Basic Principles and Requirements

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IAEA Training in Emergency Preparedness and Response

Principles and Requirements

Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response Lecture

Introduction z

In emergency doses to individuals in population can only be reduced by intervention

z

Broad international accord on principles and objectives of interventions has been achieved

z

Objective of this lecture is to present internationally recognized system of radiation protection for interventions

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Content z z z z z z

Interventions vs. practices Basic responsibilities Intervention principles Threat assessment Threat categories Summary

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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General Requirement “The arrangements for emergency response actions both within and outside facilities, if applicable, or elsewhere under the control of the operator, are dealt with through the regulatory process. The State must ensure that the regulatory body and response organizations have the necessary resources and that they make preparations and arrangements to deal with any consequences of nuclear or radiological emergencies in the public domain, whether the nuclear or radiological emergency occurs within or beyond national boundaries. These preparations must include the actions to be taken both in and after an emergency.” III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Intervention Situations z

Emergency exposure situations requiring protective actions to reduce or avert temporary exposures

z

Prolonged exposure situations requiring remedial actions to reduce or avert prolonged exposure

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Intervention Versus Practice z z

Practices cause or increase the exposure of individuals Interventions reduce the exposure Practice Background

+ΔE 0 Eo Dose level before intervention

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

ΔE= Eo – E1 E1 Dose level after 0 intervention 6

Practices and Interventions Systems for Radiation Protection z z

z

Each practice should be justified The doses adding up in a practice should be kept as low as reasonably achievable The sum of doses in a practice should be kept below specified dose limits

z z

Each protective action should be justified The level of protective actions resulting in dose subtraction should be optimized

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Basic Responsibilities z

Adequate preparations must be established and maintained at local and national and, where agreed between countries, at international level to respond to emergencies

z

Arrangements for emergency response actions both within and outside facilities, if applicable, or elsewhere under control of operator, are dealt with through regulatory process

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Basic Responsibilities (1) z

Regulatory body has to require that emergency plans be prepared for on-site area for any practice or source, that could necessitate emergency intervention

z

Regulatory body must ensure that these plans are integrated with those of other response organizations as appropriate before the commencement of operation

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Basic Responsibilities (2) z

Country must periodically ensure, by means of appropriate organization, that review is conducted in order to identify any practice or event that could necessitate emergency intervention

z

It must also ensure that assessment of radiological threat is conducted for those practices

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Basic Principles of Intervention z

All possible efforts should be made to prevent serious deterministic health effects

z

Intervention should be justified, in sense that introduction of protective action should achieve more good than harm

z

Levels at which intervention is introduced and at which it is later withdrawn should be optimised, so that protective action will produce maximum net benefit

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Factors Entering Optimization z z z

Benefit Avertable individual risk Avertable collective risk Reassurance

z z z z z z z

Harm Individual physical risk Collective physical risk Monetary costs Social disruption Individual disruption Countermeasure anxiety Worker risk

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Projected and Avertable Dose z

Because of different nature of deterministic and stochastic effects, two types of dose quantity are needed to be able to discuss the need for protective action ƒ projected dose ƒ avertable dose

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Dose rate

Projected Dose

Projected dose

Time after start of the accident III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Dose rate

Avertable Dose

Avertable dose t1

t2 Time after start of the accident

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Intervention and Action Levels z

Intervention level is the level of avertable dose at which specific protective action or remedial action is taken in emergency exposure situation or prolonged exposure situation

z

Action level is level of dose rate or activity concentration above which remedial actions or protective actions should be carried out in prolonged or emergency exposure situation

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Principles for Intervention Levels z

Dose quantity to express intervention level is the avertable dose

z

Only pathways and doses that can be influenced by protective action should be taken into account

z

Estimate of avertable doses should be as realistic as possible and for an average member of affected population

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Intervention Levels – Working Premises z

z z z z

National authorities will spend same resources on radiation health risks as on other similar health risks Physical risks from the action are taken into account Disruption to individuals, such as livelihood or to recourses, is considered “good” and “harm” of psychological nature are excluded Political, cultural, and other social factors are excluded (they are considered separately)

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Emergency Workers – Basic Philosophy z

Members of public will receive doses unless some action is taken to prevent it

z

Emergency workers will not receive doses unless decision is made to expose them to source (except during initial course of emergency)

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Emergency Workers (1) z

Exposure to source of radiation should be justified

z

Protection against radiation from source should be optimised

z

Three classes of working conditions are defined

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Classes of Emergency Related Work z

Class 1: Saving life and/or preventing severe consequences

z

Class 2: Short term recovery operations and/or urgent protective actions affecting public

z

Class 3: Longer term recovery operations

z

Work not directly connected to emergency

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Preparedness and Response z

Two sets of requirements ƒ Functional (response) requirements ƒ Infrastructure (preparedness) requirements

z

Infrastructure requirements must be fulfilled to ensure that functional requirements of response can be performed when needed

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Functional Requirements z z z z z z

Establishing emergency management and operations Identifying, notifying and activating Performing mitigatory actions Taking urgent protective actions Providing information and issuing instructions and warnings to the public Protecting emergency workers

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Functional Requirements (1) z z z z

z z

Assessing the initial phase Managing the medical response Keeping the public informed Taking agricultural countermeasures, countermeasures against ingestion and longerterm protective actions Mitigating the non-radiological consequences of the emergency and the response Conducting recovery operations

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Infrastructure Requirements Quality assurance and programme maintenance Organisation

Training, drills and exercises

Response objectives

Authority

Logistacal support and facilities

Co-ordination Plans and procedures

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Assessment of Threats z

Nature and extent of emergency arrangements have to be commensurate with potential magnitude and nature of hazard associated with facility or activity

z

Threat assessment must be periodically reviewed to take into account changes in to threats within and outside country and experience and lessons from previous events involving relevant practices and sources

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Assessment of Threats (1) z

Threat assessment has to identify installations, sources, practices, on-site areas, off-site areas or locations for which nuclear or radiological emergencies could warrant: ƒ precautionary urgent protective actions to prevent severe deterministic health effects ƒ urgent protective actions to reduce stochastic effects ƒ agricultural and ingestion countermeasures and long term protective measures ƒ protection for workers undertaking an intervention

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Threat Categories Threat Category

Radiological Threat

I

Severe deterministic health effects off-site

II

Warranting urgent protective actions off-site, deterministic health effects on-site

III

No urgent protective actions off-site are warranted, severe deterministic health effects on-site

IV

Minimum level of threat – all countries

V

Food contamination due to transboundary contamination necessitating food restrictions

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Threat Category I z

Nuclear installations for which events that could give rise to severe deterministic health effects off-site are postulated or have occurred in similar installations, including very low probability events

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Threat Category II

z

Installations for which events that can give rise to off-site doses warranting urgent protective actions consistent with international standards are postulated or have occurred in similar installations ƒ This category (as opposed to category I threats) has no credible events postulated that could give rise to off-site doses resulting in severe deterministic health effects

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Threat Category III

z

Installations for which events that could give rise to doses on-site resulting in severe deterministic health effects are postulated or have occurred within similar installations ƒ This category (as opposed to category II threats) has no credible events postulated for which urgent off-site protective actions are warranted

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Threat Category IV z

Minimum level of threat assumed for all countries and jurisdictions

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Threat Category V z

Areas that have a significant probability of being contaminated to levels necessitating food restrictions consistent with international standards as a result of events at installations in threat categories I or II, including installations in other countries

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Summary z

z

z

System for radiation protection for practices is completely separated from the system for interventions Adequate preparations must be established and maintained at local and national and, where agreed between countries, at international level to respond to emergencies Nature and extent of emergency arrangements have to be commensurate with potential magnitude and nature of hazard associated with facility or activity

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Where to Get More Information z

Other lectures

z

References listed on cover page

III1_2 Basic Principles and Requirements for Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Basic Principles and Requirements

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