Addressing the Land Claims of Indigenous - publicdisputes - MIT

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Addressing the Land Claims of Indigenous Peoples Lawrence E. Susskind Isabelle Anguelovski

Addressing the Land Claims of Indigenous Peoples

Lawrence E. Susskind Isabelle Anguelovski

Library of Congress Control Number 2008926096 © 2008 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Program on Human Rights and Justice

Cover photo courtesy of Shizuka Hashimoto Community members resist the flooding of an Adivasi village by a dam project in India.

Contents Abstract

1

About the Authors

1

Introduction: What is indigeneity?

3

1. Indigeneity and the land: The vital link

12

2. Defining borders between indigenous peoples and dominant cultures

18

3. Sustaining traditional ways of life

22

4. Using national and international strategies

27

5. State reactions to indigenous peoples’ land claims

34

6. Doing the ground work: Preconditions for successful claims

47

7. First Peoples’ land claims: An uncertain future

52

The Case Studies

58

The Quichwa people of Sarayaku (Ecuador) Isabelle Anguelovski

58

The Mapuche (Chile) Alexis Schulman

62

The Amerindians (Guyana) Summer Austin and Jonathan Kaufman

67

The Pima: A Gila River Indian community (Arizona, United States) Steven Lewis and Maria Reyes

70

The Passamaquoddy and Penobscot (Maine, United States) J. Eric Kent

73

The Native Hawaiians (United States) Katherine Wallace

78

The Nisga’a (Canada) Andrea Glen

83

The Tatars of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukraine) Artur Demchuk

87

The Bedouins (Israel and Jordan) Thalia Berman-Kishony

91

The Tsou (Taiwan) Shunling Chen

93

The Adivasi (India) Shizuka Hashimoto

98

The Richtersveld Community (South Africa) Jessica Tucker-Mohl

102

The Yonggom (Papua New Guinea) Autumn Graham

106

Notes

110

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Table 1! ! Group/Tribe "#$#%#&'! ()*)+*$,!-.! /0*!1)#2-34#3! 5'4607#8!

Location (Continent, country) "-'/0! 1)*$46#9! :6'#;-$!

Number of People

Area Occupied

ABC9===!0#! <9===!(,*>.? (/4/>*;!43! 6>#4)8!.-$!#! /-/#>[email protected]<9===! ADD<8! 1)#2-34#3! 5'4607# A !

Q#F'60*!

R! !

"-'/0! 1)*$46#9! J04>*!

V')+*$,!#$*! 6-3/$#;46/-$%I! E0*!ADD#/4-3! /-!+*!3*#$>%! A9===9===! 704>*!/0*! <==%! R==9===! F*-F>*I!!

C==9===!0#! ($*6-G342*;! +%!JXV1YP89! RIZ[!-.!/0*! -$4G43#>! /*$$4/-$% < !

Claim

Status of the Claim

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

Unresolved.!P3!Q#$609!<==R9!E0*!:6'#;-$4#3! 1//-$3*%!S*3*$#>!-..*$*;!#!.$4*3;>%!,*//>*)*3/! /-!"#$#%#&'9!70460!7#,!$*.',*;I!E0*!G$-'F!4,! 7#4/43G!.-$!/0*!.43#>!$'>43G!-3!4/,!6#,*!+*.-$*! /0*!P3/*$?1)*$46#3!J-'$/!.-$!T')#3!U4G0/,! -3!F-,,4+>*!$*F#$#/4-3,!.$-)!/0*!:6'#;-$4#3! "/#/*!#3;!#6&3-7>*;G)*3/!/0#/!/0*!,/#/*!0#,! H4->#/*;!/0*!:6'#;-$4#3!J-3,/4/'/4-3I! ! Unresolved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

Group/Tribe! "#$%&'(&)'*!

P&#)!

!

Location (Continent, country)! +,-./! "#$%&0)1! 2-3)')!

Q,%./! "#$%&0)1! "%&R,')! ;S+">!

Number of People!

Area Occupied!

Claim!

Status of the Claim

441555 6

789!#&::&,'! /$0.)%$*! ;:$<)::3! 0,'.%,::$(!=3! "#$%&'(&)'*>!

?)'(!.&.:&'
771455 9

G71EC7!/)!T! 7471G55!/)!,'! .I,! %$*$%@).&,'*!

U).$%!%&! I)'.*!*,:$!0,'.%,:!,@$%!I).$%!%$*,-%0$*! )'(!)!<-)%)'.$$!,B!)!($J$'()=:$!*-JJ:3!,B! I).$%8!!

Very partially resolved8!A,%$!./)'!/):B!,B! "#$%&'(&)'!0,##-'&.&$*!/)@$!%[email protected]$(!.&.:$! .,!*,#$!:)'(!*&'0$!7CDE8!F/$!G55E! "#$%&'(&)'!"0.!<[email protected]$*!#,%$!0,'.%,:!.,! "#$%&'(&)'*!,@$%!:,0):!<,@$%'#$'.8! H,[email protected]$%1!./$!A&'&*.$%!%$.)&'*!./$!J,I$%!.,! %$K$0.!0,##-'&.3!%-:$*L!)JJ%,@$!0,'.%)0.*! =$.I$$'!0,##-'&.&$*!)'(!,-.*&($%*L!,@$%%&($! 0,##-'&.3!:)'(!-*$!($0&*&,'*L!,@$%%&($!)! 0,##-'&.3M*[email protected]$.,!,B!:)%<$N*0):$!#&'&'!*$..:$*!./$!%$*,-%0$! 0:)&#!=$.I$$'!./$!2&:)[email protected]$%!W'(&)'! X,##-'&.3!;2VWX>!)'(!./$!S'&.$(!+.).$*8! F/$!2VWX!/)*!*,:$!%$*J,'*&=&:&.3!B,%!I).$%! 0,'@$3)'0$!)'(!J,**&=:$!*):$8!"U+"! J%,/&=&.*!./$!2VWX!B%,#!*$$O&'8!!!

D

Group/Tribe!

Location (Continent, country)! "#$$#%#&'())*! 0(1/2! #+)!",+(-$.(/! 3%,14.#5! 673! 89#4+,:!

0#/4D,! T#C#44#+$!

0(1/2! 3%,14.#5! 673! 8T#C#44:!!

Number of People!

Area Occupied!

Claim!

Status of the Claim

;<==!>!;?==
;==5===! #.1,$ A

Claims unresolvedH!O+!P===5!/2,!67! Q+D41(+%,+/#I!"1(/,./4(+!3E,+.*!.4/,)!/2,! MN?=!$,//I,%,+/!4+!#C#1)4+E!/2,!$/#/,!/2,! #'/2(14/*!/(!4$$',!C#/,1!&'#I4/*!F,1%4/$!(+! /14-#I!I#+)$5!),$F4/,!#!1,.(%%,+)#/4(+!-*!/2,! 67!R,F#1/%,+/!(G!/2,!O+/,14(1!/(!'F2(I)!/14-#I! %#+#E,%,+/!(G!/2($,!1,$('1.,$H!B2,!/14-,$!#1,! .2#II,+E4+E!/2,!Q"3S$!),.4$4(+!4+!G,),1#I! .('1/H!!!!

P?;5=== U

P<5===!(G!/2,! T#C#44#+! T(%,!V#+)$! #1,! 2(%,$/,#),)H! 0#/4D,! T#C#44#+$! #I$(!I4D,! ,I$,C2,1,!4+! ? /2,!$/#/,H ! !

B2,!/14-,$!C#+/!/(!%#4+/#4+!$(D,1,4E+/*! #+)!F1(/,./4(+!G1(%!$/#/,!)(%4+#+.,H! 9($/!4%F(1/#+/!.(+GI4./!C4/2!/2,!7/#/,!(G! 9#4+,!4$!I4+J,)!/(!/2,!4+/,1F1,/#/4(+!(G!/2,! C(1)!K%'+4.4F#I4/*L!4+!/2,!MN?=!9#4+! 7,//I,%,+/!3./H!B2,!/14-,$!#1E',!/2#/!/24$! F1(D4$4(+!C#$!%,#+/!#$!#+!#))4/4(+!/(! /2,41!$(D,1,4E+!$/#/'$!C24I,!/2,!$/#/,! #1E',$!/2#/!%'+4.4F#I!$/#/'$!$'F,1.,),$! /2,41!$(D,1,4E+!$/#/'$H!!!! @I#4%$!(G!0#/4D,!T#C#44#+$!)4GG,1H! 7,D,+/*!/21,,!F,1.,+/!(G!0#/4D,!T#C#44#+! D(/,1$!$'FF(1/!$(%,!G(1%!(G!$(D,1,4E+! E(D,1+%,+/5!-'/!.I#4%$!D#1*!#%(+E! .(%F,+$#/4(+!G(1!I($/!I#+)W!I4%4/,)! $(D,1,4E+/*W!+#/4(+>C4/24+>#>+#/4(+! %(),I,)!#G/,1!0#/4D,!3%,14.#+!F(I4.4,$W! (1!#!C2(II*>4+),F,+),+/!T#C#44!'+),1! ,X.I'$4D,!.(+/1(I!(G!0#/4D,!T#C#44#+$H! Q#.2!%(D,%,+/!4+D(ID,$!#!I#+)!.I#4%5! 1#+E4+E!G1(%!/2,!P==5===!#.1,$! .(%F14$4+E!/2,!T#C#44#+!T(%,!V#+)$!/(! /2,!$/#/,Y$!,+/41,!ZHM!%4II4(+!#.1,$H!!!

!

Claims largely unresolvedH!O+!MNNA5!4+!"'-I4.! 3..,$$!72(1,I4+,!T#C#44!D$H!T#C#44!"I#++4+E! @(%%4$$4(+5!/2,!T#C#44!7'F1,%,[email protected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email protected]'4/!#+)!T#C#44#+!7'F1,%,! @('1/$!)4$%4$$,)!0#/4D,!T#C#44#+!.I#4%$!/(! 1,D,+',!E,+,1#/,)!G1(%!.,),)!I#+)$!4+!P==M5! P==;5!P==<5!#+)!P==A5!$/#/4+E!/2#/!/2,!T#C#44! !N I,E4$I#/'1,!%'$/!#))1,$$!.,),)!I#+)$H ! !

?! !

Group/Tribe! "#$%&'&!

1)#-.&2!F&*&)$!

5.3(7#2$!

5.3(7#2$!

!

Location (Continent, country)! "()*+!! ,-.)#/&0! 1&2&3&! 45)#*#$+! 1(67-8#&9! M7)(A.!&23! ,$#&0! 1)#-.&0! NO8.P#$*&20! Q(-&2#&0! 576%&)#&0! &23!F7)[email protected]! ,$#&! 4T#336.! M&$*90!J$)&.6!

,$#&! 4T#336.! M&$*90! Z()3&2!!

Number of People!

Area Occupied!

:0:;; <;

<=>0=;;!+& <<

:;;0;;;L =0;;;0;;;!

N23.*.)-#2.3! 8./&7$.!(K! 3#$A.)$#(2!

=;;0;;;!4#2! *+.!".%.?! 3.$.)*9!

U&6K!(K!*+.! A(A76&*#(2!#2! $.?.2!A6&22.3! *(G2$+#A$R! .#%+*!2.G! *(G2$!#2!*+.! A)(/.$$!(K! )./(%2#*#(20! (7*!(K!HV! 72)./(%2#O.3! *(G2$! <<=!*(G2$! G+#/+!).$A./*! *+.!*)#8&6! $*)7/*7).!

F+.!-&[()#*@! (K!Z()3&2#&2! 5.3(7#2! A(A76&*#(2! G&$!(K!*)#8&6! ()#%#2E! ,//(72*$!(K! B5.3(7#2C! 27-8.)$!#2! Z()3&2!?&)@! [email protected]!3.K#2#*#(2E!!

Claim!

!

Status of the Claim

16&#-!*(!%!/(2*)(6!(?.)!&!*.))#*()@! (//7A#.3!B$#2/.!*#-.!#--.-()#&6C!#2!*+.! "[email protected]!!

Claim resolvedE!F+.!Nisga’a Final Agreement! G&$!$#%[email protected]!1&2&3&0!5)#*#$+!1(67-8#&0!&23! *+.!"#$%&'&!(2!,7%7$*!H0!<>>IE!J*!#$!8(*+!&! 6&23!$.**6.-.2*!&23!&!$.6KL%(?.)2-.2*! &%)..-.2*E!! F+#$!%)(7A!G&2*$!(KK#/#&6!$*&*7$!(K! Claims unresolvedE!"(!)./(%2#*#(2!(K!F&*&)$! &7*(/+*+(2(7$!A.(A6.R!(KK#/#&6!)./(%2#*#(2! &$!#23#%.2(7$!A.(A6.$!(K!1)#-.&E!"(!6.%&6! (K!*)&3#*#(2&6!6.&3.)$!&$!$7A).-.! ).$*()&*#(2!(K!*+.!1)#-.&2!F&*&)$S!)#%+*$E! ).A).$.2*&*#?.!&7*+()#*#.$R!.KK./*#?.! ).A).$.2*&*#(2!&*!&66!6.?.6$!(K!%(?.)2-.2*R! &23!#-A)(?.3!$(/#(L./(2(-#/!/(23#*#(2$E!! F+.!5.3(7#2$!#2!J$)&.6!/6&#-!*+.!)#%+*!*(! ).-!#2!*+.!".%.?!W.$.)*!4#2! 72)./(%2#O.3!?#66&%.$9!G+#/+!*[email protected]!+&?.! #2+&8#*.3!K()!3./&3.$0!&23!*(!A7)$7.!*+.#)! *)&3#*#([email protected]!(K!6#K.!#2!*+.!".%.?E!

Claim unresolvedE!X()/.3!7)8&2#O&*#(2!(K! 5.3(7#2$!#2!$.?.2!A6&22.3!*(G2$R!KC).!*(! )./(%2#O.!*+.!?#66&%.$0!G+#/+!&).!/(2$#3.).3! #66.%&6R!3.-(6#*#(2!(K!+(7$.$!&23!/)(A$!#2! *+.$.!?#66&%.$R!Y+&)(2!K#[email protected]&)!A6&2!3.$#%2.3! *(!.2/(7)&%.!5.3(7#2$!*(!-(?.!#2*(!*+.! )./(%2#O.3!*([email protected]!)./(%2#O.3!*(G2$! *+)(7%[email protected]!#2/.2*#?.$E!!

F+.!Z()3&2#&2!5.3(7#2$!G&2*!*(!$7$*!&! *)&3#*#([email protected]!(K!6#K.!&23!-&P.!3./#$#(2$! &8(7*!*+.#)!K7*7).!#2!/(66&8()&*#(2!G#*+!*+.! %(?.)2-.2*!(K!Z()3&2E!

Claims mostly resolvedE!\(?.)2-.2*!+&$! )./(%2#O.3!*+.!72#]7.!?&67.!(K!5.3(7#2$'! /(2*)#87*#(2!*(!*+.!Z()3&2#&2!/76*7).R! #2/.2*#?.$!(KK.).3!*(!5.3(7#2$!*(!A)(%).$$! *(G&)3$!-(3.)2!6#K.R!8&$#/!$.)?#/.$! 4.37/&*#(20!+.&6*+0!&23!+(7$#2%9!A)(?#3.3R! %(?.)2-.2*!&23!5.3(7#2$!/(66&8()&*.!(2! 3./#$#(2$!&KK./*#2%!*+.-R!$.&*$!).$.)?.3!#2!*+.! ^&)6#&-.2*!K()!5.3(7#2$E! !

>

Group/Tribe! !"#$%!

Location (Continent, country)! &#'()! "('*(+!

Number of People!

Area Occupied!

Claim!

,)-..!

-),//!0( 12

344567'85!#594:;$85<+(+65!*0'60!'#! <5#'#75=!>[email protected](+!A0'+5#5!BC(D$<'7?! E$E%9(7'$+F!

&='8(#'#!

&#'()!O+='(!

/LG,!C'99'$+ 1L

T(C(!BI705! U'6075<#859=! A$CC%+'7?JF!

&4<'6()! H$%70! &4<'6(!

1.)...!B,)...! 4<$C!705! U'6075<#859=! A$CC%+'7?F 1-

1.! !

!

-,R! 6$CC%+'7'5# 1R

!

/R)...!0( 1N

!

!

Status of the Claim

Claims partially resolvedG!H7(7%#!$4!(%7$+$C?! ;<(+75=!>%7!6$+49'67#!<5C('+G!&=$E7'$+!$4!(! <5#E567(>95!+(C5!4$'7(+7#)!'+!705!1KKL!6$+#7'7%7'$+M! 5#7(>9'#0C5+7!$4!(!>$=?!$85<#55'+;!'+=';5+$%#! '##%5#!'+!705!65+7<(9!;$85<+C5+7!'+!1KKNG!O+! 1KKK)!'+=';5+$%#!(67'8'#7#!#';+5=!705!Treaty of New Partnership between the Indigenous Peoples and the Government of Taiwan!*'70! 705+!PQQ!E<5#'=5+7'(9!6(+='=(75!H0%':>'(+! A05+G 1, !H585<(9!'75C#!'+!705!Treaty!>56(C5! E(<7!$4!705!$44'6'(9!E$9'7'6(9!(;5+=(!(47556(%#5!$4!='#E9(65C5+7!6$+65<+#G!!! %E!7$!705!05';07!$4!1L,!C575<#!*(#!(99$*5=G! "05!$<';'+(99?!E9(++5=!05';07!$4!705!=(C!*(#! 1,/!C575<#G! ! U5$66%E(7'$+!$4!9(+=!$4!*0'60!705! Claims resolved.!O+!2..L)!705!Y(+=!A9('C#! 6$CC%+'7?!*(#!='#E$##5##5=!$4!'+!705! A$%<7!$4!H$%70!&4<'6(!=575?! A$CC%+'7?!*$%9=!>5!(*(<=5=!<5#7$<(7'$+!$4! ='(C$+=!C'+5<#! '7#!9(+=!(+=!C'+5<(9!<';07#G!!O+!S67$>5<)!2..-! 705!A$CC%+'7?!<5(605=!(!#57795C5+7!*'70!705! H$%70!&4<'6(+!;$85<+C5+7!'+!705!4$
Group/Tribe! #$%&&$'!

Location (Continent, country)! ()*+%,+-! .+/0+!1*2! 30,%*+!

Number of People!

Area Occupied!

Claim!

Status of the Claim

"4-566!7080! +%9! +//:$;,'+<*=8! >-666!$?!<@*! #$%&&$'! /*$/=*! <@*'A*=B*A! "4

(C!D*9,! E,B*:-!F=8! E,B*:!+%9! G*A
I=+,'A!?,=*9!,%!J0A<:+=,+%!I$0:
Claims resolved only on paperN!O<+<0A!$?! +0<$%$'8!&:+%<*9-!M0-!"QQR-!KL.!+%9!<@*!,%9,&*%$0A! /=+,%<,??!=*+9*:A!:*+)@*9!+%!$066V!+! A*)$%9!A*<<=*'*%
!

!

""

Section 1 Indigeneity and the land: The vital link !

!

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email protected]/+6! #-'.!30.1&%+!#!8#6!,.!7.$,0.-!,/+!0+'.)07+'!0+A)&0+%!,.!7.$,&$)+!,/+&0!8#6!.(!-&(+4! ! !

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Section 2 Defining borders between indigenous peoples and dominant cultures ! "#$%&'#()*!+'(+,'!-.'!)*)-,,/!0%1%2'#*!(3!-!#-1%(#4*1-1'!%#!56%06!-!$(7%#-#1!0),1).'!*''8*!1(! %7+(*'!-!*'1!(3!9-,)'*:!#(.7*:!-#$!%#*1%1)1%(#*!)+(#!16'7;!<#!%#$%&'#()*!+'(+,'=*!0),1).'!6-*!1(! (+'.-1'!5%16%#!16'!0(#1'>1!(3!16'!$(7%#-#1!0),1).';!?(!*).9%9':!-!#-1%9'!1.%@'!5%,,!1./!1(!'*[email protected],%*6! @()#$-.%'*[email protected]'15''#!%1*',3!-#$!16'!$(7%#-#1!*(0%'1/;!!?6'%.!.',-1%(#*6%+!1(!16'!$(7%#-#1!0),1).'!%*! (31'#!$'3%#'$!%#!1'.7*!([email protected](.$'.!0(#1.(,;!?6'!+.'*'#0'!([email protected](.$'.!%#$%0-1'*!16'!'>%*1'#0'!(3! %#$%&'#()*!,-#$!-#$!1'..%1(./;!?6'!06-#0'*!(3!*).9%9-,!3(.!-#!%#$%&'#()*!+'(+,'!-.'!'#6-#0'$!%3! 16'/!0-#!-06%'9'!*(7'!$'&.''!(3!0(#1.(,!(9'.!56(!0-#!0.(**!16%*[email protected](.$'.!-#$!56-1!6-++'#*!5%16%#! %1*!1'..%1(.%-,[email protected]()#$-.%'*;!! !!!!!A(##-#!-#$!B%,*(#!CDEEEF!%$'#1%3/!16.''!7-%#!1/+'*!([email protected]()#$-.%'*!16-1!$'1'.7%#'! .',-1%(#*!%#!(.!-7(#&!*(0%'1%'*;!!Social and symbolic!boundaries!$'3%#'!7'[email protected]'.*6%+!%#! 0(,,'01%9%1%'*;!G'(+,'!7%&61!06((*'!1(!*6-+'!16%*!3(.7!([email protected]()#$-./!%#!1'.7*!(3!$%33'.'#1!0(#1'>1*! -#$!+.'**).'*;!Cultural boundaries!*'+-.-1'!$%33'.'#1!5(.,$*!(3!7'-#%#&!-7(#&!+'(+,'. Geopolitical boundaries!$'3%#'!9%*%@,'!-#$!1-#&%@,'!-**'1*; HE !"#$%&'#()*!+'(+,'*!-.()#$!16'!5(.,$! *''8!0(#1.(,!(9'.!-,,!16.''!1/+'*!([email protected]()#$-.%'*:!$'3%#%#&!56(!0-#!-#$!0-##(1!0.(**!16'7;! I()#$-.%'*!*'+-.-1%#&!J)*K!-#$!J16'7K!-.'!%7+(.1-#1!1(!-!0),1).'!3%&61%#&!3(.!*).9%9-,;!!! !!!<#!%#1'.'*1%#&!'>-7+,'!3.(7!L0)-$(.!(3!*/[email protected](,%[email protected](.$'.*!*6(5*!6(5!%#$%&'#()*!+'(+,'! -.'!*'+-.-1'$!3.(7!16'!$(7%#-#1!*(0%'1/;!"#!M-#)-./!DEEN:!%#$%&'#()*!-01%9%*1*!3.(7!OPQ<"L:! OPQRLQ<"L:!-#$!PG"G!(00)+%'$!16'!S%#%*1./!(3!L#'.&/!-#$!S%#'*!1(!+.(1'*1!-&-%#*1!16'! (+'#%#&!(3!16'!*'9'#16!.()#$!(3!(%,!0(#0'**%(#[email protected]%$$%#&!-#$!.'0'#1!06-#&'*!%#!16'!T/$.([email protected](#*! U-5:!5.%11'#!1(!.'$)0'!*1-1'!0(#1.(,!(9'.!(%,!(+'.-1%(#*!%#!L0)-$(.;!R(,,(5%#&!-!VN46().!*1-#$(33:! %#$%&'#()*!,'-$'.*!7'1!5%16!16'!7%#%*1'.;!P#'!(3!6%*!3%.*1!-00)*-1%(#*!-&-%#*1!16'!+.(1'*1(.*!5-*! 16-1!16'/!6-$!%,,'&-,,/!'#1'.'$!mi casa!C7/!6()*'F;!W-3-',:!-#!%#$%&'#()*!,'-$'.:!.'*+(#$'$!16-1! J16%*!6()*'[email protected]',(#&*!1(!-,,K!L0)-$(.%-#!0%1%2'#*!-#$!.'X'01'$!16'!%7+,%0-1%(#!16-1!-!&.()+! 6%*1(.%0-,,/!'>0,)$'$!3.(7!L0)-$(.%-#!*(0%'1/!6-$!#(!.%&61!(3!0%1%2'#*6%+!(.!#-1%(#-,[email protected]',(#&%#&; NY !!!! G).*)%#&!16'!16'7'!(3!6(7'!&.()#$!-#$!56([email protected]',(#&*!16'.':!W-3-',!'7+6-*%2'$!16-1:! )#,%8'!-#!(33%0%-,!&(9'.#7'#[email protected])%,$%#&:!16'!<7-2(#!$%$!#([email protected]',(#&!1(!-,,;!?6'!.%9'.!0(#*1%1)1'$!La selva es nuestra casa:!16'!"#$%-#*=!6(+'!-#$!*+-0'!([email protected]',(#&%#&;!<#/!-01%(#[email protected]/!()1*%$'.*!5%16%#! 16%*!1'..%1(./!.'Z)%.'$!#'&(1%-1%(#!5%16!%1*!%#$%&'#()*!(5#'.*;!?6%*!'>06-#&'!.'9'-,*!6(5!.-0'!-#$! 0,-**!$'3%#'!#(1%(#*!(3!0%1%2'#*6%+:!+.(+'.1/:!'>0,)*%(#:!-#$!3(.)7*!3(.!+-.1%0%+-1%(#;!! !

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Control of geographic borders !"#$%&'())*#$+#&,##-$.-/.)#-0(%$1#01*#%$2-/$30/#'-$%&2&#%$04#'$)#0)'21".5$+0(-/2'.#%$"2%$2$ *0-)$2-/$+.&&#'$".%&0'67$8#52(%#$)#0)'21".5$+0'/#'%$2'#$30'#$&2-).+*#$&"2-$%63+0*.5$2-/$5(*&('2*$ +0'/#'%9$&"#6$2'#$2$1'.32'6$,26$.-$,".5"$2$%&2&#$52-$2%%#'&$50-&'0*$04#'$5.&.:#-%$2-/$%(+;#5&%7$ <#0)'21".5$+0'/#'%$5'#2&#$&"#$4#'6$50-/.&.0-%$0=$#4#'6/26$*.=#$=0'$.-/.)#-0(%$&'.+#%7$>0"#-$ [email protected]$10.-&%$0(&$&"2&$=0'$E'2+$4.**2)#%$.-$F%'2#*[email protected]$G&"#$'#2*.&6$0=$&"#$+0'/#'$"2H/I$+#503#$2$ 32;0'$=25&0'$(-/#'*6.-)$&"#$%05.2*$0')2-.:2&.0-$0=$HJI$4.**2)#%$2-/$H50(*/I$-0&$&"#'#=0'#$+#$ &'#2&#/$2%$2$Ķ'2'69$0'$2+-0'32*9$1"#-03#-0-7K [email protected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email protected]$3.**.0-$"#5&2'#%$0=$#(52*61&(%$2-/$1.-#$ ,#'#$1*2-&#/$0-$#N1'01'.2&#/$O21(5"#$*2-/7 LT $!"#%#$5033#'5.2*$#-&#'1'.%#%$/232)#/$,.*/*.=#9$ 5'#2&#/$%0.*$#'0%.0-9$+*05U#/$*.)"&$-##/#/$&0$)'0,$O21(5"#V%$3#/.5.-2*$1*2-&%9$2-/$10**(&#/$ ,2&#'$%(11*.#%7 LQ $$ $$$$$$$$$$$!"#$W2&.0-2*$F-/.)#-0(%$X#4#*013#-&$>033.%%.0-9$>YWEXF9$"2%$+##-$(-2+*#$&0$503+2&$ %&'0-)$)04#'-3#-&2*$2-/$1'.42&#$.-&#'#%&$.-$&"#%#$1'0;#5&%7$!"#[email protected]$F-/.)#-0(%$Z2,[email protected]$ /0#%$-0&$).4#$O21(5"#$50-&'0*$04#'$&"#$-2&('2*$'#%0('5#%$0-$0'$(-/#'$&"#.'$*2-/7$W0'$/0#%$.&$).4#$ &"#3$2$,26$&0$/#2*$,.&"$+0(-/2'6$%1.**04#'%7$O21(5"#$326$+#$=0'5#/$0==$&"#.'$*2-/$,"#-#4#'$ )04#'-3#-&$0'$1'.42&#*6$%10-%0'#/$1'0;#5&%$/##3$&"#.'$'#3042*$&0$+#$.-$&"#$-2&.0-2*$.-&#'#%&7$!".%$ .%$2$&61.52*$52%#$.-$,".5"$/#4#*013#-&$10*.5.#%$1'.0'.&.:#/$+6$&"#$%&2&#$=25.*.&2&#$&"#$%2*#$0'$ 50-5#%%.0-$0=$.-/.)#-0(%$*2-/$2-/$&#''.&0'6$&0$1'.42&#$50312-.#%$#2)#'$&0$#N1*0.&$'.5"$-2&('2*$ '#%0('5#%7$X2-)#'$&0$&"#$%('4.42*$0=$.-/.)#-0(%$1#01*#$.%$'2'#*6$2$=25&0'$.-$&"#%#$/#5.%.0-%7$$$ $ Control of symbolic borders F-$32-6$50(-&'.#%9$5(*&('2*$#3+*#3%$2-/$/.==#'#-5#%$2'#$0')2-.:2&.0-2*$/#4.5#%$&"2&$2'&.5(*2&#$ %05.2*$'#*2&.0-%$2-/$5'#2&#$".#'2'5"6$+#&,##-$1#01*#$?X0--2-$2-/$[.*%[email protected]$!"#6$2'#$2*%0$ (%#/$&0$#N5*(/#$3.-0'.&6$101(*2&.0-%7$F-$!2.,2-9$4#-#'2&.0-$0=$&"#$\2-$>".-#%#$"#'09$[(S=#-)9$ "2%$5'#2&#/$2$%63+0*.5$+0'/#'$+#&,##-$&"#$.-/.)#-0(%$!%0($1#01*#$2-/$&"#$/03.-2-&$5(*&('#7$ [(S=#-)$,2%$2$3.//*#32-$,"0$50-/(5&#/$&'2/#$,.&"$&"#$!%0($.-$&"#$#.)"&##-&"$5#-&('67$$ $$$$$E=&#'$[(S=#-)$,2%$U.**#/$.-$2$!%0($4.**2)#9$%#4#'2*$\2-$>".-#%#$2(&"0'%$,'0&#$%&0'.#%$

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Section 5 State reactions to indigenous peoples’ land claims ! "#$!%&'(&$)*$%!(+,(-.$+!/0!*-+*)$-12%!3$134$%!&1!32'%2$!&#$*'!.4(*5%!#(,$!3'1+2.$+!(!6*+$!'(-)$! 17!12&.15$%!(-+!'$(.&*1-%8!9-!%15$!*-%&(-.$%:!)1,$'-5$-&%!('$!-1&!$,$-!(.;-164$+)*-)!-(&*,$! &'*/$%!6$!.(-!$?3$.&!&#$%$!)'123%!&1!+*$!12&8!"#$!.(%$!%&2+*$%! 3'$%$-&$+!/$416!+$%.'*/$!&#$!6*+$!'(-)$!17!'$%31-%$%!/0!&#$!+15*-(-&!.24&2'$!&1!&#$!%&'(&$)*$%! .#1%$-!/0!*-+*)$-12%!3$134$%8! ! Type 1 – No reaction or negative reaction by the state "#$!7*'%&!&03$!17!'$%31-%$!&1!*-+*)$-12%!4(-+!.4(*5%!#(%!/$$-!(-!(/%$-.$!17!'$(.&*1-!/0!&#$!%&(&$! 1'!%&'1-)!1331%*&*1-!&1!3'131%(4%!32&!71'6('+!/0!-(&*,$!&'*/$%8!! 9-!9%'($4:[email protected]$+12*-%!#(,$!%2%&(*-$+!&#$*'!&'(+*&*1-(4!6(0!17!4*7$!*-!&#$!A$)$,!+$%$'&!71'! )$-$'(&*1-%8!9-!&#$!4(&$!BCDE%!(-+!$('40!BCFE%:!&#$!)1,$'-5$-&!17!9%'($4!3'$%%[email protected]$+12*-%!&1! '$%$&&4$!*-!%$,$-!34(--$+!&16-%8!9-!&#$!+$%*)-!17!&#$%$!34(.$%!4*&&4$!.1-%*+$'(&*1-!6(%!)*,$-!&1! @$+12*-!.24&2'$8!G(.;[email protected]$+12*-!*-,14,$5$-&!*-!&#$!+$%*)-!5(0!#(,$!%15$&#*-)!&1!+1!6*&#!&#$! 7(.&!&#(&!51'$!&#(-!#(47!17!&#[email protected]$+12*-%!'$72%$+!&1!51,$8!"#$0!.4(*5$+!&#(&!&#$!*-&$-&*1-!/$#*-+! &#*%!%$&&4$5$-&!314*.0!6(%!-1&:!(%!9%'($4!.4(*5$+:!(!+$%*'$!&1!)*,$!&#$5!(..$%%!&1!51+$'-!%$',*.$%:! /2&!'(&#$'!(-!$771'&!&1!.1-.$-&'(&$!&#$5!*-!('$(%!&#(&!6124+!$-(/4$!&#$!&'(-%7$'!17!&#$*'!4(-+!&1!&#$! %&(&$!(-+!4$(+!&1!&#$*'!24&*5(&$!(%%*5*4(&*1-8!! "#$!%$,$-!'$.1)-*[email protected]$+12*-!&16-%!$%&(/4*%#$+!(&!&#$!$-+!17!&#$!BCDE%!3(*+!4*&&4$! (&&$-&*1-!&1!&'*/(4!%&'2.&2'$:!71'.*-)!&'*/$%!6*&#!(!#*%&1'0!17!'*,(4'0!(-+!(-&()1-*%5!&1!4*,$! &1)$&#$'8!"#$!&16-%!(4%1!177$'$+!*-%277*.*$-&!4(-+!71'[email protected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email protected]$+12*-!,*44()$%!(-+!41.(4*&*$%8!!

LM! !

!"#$#%&"'()*#$((#)+&"&#,-(($.&"#$%&#'/0&%#)+%&$)"#12#0&31(-)-1/#$/0#31")#12#)+&3#01#/1)# %&4&-,$"-4#"&%,-4&"6#!#%&4&/)#%&"71/"&#)1#8&01'-/#0-")%&""#+$"#5&&/#)+ +$%1/#2-,&:;&$%#7($/*# <+-4+#122&%"#/'3&%1'"#-/4&/)-,&"#)1#8&01'-/"#<-((-/.#)1#31,&#-/)1#)+&#%&41./-=&0#)11<&,&%*#)+&#?"%$&(-#.1,&%/3&/)#+$"#$("1#%&"1%)&0#)1#";")&3$)-4#4%17#0&")%'4)-1/*#0&31(-)-1/#12# +1'"&"*#$/0#(&.$(#5$))(&"#-/#41'%)#)1#'/0&%"41%&#)+&#")$)[email protected]"#($/0#1
#

FS

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Section 6 Doing the ground work: Preconditions for successful claims !!

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References ! "#$!%&!'())*+&!Mining, the environment, and indigenous development conflicts&! ,-./012!31$456/$78!09!"6$:01;!<65//! ! "##=067>[email protected]=;6A&!'@A&+&!'BCCD+&!The Tatars of Crimea: Return to the Homeland&!E-6>;F2!E-G5! 31$456/$78!<65//&!! ! H;4$/G;6?!"&!'BCCI+&!In the belly of the river: Tribal conflicts over development in the Narmada Valley&!J5=!K06G2!LM906A!31$456/$78!<65//&! ! H6$;1!N&!O$##$;F/&!'())B+&!The Crimean Tatars. The Diaspora Experience and the Forging of a [email protected]&Q&!H6$##&!! ! R>-6.>$##?!O&!;1A!S5115!%&T&!'5A/&+&!!'())U+&!!Islands in captivity: The record of the International Tribunal on the Rights of Indigenous Hawaiians&!!R;FV6$AW5?!X"2!%0-7>[email protected]! <65//&!!! ! R0;75/!Y&!'@A&+&!'BCC(+&!Aboriginal land claims in Canada: A regional perspective&!,0601702! R0ZZ!R#;6G!<$7F;1! ! R0>51!"&!'BC[I+&!Arab border-villages in Israel; A study of continuity and change in social organization&!X;1.>5/7562!X;1.>5/756!31$456/$78!<65//&! ! R6;$W?!\&!'BCCD+!Historical dictionary of Honolulu and Hawai’i&!!P;1>;F2!,>5!%.;65.60=!<65//&! ! E5;1?!H&!;1A!P54$!Q&!'5A/&+&!'())*+&!At the risk of being heard&!"11!"6V062!31$456/$78!09! X$.>$W;1!<65//&! ! ]$/>56?!"#;1!O&!'BCCD+&!H57=551!\-//$;1/?!L770F;1/!;1A!,-6G/2!R6$F5;!;1A!R6$F5;1!,;7;6/&! ^/7;1V-#2!^/$/!<65//&! ! ]$/>56?!O$##$;F!]&!'5A&+!'BCCI+&!Toward sustainable development? Struggling over India’s Narmada River&!"[email protected]&!%>;6Z5&! ! ]P"R%L&!'())I+&!Sarayaku?!El pueblo del cenit, identidad y construcción étnica&! ]P"R%[email protected]%2!`-$70&!!! ! N6$99$7>/?!,&!'())*+!Ownership, use, occupation and management of ancestral Akawaio and Arekuna territory in the Upper Mazaruni.!N-8;1;!'())*+&! ! T;#-;#;1$?!\&,&!!'())(+&!In the name of Hawaiians: Native identities and cultural politics&!! X$115;Z0#$/2!31$456/$78!09!X$115/07;!<65//&! ! T;/7$1W/!E&!;1A!O$#/01!,&!'BCCC+&!Borders: Frontiers of identity, nation and State&!J5=!K06G2! LM906A!^17561;7$01;#!<-V#$/>56/&!

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II

!"#$%&'()*+),-.+/+),0112/+)3&4%&%567.)#"&58%898%"&:;)<95%&755=)>786%&$%&')%&.%'7&"95)57;4? [email protected]%&:8%"&+)B:&<[email protected]@:C)D<"@%'%&:;)E89.%75)[email protected]) G:<<[email protected])G+),HII2/+)The Bedouin and the desert aspects of nomadic life in the Arab East+)D;<:&JC) E8:87)3&%[email protected]%8J)"4)L7M)N"@$)[email protected]+) ) O:&'[email protected])-+P+()Q)R9&"S()-+),-.5+/+),011T/+)Contemporary indigenous movements in Latin America+)U%;A%&'8"&C)G:'9:@)[email protected]+) ) O:J&7)O+),HIIV/+)!"A7):&.)6"A7;:&.C)W67).%:;"'%#5)"4)[email protected]%<:;):&.)&:8%"&:;)%.7&8%8%75)%&)G"@.:&() [email protected]%N"&C)[email protected]%N"&)3&%[email protected]%8J)[email protected]+)) ) R#B"";()P+)),HIIV/+)Command of the waters: Iron triangles, Federal water development, and Indian water.)W9#5"&C)W67)3&%[email protected]%8J)"4)[email protected]%S"&:)[email protected]+) ) R#B9;;J)F+),011H/+)E%;7.)@%[email protected]: The ecology and politics of large dams+)O"&."&C)Y7.)*""$5) :&.)*[email protected]$7;7JC)[email protected]&:8%"&:;)>%[email protected])L78M"@$+) ) R7%@)D+),HII[/+)As nomadism ends+)*"9;[email protected])U758K%7M)[email protected]+) ) R";;"J()W+),0111/+)The world is our witness: the historic journey of the Nisga’a into Canada. B:;':@JC)\%486)!"957+) ) >:9&78()P+),HII]/+)Without surrender, without consent: A history of the Nisga’a land claims+) ^:&#"[email protected])P"9';:5)Q)R#[email protected]+) ) >7:)D+),HII[/+)At the desert's green edge, an ethnobotany of the Gila River Pima+)W9#5"&C) 3&%[email protected]%8J)"4)[email protected]%S"&:)[email protected]+) ) >";.7()L+),011V/+)Unsettled past, unsettled future: The story of Maine Indians+)_:@.%[email protected])W%;<[email protected]) !"957+) >"57()D;7`),7.+/+),HIIT/+)Nisga’a: People of the Nass River.)L7M)D%J:&56C)L%5':a:)[email protected]%<:;) B"9&#%;+) ) >"57()D+),0111/+)Spirit dance at Meziadin: Chief Joseph Gosnell and the Nisga’a Treaty+)R:.7%@:) F:@$C)!:@<"[email protected])F9<;%56%&'+) ) >"57&?YK%)Z+),011V/+)Taking space seriously: Law, space and society in contemporary Israel+) D;[email protected]"8):&.)*[email protected];%&'8"&C)D56':87+) ) >"J()D+),HIII/+)The cost of living+)L7M)N"@$C)R"[email protected]&)O%<@:@J+) ) E:[email protected]()E+),011V/+)Crude chronicles+)[email protected]:AC)P9$7)3&%[email protected]%8J)[email protected]) ) E#6""@;()G+),HIIT/+)Culture and change among the Muyu.)[email protected]:&5;:87.)
2]) )

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-X

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References L4E4+5O7+E)2!()+T)!#$2"94+IUOOV*+E),()0<)#+VOJ4 Arizona Water Settlements Act: Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Water and Power of the Committee on Energy And Natural Resources and the Committee on Indian Affairs4++L2$()3+E(!()9+E)2!()*+5O7(1+A-2"#)99*+59(+E)99$-2+ -2+E4+6VW4+D!91$2"(-2*+XAM++L4E4+>-;)#20)2(+Y#$2($2"+B//$%)+;$!+>YB+C%%)[email protected]+ /MKO76O4.!$94++?)(#$);)3+-2+X)%)0<)#+V*+UOOZ+/#-0+ 1((,M[[/#.)<"!()4!%%)994",-4"-;[%"$<$2[")(3-%4%"$\3<2!0)]5O7^9)2!()^1)!#$2"9_3-%$3]/MKO76O 4.!$9++ + X)G-2"*+X4+IUOONJ4 History of the Gila River Water Settlements Act 2004+IA1!,()#9++ 5`7J4+?)(#$);)3+-2+X)%)0<)#+5*+UOOZ+/#-0+1((,M[[...4"$'!#$;)#4%-0[9)((')0)2(41(0+ + ?)!*+C4+I5KKWJ4++At the Desert's Green Edge: An ethnobotany of the Gila River Pima4+ a&%9-2M++L2$;)#9$(:+-/+C#$F-2!+Y#)994+ + 8%A--'*+X4+I5KK6J4++Command of the waters: Iron triangles, Federal water development, and Indian Wwater4++a&%9-2M++L2$;)#9$(:+-/+C#$F-2!+Y#)994+ + E1&#(9*+G4+IUOOOJ4++Indian Reserved Water Rights: The Winters Doctrine in its Social and Legal Context, 1880’s-1930’s.++Legal History of North America (Vol 8).++S-#0!2M++L2$;)#9$(:+-/+ B='!1-0!+Y#)994+

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References <%.,$%+''3#=9#&)8#>())(#?9#@(80A9#@BCCDA9##Islands in captivity: The record of the International Tribunal on the Rights of Indigenous Hawaiians9##<&6!,+8*(E#?-.1%#F)8#G,(009## # H&'.&'&)+3#I9#:9#@BCCBA9##In the name of Hawaiians: Native identities and cultural politics9## J+))(&/-'+0E#K)+2(,0+1"#-7#J+))(0-1&#G,(009# # ?$%(.(,3#L9#@BCCBA9##Water and Power in Hawai’i: The Waiahole Water Case and the Future of the Islands9#K)/.!'+0%(8#8+00(,1&1+-)3#K)+2(,0+1"#-7#<&'+7-,)+&3#?&)1&#<,.M9## # K9?9#<-66+00+-)#-)#<+2+'#I+*%103#H&4&++#N82+0-,"#<-66+11((#@K?<
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The Nisga’a (Canada) Andrea Glen ! "#$!%&'()*)!)+$!,#$!-.$/01$!/2!,#$!%)''!3&4$+5!&6!6/+,#$+6!7+&,&'#!8/19:;&) [email protected]@ !!A6B$! CDGDD !!!HBB/+=&6(!,/!%&'()*)!1$($6=' GD? !!"#+/9(#/9,!,#$&+!#&',/+E GDG !!Ayuukhl Nisga’a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email protected] GDM [email protected]?C[email protected] !!"#$!%&'()*)!W)6=!8/::&,,$$!=&';)6=$=!&6! [email protected]!)2,$+!8)6)=)!:)=$!&,!&11$()1!2/+!K6=&)6'!,/!#&+$!1)JE$+'!/+!09+'9$!1)6=!B1)&:'> G?D !!! [email protected] G?? !!8)1=$+*'!',+/6(!1$)=$+'#&0!J/91=!0+/4$!,/!;$!)!T$E! 2)B,/+!&6!,#$!%&'()*)!',+9((1$!/4$+!,#$!6$R,!GD!E$)+'>[email protected]!!!"#$!B)'$!J$6,!90!,#$!U90+$:$!8/9+,!/2!8)6)=) G?G !!K6! ,#),!/0&6&/6!!

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! References ! "#$%&'#()!*+%,#!-.//012!In the belly of the river: Tribal conflicts over development in the Narmada Valley2!345!67('8!9:;7(%$4(&%,[email protected](4&&2! ! A7(&4)!"2!#>,4(>#,%7>#J2! ! H%&C4()!K%JJ%#+!H2!-4<21!-.//012!Toward sustainable development? Struggling Over India’s Narmada River2!*(+7>'8!3262)!A2L2!MC#(N42! ! ! ! ! E7?)!*2!-.///12!The cost of living2!345!67('8!A7<4(>!O%P(#(?2! ! E#Q#R7N#J)!"2!-DSST12!Limits of law in counter-hegemonic globalization: The Indian Supreme Court and the Narmada Valley struggle2!U4>,4(!;7(!,C4!M,F#>G4)!W#5#C#(J#J! 34C(F!=>%$4(&%,?)!345!X4CJ%2!

!

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! #$%&'#($%!)*+,-*+,!(&,%+%-$,-./!-0*-!-0$!1&,22&)!*#$!*#&',3!45666!7$&7.$8!90$!)&%-!#$($,-!,'):$#%!*#$! *;*+.*:.$!*-!0--7<==>>>87*7'*>$:8=:+:=0*/%=.&([email protected]?C873D! "E8!F$$!F+%%&,%5!G8!H466IJ8!K+#%-!7$&7.$%%!(&,3'(-$3!:/!L%*:$..$!S,2'$.&;%Q+!+,!T$#'!*,3!R&.+;+*5!C*/UG',$5!466"8!F$$!*.%&! F-$;$,%&,!C8!H466"J8!Gender and modernity in Andean Bolivia8!S'%-+,!.&,[email protected]+%2*X*!0*;$!:$$,!+,[email protected]&#-0!S)$#+(*8!Y&>$;$#5!$;$#/&,$! *2#$$%!-0*-!-0$/!>$#$!+,[email protected]*%!#+;$#!;*..$/!.&,2!:$D&#$!-0$!Z'#&7$*,%8!P&%$5!S8!H4666J8!Spirit dance at Meziadin: Chief Joseph Gosnell and the Nisga’a Treaty8!C*3$+#*!T*#Q*++*,%!*,3!0')*,!#+20-%8!M8!^*#3! *,3!F8!_$,,$!H$3%8J8!H466[J8!Islands in Captivity: The Record of the International Tribunal on the Rights of Indigenous Hawaiians8!!M*):#+32$*++!S3;+%&#/!M&))+--$$!HVFMMPJ8!H466"J8!Reconciliation at a crossroads: The implications of the apology resolution and Rice v. Cayetano for Federal and State programs benefiting Native Hawaiians. A summary report of the August 1998 and September 2000 Community Forums in Honolulu, Hawaii8!!F$$!0--7<==>>>8'%((#82&;=7':%=%*(=0+6\6"=7#$D80-)! O+Q$Q$!F(0$'$#5!G8!H4664J8!!Water and power in Hawaii: The Waiahole water case and the future of the islands8!!V,7':.+%0$3!3&(-&#*.!3+%%$#-*-+&,5!V,+;$#%+-/!&D!M*.+D&#,+*5!F*,-*!M#'`8! 4\8!9#*%Q5!C8!H"EENJ8!!90$!7&.+-+(%!&D!&77#$%%+&,*++8!L,!M8!^*#3!*,3!F8!_$,,$! HZ3%8J8!H466[J8!Islands in Captivity: The Record of the International Tribunal on the Rights of Indigenous Hawaiians8!!M*):#+32$*++8!!G*,'*#/!"6!a!4\8!!! 4]8! 9#*%Q5! C8! H"EENJ8! ! 90$! 7&.+-+(%! &D! &77#$%%+&,*++8! M8! ^*#3! *,3! F8! _$,,$! H$3%8J8!H466[J8!Islands in Captivity: The Record of the International Tribunal on the Rights of Indigenous Hawaiians8!!M*):#+32$*++8!!G*,'*#/!"6!a!4\8!!! 4b8!O+Q$Q$!F(0$'$#5!G8!H4664J8!!Water and power in Hawaii: The Waiahole water case and the future of the islands8!!V,7':.+%0$3!3&(-&#*.!3+%%$#-*-+&,5!V,+;$#%+-/!&D!M*.+D&#,+*5!F*,-*!M#'`8!! 4E8!?#$..*,*!C8!H466[J8!L,3+2$,&'%!7$&7.$%5!$,$#2/5!*,3!$,;+#&,)$,-*.!c'%-+($>>8(+$.8=T':.+(*-+&,%=P*.(&eR#+$De44G'.6[873D! N68!0/0!F*>/$#,!F8!H466[J8!Crude chronicles8!f'#0*)!:$->$$,!L%*:$..$!S,2'$.&;%Q+!*,3!L,g%!F0+2'*,2&!+,!C*#(0! 466\8! N48!F$$!Y*%-+,2%!f8!*,3!^+.%&,!98!H"EEEJ8!Borders: Frontiers of identity, nation and [email protected]$>!1&#Q$3+%0!V,+;$#%+-/!&D!S2#+('.-'#*.!F(+$,($%8! N[8!KOSMF?8!H466IJ8!F*#*/*Q'5!Z.!7'$:.&!3$.!($,+-5!+3$,-+3*3!/!(&,%-#'((+h,!g-,+(*8!KOSMF?=MfZF$..!-0+%!(&%)&.&2/0*-!0*77$,%!-&!-0$!$*#-0k!L-X%!.+Q$!*!0')*,!:$+,25!>0$,!/&'!%-*#-!-*Q+,2! :.&&3!D#&)!*!0')*,5!0$!%-*#-%!-&!3$(.+,$!*,3!-0$#$!+%!,&!-$(0,&.&2/!-&!0$.7!0+)!#$(&;$#8l!M+-$3!:/! KOSMF?8!H466IJ8!F*#*/*Q'5!Z.!7'$:.&!3$.!($,+-5!+3$,-+3*3!/!(&,%-#'((+h,!g-,+(*8!KOSMF?=MfZF!:$->$$,!L%*:$..$!S,2'$.&;%Q+!*,3!L,g%!F0+2'*,2&!+,!C*#(0! 466\8!

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! $%&!'()!*+,-*)./012!3./040/0)-!5)6!/,!01/)+!316!01/+3!)/(10.!.,1750./-8!60-/9+:31.)!,7!70-()-!316!23;)!69)!/,! 01.+)3-)6!1,0-)!316!.,1-)<9)1/!6).+)3-)!01!343053:050/=!,7!7,,6!+)-,9+.)-8!6)-/+9./0,1!,7!/+))->!;)60.0135! *531/->!316!5)34)-!9-)6!/,!:9056!+,,7-8!;050/3+0?3/0,1!,7!/()!/)++0/,+=!316!6)3/(!/(+)3/-!/,@3+6-!.,;;910/=! ;);:)+-8!0-,53/0,1!,7!/()!/)++0/,+=!69)!/,!+,36-!.5,-0128!0;*,--0:050/=!/,!.3++=!,9/!.)+);,10)-!69)!/,! -)0-;0.!501)-!.+,--012!*3+/-!,7!/()!-3.+)6!7,+)-/>!0;*,--0:050/=!/,!.3++=!,9/!/()!311935!.)5):+3/0,1!AB0-/3C>! [email protected]+!:)/@))1!-(3;31-!7+,;!/()!3+)3&!DEFGHI&!J#KKLM&!Sarayaku>!El pueblo del cenit, identidad y construcción étnica&!DEFGHINGOPHQ!R90/,&!!! $S&!T19/-,1!U,,6-!'&>!V5301)!T&>!W!D+31.0-.,!E&!J#KK#M&!IX,6(3;!Y0;632!3-!3!-,9+.)!,7!-/+)12/(!316! @)551)--!3;,12!/()!',(,1,!IX,6(3;!,7!H,9/()+1!F+0?,13!316!Z,+/()+1!H,1,+3>![)\0.,!Q!H=;*,-09;!,1! Z3/04)!F;)[email protected])551)--& Journal!of Sociology and Social Welfare, 29!J"M>!$L]L$&! ! Section 2!Defining!borders between indigenous peoples and dominant cultures ! $^&!Y3-/012-!O&!316!U05-,1!'&!J"^^^M&!Borders: Frontiers of identity, nation and State&!Z)@!_,+`Q!I\7,+6! a1/)+13/0,135!b9:50-()+-&!G(3*/)+!#&!! [email protected]=)+,!H&!J#KKcM&!Crude chronicles&!O9+(3;Q!O9`)!d104)+-0/=!b+)--&!"Ke]"K%&! c"&!G,()1!F&!J"^eLM&!Arab border-villages in Israel; A study of continuity and change in social organization&![31.()-/)+Q![31.()-/)+!d104)+-0/=!b+)--&! c#&!Y9;31!f02(/-!U3/.(&!J#KKcM&!d169)!*+,.)--Q!')++,+0-;!/+035->!;050/3+=!.,9+/->!316!/()![3*9.()!01! H,9/()+1!G(05)&!Human Rights Watch, (16)!L&!F43053:5)!3/Q!! (//*[email protected]@@&([email protected]&,+2N+)*,+/-N#KKcN.(05)"KKcN.(05)"KKc&*67!! c$&!Y9;31!f02(/-!U3/.(&!J#KKcM&!d169)!*+,.)--Q!')++,+0-;!/+035->!;050/3+=!.,9+/->!316!/()![3*9.()!01! H,9/()+1!G(05)&!Human Rights Watch, (16)!L&!F43053:5)!3/Q!! (//*[email protected]@@&([email protected]&,+2N+)*,+/-N#KKcN.(05)"KKcN.(05)"KKc&*67! cc&D,+!31,/()+!*)+-*)./04)!,1!U9]7)12>!-))!g(312!_]7&!The evaluation of Wu-feng: a Historical perspective!JWu-feng de Li-shi Di-wei)>!J01!G(01)-)M&!"S>!343053:5)!3/! (//*[email protected]@@&10./&2,4&/@N/.N5)3+1012N:h$&*(*&!g(312!-/+,125=!3+29)-!/(3/!U9]7)12!.311,/!(34)!:))1! ).,1,;0.355=!)\*5,0/)6!'-,9!*),*5)!3-!0/!(3-!1)4)+!:))1!6,.9;)1/)6!01!31=!(0-/,+0.35!;3/)+035&!Y,@)4)+>!0/! 0-!<9)-/0,13:5)[email protected]()/()+!/(0-!0-!3!.,1401.012!+)3-,1!3-!355!/()!(0-/,+0.35!6,.9;)1/[email protected])+)[email protected]+0//)1!:=!/()! G(01)-)!,+!/()!B3*31)-)[email protected](,-)!-/3`)!;3=!:)!3/!,[email protected]/(!'-,9!*),*5)>[email protected](,!;02(/!(34)!/()0+!,@1! *,50/0.35!32)[email protected]()1!6,.9;)1/012!/()!U9]7)12!-/,+=&! cL&!F..,+6012!/,!/()!H/3/)!,7![301)>!A/()![301)!D+))6,;!,7!F..)--!F./!JADIFFCM!2+31/-!/()!*),*5)!,7! /(0-!-/3/)!3!:+,36!+02(/!,7!3..)--!/,!*9:50.!+).,[email protected](05)!*+,/)./012!5)20/0;3/)!2,4)+1;)1/35!01/)+)-/-!316! /()!*+043.=!+02(/-!,7!0160406935!.0/0?)1-&!!'()!3./!35-,!)1-9+)-!/()!3..,91/3:050/=!,7!/()!2,4)+1;)1/!/,!/()! .0/0?)1-!,7!/()!-/3/)!:=!+)<90+012!*9:50.!3..)--!/,!/()!;))/012-!,7!*9:50.!:,60)-&C!H))! (//*QNNi319-&-/3/)&;)&9-N5)20-N-/3/9/)-N"N/0/5)".("$-).K&(/;5&!!! ce&!a/!0-!0;*,+/31/!/,!1,/)!/(3/!/()!F+,,-/,,`!V316!,7![0.;[email protected]!1,/!3!*3+/=!/,!/()!-90/!/(3/!5)6!/,!/()! -)//5);)1/&!!_)/!/()[email protected])+)!377)./)6!:=!/()!+)-95/&!F1=!.530;-!/()=!;02(/!:+012!,1!/()0+!,@1!:)(357!73.)6!/()! .(355)12)!/(3/!-9.(!.530;[email protected])+)!,9/[email protected])6&!!F-!0/!(3-!/9+1)6!,9/>!/()![0.;3.-!2301)6!7)6)+35!+).,210/0,1!01! "^^">!7+))!,7!/()!.,;*+,;0-012!5312932)!/(3/!*5329)-!/()!"^SK!H)//5);)1/!F./&!!'()!dH!G,12+)--!*3--)6! /()!F+,,-/,,`!V316!,7![0.;3.-!H)//5);)1/!F./!JbE!"K#]"%"M>!2+31/012!/()!V316!j^KK>KKK!.,;*)1-3/0,1! 7,+!5,-/!5316-!316!L>KKK!3.+)-!316!.5)3+5=!6)701)6!/()!+)53/0,1-(0*!:)/@))1!/()!V316!316!/()!-/3/)!,7![301)&!! a/! *+,406)6! /()! -/3/9-! ,7! 3! 7955=! +).,210?)6! -,4)+)021! 2+,9*! /,! /()! [0.;3.-! 01! [301)&! H))! V+0;5)=! H&! J#KKLM&! Z3/04)! F;)+0.31! -,4)+)021/=! 01! [301)&! The Maine Policy Review, 13 J#M>! "#]#e&! J(//*[email protected]@@&9;301)&)69N;.-.N[bfNk,5"$Z,#N:+0;5)=N:+0;5)=&(/;M&!'()+)7,+)>!0+,10.355=>!0/!;3=!:)!/(3/! /()![0.;3.->[email protected](,!(36!1,!-)3/!3/!/()!/3:5)!7,+!/()!(0-/,+0.!5316!.530;>[email protected]!*+,406)!3!;,6)5!7,+!+)6)701012! /+0:35]-/3/)!+)53/0,1-&!! ! Section 3!Sustaining traditional ways of life ! c%&!F129)5,4-`0!#KK#&! cS&!'()-)!.,1.59-0,1-!3+)!:3-)6!,1!70)[email protected],+`!:=!a-3:)55)!F129)5,4-`0!3;,12!01602)1,9-!.,;;910/0)-!01! /()!F16)-!316!/()!F;3?,1!316!-9;;3+0?)6!01!3!+)*,+/!/,!I\73;!F;)+0.3Q!F129)5,4-`0>!a&!J#KK#M&!Gender Relations in the Andes of Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador.!

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! $%&!'()*+,!-&!."%%/0&!Social monitoring at the Ok Tedi project. Summary report to mid-1993&!12345! 678+)*!9+&!:&!#&;!-<=>?+,[email protected]#0&!Muddying the waters of the Fly: Underlying issues or stereotypes?! 67?+()=7!4<,D,B!5<87)!9+&!$"I!J<,K7))+)I!*M7!?*<*7F)(,!OD7,!*M7!J+CC(,D*SX?! N<,O?!G+)!CD,7)*M)+(BMI!5)7??!67N7(!5<)>!VD!=+CC(,D*S&!2+)!7W(7,![[email protected]/0&! Tourism Cultural Economy and Constructing Place of Aboriginal region: A Case Study of Saviki Community Tsou (Yuan-zhu-min-zu Di-qu Guan-guang Wen-hua Jin-ji yuDi-fang Jian-gou zhi Yien-Jiou: Zou-zu Shan-Mei She-qu zhi Ge-an0&!Q,8(KND?M7O!O+=*+)7!Q,DR7)?D*S!5)7??&!"@:&! Section 4!Using national and international strategies! ! /:&![(*[email protected]/0&!'DND,B(D)?=M&M*CN! ZA&!eD)?=MI!3&!."%%Z0&!E=*D,B!BN+KD)?=M&M*CN!! Z"&!')S<,[email protected]"0&!By Reason or by Force: Territory, State power and Mapuche land rights in southern Chile. Q,8(KND?M7O!47N7S&!!! E==+)OD,B!*+!')S<,I!*M7!O7C<,O?!D,=N(O7O!*M7!)7=+B,D*D+,!D,!*M7!J+,?*D*(*D+,!+G!*M7!4<8(=M7!<,O!+*M7)! D,ODB7,+(?!B)+(8?!
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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! $#%!&'(!)*+,-'(!.,++/01!*!.1*1,.!/2!*,1/3/45!1'*1!6/,78!9(!0(-/:3;<(8!95!1'(!=1*1(>!1'0/,:'!4*;31*;3;3:! *38!+0/1(-1;3:!10*8;1;/3*7!7*38'/78;3:.>!6';-'!'*8!9((3!,.,0+(8!.;3-(!1'(!;38(+(38(3-(!;3!?;/7(31!0,0*7! -/320/31*1;/3.!*38!7*1(0!,+'(78!95!-/,01!0,7;3:.%! [email protected]%!=((!8*1*!20/4!1'(!);3/0;1;(.!*1!A;.B!C0/D(-1!EFGGHI!*?*;7*97(!*1! '11+JKK666%-;8-4%,48%(8,K;3.-0K4*0K*..(..4(31%*.+L:0/,+M8N"@@G"!! =((!*7./!=<3*D8(0>!)%!EFGGHI%!O1'3/8(?(7/+4(31!*38!8(4/-0*1;-!-/3./7;8*1;/3!;3!P';7(J!1'(!)*+,-'(! Q,(.1;/3%!M3!O%R%!S*3:(0>!O%!),3/!U%!EFGG"I%!By Reason or by Force: Territory, State power and Mapuche land rights in southern Chile. W3+,97;.'(8!)*.1(0.!&'(.;.>!W3;?(0.;15!/2!P*7;2/03;*>!V(0B(7(5%!!! $X%!P*78(0!?%!Y11/03(5!Z(3(0*7!/2!V0;1;.'!P/7,49;*>!E"[XHI>!=%P%A%!H"H%!! $\%!&'(!/;7!-/4+*35!V,07;3:1/3!A(./,0-(.!/2!&(]*.!'*.!*[email protected]!+(0-(31!6/0B;3:!;31(0(.1!;3!1'(!97/-B%!=((! Y4*!a-1/9(0!"HI%!Report #64/04 Petition 167/03, Admissibility, The Kichwa Peoples of the Sarayaku Community and Its Members%!Y?*;7*97(!*1! '11+JKK666%-;8'%/0:K*33,*70(+KFGG#(3:KO-,*8/0%"$X%GH(3:%'14!M3!1'(;0!+(1;1;/3!*:*;3.1!1'(!=1*1(>!b&'(! +(1;1;/3(0.!*77(:(!1'*1!1'(!=1*1(!;.!0(.+/3.;97(!2/0!*!.(0;(.!/2!*-1.!*38!/4;..;/3.!'*04;3:!1'(!c;-'6*! +(/+7(.!/2!=*0*5*B,!9(-*,.(!;1!'*.!*77/6(8!*3!/;7!-/4+*35!1/!-*005!/,1!*-1;?;1;(.!/3!1'(!*3-(.10*7!7*38.!/2! 1'(!=*0*5*B,!-/44,3;15!6;1'/,1!;1.!-/3.(31>!;1!'*.!+(0.(-,1(8!-/44,3;15!7(*8(0.>!*38!'*.!8(3;(8!D,8;-;*7! +0/1(-1;/3!*38!7(:*7!8,(!+0/-(..!1/!1'(!=*0*5*B,!-/44,3;15%!M3!*88;1;/3>!1'(!=1*1(!'*.!*77/6(8!1';08!+*01;(.! 1/!.5.1(4*1;-*775!?;/7*1(!1'(!0;:'1.!/2!1'(!=*0*5*B,!-/44,3;15%!M3!7;:'1!/2!1'(!2/0(:/;3:>!1'(5!-7*;4!1'*1!1'(! =1*1(!;.!0(.+/3.;97(!2/0!?;/7*1;3:!1'(!2,38*4(31*7!;38;?;8,*7!*38!-/77(-1;?(!0;:'1.!/2!1'(!=*0*5*B,! -/44,3;15!*38!;1.!4(49(0.>!.+(-;2;-*775!1'(!0;:'1!1/!+0/+(015!EY01;-7(!F"I>!D,8;-;*7!+0/1(-1;/3!EY01;-7([email protected]>! 8,(!+0/-(..!EY01;-7(!\I>!20((8/4!/2!4/?(4(31!EY01;-7(!FFI>!+(0./3*7!;31(:0;15!EY01;-7([email protected]>!+(0./3*7!7;9(015! *38!.(-,0;15!EY01;-7(!XI>!7;2(!EY01;-7(!#I>!20((8/4!/2!*../-;*1;/3!EY01;-7(!"$I>!+/7;1;-*7!+*01;-;+*1;/3!EY01;-7(! FHI>!20((8/4!/2!(]+0(..;/3!EY01;-7(!"HI>!D,0;8;-*7!+(0./3*7;15!EY01;-7(!HI>!20((8/4!/2!-/3.-;(3-(!*38! 0(7;:;/3!EY01;-7(!"FI>!1'(!0;:'1.!/2!1'(!-';78!EY01;-7(!"[I>!(Q,*7;15!EY01;-7(!F#I>!'(*71'!*38!-,71,0(!EY01;-7(! F$>!;3!*--/08*3-(!6;1'!Y01;-7(.!dM!*38!dMMM!/2!1'(!Y4(0;-*3!R(-7*0*1;/3!/2!1'(!A;:'1.!*38!R,1;(.!/2!)*3I! ,38(0!1'(!Y4(0;-*3!P/3?(31;/3!/3!`,4*3!A;:'1.!E'(0(;3*21(0!1'(!bY4(0;-*3!P/3?(31;/3e!/0!1'(! bP/3?(31;/3eI%!&'(5!*7./!*77(:(!1'*1!1'(!=1*1(!'*.!2*;7(8!1/!-/4+75!6;1'!;1.!:(3(0*7!/97;:*1;/3.!1/!0(.+(-1! *38!:,*0*31((!1'(!*2/0(4(31;/3(8!0;:'1.!EY01;-7(!"E"II!*38!1/!*8/+1!8/4(.1;-!7(:*7!+0/?;.;/3.!1/!4*B(!1'(4! (22(-1;?(!EY01;-7(!FI>!9/1'!,38(0!1'(!Y4(0;-*3!P/3?(31;/3e%!=((! '11+JKK666%-;8'%/*.%/0:%*33,*70(+KFGG#(3:KO-,*8/0%$X%GH(3:%'14! XG%!&'(!4(*.,0(.!4,.1!b:,*0*31((!1'(!0;:'1!1/!20((8/4!/2!4/?(4(31!/2!1'(!4(49(0.!/2!1'(!=*0*5*B,! -/44,3;15>!*38!;3?(.1;:*1(!1'(!(?(31.!:;?;3:!0;.(!1/!1'(!*8/+1;/3!/2!+0/?;.;/3*7!4(*.,0(.>!./!*.!1/!;8(31;25! 1'/.(!0(.+/3.;97(!*38!;4+/.(!-/00(.+/38;3:!.*3-1;/3.e%!=((! '11+JKK666%-;8'%/0:K*33,*70(+KFGG#(3:KO-,*8/0%"$X%GH(3:%'14! X"%!M3!;1.!0(./7,1;/3!/2!1'(!"X1'!/2!U,3([email protected]>!1'(!M31(0_Y4(0;-*3!P/,01!0(;1(0*1(.!1'*1!1'(!O-,*8/0;*3!=1*1(! 4,.1!b-/4+75!.10;-175!*38!;44(8;*1(75!6;1'!1'(!/08(0.!20/4!1'(!M31(0_Y4(0;-*3!P/,01!/2!`,4*3!A;:'1.>!;3! /08(0!1/!(22(-1;?(75!+0/1(-1!1'(!7;2(>!+(0./3*7!;31(:0;15!*38!20((!4/?(4(31!/2!*77!4(49(0.!/2!1'(!;38;:(3/,.! +(/+7(!/2!=*0*5*B,%e!&'(!P/,01!*7./!/08(0(8!1'(!;44(8;*1(!0(4/?*7!/2!1'(!(]+7/.;?(.!+7*-(8!95!1'(!PZP! -/4+*35!6;1';3!=*0*5*B,!1(00;1/05!1/!-*005!/,1!.(;.4;-!(]+7/0*1;/3%!=((! '11+JKK666%.*0*5*-,%-/4K/;7K3([email protected]$F#%'147f(3:! XF%!'11+JKK666%.*0*5*B,%-/4K/;7K3(6.G$GH"X%'147f(3:!! ! Section 5!State reactions to indigenous peoples’ land claims! ! XH%!=((!P'*+1(0!H!/2!A/.(3_g?;!M%!EFGG#I%!The reemergence of space: the case of the Bedouin.!`*;2*! W3;?(0.;15>!M.0*(7%! X#%!h/,38*1;/3!2/0!A(.(*0-'!*38!=,++/01!/2!1'(!M38;:(3/,.!C(/+7(.!/2!P0;4(*%!EFGG#). Crimean Tatar: Report%!W38(01*B(3!;3!*--/08*3-(!6;1'!1'(!*01;-7([email protected]'!/2!1'(!h0*4(6/0B!P/3?(31;/3!2/0!1'(!C0/1(-1;/3!/2! i*1;/3*7!);3/0;1;(.!a2!P/,3-;7!/2!O,0/+(%!Y?*;7*97(!*1!'11+JKK666%,3+/%/0:K*01;-7(%+'+L;8N""GF!! [email protected]%!d*]*>!j%!E"[[[I%!&0;9(.!*.!M38;:(3/,.!C(/+7(!/2!M38;*%!Economic and Political Weekly, [email protected]"I%! Y?*;7*97(!*1J!'11+JKK666%(+6%/0:%;3K!E.,9.-0;+1;/3!0(Q,;0(8I%!

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! $%&!'()*+,(-.!/&!0"11#2&!In the belly of the river: Tribal conflicts over development in the Narmada Valley&! 345!67-,8!9:;7-*)4-+*[email protected]!A-4++&! $$&!A(?5(-.!/&!0CDDD2&!Dams and Tribal People in India&!E7>?-*FG?*>H!I(I4-!?7!JB4K(?*L!M4)*45!"&C8! N(K+.!O><*H4>7G+!A47IP4!(>4-(FP4!4?B>*L!K*>7-*?*4+.!I-4I(-4!*>IG?!?7!?B4!Q7-P! 7>!N(K+.!E(I4!J75>.!()(*P(FP4!(?8!B??I8RR555&<(K+&7-HR<7L+R,F(+4RL7>?-*FR+7LCD$&I<;!0P(+?!(LL4++4?4->(?*7>(P&! $1&!U*>*>H!I-7+?*?G?4!"%V!7;[email protected](>(X+!4L7>[email protected]&!O>!CDD%.!?B4! -4+4-)4+!7;!;7-4*H>!4:LB(>H4!(>?4&![44!B??I8RR555&L*(&H7)RL*(R! IGFP*L(?*7>+R;(L?F77,[email protected]&B?KP&! TD&!JB4!\LG(<7-*(>![?(?4!L7>+*<4-+!?B(?![(-(@(,G!<*7?!4:B(G+?!(PP!>(?*7>(P!*>+?-GK4>?+!F4;7-4!I-4+4>?*>H! ?B4*-!LP(*K+!(?!?B4!*>?4->(?*7>(P!P4)4P&!/+!(!L7>+4]G4>L4.!?B4![?(?4!7;!\LG(<7-!<*7?!(??4>H!*>! U(-LB.!CDDZ!L(PP4?4-!/K4-*L(>!E7KK*++*7>&![44!O>?4-^/K4-*L(>!E7KK*++*7>!7>!_GK(>! M*HB?+&!0CDDZ.!9L?7F4-!"`2&!Report #64/04 Petition 167/03, Admissibility, The Kichwa Peoples of the Sarayaku Community and Its Members&!/)(*P(FP4!(?! B??I8RR555&L*>G(P-4IRCDDZ4>HR\LG(<7-&"%$&D`4>H&B?K! T"&!aJB4!7*P!L7>L4++*7>!*+!(![?(?4!<4L*+*7>!H7)4->4+?*?G?*7>(P!I-*>L*IP4!7;!IGFP*L!<7K(*>!7)4-! >(?G-(P!-4+7G-L4+!7;!?B4!+GF+7*P.!(>?-(L?!P4H([email protected]!4>?4-4?7!5*?B!?B4!EWE!L7>+?*?G?4+!(>!(L?! <7L?-*>([email protected]!,>75>!(+!(>!(L?!7;!(*+?-(?*)4!L7>L4++*7>b&!0c2![B7GP!(L?!7;!?B*+!>(?G-4!L(G+4!7-! I7?4>?*([email protected]!L(G+4!B(-K!?7!(!I-*)(?4!*><*)*)*-7>K4>?(P!B(-K.!\LG(<7-*(>! P4H*+P(?*7>!I-7)*<4+!;7-!(>[email protected]!7;!P4H(P!(L?*7>!?B(?!*+!(<4]G(?4!(>?4-^ /K4-*L(>!E7G-?b&!/>!(L?!7;!(*+?-(?*)4!L7>L4++*7>!*+!(>!(L?!?B-7GHB!5B*LB!?B4![?(?4!(G?B7-*d4+!I-*)(?4! I(-?*4+!?7!L([email protected]!7G?!L4-?(*>!(L?*)*?*4+!?B(?.!*>!I-*>L*IP4.!(-4!G><4-!*?+!IG-)*45&![44!O>?4-^/K4-*L(>! E7KK*++*7>!7>!_GK(>!M*HB?+&!0CDDZ.!9L?7F4-!"`2&!Report #64/04 Petition 167/03, Admissibility, The Kichwa Peoples of the Sarayaku Community and Its Members&! B??I8RR555&L*>G(P-4IRCDDZ4>HR\LG(<7-&"%$&D`4>H&B?K! TC&!JB4!O>?4-!/K4-*L(>!E7KK*++*7>!7>!_GK(>!M*HB?+!(>?4-!/K4-*L(>!E7G-?!;7-!_GK(>!M*HB?+!(-4! F7<*4+!7;!?B4!9-H(>*d(?*7>!7;!/K4-*L(>![?(?4+&![44!/K>[email protected]!O>?4->(?*7>(P!0CDD%2.!Business and Human Rights – Ecuador, Oil Rights or Human Rights&!/P+7.!(+!+77>!(+!B4!H7?!4P4L?4!37)4KF4-!CDDC.! A-4+*<4>?!WG?*4--4d!(>>7G>L4!*>!?B4!'P7L,!C`!5*PP!F4!L(--*4<4;*>*[email protected]!(>?.!*;!>4L4++([email protected]&! T`&!JB4!4:I-4++*7>!aP4H(P!(KF*HG*[email protected]!*+!G+4!?B4!=[!L(+4!*>!5B*LB!?B4!a(G?7>7K7G+! (G?B7-*[email protected]!7;!O><*(>!?-*F4+!*+!-4L7H>*d4H-4++!(>7!LP4(-!F7G><(-*4+! F4?544>!?B4!L7KI4?4>L4+!7;!S4<4-(P.![?(?4.!(><*(>!*>+?*?G?*7>+&b!'(-+B.!M&!0"11$.!eG>42&!Effective negotiation by indigenous peoples&!O>?4->(?*7>(P!f(F7-!9-H(>*d(?*7>.!I(-?!O.!T&!! TZ&![44!B??I8RR555&+(-(@(,G&L7KR7*PR>45+D%""C1&B?KPg4>H! T#&!'(-+B.!M&!0"11$.!eG>42&!Effective negotiation by indigenous peoples.!W4>4)(8!O>?4->(?*7>(P!f(F7-! 9-H(>*d(?*7>&!T&! T%&!B??I8RR555&>dB*[email protected]&>4?&>dRI7P*?*L+R?-4([email protected]?B4^?-4([email protected]^*>^F-*4;!! T$&!B??I8RR?-4([email protected];5(*?(>H*&H7)?&>[email protected][email protected]&IBI!! TT&!B??I8RR?-4([email protected];5(*?(>H*&H7)?&>[email protected]?-4([email protected]<4F(?4<&IBI!! T1!B??I8RR?-4([email protected];5(*?(>H*&H7)?&>dRL(+4+?G<*4+R>H(*?(BG&IBI!! 1D&!9X[GPP*)(>.!N&. The Politics of Indigeneity and Contemporary Challenges to Maori Self-Determination.! M4;4-44?4!A7P*?*L(P![?G<*4+!/++7L*(?*7>!E7>;4-4>L4!=>*)4-+*[email protected]!7;! /<4P(*<4!C1![4I?4KF4-!^!"!9L?7F4-!CDDZ.!I&#^%&!O>!eG>4!CDD`.!*>!Ngati Apa v. Attorney General.!?B4!E7G-?! 7;!/II4(P!5(+!(+,4H!]G4+?*7>8!aN74+!?B4!U(7-*!f(>!?7!L7>+*<4-!?*?P4! ?7!?B4!;7-4+B7-4!(>+54-4!?B(?!?B4!?4+?!;7-!+GLB! L7>+*<4-(?*7>!-4+GP?*>H!*>!;44!+*KIP4!?*?P4!5(+!B*HB!(>?4[email protected]!-([email protected]&!S7PP75*>H!?B*+! <4L*+*7>.!(!I7P*?*L(P!4:(HH4-(?*7>!(F7G?!?B4!*KIP*L(?*7>+!7;!?B4!L7G-?X+!<4L*+*7>!P4+*)4!(??*?G<4&!JB4!H7)4->K4>?X+!(LL4I?(>L4!7;!?B(?!4:(HH4-(?*7>!*+!*><*L(?*)4!7;!(!I-4)(*P*>H!I7P*?*L(P! LP*K(?4!7;!<*+?-G+?+!?7!U(7-*!(+I*-(?*7>!?7!4:I-4++!*?+!75>!*<4>?*[email protected]&!! 1"&!9X[GPP*)(>.!N&. The Politics of Indigeneity and Contemporary Challenges to Maori Self-Determination.! M4;4-44?4!A7P*?*L(P![?G<*4+!/++7L*(?*7>!E7>;4-4>L4!=>*)4-+*[email protected]!7;! /<4P(*<4!C1![4I?4KF4-!^!"!9L?7F4-!CDDZ.!I&1&!/LL7-<*>H!?7!9X[GPP*)(>.!JB4!Nationhood [I44LB!<4P*)4-4
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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! $%!&'%(')*!+,,-!.(/!01.2'3$3!4%!/20!%4/$4%!45!64%0!)(708!4)!64%0!7'98!54)!'77!:$/$;0%3!=4?0)%10%/!>0/0)1$%'/$4%!/4!)0:4=%$;0!'[email protected]'4)$!6A$)/2)$=2/!/4!/20!(..0)!2'%>B8!C3!D8E(77$?'%! 0F.7'$%3!A*!.0):0./$4%3!45!'%!4?0)01.2'3$3!4%! /20!I)0'/*!45!J'$/'%=$!'3!'!14)'7!'%>!70='7!=($>0!54)!)07'/$4%32$.3!A0/900%!/20!=4?0)%10%/!'%>[email protected]'4)$BK! L+B!2//.MNN999B3:44.B:4B%;N3/4)$03NOC,#,LNE,,P"-B2/1!! LPB!!I)'3H!Q(1'%!V$=2/3M!C%!W%5(75$770>!O)41$30!45!X%/0)%'/$4%'7!Y'9B!!ZB! J')>!'%>!EB![0%%0!T\>3BUB!T+,,-UB!Islands in Captivity: The Record of the International Tribunal on the Rights of Indigenous HawaiiansB!!Z'1A)$>=0M!E4(/2!\%>!O)033B!+L"RP,"B!!! ])$55$%B!Honolulu AdvertiserB!! L-B!Y$H0H0!E:20(0)!>4:/4)'7!>$330)/'/$4%?$34)*! Z411$//00! TWEZZVUB! T+,,"UB! Reconciliation at a crossroads: The implications of the apology resolution and Rice v. Cayetano for Federal and State programs benefiting Native Hawaiians. A summary report of the August 1998 and September 2000 Community Forums in Honolulu, HawaiiB!!E00!2//.MNN999B(3::)B=4?N.(A3N3':N2$,#,"N.)05B2/1! L_B!Y$H0H0!E:20(0)!>4:/4)'7!>$330)/'/$4%!`0A)(')*?$34)*!Z411$//00!TWEZZVUB!T+,,"UB!Reconciliation at a crossroads: The implications of the apology resolution and Rice v. Cayetano for Federal and State programs benefiting Native Hawaiians. A summary report of the August 1998 and September 2000 Community Forums in Honolulu, HawaiiB!!E00!2//.MNN999B(3::)B=4?N.(A3N3':N2$,#,"N.)05B2/1! ! Section 6!Doing the ground work: Preconditions for successful claims ! LLB!E00!J'7H0%!A*!X3'A0770!C%=(074?3H$!/2)4(=2!'%!$%/0)?$09!9$/2!/20!74:'7!3/'55!45!DF5'1! C10)$:'!$%!Y$1'!/4!/20!X%>$'%!O)[email protected]$%$3/0)!A*[email protected]$744%!S4/2')$!^'/$4%3! E.0:$'7!V'..4)/0()!4%!'>0d('/0!24(3$%=!'3!'!:41.4%0%/!45!/20!)$=2/!/4!'%!'>0d('/0!3/'%>')>!45!7$?$%='B4)=N70//0)3N(%B70//0)B/4B.1B2/17!T7'3/!'::0330>!`0A)(')*!/2'/!/20!.)4A7013!'334:$'/0>!9$/2!/20!)02'A$7$/'/$4%!'%>!)030//7010%/!45!>'1R '550:/0>!.04.70!90)0!2'%>70>!.)4.0)7*B! ",[email protected])/4%$%=!'!:'30!54)[email protected]'.(:20!3075R>0/0)1$%'/$4%1'%!'!A'))07!45!24%0*!/2'/!'!Q'%>RZ2$%030!/)03.'330)!2'>! 3/470%B!! ",_B!E00!2//.MNN999B3')'*'H(B:41N4$7N%093,#""+LB2/17f03.! ! Section 7!First Peoples’ land claims: An uncertain future! ! ",#B!Arizona Water Settlements Act: Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Water and Power of the Committee on Energy And Natural Resources and the Committee on Indian AffairsB!!W%$/0>!E/'/03!E0%'/0!OB!^'):$'0%/!45!/20!W%$4%!45!cBZB!X%>$'%!Z2$053
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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! The Quichwa people of Sarayaku (Ecuador) ""$%!&'()*+!,%!-.$$/0%!12(!2!34255!6(789*(':;!1'44:(8<=!>*[email protected]*22(N+!8(!.$$J+!'85!*PF'A<;!24':(<*7!<'!Q%R!E8558'(!7'552A;!O'A!2!<'<25!'O!#%/! E8558'(!7'552A;!'O!*PF'A<2<8'(;%!?'<25!S:<;<2(78(9!2(7!T8;E:A;*7!T*E2(N+!-.$$K0!Ecuador Data At-A-Glance+!2D2852E5*!2252()*G! VA'I<@!D;%!1:5<:A*!8(!<@*!C42Y'(%!New York Times%! ""Q%!C))'A78(9!<'!<@*!CA<8)5*!UJ%.!'O!<@*!\):27'A82(!1'(;<8<:<8'(!'O!"RRU+!<@*!3<2<*!I855!]FA*;*AD*!<@*! :(FA*;)A8F<8E5*!FA'F*A<=!'O!)'44:(25!52(7;[email protected])@!I855!E*!:(258*(2E5*+!:(2<<2)@2E5*!2(7!:(78D8;8E5*+! *P)*F'((2;;8*;!e%!-.$$J+!,2(:2A=0%!Le Mouvement Indigène en Equateur%! a'('((2;;8*;!e%!-.$$J+!,2(:2A=0%!Le Mouvement Indigène en Equateur%!a'(*
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Addressing the Land Claims of Indigenous - publicdisputes - MIT

Addressing the Land Claims of Indigenous Peoples Lawrence E. Susskind Isabelle Anguelovski Addressing the Land Claims of Indigenous Peoples Lawrenc...

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