Attitude, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavior, Entrepreneurship

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European Research Studies Journal Volume XX, Issue 2A, 2017 pp. 475-495

Attitude, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavior, Entrepreneurship Education and Self-efficacy toward Entrepreneurial Intention University Student in Indonesia Christina Whidya Utami1

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of these factors in the theory of planned behavior; which includes attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioral Control, the entrepreneurial intentions of students in East Java. The population used in this study was students at the University 2012-2015 school year. Sampling techniques proportional stratified sampling with a total sample of 1,237 respondents. The data collection used questionnaires methods, while the multiple linear regression analysis was used as an analytical technique. Research results show that Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control, Entrepreneurship and Self-efficacy education affects Entrepreneurial intentions. Therefore, universities in Indonesia are expected to become a driving force in improving the attitude, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioral Control, entrepreneurship education and student self-efficacy to improve the entrepreneurial intentions.

Keywords: Attitude, Subjective Norms, Perceived Control entrepreneurship Education, Self Efficacy, Entrepreneurial Intention.

1

Lecturer Management Department at Ciputra University Surabaya, Indonesia [email protected]

Behavior,

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Background The weakening of the Indonesian economy resulted in increased levels of unemployment in Indonesia. This happens because the numbers of jobs available are insufficient number of candidates, so that the number of unemployed increased. Acoording to Central Statistics Agency of 2015 (bps.go.id), the number of unemployed in August 2015 reach 7.6 million people, with TPT (Unemployment rate) increased from 5.81 percent in February 2015 to 6.18 percent in August 2015. Form that number, there were 6.40 percent and 7.54 percent are undergraduate diploma. The condition becomes worse in 2016, when Indonesia entered the global competition, AEC (ASEAN Economic Community) Indonesia’s bachelors are expected competitiveness confront to foreign scholars who look for job. Therefore, the university graduates should be oriented to creat job, rather than being job seekers. Indonesian has mindset of being a company employee than to open their own business. Widawati (2012) states that, "Indirectly, formal and non formal education in Indonesia is still not oriented towards entrepreneurship". Learners considered successful by the community when they can be private or public servants who have a regular income and continuity. Therefore, one of the solutions to reduce unemployment is to cultivate the entrepreneurial spirit of the people, especially college students tinggi. Rasli et al. (2013), the intention of entrepreneurship is a mind that encourages individuals to create businesses. The country's economy can grow well when the numbers of entrepreneurs have at least 2 percent of the total population. Based on McClelland, an expert in entrepreneurship revealed a new country will prosper if at least 2% of the population become entrepreneurs (Ciputra, 2011: 14). The number of entrepreneurs in Indonesia is still lagging behind, especially toward Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Data from Marketing Research Indonesia (MRI) showed, "The numbers of Indonesian entrepreneurs is 1.65% of the total 253.61 million populations, while Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand the number of entrepreneurial are 5%, 7% and 3% of the total population of country". (Mri-research-ind.com, 2015). It is also supported by Sasangko (Republika.co.id): "Minister of Cooperatives and SMEs Anak Agung Gede Ngurah Puspayoga said that the number of entrepreneurs in Indonesia is only about 1.65 percent of the population today.”We are far less than in neighboring countries. For example, Singapore by seven per cent, five per cent of Malaysia, and Thailand four percent," said Puspayoga show "Independent Young Entrepreneur Award", on Thursday (12/3)”. One of the increasing drivers of the entrepreneur’s number in a country is in the university's role in instilling the spirit of entrepreneurship to the expected students. Entrepreneurship education is not just a theoretical education, but includes practical

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education, so that university graduates have the provision and encouragement to plunge into the entrepreneurial world. Education factor is not enough to encourage students in entrepreneurship intentions, but is driven also by how the students behavior in handle it. In the boost Indonesia's economic growth through entrepreneurship, the community is expected to have a tough attitude and outlook on all the opportunities and risks that will be faced. Theory of Planned Behavior by Ajzen year 1988 explained that there are three driving factors that shape the behavior of an individual's intentions, the attitude, subjective norm and behavioral control. According Cruzet al. (2015), the attitude is a tendency to react effectively in response to the risks that lie ahead in a business. Behavior a readiness to react to certain objects in the environment as an appreciation of the object (Efendi, F. and Makhfudli, 2009: 103) .The individual reaction attitude to an object in the environment, in this study of these objects is the entrepreneurship intention. Attitudes indicator towards entrepreneurship intentions can be seen from the interest of the individual with a business opportunity, a positive view of the failure of the business, and business interests at risk. Subjective norms are the views considered important by individuals who advise the individual to perform or not perform certain behaviors and motivation accompanied by a willingness to do or not do something that is considered important (Wedayanti, N. P., and Giantari, I., 2016). According to Maulana, H.D., (2009: 58), subjective norms or socially refers to a person's beliefs on how and what to think about people considered important and motivated to follow the thought. Subjective norm is a norm which departed from the inner element or the human conscience (Sumaryono, E., 2012: 111) .In entrepreneurship, individual views derived from the belief and support of family, friends or people that are considered important for such individuals. Ajzen (1988) defines behavioral control or Perceived Behavioral Control as follows: "this factor refresh to the perceived ease or difficulty performing the behavior and it assume to reflect past experience as well as anticipates impediment and obstacles", which means that these factors reflect to the perceptions will be difficult whether or not perform an action and assumed a reflection of past experience and anticipation of obstacles. Behavior control specified in the form of self-efficacy is a condition where people believe that a behavior is easy or difficult to do, Cruzet al. (2015). Behavior control can be seen from individuals’ selection to entrepreneurship rather than work for someone else, belief in ability to self-manage their own business, leadership and human resources. Entrepreneurship education is an important factor to bring entrepreneur. The intention of entrepreneurship can be defined as a desire or determination of individuals to start up a new business to exploit the opportunities and risks of the

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business, through learning entrepreneurship. Activity in initiating entrepreneurship is strongly influenced by the intentions of the individuals themselves. To develop the entrepreneurial intention it is also needed motivation and confidence to self or so-called self efficacy. Albert Bandura is a psychologist who create and introduce the term self efficacy. According to Bandura (1997) self-efficacy is the belief that one of the skills they have to perform certain actions in order to achieve something. Self efficacy can also be interpreted as a form of an individual's belief in his own ability to believe in performing an action. Someone who has a high self efficacy also have high confidence also in doing a self action. Efficacy can drive a person's performance in a variety of fields including entrepreneurship interest (Luthans, 2008: 205). This study refers to an earlier study conducted by Cruz et al. (2015), Leeuw, A.D., et al., (2015) and Ajzen, I. and Sheikh, S. (2013). Research conducted by Cruz et al., (2015) tested the effect of the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in entrepreneurship intentions arouse students of economic faculties Unpaz, Dili, Timor Leste. Leeuw, A.D., et al., (2015) conducted a study "Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Identify Key Beliefs Underlying Pro-Environmental Behavior in High-School Students: Implications for Educational Interventions". Research conducted by Ajzen, I. and Sheikh, S. (2013), entitled "Action Versus Inaction: Anticipated Affect in the Theory of Planned Behavior”. Study previously performed by Wulandari, S (2013), Zulianto et al., ( 2014), Negash, E., and Amentie, C. (2013) and Gerba, DT (2012). While the research conducted by Wulandari, S. (2013) analyzed the effect of self-efficacy against the interest in entrepreneurship in Class XII in SMK 1 Surabaya. Zulianto et al., (2014) conducted a study on the influence of self-efficacy and entrepreneurial education to the interest in entrepreneurship education students’ trade system economics faculty state university unfortunate 2013. Negash (2013) conducted a study on an investigation of higher education student's entrepreneurial intention in Ethiopian Universities: Technology and business fields in focus. Research from Gerba, D.T. (2012) analyzed the impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of business and engineering students in Ethiopia. Based on the above background, the researchers are interested in knowing whether the attitude, subjective norm and control behavior, entrepreneurship education and self efficacy influence the entrepreneurial intentions of students in Indonesia. Theoretical basis Theory of Planned Behavior Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is the development of the Theory of Reasoned Act (TRA). Theory of Reasoned Actdikembangkan by Martin Fishbein and Icek Azjen in 1967, which explains that one's intention to be formed if the, behavior of two factors: the attitude and subjective norms. Since, Theory of Reasoned Act was

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expanded by Martin Fishbein and Icek Azjen. In 1988, Azjen adds a new factor that is perceived behavior control, and then called the Theory of Planned behavior. Theory of Planned Behavior theory of planned behavior has three factors. The first is the attitude toward the behavior (attitude toward behavior) is positive or negative evaluation of the individual's self-performance on certain behaviors. The second is subjective norm (subjective norms) that the individual perception of a particular behavior, which is influenced by the assessment of significant others (eg, parents, spouses, friends, teachers). The third is a control behavior (perceived control behavior) is the individual's perception about the ease or difficulty to perform certain behaviors. Attitude Attitude is a readiness to react to certain objects in the environment as an appreciation of the object (Efendi, F. and Makhfudli, 2009: 103). Attitude is the reaction of an individual to an object in the environment, in the study of these objects is entrepreneurship. Cruz et al, (2015), Subjective Norm Subjective norm is the view of an individual who influenced one another is important. According Wedayanti, N. P., and Giantari, I., (2016), subjective norms are the views that are considered important by individuals who advise the individual to perform or not perform certain behaviors and motivation accompanied by a willingness to do or not do something that was considered important. Subjective social norms or refers to a person's beliefs on how and what to think about people who are considered important and are motivated to follow that thought (Maulana, H.D., 2009: 58). Subjective norm is a norm which departed from the inner element or the human conscience (Sumaryono, E., 2012: 111). Perceived Behavioral Control Ajzen (1988) defines behavioral control as follows: "this factor refresh to the perceived ease or difficulty performing the behavior and it assume to reflect past experience as well as anticipates impediment and obstacles", which means that these factors reflect the perceptions would be difficult or not perform an action and assumed a reflection of past experience and anticipation of obstacles. Behavior control is specified in the form of self-efficacy is a condition where people believe that a behavior is easy or difficult to do, Cruzet al. (2015). Entrepreneurship Education According to Gerba, D.T. (2012) entrepreneurship education is a conscious effort by individuals to increase knowledge about entrepreneurship. Educational entrepreneurship education is not marketing or sales that educate someone to be a merchant, but has a wider meaning than just being a seller (Nurseto, 2010). Entrepreneurship education is taught how to look at the opportunities and risks facing the business world. According to Kurniawan, R. (2013), entrepreneurship education is a discipline that studies on values, skills, and behavior in the face of

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life's challenges to pursue opportunities with a wide range of risks that may be encountered. Self Efficacy Self efficacy is the belief that one of the skills they have to perform certain actions in order to achieve something (Bandura, 1997). Self-efficacy can also be interpreted as a form of an individual's belief in his own ability to believe in performing an action. Someone who has a high self-efficacy also have high confidence in performing an act anyway. Self-efficacy is needed to encourage employees to believe in their ability to achieve the objectives or expected results (Rahmi, et al., 2014). Ghufron and Risnawita (2010: 77) state that in general self-efficacy is a person's belief about its ability to cope with a wide range of situations that arise in life. Intention Entrepreneurship Intention is the most important factor that an individual is willing to entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial intention is the desire of individuals to take the opportunity and opened his/her own business by creating product or new service. According to Rasli et al. (2013), the intention of entrepreneurship is a mind that encourages individuals to create businesses. Relationship Attitude (Attitude) with the intention of Entrepreneurship Theory of Planned Behavior explains that there are three factors that influence a person's intention to perform a behavior, one of which is an attitude. According to Cruz et al. (2015), the attitude is a tendency to react effectively in response to the risks that would be faced in a business. Relationship of Subjective Norms with the intention of Entrepreneurship Past research has shown results that there is a correlation between subjective norms with the intention of entrepreneurship. Subjective norm is the belief the individual to comply with the direction or suggestion of people around to participate in entrepreneurial activity (Cruz et al., 2015). Relationship of Perceived Behavioral Control with the intention of Entrepreneurship Behavior control is specified in the form of self-efficacy is a condition where people believe that a behavior is easy or difficult to do, Cruz et al. (2015). It is believed that one of the difficult easy a thing to do can be a barrier or challenge to entrepreneurship. Relations with the intention of Entrepreneurship Education Entrepreneurship The result of the research made by Gerba, D.T. (2012), suggests that the business management students who get more entrepreneurial education have entrepreneurial intentions than the engineering students who did not get entrepreneurship education. To hone in entrepreneurship intentions of course, can be reached through the

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educational process. One of the factors driving the growth of entrepreneurship of a country lies in the role of universities through the implementation of entrepreneurship education (Wedayanti, N. P. and Giantari, I. G., 2016). Self Efficacy relationship with the intention of Entrepreneurship Each individual has their own beliefs on things in their life. This mindset affects one's intention to behave, especially in entrepreneurship. According Rahmi, et al., (2014) self efficacy id needed to encourage employees to believe in their ability to achieve the objectives or expected results. It can be concluded that self-efficacy can foster entrepreneurial intentions. Hypothesis Based on the theoretical basis and previous studies, the hypothesis of this study as follows: H1: Attitude positive and significant impact on student entrepreneurship intention Indonesia.H2: Subjective Norms affect positively and significantly related to student entrepreneurship intentions Indonesia. H3: control the behavior of a positive and significant effect on the intention Indonesia.H4 Student entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurship education is a positive and significant impact on student entrepreneurship intention Indonesia.H5: Self-efficacy influence positively and significantly related to student entrepreneurship intentions Indonesia Research methods Population and Sample This study uses a quantitative method to determine the relationship between attitude factor (X1), subjective norm (X2), and control the behavior (X3), X4 entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurship intention X5terhadap self efficacy (Y). The populations used in this study were all students at the University of East Java are registered as a student in the academic year 2012-2015. By using purposive sampling technique then obtained a sample of 1237 with details as follows: students in 2012 as many as 215 students, in 2013 as many as 328 students, in 2014 as many as 298 students and in 2015 as many as 396 students. The entire student has to take entrepreneurship courses and have the experience of making a business plan. The questionnaire has questions about the research that has alternative answers using a Likert scale. Likert scale can be used to measure attitudes, opinions and perceptions of a person about an object or phenomenon (Purwanto, 2012: 228). Choice of answers in a Likert scale is Strongly Disagree (1), Disagree (2), Self Agree (3), Agree (4), and Strongly Agree (5). Validity and Reliability Validity test is used to determine the validity of all of the indicators used as a measurement variable (Lestariningsih, U., et al., 2015) .Test of validity was done by using Pearson Correlation.Apabila significance value <0.05 then the questions on the questionnaire declared invalid.

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Test reliability is a reliability test that aims to find out how far a measuring instrument reliable or trustworthy (Supriyono, K., et al., 2015) .Test of reliability using Cronbach Alpha value (α). If Cronbach Alpha coefficients is > 0.6; and the instrument value is said to be reliable. Data analysis method Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Multiple regressions was conducted to determine the extent to which the independent variables affect the dependent variable (Supriyono, K., et al., 2015) is a free .Variable attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral control and intention entrepreneurship. Thus, multiple linear regression analysis showed the influence attitudes, subjective norms and behavioral control to the entrepreneurial intentions. Multiple linear regression equation is as follows: Y = α + β1X1 + β2X2 + β3X3 +β4X4 + β5X5 + ε Information: Y = Intention entrepreneurship β1 = regression coefficient attitude X1 = Attitude β2 = regression coefficient subjective norm X2 = subjective norm β3 = regression coefficient behavior control X3 = Control Behavior β4 = coefficient entrepreneurship education X4 = Education entrepreneurship β3 = coefficient of self-efficacy X5 = Self Efficacy ε = Residual Hypothesis testing Test Statistic F, F statistical test used to test whether all independent variables have an effect on the dependent variable. If the value of Sig. F count <0.05 means that all independent variables together give effect to dependent variable. Statistics t test, t test statistic used to show the effect of each independent variable in explaining the variation of the dependent variable. If the value of Sig. t <0.05 means that all independent variables individually influence on the dependent variable. Test Classic include assumption of normality, autocorrelation, multicollinearity, heterokedastisitas, and linearity test Analysis and Discussion Characteristics of respondents by gender is female as many as 611 people (49.47 %%) and men sebanyak626 votes (50.53%). While the characteristics of respondents by age is as follows: 17% in 2:11, 18-year 12.63%, 19 tahun29, 47%, 20-year 25.26%, 21 23:16%, 22% and 23 6:32 1:05%. The following Table 2 is a description of the respondents' answers to attitudinal variables.

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Table 2. Description of Answer Respondents in the Variable Attitude Statement

X1.1

X1.2

X1.3

I am always keen to take advantage of new business opportunities My positive outlook on business failure I experienced I'm always willing to risk whatever comes

Total ST TS S= =2 1

CS =3

S= 4

SS =5

X2.2

X2.3

Confidence role of the family can help in starting a business The existence of confidence in the efforts of those who are considered important The support of friends so it can trigger in a business

X3. 2 X3. 3

Having confidence in the ability to manage the business. Leadership of Human Resources may determine someone in business. Starting a business can instigate someone to be creative.

X1. 2

Entrepreneurship education program fosters entrepreneurial desire Entrepreneurship education programs increase knowledge in the field of

0.93

24

35

32

3.98

1

2

27

42

23

3.88

Agr ee

0.84

1

0

30

36

28

3.95

Agr ee

0.84

3.9

Agr ee

0.9

1

4

14

33

43

4.19

Agr ee

0.91

1

1

19

40

34

4.11

Agr ee

0.83

1

2

24

35

33

4.02 4.1

Agr ee Agr ee

0.89 0.9

2

0

24

33

36

4.05

Agr ee

0.90

1

2

17

35

40

4.17

Agr ee

0.87

1

0

11

39

44

4.32

Agr ee

0.76

4.2

Agr ee

0.9

Control Behavior X1. 1

Agr ee

2

Subjective Norms

X3. 1

Stand ard Devia tion

2

Attitude

X2.1

Average Cat Res ego ult ry

0

2

16

47

28

4,09

Agr ee

0,75

0

0

11

46

36

4,27

Agr ee

0,66

The Pattern Analysis of Family Business Succession: A Study on Medium Scale Family Business in Indonesia 484 entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship education programs to grow the awareness of business opportunities Entrepreneurship Education

X1. 3

0

1

18

41

33

4,14

0,76 Agr ee

4,16

0,73 Agr ee

Having the confidence to X2. manage the business 1 Able to lead the human X2. resources 2 Having a firm belief in the X2. success of the business 3 Self Efficacy Y1. 1 Y1. 2

Y1. 3

Choose the path of selfemployment rather than work for others. Choosing a career as an entrepreneur better than the labor force in others. Planning to start a business after acquiring the theory of entrepreneurship courses through the program.

0

2

21

40

30

4,05

0

1

23

48

21

3,96

0

5

23

37

28

3,95 3,99

Agr ee Agr ee Agr ee Agr ee

0,75 0,66 0,76 0,80

2

1

8

30

54

4.40

Agr ee

0.86

1

2

11

27

54

4.38

Agr ee

0.85

1

1

19

24

50

4.27

Agr ee

0.89

Agr 0.9 ee Information: STS = Strongly Disagree, TS = Disagree, CS = Just agree, S = Agree, SS = Strongly Agree Entrepreneurship intention

4.4

Validity and Reliability Validity of this research was done by using Pearson Correlation. If the significance value <0.05 then the questions on the questionnaire declared invalid. Based on these tests can be seen that test the validity of each statement on each variable has a significance value <0.05, then all point statement given to the respondent's attitude variable (X1), subjective norm (X2), behavioral control (X3), entrepreneurship education (X4), Self-efficacy (X5) and entrepreneurial intention (Y) is valid. Test reliability study was conducted USING grades Cronbach Alpha (α) .If Cronbach Alpha coefficients> 0.6, the instrument reliable. It is said such testing can be seen that the reliability test each variable has a value of Cronbach Alpha> 0.6 and values Cronbach alpha if item deleted at any point statement did not exceed the value of Cronbach Alpha for each variable. It can be concluded that the attitude

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variable (X1), subjective norm (X2), behavioral control (X3), entrepreneurship education (X4), self-efficacy (X5) and entrepreneurial intention (Y) is reliable. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Multiple linear regressions were conducted to test the relationship of independent variables on the dependent variable. There are three variables X which is the independent variable and the variable Y is the dependent variable. Variable X1 is an attitude, X2 is subjective norm, X3 is control behavior and Y is the intention of entrepreneurship. The results of multiple linear regression analysis are follows: Tabel 3. Multiple Linear Regression Model (Constant) Attitude (X1) Subjective norm (X2) Behavior Control (X3) Entrepreneurship Education (X4) Self Efficacy (X5)

Unstandardized Coefficients B Std. Error 0.535 0.466 0.313 0.105 0.300 0.101 0.322 0.120 0.405 0.083 0.480 0.074

Based on the results of multiple regression analysis of Table 4.9 obtained by the following equation: Y = 0535 + 0.313X1 + 0.300X2 + 0.322X3 + 0,405X4 + 0,480X5 where: Y = Entrepreneurship Intention X3 = Control behavior X1 = Behavior X4 = Entrepreneurship education X2 = Norma subjective X5 = Self Efficacy Hypothesis testing Testing the hypothesis in this study using F test and T are the results as follows. a. Test F F statistical test used to test whether all independent variables have a significant influence on the dependent variable. If the value of Sig. F count <0.05, means that all independent variables together a significant effect on the dependent variable. If the value of Sig. F count is > 0.05, means that all independent variables together no significant effect on the dependent variable. Table 4Uji F ANOVAa ANOVAa Model Regression 1 Residual

Sum of Squares df Mean Square 23.813 3 7.938 31.724 91 .349

F 22.770

Sig. .000b

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Total 55.537 94 a. Dependent Variable: entrepreneurial intentions b. Predictors: (Constant), behavioral control, subjective norms, attitudes Source: Appendix Based on the hypothesis testing used the F test obtained F-count value of 22.770 with a significant level of 0000. The results of the Sig. F count is <0.05, then the variable attitudes, subjective norms and behavioral control together a significant effect on variable university student entrepreneurship intentions. b. T test T statistical test used to show the effect of each independent variable in explaining the variation of the dependent variable. If the Sig. t <0.05 means that all independent variables individually have a significant impact on the dependent variable. Table 5Uji t Free Variable t Sig. Attitude 2.971 .004 Subjective norms 2.979 .004 Control Behavior 2.682 .009 Entrepreneurship education 4.890 .000 Self Efficacy 6.454 .000 Based on hypothesis testing using t test values obtained Sig. t for the five independent variables <0.05, meaning that the variable attitude, subjective norm and control individual behavior, education, entrepreneurship and self efficacy has significant impact on student entrepreneurship intention variables. c. Correlation Coefficient (R) and the coefficient of determination (R2) Based on Table 7 it can be seen that the correlation coefficient values were obtained for 0655, which means quite a strong relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. The coefficient of determination of 0.429 which means the variable attitudes, subjective norms and behavioral control variables are able to explain the variation in entrepreneurship intentions of students by 42.9%. While the rest (100% -42.9%), ie 57.1% influenced by other factors not discussed in this study. Model Summary b Mode R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of the Durbinl Square Estimate Watson a 1 .655 .429 .410 .590 1.916 a. Predictors: (Constant), Control Behavior , Subjective norms , Attitude b. Dependent Variable: Entrepreneurship Intention Source: Appendix E

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Classic assumption test a. Normality test Normality test is commonly used in Kolmogorov Smirnov normality test. Normality test is used to ensure that the samples were taken from a population with a normal distribution. If significant value ≥ significance level (0.05), mean residual normal distribution. Based on such testing can be seen Kolmogorov Smirnov statistic values obtained at 1.052 Results of Asymp value. Sig. (2-tailed) of 0.219 greater than 0.05, so it can be stated residual normal distribution. b. Test of Autocorrelation Autocorrelation test used to determine whether the linear regression model correlation errors between the current period (t) and previous (t-1). Autocorrelation was tested using the method of Durbin Watson. Referring to the model table summary in Table 4.12, it can be seen the value of Durbin Watson at 1.916. According to Lind, D. A., et al. (2011: 450), with K = 3 at 0.05 and a sample of 95 people, a score of 1,730 DU. If DU 10, meaning there multikolinieritas and variables must be known variables. Based on testing attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral control, entrepreneurship education, self-efficacy has a value of tolerance and VIF (Variance Influence Factor) of less than 10, meaning not happen multikolinieritas. d. Test of heterokedastisitas Heterokedastisitas test aims to test inequality residual variance of each observation. Heterokedastisitas test using test Glejser by regressing between independent variables with residual absolute value. e. Linearity test The linearity test is used to see if there is a linear relationship between an independent variable and the dependent variable. If the value of significant linearity <0.05, there is a linear relationship. Based testing can be seen in the significant value of each variable liniearity less than 0.05 means that there is a significant linear relationship between each of the independent variables (attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral control, education, entrepreneurship and self efficacy) with the dependent variable (intentions entrepreneurship). Discussion a. Influence Attitudes toward entrepreneurship as a Partial Intention

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The results show that the value of the t test with significance level for attitude variables (X1) of 0.004 <0.05 means attitudinal variables individually to give effect to the intention of University Variable. The result of student entrepreneurship research supported by previous research carried out by Cruz et al., (2015 ), which examines the effect of the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in entrepreneurship intentions arouse students of economic faculties Unpaz, Dili, Timor Leste. This study proves that the existence of variables influence attitudes towards entrepreneurship intention variable. b. Subjective Norms influence the intention of Entrepreneurship as a Partial According to Wedayanti, N. P., and Giantari, I., (2016), subjective norms are the views that are considered important by individuals who advise the individual to perform or not perform certain behaviors and motivation accompanied by a willingness to do or not do something that was considered important. Subjective norm factor is one of the factors driving the growth of entrepreneurship intentions of an individual. The results show the value of the t test with significance level of subjective norm variable (X2) amounted to 0.004 <0.05 means that the subjective norm variable individually to give effect to the intention of variable student entrepreneurship. The results of research supported by previous research carried out by Cruz et al., (2015), which examines the effect of the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in entrepreneurship intentions; arouse students of economic faculties Unpaz, Dili, Timor Leste. In this study proves the existence of the subjective norm variable influence on the entrepreneurship intention. Factor of subjective norms has an influence on entrepreneurship intentions of students in Indonesia. The Indicator "Confidence role of the family can help in starting a business" has the average yield and the highest standard deviation. It is given that the majority of students had a family business family business. c. Effect of Control Attitudes toward entrepreneurship as a Partial Intention Azjen (1988) describes the behavior control is the perception would be difficult or not perform an action and assumed a reflection of past experience and the anticipation of growing obstacle intentions. In the barriers to entrepreneurship, the control factor is one of the driving behaviors of an individual to entrepreneurship. The results show the value of the t test with significance level for behavior control variable (X3) of 0.009 <0.05 means that subjective behavior control variables individually to give effect to the intention of variable student entrepreneurship. The results of research supported by previous research carried out by Cruz et al., (2015), which examines the effect of the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in entrepreneurship intentions; arouse students of economic faculties Unpaz, Dili, Timor Leste. In this study proves the control variables influence attitudes towards entrepreneurship intentions. Behavior control factors have an influence on student entrepreneurship intention in Indonesia. The Indicator "Starting a business can instigate someone to be creative" has the highest average results. It is given that Indonesian students gain knowledge

C.W. Utami, D. Bernardus, G. Sintha 489

about

value

proposition

or

increase

innovation

competitiveness.

d. Effect of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurship in Partial intention. According to Gerba, D.T. (2012) entrepreneurship education is a conscious effort by individuals to add knowledge about entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship education is one of the driving factors to foster entrepreneurship intentions. Variable entrepreneurship education gives effect to the intention of variables Indonesian student entrepreneurship can be seen from the test results of test t get significant value for the variable entrepreneurship education significantly below the limit of 0.000 t-tests of 0.05. Entrepreneurship education variable strong enough influence to variable entrepreneurship intentions can be seen from the test results of multiple linear regression analysis with the results of entrepreneurship education variable regression coefficient of 0.405.

d. Influence of Self Efficacy towards entrepreneurship as a Partial intention. According to Bandura (1997) Self-efficacy is the belief that someone have of the ability to perform certain actions in order to achieve something. Self Efficacy is one contributing factor to foster entrepreneurship intentions. Self efficacy variables influence on student entrepreneurship intentions variable Indonesia, can be seen from the test results of test t get significant value for the variable self efficacy significantly below the limit of 0.000 t-test of 0.05. Self efficacy variables influence strong enough to variable entrepreneurship intentions can be seen from the test results of multiple linear regression analysis with the results of self-efficacy variable regression coefficient of 0.480. Therefore, the Indonesian students have confidence in the ability themselves in entrepreneurship.

Managerial implications the following are the managerial implications of variable attitudes, subjective norms and behavioral control toward entrepreneurship intentions University students. Attitude Table 7 Attitude Variable Based Managerial Implications

Variable

Indicator

After Research

Interested in the business opportunities and a positive outlook on business failure

-The need for add insight such as reading books, news, and see businesses in the local or international market in order to seek business opportunities according to their interests.  The development of programs that can improve the competence of facilitators in growing and developing student interest in business opportunities

Like the face

 Conduct market research so that the risk faced by business is a

The Pattern Analysis of Family Business Succession: A Study on Medium Scale Family Business in Indonesia 490

of business risk

calculated risk.  Establishment of an educational program about the market conditions are updated so that students have the benefit of science before plunging into the business. Source: Data processed Subjective Norms Variable Table 8 Managerial Implications Based Subjective Norms Variable Indicator

After Research

Confidence role of the family in starting a business

-The need for discussion and sharing with the family on a regular basis, so that confidence in the support of the family can grow.  Holding of the program in which families can participate directly with students who are running or presenting business. Thus, students can get direct support from family.

 The need for discussion and sharing with those who are considered important, so that confidence in the support of people who are considered important can develop.  e considered important can participate directly with students who are running or presenting business. Thus, students can get support directly from people who are considered important. Confidence  The need for discussion and sharing with friends on a regular support of basis, so that confidence in the support of friends can grow. friends in the  Holding of the program where friends can participate directly business with students who are running or presenting business. Thus, students can get direct support from friends Source: Data processed Support confidence in the efforts of those who are considered important

c. Control Behavior Variable Table 9 Implications Managerial based Control Behavior Variables Indicator

For Students

Confidence in the ability to manage entrepreneurial

 The need for self-motivated to read books, discuss with family and successful entrepreneurs, as well as seeking the experience of a small business advance in order to develop a sense of confidence in the ability to manage the business.  Holding of self-motivation seminars or seminar successful entrepreneurs so that confidence in the ability to manage selfemployment can be increased.  The need for reading books or visiting entrepreneurship seminars on successful entrepreneurs in order to foster interest in entrepreneurship.

Choose the path of selfemployment rather than

C.W. Utami, D. Bernardus, G. Sintha 491

 Holding of seminars entrepreneurs engaged in various business sectors in order to help grow Human  The need for training program or seminar leadership, that resources leadership competency can be increased. Leadership  Holding of leadership training programs to students, so that the leadership competencies can be increased Source: Data processed work for others

d. Entrepreneurship Education Variable Table 10 Managerial implications of Entrepreneurship Education Variable After Research Indicator 1. • Applied entrepreneurship education in theory entrepreneurship and practice are driven by questions Entrepreneurship education program Quotient. fosters the desire of • Can create Capital Bank program to boost students to be entrepreneurship intention of students, so every student entrepreneurship who wanted to open a business may borrow capital from the Capital Bank but must be returned to the agreed maturity. 2. The presence of • Keep looking for opportunities in the surrounding entrepreneurship information to identify what the appropriate business on education to make the environment, through exhibitions, books, internet students aware of and seminars. the business • Provide market trend data annually through opportunities. exhibitions, seminars and Entrepreneurship-News. 3. • Implement company visit and entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship seminars in order to add insight. education to add • Guiding the mentors to educate well. knowledge of • Adding entrepreneurial insight by reading news, books students in the and internet entrepreneur. entrepreneurship. Source: Data processed e. Self Efficacy Variable Tabel 11 Managerial implications of Self Efficacy Variable After Research Indicator 1. Have the  Provide business organizations of entrepreneurs to be confidence to clustered together and exchange each other's thoughts. manage and  Bring an established entrepreneur by opening a seminar having own or talk show, which can be attended by the students. business.  Increase confidence through reading books entrepreneurship. Can also through active in organizing, seminars, socializing with business people who are already used to plunge.

The Pattern Analysis of Family Business Succession: A Study on Medium Scale Family Business in Indonesia 492

2. Ability to  Provide leadership training programs and motivational manage human seminars to increase confidence in the lead. resources  Following the training programs and seminars confidence. leadership motivation to improve their competence and confidence in the lead.  Increase confidence in leading HR leadership books. 3. Have  Guiding the students by giving facilitators who also confidence in her served as an entrepreneur, to motivate / encourage the abilities on the students to conduct its business and achieve success. success of the  Persuade themselves often motivate yourself by sharing business. with entrepreneurs who are already successful and reading history books of successful people to boost selfconfidence. Source: Data processed Conclusion Based on the results of the research and discussion, it can be concluded as follows. 1. Attitude has a positive and significant influence on the intention of entrepreneurship. 2. Subjective Norm has positive and significant influence on the intention of entrepreneurship. 3. Control the behavior has a positive and significant influence on the intention of entrepreneurship. 4. Entrepreneurship education has a positive and significant influence on the intention of entrepreneurship. 5. Self Efficacy has a positive and significant effect on the intention of entrepreneurship.

Advice to Students Advices to entrepreneurs are: - The need for increasing the insight by reading books, news, look at the business in the local or international market and conduct market research so that interest will be able to grow business opportunities. - The need for discussion and sharing with family, friends and people that is important on a regular basis, so that confidence in the support to grow. - The need for self-motivated to read books, discuss with family and successful entrepreneurs, gain experience, and leadership training program in order to develop a sense of confidence in the ability to manage the business - The need for intellectual capital investment is entrepreneurship education and confidence for setting intentions entrepreneurship. - Active in the business organization for entrepreneurs to know the market trend is rampant and exchange their thoughts and ideas.

C.W. Utami, D. Bernardus, G. Sintha 493

-

Frequent leadership training to increase confidence and competence in leading and collaboration.

Advice to College Advices to the College are: - The development of programs that can improve the competence of facilitators in growing and developing student interest in business opportunities. - Holding of the program where family, friends and people that are important to participate directly with students running or presenting business. - Holding of self-motivation seminars or seminar successful businessmen and leadership training programs so that confidence in the ability to manage selfemployment can be increased. - Conducting business organizations for the entrepreneurs as exchange ideas spot

Suggestions for Further Research - For further research, the researchers able to continue researching into the other factors ie of factors injunctive norms, descriptive norms, behavioral beliefs, descriptive beliefs, injunctive beliefs, control beliefs, moral norms, sex, empathic concern and behavior. - Further Researchers should be able to do further research on the internal and external factors that influence entrepreneurial intentions of Indonesian using other methods Research limitations This study has several limitations such as: The independent variables specifically adapted to the conditions of selecting respondents or sample even though actually there are many internal and external factors which refers to the entrepreneurship intention. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ajzen, I.(1988). Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior. Chicago: Dorsey Press Ajzen. I.(1991). The Theory of Planned Behaviour.In: Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Process. Amherst, MA: Elsevier, 50: 179-211 Ajzen, I., dan Sheikh, S. (2013). Action Versus Inaction: Anticipated Affect In The Theory Of Planned Behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.Vol. 43 No. 1, pp. 155162. Bandura, A. (1997). Self Efficacy, the Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman and company. Ciputra, Ir. (2011). Ciputra Quantum Leap 2. Jakarta: Gramedia. Cruz, L.D., Suprapti, S., Yasa, K. (2015). Aplikasi Theory Of Planned Behavior Dalam Membangkitkan Niat Berwirausaha Bagi Mahasiswa Fakultas Ekonomi Unpaz, Dili Timor Leste. E-Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Universitas Udayana. Vol. 4 No. 12, pp. 895-920.

The Pattern Analysis of Family Business Succession: A Study on Medium Scale Family Business in Indonesia 494 Efendi, F., Makhfudli. (2009). Keperawatan Kesehatan Komunitas Teori dan Praktik dalam Keperawatan.Jakarta: Salemba Medika. Gerba. D. T. (2012). Impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of business and engineering students in Ethiopia.African Journal of Economic and Management Studies.Vol. 3 No. 2.pp. 258-277. Ghufron, M.N., dan Risnawita, S. (2009). Teori-Teori Psikologi. Jakarta: Gramedia Kurniawan, R. (2013). Pengaruh Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Teaching Factory 6 Langkah (TF-6M) dan Prestasi Belajar kewirausahaan Terhadap Minat Wirausaha.Jurnal Pendidikan Teknologi Kejuruan.Vol. 10 No. 1.pp. 57-66. Leeuw, A. D., Valois, P., Ajzen, I., dan Schmidt, P. (2015). Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior To Identify Key Beliefs Underlying Pro-Environmental Behavior In HighSchool Students: Implications For Educational Interventions. Journal of Environmental Psychology. Vol. 42. pp. 128-138. Lestariningsih, U., Fathoni, A., dan Warso, M. M. (2015). Analysis Of Effect On The Quality Of Performance Implications Employee Satisfaction At Kantor Kecamatan Banyumanik Semarang.Journal of Management, Vol. 1 No. 1 Lind, D. A., Marchal, W. G., dan Wathen, S. A. (2011).Teknik-Teknik Statistika Dalam Bisnis Dan Ekonomi Menggunakan Kelompok Data Global. Jakarta: Salemba Empat. Luthans, F. (2008). Perilaku Organisasi. Jogjakarta: Andi. Marketing Research Indonesia. Wirausaha Indonesia Tertinggal Jauh. Diakses pada (2016, Februari) dari http://www.mri-research-ind.com/berita-249-wirausaha-indonesiatertinggal-jauh.html Maulana, H.D. (2009). Promosi Kesehatan. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC. Negash, E., dan Amentie, C. (2013). An investigation of higher education student’s entrepreneurial intention in Ethiopian Universities: Technology and business fields in focus. Basic Research Journal of Business Management and Accounts.Vol. 2 No. 2.pp. 30-35. Nurseto, T. (2010). Pendidikan Berbasis Entrepreneur. Jurnal Pendidikan Akuntansi Indonesia.Vol. 8 No. 2. Purwanto. (2012). Metodologi Penelitian Kuantitatif Untuk Psikologi dan Pendidikan.Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Rahmi, E. R., Yusuf, M., dan Priyatama, A. N. (2014).Hubungan antara Motivasi Intrinsik dan Self-Efficacy dengan Keterlibatan Kerja pada Karyawan Bagian Konveksi PT Dan Liris Sukoharjo.Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi Candrajiwa. Vol. 2No. 5 Rasli, A. M., Khan, S.U., Malekifar, S. dan Jabeen, S. (2013). Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention Among Graduate Students of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.International Journal of Business and Social Science.Vol. 4 No. 2.pp. 182188 Santoso, S. (2006).Seri Solusi Bisnis Berbasis TI Menggunakan SPSS dan Excel untuk Mengukur Sikap dan Kepuasan Konsumen.Jakarta: PT.Elex Media Komputindo Sumaryono. (2012). Etika Profesi Hukum.Yogyakarta: Kanisius. Supriyono, K., Hasiolan, L. B. dan Warso, M.M. (2015). Pengaruh Produk, Harga Dan Promosi Terhadap Keputusan Konsumen Dalam Membeli Rumah Pada Perumahan Bukit Semarang Baru (BSB) City Di Semarang. Journal of Management. Vol. 1 No. 1 Widawati, A.S. (2012). Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Niat Mahasiswa Untuk Berwirausaha: Aplikasi Theory Of Planned Behavior. Sinergi, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp. 92100.

C.W. Utami, D. Bernardus, G. Sintha 495 Wedayanti, N. P., dan Giantari, I. (2016). Peran Pendidikan Kewirausahaan Dalam Memediasi Pengaruh Norma Subyektif Terhadap Niat Berwirausaha.E-Jurnal Manajemen Universitas Udayana. Vol. 5 No. 1.pp. 533-560. Wulandari, S., dan Unesa, K. K. S. (2013).Pengaruh Efikasi Diri Terhadap Minat Berwirausaha Pada Siswa Kelas XII di SMK Negeri 1 Surabaya.Jurnal Pendidikan Tata Niaga (JPTN).Vol. 1 No. 1. Zulianto, M., Santoso, S., dan Sawiji, H. (2014). Pengaruh efikasi diri dan pendidikan kewirausahaan terhadap minat berwirausaha mahasiswa pendidikan tata niaga fakultas ekonomi universitas negeri malang tahun 2013. Jurnal Pendidikan Insan Mandiri. Vol. 1 No. 1.

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Attitude, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavior, Entrepreneurship

European Research Studies Journal Volume XX, Issue 2A, 2017 pp. 475-495 Attitude, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavior, Entrepreneurship Education an...

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