which spawn issues. The rationale for anticipation, planning and progression to minimize and capitalize on opportunities in the issues arena are explored in this lesson. Effective issue communication is based on two key principles – early identification and organized response to influence the public policy. It is a proactive anticipatory and planned process designed to influence the development of an issue before it evolves to a stage which requires crisis management. Exerting an influence on the development of identified issues before they bring negative consequences means that an organization should actively represents its interest in the public policy process, by broadening the debate and informing those groups of importance. This advocacy participation in the public policy process is central to issues communication. Although, there

is never a single generic approach that will help to anticipate identify and plan a response to potential issues identify and plan a response to potential issues in a methodical and innovative way.

11.9 Key words Perspective: the art of drawing so as to give an effect of solidity a relative position Intrude: come in without being invited Vulnerable: able to be hurt or injured

11.10 Self-Test Question Q1.

What do you understand by a concept of Public Issue”? Describe the types of public-issue.


What are the important steps of public support on public issue? Explain the strategies relating to emerge public-issue?


Explain the communication process of public issue


Define issue communication? What are the skeptics of public-issues?

How a PR person can handle a public issue in corporate sector? Q5.

Describe the function, planning and guidelines of public issue communication.










communication. Q7.

What are the phases and action plan of the implementation public issue communication?

11.11 Suggested readings 1.

Chase, W. Howard, “Issue Management : Origins of the Future, Jssue

Action Publications, Inc. Lessburg, Virginia, USA. 2.

Hainsworth, Brad (1990) “Issue Management : Anoverview Public –

Relation Review”, Vol 16 No. 1. 3.

Mang, M.B. “Issues Management”, Public Relations Journal, March

1992. 4.

Michal Register & Judy Larkin, Risk Issues and Crisis Management

in Public-Relations,” Kong page ltd., London, 2003.


Basic Principles of Advertising and Public Relations

PAPER-1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ADVERTISING AND PUBLIC RELATION LESSON 1- Advertising Definition, Classification, Growth & Development LESSON 2- Basic Mod...

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